Gene Summary

Gene:CADM1; cell adhesion molecule 1
Aliases: BL2, ST17, IGSF4, NECL2, RA175, TSLC1, IGSF4A, Necl-2, SYNCAM, sgIGSF, sTSLC-1, synCAM1
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cell adhesion molecule 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (33)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Papillomavirus Infections
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Phenotype
  • Staging
  • RT-PCR
  • Chromosome 11
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Down-Regulation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
  • Transcription
  • CpG Islands
  • CADM1
  • Promoter Regions
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Skin Cancer
  • Transfection
  • Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Gene Silencing
  • Western Blotting
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • MicroRNAs
  • DNA Methylation
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CADM1 (cancer-related)

Ito T, Nakamura A, Tanaka I, et al.
CADM1 associates with Hippo pathway core kinases; membranous co-expression of CADM1 and LATS2 in lung tumors predicts good prognosis.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2284-2295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that functions as a tumor suppressor of lung tumors. We herein demonstrated that CADM1 interacts with Hippo pathway core kinases and enhances the phosphorylation of YAP1, and also that the membranous co-expression of CADM1 and LATS2 predicts a favorable prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. CADM1 significantly repressed the saturation density elevated by YAP1 overexpression in NIH3T3 cells. CADM1 significantly promoted YAP1 phosphorylation on Ser 127 and downregulated YAP1 target gene expression at confluency in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Moreover, CADM1 was co-precipitated with multiple Hippo pathway components, including the core kinases MST1/2 and LATS1/2, suggesting the involvement of CADM1 in the regulation of the Hippo pathway through cell-cell contact. An immunohistochemical analysis of primary lung adenocarcinomas (n = 145) revealed that the histologically low-grade subtype frequently showed the membranous co-expression of CADM1 (20/22, 91% of low-grade; 61/91, 67% of intermediate grade; and 13/32, 41% of high-grade subtypes; P < 0.0001) and LATS2 (22/22, 100% of low-grade; 44/91, 48% of intermediate-grade; and 1/32, 3% of high-grade subtypes; P < 0.0001). A subset analysis of disease-free survival revealed that the membranous co-expression of CADM1 and LATS2 was a favorable prognosis factor (5-year disease-free survival rate: 83.8%), even with nuclear YAP1-positive expression (5-year disease-free survival rate: 83.7%), whereas nuclear YAP1-positive cases with the negative expression of CADM1 and LATS2 had a poorer prognosis (5-year disease-free survival rate: 33.3%). These results indicate that the relationship between CADM1 and Hippo pathway core kinases at the cell membrane is important for suppressing the oncogenic role of YAP1.

Harano K, Wang Y, Lim B, et al.
Rates of immune cell infiltration in patients with triple-negative breast cancer by molecular subtype.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0204513 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with improved survival. Lehmann et al. identified 4 molecular subtypes of TNBC [basal-like (BL) 1, BL2, mesenchymal (M), and luminal androgen receptor (LAR)], and an immunomodulatory (IM) gene expression signature indicates the presence of TILs and modifies these subtypes. The association between TNBC subtype and TILs is not known. Also, the association between inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and the presence of TILs is not known. Therefore, we studied the IM subtype distribution among different TNBC subtypes. We retrospectively analyzed patients with TNBC from the World IBC Consortium dataset. The molecular subtype and the IM signature [positive (IM+) or negative (IM-)] were analyzed. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the distribution of positivity for the IM signature according to the TNBC molecular subtype and IBC status. There were 88 patients with TNBC in the dataset, and among them 39 patients (44%) had IBC and 49 (56%) had non-IBC. The frequency of IM+ cases differed by TNBC subtype (p = 0.001). The frequency of IM+ cases by subtype was as follows: BL1, 48% (14/29); BL2, 30% (3/10); LAR, 18% (3/17); and M, 0% (0/21) (in 11 patients, the subtype could not be determined). The frequency of IM+ cases did not differ between patients with IBC and non-IBC (23% and 33%, respectively; p = 0.35). In conclusion, the IM signature representing the underlying molecular correlate of TILs in the tumor may differ by TNBC subtype but not by IBC status.

Subramanian K, Dierckx T, Khouri R, et al.
Decreased RORC expression and downstream signaling in HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia uncovers an antiproliferative IL17 link: A potential target for immunotherapy?
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(7):1664-1675 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Retinoic acid-related drugs have shown promising pre-clinical activity in Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma, but RORC signaling has not been explored. Therefore, we investigated transcriptome-wide interactions of the RORC pathway in HTLV-1 and ATL, using our own and publicly available gene expression data for ATL and other leukemias. Gene expression data from ATL patients were analyzed using WGCNA to determine gene modules and their correlation to clinical and molecular data. Both PBMCs and CD4

Li L, Wang R, He S, et al.
The identification of induction chemo-sensitivity genes of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their clinical utilization.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018; 275(11):2773-2781 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify potential molecular markers for induction chemotherapy of Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
METHODS: Differently expressed genes between chemo-sensitive group (seven cases) and chemo-insensitive (five cases) group after induction chemotherapy by TPF were identified by microarrays. Bayes network and Random forest analyses were employed to identify core genes for induction chemotherapy. The diagnostic value of these core genes was also evaluated by ROC analysis.
RESULTS: Six genes (SPP1, FOLR3, KYNU, LOC653219, ADH7 and XAGE1A) are highly expressed, while seven gene (CADM1, NDUFA4L2, CCND2, RARRES3, ERAP2, LYD6 and CNTNAP2) present significantly low expression. Among these genes, genes CADM1, FOLR3, KYNU, and CNTNAP2 are core candidates for LSCC chemo-sensitivity. And that the low expression of CADM1 may result in chemo-sensitivity, which leads to high expression of gene FOLR3 and KYNU, and low expression of gene CNTNAP2. Besides, ROC analysis shows that these four genes exhibit effective diagnostic value for induction chemo-sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: CADM1 may be a potential molecular marker for LSCC induction chemotherapy, while CADM1, FOLR3, KYNU, and CNTNAP2 may provide essential guidance for LSCC diagnosis and follow-up treatment strategies.

Fiano V, Trevisan M, Fasanelli F, et al.
Methylation in host and viral genes as marker of aggressiveness in cervical lesions: Analysis in 543 unscreened women.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 151(2):319-326 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between altered methylation and histologically confirmed high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (hgCIN).
METHODS: Methylation levels in selected host (CADM1, MAL, DAPK1) and HPV (L1_I, L1_II, L2) genes were measured by pyrosequencing in DNA samples obtained from 543 women recruited in Curitiba (Brazil), 249 with hgCIN and 294 without cervical lesions. Association of methylation status with hgCIN was estimated by Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: The mean methylation level increased with severity of the lesion in the host and viral genes (p-trend < 0.05), with the exception of L1_II region (p-trend = 0.075). Positive association was found between methylation levels for host genes and CIN2 and CIN3 lesions respectively [CADM1: OR 4.17 (95%CI 2.03-8.56) and OR 9.54 (95%CI 4.80-18.97); MAL: OR 5.98 (95%CI 2.26-15.78) and OR 22.66 (95%CI 9.21-55.76); DAPK1: OR 3.37 (95%CI 0.93-12.13) and OR 6.74 (95%CI 1.92-23.64)]. Stronger risk estimates were found for viral genes [L1_I: OR 10.74 (95%CI 2.66-43.31) and OR 15.00 (95%CI 3.00-74.98); L1_II: OR 73.18 (95%CI 4.07-1315.94) and OR 32.50 (95%CI 3.86-273.65); L2: OR 4.73 (95%CI 1.55-14.44) and OR 10.62 (95%CI 2.60-43.39)]. The cumulative effect of the increasing number of host and viral methylated genes was associated with the risk of CIN2 and CIN3 lesions (p-trend < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results, empowered by a wide cervical sample series with a large number of hgCIN, supported the role of methylation as marker of aggressiveness.

Chen G, Wang Q, Yang Q, et al.
Circular RNAs hsa_circ_0032462, hsa_circ_0028173, hsa_circ_0005909 are predicted to promote CADM1 expression by functioning as miRNAs sponge in human osteosarcoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(8):e0202896 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant bone tumor with a high fatality rate. Many circRNAs have been proved to play important roles in the pathogenesis of some diseases. However, the occurrence of circRNAs in OS remains little known.
METHODS: The circular RNA (circRNA) expression file GSE96964 dataset, which included seven osteosarcoma cell lines and one control sample (osteoblast cell line), was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to explore the potential function of circRNAs in osteosarcoma by competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) analysis. Three gene expression profiles of OS were downloaded from GEO database and then used for the pathway enrichment analysis, Venn analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. Real-time qPCR validation and RNA interference were conducted to verify our prediction.
RESULTS: Differentially expressed circRNAs between OS and control, including 8 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated circRNAs, were generated and ceRNA analysis for 5 most up-regulated or 5 most down-regulated circRNAs in OS were then performed. The pathway enrichment analysis of gene expression profiles indicated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of three gene profiles significantly enriched in cell cycle pathway, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) pathway, oxidative phosphorylation pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway, p53 signaling pathway and proteoglycans in cancer pathway, which were critical important pathways in the pathogenesis of OS. The Venn analysis showed that 2 (one is a pseudogene) up-regulated and 39 down-regulated DEGs were co-expressed in all three gene profiles. Then PPI networks of 41 co-expressed DEGs (up- and down-regulated DEGs) were constructed to predict their functions using the GeneMANIA. The expression levels of these related RNAs also matched our predictions really well.
CONCLUSION: Ultimately, we found cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) gene was not only a co-expression mRNA of the three mRNA expression profiles of OS, but also are predicted to be regulated by hsa_circ_0032462, hsa_circ_0028173, hsa_circ_0005909 by functioning as miRNAs 'Sponge' in human osteosarcoma. These over-expressed circRNAs may result in the over expression of CADM1 which promote the development of OS. We envision this discovery of these important moleculars, incuding hsa_circ_0032462, hsa_circ_0028173, hsa_circ_0005909 and CADM1 may lead to further development of new concepts, thus allowing for more opportunities in diagnosis and therapy of OS.

Yuki A, Shinkuma S, Hayashi R, et al.
CADM1 is a diagnostic marker in early-stage mycosis fungoides: Multicenter study of 58 cases.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018; 79(6):1039-1046 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Early-stage MF patches or plaques often resemble inflammatory skin disorders (ISDs), including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Cell adhesion molecule 1 gene (CADM1), which was initially identified as a tumor suppressor gene in human non-small cell lung cancer, has been reported as a diagnostic marker for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated CADM1 expression in MF neoplastic cells, especially during early stages, and evaluated its usefulness as a diagnostic marker for MF.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study by using immunohistochemical staining and confirmed the expression of CADM1 in MF. In addition, we compared CADM1 messenger RNA expression in microdissected MF samples and ISD samples.
RESULTS: In the overall study period, 55 of 58 MF samples (94.8 %) stained positive for CADM1. None of the 50 ISD samples showed positive reactivity (P < .0001). We found CADM1 messenger RNA expression in the intradermal lymphocytes of patients with MF but not in those of patients with an ISD.
LIMITATIONS: We did not conduct a validation study for MF cases in other institutions.
CONCLUSIONS: CADM1-positive cells can be identified in early stages with fewer infiltrating cells and may be useful as a diagnostic marker for early-stage MF.

Cai Q, Zhu A, Gong L
Exosomes of glioma cells deliver miR-148a to promote proliferation and metastasis of glioblastoma via targeting CADM1.
Bull Cancer. 2018 Jul - Aug; 105(7-8):643-651 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exosomes are now considered to be involved in mediating cell-to-cell communication to promote or inhibit tumor progression. However, the role and molecular mechanism of exosomes in promoting glioblastoma (GBM) metastasis remains elusive. Here, we found that circulating exosomal miR-148a levels were significantly higher in serum from GBM patients compared with serum from healthy volunteers. In T98G cells, inhibition of miR-148a suppressed cell proliferation and metastasis. In addition, we identified Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) as a target gene of miR-148a using luciferase reporter assay. Both protein and mRNA levels of CADM1 were decreased in tissues from GBM patients. There was a strong negative correlation between exosomal miR-148a and CADM1 mRNA levels in samples of patients. Moreover, miR-148a antagonist increased p-STAT3 protein level to activate STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, our findings indicated that miR-148a delivered by exosomes may promote cancer cell proliferation and metastasis via targeting CADM1 to activate STAT3 pathway, suggesting a predictor and therapeutic target role of exosomal miR-148a in GBM patients.

Davis M, Tripathi S, Hughley R, et al.
AR negative triple negative or "quadruple negative" breast cancers in African American women have an enriched basal and immune signature.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0196909 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is increasing evidence that Androgen Receptor (AR) expression has prognostic usefulness in Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), where tumors that lack AR expression are considered "Quadruple negative" Breast Cancers ("QNBC"). However, a comprehensive analysis of AR expression within all breast cancer subtypes or stratified by race has not been reported. We assessed AR mRNA expression in 925 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and 136 tumors in 2 confirmation sets. AR protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in 197 tumors from a multi-institutional cohort, for a total of 1258 patients analyzed. Cox hazard ratios were used to determine correlations to PAM50 breast cancer subtypes, and TNBC subtypes. Overall, AR-negative patients are diagnosed at a younger age compared to AR-positive patients, with the average age of AA AR-negative patients being, 49. AA breast tumors express AR at lower rates compared to Whites, independent of ER and PR expression (p<0.0001). AR-negative patients have a (66.60; 95% CI, 32-146) odds ratio of being basal-like compared to other PAM50 subtypes, and this is associated with an increased time to progression and decreased overall survival. AA "QNBC" patients predominately demonstrated BL1, BL2 and IM subtypes, with differential expression of E2F1, NFKBIL2, CCL2, TGFB3, CEBPB, PDK1, IL12RB2, IL2RA, and SOS1 genes compared to white patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 were significantly upregulated in both overall "QNBC" and AA "QNBC" patients as well. Thus, AR could be used as a prognostic marker for breast cancer, particularly in AA "QNBC" patients.

Harbhajanka A, Chahar S, Miskimen K, et al.
Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular correlation of neural crest transcription factor SOX10 expression in triple-negative breast carcinoma.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 80:163-169 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor SOX10 mediates the differentiation of neural crest-derived cells, and SOX10 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used primarily for the diagnosis of melanoma. SOX10 expression has been previously documented in benign breast myoepithelial cells. However there is limited literature on its expression in triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC). The aim was to study the clinical, pathologic and molecular profiles of SOX10+ tumors in TNBC. Tissue microarrays of TNBC were evaluated for SOX10 expression in 48 cases. SOX10 expression was correlated with clinical and pathologic features such as age, grade, and stage. Gene expression was analyzed on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens with Affymetrix 2.0 HTA. Co-expression of SOX10 with androgen receptor (AR), WT1, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), mammaglobin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), CK5/6 and GATA transcription factor 3 (GATA3) were also assessed. The mean age was 59.38 (range, 28-90 years). Overall, 37.5% cases (18/48) were SOX10+. There was no association between SOX10 expression and age, grade or stage of patients; 6 of 10 (60%) cases of basal-like 1 (BL1), and 5 of 8 cases of unstable (UNS) molecular subtype were SOX10+. One of 5 basal-like-2 (BL2), 1 of 6 immunomodulatory (IM), 1 of 4 mesenchymal (M), 1 of 5 luminal androgen receptor (LAR) and 2 of 8 mesenchymal stem cell (MSL) showed lower frequencies of SOX10 expression. There was negative correlation between SOX10 and AR+ subtypes (P < .002). SOX10 was positively correlated with WT1 (P = .05). SOX10 did not show significant correlation with mammaglobin, GCDFP15, EGFR, CK5/6 and GATA3. SOX10 expression in the basal-like and unstable molecular subtypes supports the concept that these neoplasms show myoepithelial differentiation.

Han G, Zhang L, Ni X, et al.
MicroRNA-873 Promotes Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion by Directly Targeting TSLC1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 46(6):2261-2270 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and has the third highest mortality rate among all cancers. MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous, single-stranded short noncoding RNAs. The purpose of this study was to study the role of microRNA-873 in HCC.
METHODS: The expression of miRNA-873 and tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) in HCC tissues and cell lines was detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) or western blot. A CCK-8 assay was used to examine cell proliferation; flow cytometry was used to assess the cell cycle; the Transwell migration assay was used to test for metastasis. Luciferase assays were performed to assess whether TSLC1 was a novel target of miRNA-873.
RESULTS: We showed that miRNA-873 was upregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines compared with the normal control. Knockdown of miRNA-873 inhibited the growth and metastasis of HepG2 and accelerated G1 phase arrest, while overexpression of miRNA-873 had the opposite effect. The dual-luciferase reporter assays revealed that TSLC1 was a novel target of miRNA-873. Further study showed that TSLC1 was decreased in HCC tissues and cell lines. There was a negative correlation between the expression levels of TSLC1 and miRNA-873. The effect of miRNA-873 overexpression was neutralized by TSLC1. We also found that miRNA-873 activated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and promoted HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that miRNA-873 promoted HCC progression by targeting TSLC1 and provided a new target for the therapy of HCC.

Fujimoto H, Saito Y, Ohuchida K, et al.
Deregulated Mucosal Immune Surveillance through Gut-Associated Regulatory T Cells and PD-1
J Immunol. 2018; 200(9):3291-3303 [PubMed] Related Publications
Disturbed balance between immune surveillance and tolerance may lead to poor clinical outcomes in some malignancies. In paired analyses of adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa from 142 patients, we found a significant increase of the CD4/CD8 ratio and accumulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) within the adenocarcinoma. The increased frequency of Tregs correlated with the local infiltration and extension of the tumor. There was concurrent maturation arrest, upregulation of programmed death-1 expression, and functional impairment in CD8

Ribeiro IP, Rodrigues JM, Mascarenhas A, et al.
Cytogenetic, genomic, and epigenetic characterization of the HSC-3 tongue cell line with lymph node metastasis.
J Oral Sci. 2018; 60(1):70-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral carcinoma develops from squamous epithelial cells by the acquisition of multiple (epi) genetic alterations that target different genes and molecular pathways. Herein, we performed a comprehensive genomic and epigenetic characterization of the HSC-3 cell line through karyotyping, multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, array comparative genomic hybridization, and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. HSC-3 turned out to be a near-triploid cell line with a modal number of 61 chromosomes. Banding and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that nonrandom gains of chromosomal segments occurred more frequently than losses. Overall, gains of chromosome 1, 3q, 5p, 7p, 8q, 9q, 10, 11p, 11q13, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18p, 20, Yp, and Xq were observed. The largest region affected by copy number loss was observed at chromosome 18q. Several of the observed genomic imbalances and their mapped genes were already associated with oral carcinoma and/or adverse prognosis, invasion, and metastasis in cancer. The most common rearrangements observed were translocations in the centromeric/near-centromeric regions. RARB, ESR1, and CADM1 genes were methylated and showed copy number losses, whereas TP73 and GATA5 presented with methylation and copy number gains. Thus, the current study presents a comprehensive characterization of the HSC-3 cell line; the use of this cell line may contribute to enriching the resources available for oral cancer research, especially for the testing of therapeutic agents.

Laco J, Kovarikova H, Chmelarova M, et al.
Analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA expression in NUT (nuclear protein in testis) midline carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(1):113-123 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was a detailed clinicopathological investigation of sinonasal NUT midline carcinoma (NMC), including analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression. Three (5%) cases of NMC were detected among 56 sinonasal carcinomas using immunohistochemical screening and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The series comprised 2 males and 1 female, aged 46, 60, and 65 years. Two tumors arose in the nasal cavity and one in the maxillary sinus. The neoplasms were staged pT1, pT3, and pT4a (all cN0M0). All patients were treated by radical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. Two patients died 3 and 8 months after operation, but one patient (pT1 stage; R0 resection) experienced no evidence of disease at 108 months. Microscopically, all tumors consisted of infiltrating nests of polygonal cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm. Abrupt keratinization was present in only one case. Immunohistochemically, there was a diffuse expression of cytokeratin (CK) cocktail, CK7, p40, p63, and SMARCB1/INI1. All NMCs tested negative for EBV and HPV infection. Two NMCs showed methylation of RASSF1 gene. All other genes (APC, ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CADM1, CASP8, CD44, CDH13, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CHFR, DAPK1, ESR1, FHIT, GSTP1, HIC1, KLLN, MLH1a, MLH1b, RARB, TIMP3, and VHL) were unmethylated. All NMCs showed upregulation of miR-9 and downregulation of miR-99a and miR-145 and two cases featured also upregulation of miR-21, miR-143, and miR-484. In summary, we described three cases of sinonasal NMCs with novel findings on DNA methylation and miRNA expression, which might be important for new therapeutic strategies in the future.

Liu Z, Jin X, Pi W, Liu S
Folic acid inhibits nasopharyngeal cancer cell proliferation and invasion via activation of FRα/ERK1/2/TSLC1 pathway.
Biosci Rep. 2017; 37(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Folic acid (FA), which is necessary for normal cell division of mammals, has been implicated to be involved in many tumors. Dietary FA intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). However, the molecular mechanisms of FA in NPC cells remain unclear. In the present study, we found that FA treatment dose dependently inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of NPC cells, via folate receptor α (FRα). We further found that FA, bound to FRα, induced the activation of MEK/ERK1/2, and increased the expressions of TSLC1 and E-cadherin. Moreover, blocking of ERK1/2 activation attenuated FA-mediated increase in TSLC1 expression. In addition, knockdown of TSLC1 abolished the FA-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and suppressed the FA-mediated increase oinE-cadherin expression in NPC cells. Taken together, our data suggest that FA treatment inhibits NPC cell proliferation and invasion via activation of FRα/ERK1/2/ TSLC1 signaling pathway. Therefore, FA could be explored as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of NPC, and TSLC1 may act as a tumor suppressor in NPC.

Wang HL, Zhou R, Liu J, et al.
MicroRNA-196b inhibits late apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells by targeting CADM1.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):11467 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC), as the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, is one of the deadliest tumors with a very low 5-year survival rate. Therefore, it is urgent to seek new biomarkers of PC for more accurate and reliable treatments. To identify the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEM) in PC tissues, we performed the systematic microarray and qRT-PCR analyses. We found miR-196b was the top dysregulated DEM in PC tissues as compared with the corresponding adjacent tissues, and positively correlated with poor differentiation, tumor size, lymphatic invasion and TNM stage. Furthermore, the late apoptosis rate was significantly reduced, while the cell proliferation was increased in PANC-1 and ASPC-1 cell-lines after treatment with miR-196b mimics. The qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the level of CADM1 in PANC-1 cells response to the alteration of miR-196b. Moreover, blockade of CADM1 could decrease the late apoptosis in PANC-1 cells as up-regulated by inhibition of miR-196b. Finally, luciferase report assay confirmed that CADM1 was the direct target gene of miR-196b. Overexpression of miR-196b in PC tissues can increase the late apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells by targeting CADM1. These findings suggested miR-196b is a potential target for diagnosis and therapeutics of human pancreatic cancer.

Munhoz de Paula Alves Coelho K, Stall J, Fronza Júnior H, et al.
Evaluation of expression of genes CADM1, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemestry in melanocytic lesions.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(9):1067-1071 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Malignant melanoma is an aggressive disease and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Genetic predisposition and exposure to environmental factors, especially sunlight, are risk factors. Histopathologic distinction between nevi and melanomas can be difficult. It is anticipated that the evaluation of the immunohistochemical expression of some genes could contribute to the differential diagnosis of questionable histologically lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate wether the evaluation of the immunohistochemical expression of genes CADM1, TWIST1 and CDH1 (E-cadherin), that take part in mechanisms of cell adhesion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, contributes to the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions difficult to diagnose.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study based on immunohistochemistry analysis of samples of 30 dysplastic compound melanocytic nevi, 30 melanomas less than 1.0mm thick and 30 melanomas more than 1.0mm thick, diagnosed between 2013 and 2016. A score was used to evaluate color intensity and percentage of cells stained.
RESULT: There were significant reductions in the expression of the genes CADM1 and CDH1 in melanomas (below and above 1.00mm of thickness) and in melanomas more than 1.0mm thick, respectively, compared to dysplastic compund melanocytic nevi. There was also lower expression of the genes CADM1 and CDH1 in melanomas greater than 1.0mm thick compared to melanomas less than 1.0mm. The gene TWIST1 showed no significant difference in expression between groups.
CONCLUSION: These findings allow us to conclude that the immunohistochemical expression of CADM1 has the potential to contribute as an auxiliary tool to the differential diagnosis between nevi and melanomas.

Bertocci B, Lecoeuche D, Sterlin D, et al.
Klhl6 Deficiency Impairs Transitional B Cell Survival and Differentiation.
J Immunol. 2017; 199(7):2408-2420 [PubMed] Related Publications
Klhl6 belongs to the KLHL gene family, which is composed of an N-terminal BTB-POZ domain and four to six Kelch motifs in tandem. Several of these proteins function as adaptors of the Cullin3 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. In this article, we report that Klhl6 deficiency induces, as previously described, a 2-fold reduction in mature B cells. However, we find that this deficit is centered on the inability of transitional type 1 B cells to survive and to progress toward the transitional type 2 B cell stage, whereas cells that have passed this step generate normal germinal centers (GCs) upon a T-dependent immune challenge. Klhl6-deficient type 1 B cells showed a 2-fold overexpression of genes linked with cell proliferation, including most targets of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome complex, a set of genes whose expression is precisely downmodulated upon culture of splenic transitional B cells in the presence of BAFF. These results thus suggest a delay in the differentiation process of Klhl6-deficient B cells between the immature and transitional stage. We further show, in the BL2 Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, that KLHL6 interacts with Cullin3, but also that it binds to HBXIP/Lamtor5, a protein involved in cell-cycle regulation and cytokinesis. Finally, we report that KLHL6, which is recurrently mutated in B cell lymphomas, is an off-target of the normal somatic hypermutation process taking place in GC B cells in both mice and humans, thus leaving open whether, despite the lack of impact of Klhl6 deficiency on GC B cell expansion, mutants could contribute to the oncogenic process.

Cai J, Wang X, Huang H, et al.
Down-regulation of long noncoding RNA RP11-713B9.1 contributes to the cell viability in non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(3):3694-3700 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early diagnosis is essential to reduce lung cancer-associated morbidity and mortality rates; however the lack of diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer has made this difficult. Recent studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve important roles in cancer occurrence and progression. The present study investigated the novel lncRNA RP11‑713B9.1, which is the antisense transcript of tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1). The expression levels of RP11‑713B9.1 and TSLC1 in non‑small cell lung cancer were determined using reverse‑transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which revealed that the expression of RP11‑713B9.1 and TSLC1 was significantly downregulated in tumor tissue compared with that in adjacent normal tissue samples. In addition, the expression of RP11‑713B9.1 was identified to be positively correlated with the expression of tumor suppressors TSLC1, CYLD lysine 63 deubiquitinase and APC WNT signaling pathway regulator, and negatively correlated with B‑Raf proto‑oncogene serine/threonine kinase expression. Furthermore, the overexpression of RP11‑713B9.1 resulted in significant upregulation of TSLC1 and inhibition of H460 cell viability, while the opposite effects were observed following the knockdown of RP11‑713B9.1 in A549 cells. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that lncRNA RP11‑713B9.1 serves as a promising biomarker and potential therapeutic target for non‑small cell lung cancer.

Ishihara Y, Tanaka Y, Kobayashi S, et al.
A Unique T-Cell Receptor Amino Acid Sequence Selected by Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Tax
J Virol. 2017; 91(19) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously reported that the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax

Zhang J, Lai W, Li Q, et al.
A novel oncolytic adenovirus targeting Wnt signaling effectively inhibits cancer-stem like cell growth via metastasis, apoptosis and autophagy in HCC models.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 491(2):469-477 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are highly differentiated and self-renewing, play an important role in the occurrence, therapeutic resistant and metastasis of hepatacellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic adenoviruses have targeted killing effect on tumor cells, and are invoked as candidate drugs for cancer treatment. We designed a dual-regulated oncolytic adenovirus Ad.wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1 that targets Wnt and Rb signaling pathways respectively, and carries the tumor suppressor gene, TSLC1. Previous studies have demonstrated that oncolytic adenovirus mediated TSLC1can target liver cancer and exhibit significant cytotoxicity. However, whether Ad.wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1 can effectively eliminate liver CSCs remains to be explored. We first used the spheroid culture to enrich the liver CSCs-like cells, and detected the self-renewal capacity, differentiation, drug resistance and tumorigenicity. The results showed that Ad-wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1 could effectively lead to autophagic death. In addition, recombinant adenovirus effectively induced the apoptosis, inhibit metastasis of hepatic CSCs-like cells in vivo. Further animal experiments indicated that Ad-wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1could effectively inhibit the growth of transplanted tumor of hepatic CSCs and prolong the survival time of mice. Therefore, the novel oncolytic adenovirus Ad.wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1 has potential application as a therapeutic target for HCC stem cells.

Van Zummeren M, Kremer WW, Van Aardt MC, et al.
Selection of women at risk for cervical cancer in an HIV-infected South African population.
AIDS. 2017; 31(14):1945-1953 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in South Africa. This study evaluates DNA methylation levels in cervical (pre)cancer and aims to assess the value of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing and methylation analysis, alone or in combination, on physician-taken cervical scrapes to detect cervical cancer, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) in an HIV-infected South African population.
DESIGN: Prospective observational multicentre cohort study.
METHODS: Women from a cohort of women living with HIV (n = 355) and a referral cohort (n = 109, 60% HIV seropositive) were included. Cervical scrapes were collected for hrHPV testing and methylation analysis of cell adhesion molecule 1, T-lymphocyte maturation-associated protein, and microRNA124-2 genes. Histologic endpoints were available for all participants. Performance for detection of CIN3 or worse (CIN3+) was determined in the cohort of women living with HIV and different testing strategies were compared.
RESULTS: HrHPV and methylation positivity rates increased with severity of cervical disease in the two study cohorts, each reaching 100% in samples of women with carcinoma. HrHPV testing showed a sensitivity for CIN3+ of 83.6%, at a specificity of 67.7%. Methylation analysis showed a comparable CIN3+ sensitivity of 85.2%, but a significantly lower specificity of 49.6%. HrHPV testing with reflex methylation analysis showed a CIN3+ sensitivity of 73.8%, at a specificity of 81.5%.
CONCLUSION: In this HIV-infected South African population, stratifying hrHPV-positive women with reflex methylation analysis detects all cervical carcinomas and yields an acceptable sensitivity and specificity for CIN3+.

Takashima Y, Murakami T, Inoue T, et al.
Manifestation of osteoblastic phenotypes in the sarcomatous component of epithelial carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317704365 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial carcinomas occasionally have sarcomatous components that consist primarily of spindle and cuboidal cells, which often resemble osteoblasts. Sarcomatoid carcinomas consist of similar cells. Recent studies have characterized these phenomena as a manifestation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in carcinoma cells, but the mesenchymal phenotypes that manifest in sarcomatous cells of epithelial carcinomas are not well understood. Here, we examined the expression profiles of four osteoblastic differentiation biomarkers in the sarcomatous components of multiple carcinoma types, including five renal clear cell, four breast invasive ductal, two esophageal, one maxillary squamous cell, three larynx, three lung, one liver, and one skin sarcomatoid carcinoma. Expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against cell adhesion molecule 1, a member of the IgCAM superfamily, osterix transcription factor (Osterix), cluster of differentiation 151, a transmembrane 4 superfamily member, and alkaline phosphatase. Immunostaining intensity was rated in scale 0 (negative), 0.5 (weak), and 1 (strong) for each marker, and the four scale values were summed to calculate osteoblastic scores. In all, 10 cases had a osteoblastic score ≥3, and all of these 10 cases were cell adhesion molecule 1- and Osterix-positive. Eight and five of the nine samples with a osteoblastic score <3 were negative for cell adhesion molecule 1 ( p < 0.0001) and Osterix ( p = 0.006), respectively. The other markers showed no statistical significance. These results indicate that osteoblastic differentiation can occur in carcinoma cells and that cell adhesion molecule 1 could be a useful marker for identifying this phenomenon in carcinoma tissues.

Li L, Zheng H, Huang Y, et al.
DNA methylation signatures and coagulation factors in the peripheral blood leucocytes of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2017; 38(8):797-805 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solid tumors are increasingly recognized as a systemic disease that is manifested by changes in DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites in the blood. Whereas many studies have reported gene mutation events in the circulation, few studies have focused on epigenetic DNA methylation markers. To identify DNA methylation biomarkers in peripheral blood for ovarian cancer, we performed a two-stage epigenome-wide association study. In the discovery stage, we measured genome wide DNA methylation for 485 000 CpG sites in peripheral blood in 24 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases and 24 age-matched healthy controls. We selected 96 significantly differentially methylated CpG sites for validation using Illumina's Custom VeraCode methylation assay in 206 EOC cases and 205 controls and 46 CpG sites validated in the independent replication samples. A set of 6 of these 46 CpG sites was found by the receiver operating characteristic analysis to have a prediction accuracy of 77.3% for all EOC (95% confidence interval: 72.9-81.8%). Pathway analysis of the genes associated with the 46 CpG sites revealed an enrichment of immune system process genes, including LYST (cg16962115, FDR = 1.24E-04), CADM1 (cg21933078, FDR = 1.22E-02) and NFATC1 (cg06784563, FDR = 1.46E-02). Furthermore, DNA methylation status in peripheral blood was correlated with platelet parameters/coagulation factor levels. This study discovered a panel of epigenetic liquid biopsy markers closely associated with overall immunologic conditions and platelet parameters/coagulation systems of the patients for detection of all stages and subtypes of EOC.

Qian JB, Liu HB, Zhu Y, et al.
CADM1 mRNA expression and clinicopathological significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
The mRNA expression of cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and its clinicopathological significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues were investigated. CADM1 mRNA and protein expression were detected in tissue samples from 50 patients with ESCC by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemistry; adjacent tissues served as controls. The average CADM1 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated in the cancer tissues (0.522 ± 0.247) than in the controls (0.871 ± 0.192), (t = 7.882, P < 0.05). CADM1 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated in ESCC patients with positive lymph node metastasis than in those with negative lymph node metastasis (t = 3.207, P < 0.05). There was a correlation between CADM1 mRNA expression and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (t = 2.673, P < 0.050), but not with age, gender, and histological grade (P > 0.05). The positive expression rate of CADM1 protein in the 50 cases of ESCC was significantly lower than that of the control group (χ

Clarke MA, Luhn P, Gage JC, et al.
Discovery and validation of candidate host DNA methylation markers for detection of cervical precancer and cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(4):701-710 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been recently introduced as an alternative to cytology for cervical cancer screening. However, since most HPV infections clear without causing clinically relevant lesions, additional triage tests are required to identify women who are at high risk of developing cancer. We performed DNA methylation profiling on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from women with benign HPV16 infection and histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, and cancer using a bead-based microarray covering 1,500 CpG sites in over 800 genes. Methylation levels in individual CpG sites were compared using a t-test, and results were summarized by computing p-values. A total of 12 candidate genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL1, ATP10, CADM1, DCC, DBC1, HS3ST2, MOS, MYOD1, SOX1, SOX17 and TMEFF2) identified by DNA methylation profiling, plus an additional three genes identified from the literature (EPB41L3, MAL and miR-124) were chosen for validation in an independent set of 167 liquid-based cytology specimens using pyrosequencing and targeted, next-generation bisulfite sequencing. Of the 15 candidate gene markers, 10 had an area under the curve (AUC) of ≥ 0.75 for discrimination of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) from

Komohara Y, Ma C, Yano H, et al.
Cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) expressed on adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells is not involved in the interaction with macrophages.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2017; 57(1):15-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is a cell adhesion molecule that is expressed in brain, liver, lung, testis, and some kinds of cancer cells including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Recent studies have indicated the involvement of CADM1 in cell-cell contact between cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and virus infected cells. We previously reported that cell-cell interaction between lymphoma cells and macrophages induces lymphoma cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated whether CADM1 is associated with cell-cell interaction between several human lymphoma cell lines and macrophages.CADM1 expression was observed in the ATLL cell lines, ATN-1, ATL-T, and ATL-35T, and in the B cell lymphoma cell lines, TL-1, DAUDI, and SLVL, using western blotting. Significant cell-cell interaction between macrophages and ATN-1, ATL-T, ATL-35T and MT-2, DAUDI, and SLVL cells, as assessed by induction of cell proliferation, was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis of human biopsy samples indicated CADM1 expression in 10 of 14 ATLL cases; however, no case of follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positive for CADM1. Finally, the interaction of macrophages with cells of the CADM1-negative ED ATLL cell line and CADM1-transfected ED cells was tested. However, significant cell-cell interaction between macrophage and CADM1-transfected ED cells was not observed. We conclude that CADM1 was not associated with cell-cell interaction between lymphoma cells and macrophages, although CADM1 may be a useful marker of ATLL for diagnostic procedures.

Tseng LM, Chiu JH, Liu CY, et al.
A comparison of the molecular subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer among non-Asian and Taiwanese women.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 163(2):241-254 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: "Precision medicine" is a concept that by utilizing modern molecular diagnostics, an effective therapy is accurately applied for each cancer patient to improve their survival rates. The treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a challenging issue. The aim of this study was to compare the molecular subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) between Taiwanese and Non-Asian women.
METHODS: GEO Datasets for non-Asian (12 groups, n = 1450) and Taiwanese (3 groups, n = 465) breast cancer, including 617 TNBC, were acquired, normalized and cluster analyzed. Then, using TNBC cell lines of different subtypes, namely, MDA-MB-468 (basal-like1, BL1), MDA-MB-231 (mesenchymal stem like, MSL), BT-549 (mesenchymal, M), MDA-MB-453 (luminal androgen receptor, LAR), and DU4475 (immunomodulatory, IM), real-time PCR in triplicate for 47 genes signatures were performed to validate the specificity of these subtypes.
RESULTS: The results showed that the percentage of TNBC subtypes in non-Asian women, namely, BL1, BL2, IM, M, MSL, and LAR was 13.56, 8.91, 16.80, 20.45, 8.30, and 11.13%, respectively. When data from Taiwanese were normalized and clustered, five TNBC subtypes, namely, BL (8.94%), IM (13.82%), M (22.76%), MSL (30.89%), and LAR (23.58%), were classified. Real-time PCR validated the specificity of these subtypes. Besides, the presence of interaction between IM- and MSL-subtypes suggests the involvement of tumor microenvironment in TNBC subtype classification.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that there exist different presentations between non-Asian and Taiwanese TNBC subtypes, which provides important information when selection of therapeutic targets or designs for clinical trials for TNBC patients.

Grinberg M, Djureinovic D, Brunnström HR, et al.
Reaching the limits of prognostication in non-small cell lung cancer: an optimized biomarker panel fails to outperform clinical parameters.
Mod Pathol. 2017; 30(7):964-977 [PubMed] Related Publications
Numerous protein biomarkers have been analyzed to improve prognostication in non-small cell lung cancer, but have not yet demonstrated sufficient value to be introduced into clinical practice. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a prognostic model for surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer. A biomarker panel was selected based on (1) prognostic association in published literature, (2) prognostic association in gene expression data sets, (3) availability of reliable antibodies, and (4) representation of diverse biological processes. The five selected proteins (MKI67, EZH2, SLC2A1, CADM1, and NKX2-1 alias TTF1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays including tissue from 326 non-small cell lung cancer patients. One score was obtained for each tumor and each protein. The scores were combined, with or without the inclusion of clinical parameters, and the best prognostic model was defined according to the corresponding concordance index (C-index). The best-performing model was subsequently validated in an independent cohort consisting of tissue from 345 non-small cell lung cancer patients. The model based only on protein expression did not perform better compared to clinicopathological parameters, whereas combining protein expression with clinicopathological data resulted in a slightly better prognostic performance (C-index: all non-small cell lung cancer 0.63 vs 0.64; adenocarcinoma: 0.66 vs 0.70, squamous cell carcinoma: 0.57 vs 0.56). However, this modest effect did not translate into a significantly improved accuracy of survival prediction. The combination of a prognostic biomarker panel with clinicopathological parameters did not improve survival prediction in non-small cell lung cancer, questioning the potential of immunohistochemistry-based assessment of protein biomarkers for prognostication in clinical practice.

Del Mistro A, Frayle H, Rizzi M, et al.
Methylation analysis and HPV genotyping of self-collected cervical samples from women not responding to screening invitation and review of the literature.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(3):e0172226 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the feasibility of partial HPV genotyping and methylation analysis of CADM1, MAL, and miR124-2 genes as triage tests in assaying self-collected cervical samples positive for high-risk HPV on primary screening, and to review the literature regarding host cellular gene methylation analysis of self-collected cervical samples.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Women residing in North-East Italy who had failed to respond to the invitation to participate in an organized population-based program were invited to provide a self-sample. Their stored baseline (self-collected) and follow-up (clinician-collected) cervical samples were included in the study. DNA was extracted from HPV-positive (Qiagen's Hybrid Capture 2, HC2) samples. Partial genotyping with separate detection of HPV types 16 and 18 was performed with a hybrid capture-based method and a quantitative PCR assay. Methylation was assayed with a quantitative methylation-specific PCR.
RESULTS: High-risk HPV infection was detected in 48% of baseline and 71% of follow-up HC2-positive samples. Methylation was demonstrated respectively in 15% and 23.5% of baseline and follow-up samples and chiefly involved a single gene (miR124-2). Invalid quantitative PCR results were recorded in 5% of self-collected samples. The specificity of miR124-1, MAL, and CADM1 methylation was 84%, 94%, and 98%, respectively, and the specificity of the three markers combined was 84%. Sensitivity was not estimated due to the lack of CIN2+ samples. The systematic review showed that different methylation assays yield different accuracy values.
CONCLUSION: Self-collected samples are suitable for methylation assays included in reflex triage testing. The reproducibility and accuracy of the methylation tests described in the literature should be improved.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. CADM1, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999