NCOR2; nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (12q24)

Gene Summary

Gene:NCOR2; nuclear receptor corepressor 2
Aliases: SMRT, TRAC, CTG26, SMRTE, TRAC1, N-CoR2, TNRC14, TRAC-1, SMAP270, SMRTE-tau
Summary:This gene encodes a nuclear receptor co-repressor that mediates transcriptional silencing of certain target genes. The encoded protein is a member of a family of thyroid hormone- and retinoic acid receptor-associated co-repressors. This protein acts as part of a multisubunit complex which includes histone deacetylases to modify chromatin structure that prevents basal transcriptional activity of target genes. Aberrant expression of this gene is associated with certain cancers. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear receptor corepressor 2
Updated:11 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (30)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- CARM1 and Regulation of the Estrogen Receptor BIOCARTA
- Map Kinase Inactivation of SMRT Corepressor BIOCARTA
- Mechanism of Gene Regulation by Peroxisome Proliferators via PPARa(alpha) BIOCARTA
- METS affect on Macrophage Differentiation BIOCARTA
- Nuclear receptors coordinate the activities of chromatin remodeling complexes and coactivators to facilitate initiation of transcription in carcinoma cells BIOCARTA
- Notch signaling pathway KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 11 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Repressor Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Transfection
  • Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Down-Regulation
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2
  • Promoter Regions
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair None
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Transcription
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Tamoxifen
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Protein Binding
  • Breast Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Gene Enhancer Elements
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Markers
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Rabbits
Tag cloud generated 11 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (2)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerNCOR2 and Breast Cancer View Publications14
Prostate CancerNCOR2 and Prostate Cancer View Publications5

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: NCOR2 (cancer-related)

Blackmore JK, Karmakar S, Gu G, et al.
The SMRT coregulator enhances growth of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer cells by promotion of cell cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(9):3251-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The SMRT coregulator functions as a dual coactivator and corepressor for estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in a gene-specific manner, and in several studies its elevated expression correlates with poor outcome for breast cancer patients. A specific role of SMRT in breast cancer progression has not been elucidated, but SMRT knock-down limits estradiol-dependent growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In this study, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) approaches were used to determine the effects of SMRT depletion on growth of ERα-positive MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells, as well as the ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line. Depletion of SMRT inhibited growth of ERα-positive cells grown in monolayer but had no effect on growth of the ERα-negative cells. Reduced SMRT levels also negatively impacted the anchorage-independent growth of MCF-7 cells as assessed by soft agar colony formation assays. The observed growth inhibitions were due to a loss of estradiol-induced progression through the G1/S transition of the cell cycle and increased apoptosis in SMRT-depleted compared with control cells. Gene expression analyses indicated that SMRT inhibits apoptosis by a coordinated regulation of genes involved in apoptosis. Functioning as a dual coactivator for anti-apoptotic genes and corepressor for pro-apoptotic genes, SMRT can limit apoptosis. Together these data indicate that SMRT promotes breast cancer progression through multiple pathways leading to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis.

Related: Apoptosis Breast Cancer ESR1

Choi WI, Kim MY, Jeon BN, et al.
Role of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) in cell proliferation and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) gene repression.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(27):18625-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is a transcription repressor that was initially isolated as a fusion protein with retinoic acid receptor α. PLZF is aberrantly overexpressed in various human solid tumors, such as clear cell renal carcinoma, glioblastoma, and seminoma. PLZF causes cellular transformation of NIH3T3 cells and increases cell proliferation in several cell types. PLZF also increases tumor growth in the mouse xenograft tumor model. PLZF may stimulate cell proliferation by controlling expression of the genes of the p53 pathway (ARF, TP53, and CDKN1A). We found that PLZF can directly repress transcription of CDKN1A encoding p21, a negative regulator of cell cycle progression. PLZF binds to the proximal Sp1-binding GC-box 5/6 and the distal p53-responsive elements of the CDKN1A promoter to repress transcription. Interestingly, PLZF interacts with Sp1 or p53 and competes with Sp1 or p53. PLZF interacts with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylates Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the CDKN1A promoter, which indicated the involvement of the corepressor·HDACs complex in transcription repression by PLZF. Also, PLZF represses transcription of TP53 and also decreases p53 protein stability by ubiquitination. PLZF may act as a potential proto-oncoprotein in various cell types.

Related: CDKN1A TP53

Olumi AF
Commentary on "the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity." Qi J, Tripathi M, Mishra R, Sahgal N, Fazli L, Ettinger S, Placzek WJ, Claps G, Chung LW, Bowtell D, Gleave M, Bhowmick N, Ronai ZA, Signal Transduction Program, Cancer Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(6):332-46.
Urol Oncol. 2014; 32(2):210-1 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Zhu G, Mische SE, Seigneres B
Novel treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: As₂O₃, retinoic acid and retinoid pharmacology.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2013; 14(9):849-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL), a specific characteristic of t(15;17) chromosome translocation, represents 5% to 15% of cases of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. An alternative approach is to consider retinoic acid(all-trans RA, ATRA or 13-cis RA or 9-cis RA) plus chemotherapy or RA plus As₂O₃ regimens as now novel therapy. Molecular gene analyses are conclusive in vivo evidence that oncogenic PML/RARa plays a crucial role in APL leukemogenesis. As a novel approach to APL treatment, one possible the action of RA, A consense sequence (5'-TCAGGTCATGACCTGA-3') has been postulated for the thyroid hormone (TRE) and retinoic acid responsive element (RARE) containing half palindromes, which located in the promoter region of target genes. High dose (100-fold) of RA-RARE-PML/RARa complex in intracellular localization appears to relieve repressor from DNA binding, including corepressors N-CoR, SMRT and HDACs, release PML/RARa- mediated transcriptional repression, and release histone deacetylase activity from PMLRARa. The resulting PML/RARa oncoprotein proteolytic degradation through the autophagy-lysosome pathway and the ubiquitin SUMO-proteasome system (UPS), as well as caspase 3 (cleavage site Asp522 within a-helics region of PML component of the fusion protein) or neutrophil elastase, or lysosomal protease enzyme induction. PML protein relocalizes into the wild-type nuclear body (PML-NB) configuration or/and wild-type RARa upregulated. An effect to relieve the blockade (inhibition) of PML/RARA-mediated RA dependent promyelocytic differentiation, and retinoic acid in APL therapy (see Figure in the full text, George Zhu, 1991). Here, like v-erbA, PML/RARa is a (strong) transcriptional repressor of the RA receptor (RAR) complex, and PML/RARa fusion receptor gene act as conditional oncogenic receptor (translocated chimeric retinoic acid a signaling) or oncogenic PML/RARa may participate in leukemogenesis of APL through blocking RA-mediated promyelocytic differentiation. This is first described in eukaryotes.

Related: PML gene

Heldring N, Nyman U, Lönnerberg P, et al.
NCoR controls glioblastoma tumor cell characteristics.
Neuro Oncol. 2014; 16(2):241-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the transcriptional coregulator NCoR represses astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells, suggesting that NCoR could be a plausible target for differentiation therapy of glioblastoma.
METHODS: To study a putative role for NCoR in regulating glioblastoma cell characteristics, we used RNA-mediated knockdown followed by analysis of gene expression, proliferation and cell growth, autophagy, invasiveness in vitro, and tumor formation in vitro and in vivo. We further performed chromatin immunoprecipitation of NCoR followed by genome-wide sequencing in the human glioblastoma cell line U87 in order to reveal NCoR-occupied loci.
RESULTS: RNA knockdown of NCoR resulted in a moderate increase in differentiation accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation in adherent U87 human glioblastoma cells. chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing approach revealed alternative mechanisms underlying the decrease in proliferation, as NCoR was enriched at promoters of genes associated with autophagy such as ULK3. Indeed, signs of an autophagy response in adherent glioblastoma cells included an increased expression of autophagy genes, such as Beclin1, and increased lipidation and nuclear puncta of LC3. Intriguingly, in parallel to the effects in the adherent cells, NCoR knockdown resulted in a significant increase in anchorage-independent growth, and this glioblastoma cell population showed dramatic increases in invasive properties in vitro and tumor formation capacity in vitro and in vivo along with an increased proliferation rate.
CONCLUSION: Our results unveil unexpected aspects of NCoR regulation of tumor characteristics in glioblastoma cells and highlight the need for caution when transposing developmental concepts directly to cancer therapy.

Related: Apoptosis

Patel A, Schwab R, Liu YT, Bafna V
Amplification and thrifty single-molecule sequencing of recurrent somatic structural variations.
Genome Res. 2014; 24(2):318-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
Deletion of tumor-suppressor genes as well as other genomic rearrangements pervade cancer genomes across numerous types of solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. However, even for a specific rearrangement, the breakpoints may vary between individuals, such as the recurrent CDKN2A deletion. Characterizing the exact breakpoints for structural variants (SVs) is useful for designating patient-specific tumor biomarkers. We propose AmBre (Amplification of Breakpoints), a method to target SV breakpoints occurring in samples composed of heterogeneous tumor and germline DNA. Additionally, AmBre validates SVs called by whole-exome/genome sequencing and hybridization arrays. AmBre involves a PCR-based approach to amplify the DNA segment containing an SV's breakpoint and then confirms breakpoints using sequencing by Pacific Biosciences RS. To amplify breakpoints with PCR, primers tiling specified target regions are carefully selected with a simulated annealing algorithm to minimize off-target amplification and maximize efficiency at capturing all possible breakpoints within the target regions. To confirm correct amplification and obtain breakpoints, PCR amplicons are combined without barcoding and simultaneously long-read sequenced using a single SMRT cell. Our algorithm efficiently separates reads based on breakpoints. Each read group supporting the same breakpoint corresponds with an amplicon and a consensus amplicon sequence is called. AmBre was used to discover CDKN2A deletion breakpoints in cancer cell lines: A549, CEM, Detroit562, MOLT4, MCF7, and T98G. Also, we successfully assayed RUNX1-RUNX1T1 reciprocal translocations by finding both breakpoints in the Kasumi-1 cell line. AmBre successfully targets SVs where DNA harboring the breakpoints are present in 1:1000 mixtures.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

DeKelver RC, Lewin B, Lam K, et al.
Cooperation between RUNX1-ETO9a and novel transcriptional partner KLF6 in upregulation of Alox5 in acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(10):e1003765 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
Fusion protein RUNX1-ETO (AML1-ETO, RUNX1-RUNX1T1) is expressed as the result of the 8q22;21q22 translocation [t(8;21)], which is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities found in acute myeloid leukemia. RUNX1-ETO is thought to promote leukemia development through the aberrant regulation of RUNX1 (AML1) target genes. Repression of these genes occurs via the recruitment of the corepressors N-COR and SMRT due to their interaction with ETO. Mechanisms of RUNX1-ETO target gene upregulation remain less well understood. Here we show that RUNX1-ETO9a, the leukemogenic alternatively spliced transcript expressed from t(8;21), upregulates target gene Alox5, which is a gene critically required for the promotion of chronic myeloid leukemia development by BCR-ABL. Loss of Alox5 expression reduces activity of RUNX1-ETO9a, MLL-AF9 and PML-RARα in vitro. However, Alox5 is not essential for the induction of leukemia by RUNX1-ETO9a in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the upregulation of Alox5 by RUNX1-ETO9a occurs via the C₂H₂ zinc finger transcription factor KLF6, a protein required for early hematopoiesis and yolk sac development. Furthermore, KLF6 is specifically upregulated by RUNX1-ETO in human leukemia cells. This identifies KLF6 as a novel mediator of t(8;21) target gene regulation, providing a new mechanism for RUNX1-ETO transcriptional control.

Related: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) RUNX1 gene

Ciriello G, Sinha R, Hoadley KA, et al.
The molecular diversity of Luminal A breast tumors.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 141(3):409-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
Breast cancer is a collection of diseases with distinct molecular traits, prognosis, and therapeutic options. Luminal A breast cancer is the most heterogeneous, both molecularly and clinically. Using genomic data from over 1,000 Luminal A tumors from multiple studies, we analyzed the copy number and mutational landscape of this tumor subtype. This integrated analysis revealed four major subtypes defined by distinct copy-number and mutation profiles. We identified an atypical Luminal A subtype characterized by high genomic instability, TP53 mutations, and increased Aurora kinase signaling; these genomic alterations lead to a worse clinical prognosis. Aberrations of chromosomes 1, 8, and 16, together with PIK3CA, GATA3, AKT1, and MAP3K1 mutations drive the other subtypes. Finally, an unbiased pathway analysis revealed multiple rare, but mutually exclusive, alterations linked to loss of activity of co-repressor complexes N-Cor and SMRT. These rare alterations were the most prevalent in Luminal A tumors and may predict resistance to endocrine therapy. Our work provides for a further molecular stratification of Luminal A breast tumors, with potential direct clinical implications.

Related: Breast Cancer GATA3 gene AKT1 TP53

Nin DS, Ali AB, Okumura K, et al.
Akt-induced phosphorylation of N-CoR at serine 1450 contributes to its misfolded conformational dependent loss (MCDL) in acute myeloid leukemia of the M5 subtype.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e70891 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
The nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) is a key component of the generic co-repressor complex that plays an important role in the control of cellular growth and differentiation. As shown by us recently, the growth suppressive function of N-CoR largely relies on its capacity to repress Flt3, a key regulator of cellular gorwth during normal and malignant hematopoesis. We further demonstrated how de-repression of Flt3 due to the misfolded conformation dependent loss (MCDL) of N-CoR contributed to malignant growth in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the MCDL of N-CoR and its implication in AML pathogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we report that Akt-induced phosphorylation of N-CoR at the consensus Akt motif is crucial for its misfolding and subsequent loss in AML (AML-M5). N-CoR displayed significantly higher level of serine specific phosphorylation in almost all AML-M5 derived cells and was subjected to processing by AML-M5 specific aberrant protease activity. To identify the kinase linked to N-CoR phosphorylation, a library of activated kinases was screened with the extracts of AML cells; leading to the identification of Akt as the putative kinase linked to N-CoR phosphorylation. Consistent with this finding, a constitutively active Akt consistently phosphorylated N-CoR leading to its misfolding; while the therapeutic and genetic ablation of Akt largely abrogated the MCDL of N-CoR in AML-M5 cells. Site directed mutagenic analysis of N-CoR identified serine 1450 as the crucial residue whose phosphorylation by Akt was essential for the misfolding and loss of N-CoR protein. Moreover, Akt-induced phosphorylation of N-CoR contributed to the de-repression of Flt3, suggesting a cross talk between Akt signaling and N-CoR misfolding pathway in the pathogenesis of AML-M5. The N-CoR misfolding pathway could be the common downstream thread of pleiotropic Akt signaling activated by various oncogenic insults in some subtypes of leukemia and solid tumors.

Related: AKT1

Hatzi K, Jiang Y, Huang C, et al.
A hybrid mechanism of action for BCL6 in B cells defined by formation of functionally distinct complexes at enhancers and promoters.
Cell Rep. 2013; 4(3):578-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
The BCL6 transcriptional repressor is required for the development of germinal center (GC) B cells and diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Although BCL6 can recruit multiple corepressors, its transcriptional repression mechanism of action in normal and malignant B cells is unknown. We find that in B cells, BCL6 mostly functions through two independent mechanisms that are collectively essential to GC formation and DLBCL, both mediated through its N-terminal BTB domain. These are (1) the formation of a unique ternary BCOR-SMRT complex at promoters, with each corepressor binding to symmetrical sites on BCL6 homodimers linked to specific epigenetic chromatin features, and (2) the "toggling" of active enhancers to a poised but not erased conformation through SMRT-dependent H3K27 deacetylation, which is mediated by HDAC3 and opposed by p300 histone acetyltransferase. Dynamic toggling of enhancers provides a basis for B cells to undergo rapid transcriptional and phenotypic changes in response to signaling or environmental cues.

Related: Signal Transduction BCL6

Song K, Han C, Zhang J, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of MicroRNA-122 by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma and hepatitis b virus X protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Hepatology. 2013; 58(5):1681-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a pivotal liver-specific miRNA, has been implicated in several liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatitis C and B viral infection. This study aimed to explore epigenetic regulation of miR-122 in human HCC cells and to examine the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We performed microRNA microarray analysis and identified miR-122 as the most up-regulated miRNA (6-fold) in human HCC cells treated with 5'aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR, DNA methylation inhibitor) and 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA, histone deacetylation inhibitor). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis verified significant up-regulation of miR-122 by 5'aza and PBA in HCC cells, and to a lesser extent in primary hepatocytes. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) complex was found to be associated with the DR1 and DR2 consensus site in the miR-122 gene promoter which enhanced miR-122 gene transcription. 5-Aza-CdR and PBA treatment increased the association of PPARγ/RXRα, but decreased the association of its corepressors (N-CoR and SMRT), with the miR-122 DR1 and DR2 motifs. The aforementioned DNA-protein complex also contains SUV39H1, an H3K9 histone methyl transferase, which down-regulates miR-122 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish a novel role of the PPARγ binding complex for epigenetic regulation of miR-122 in human HCC cells. Moreover, we show that hepatitis B virus X protein binds PPARγ and inhibits the transcription of miR-122, whereas hepatitis C viral particles exhibited no significant effect; these findings provide mechanistic insight into reduction of miR-122 in patients with HBV but not with HCV infection.

Related: Azacitidine Liver Cancer PPARG gene

Lin HY, Su YF, Hsieh MT, et al.
Nuclear monomeric integrin αv in cancer cells is a coactivator regulated by thyroid hormone.
FASEB J. 2013; 27(8):3209-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid hormone induces tumor cell and blood vessel cell proliferation via a cell surface receptor on heterodimeric integrin αvβ3. We investigated the role of thyroid hormone-induced internalization of nuclear integrin αv monomer. Physiological concentration of thyroxine (free T4, 10(-10) M), but not 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), induced cellular internalization and nuclear translocation of integrin αv monomer in human non-small-cell lung cancer (H522) and ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR-3) cells. T4 did not complex with integrin αv monomer during its internalization. The αv monomer was phosphorylated by activated ERK1/2 when it heterodimerized with integrin β3 in vitro. Nuclear αv complexed with transcriptional coactivator proteins, p300 and STAT1, and with corepressor proteins, NCoR and SMRT. Nuclear αv monomer in T4-exposed cells, but not integrin β3, bound to promoters of specific genes that have important roles in cancer cells, including estrogen receptor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and thyroid hormone receptor β1 in chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. In summary, monomeric αv is a novel coactivator regulated from the cell surface by thyroid hormone for the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. This study also offers a mechanism for modulation of gene expression by thyroid hormone that is adjunctive to the nuclear hormone receptor (TR)-T3 pathway.

Related: COX2 (PTGS2) Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Khan JA, Tikad A, Fay M, et al.
A new strategy for selective targeting of progesterone receptor with passive antagonists.
Mol Endocrinol. 2013; 27(6):909-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Currently available progesterone (P4) receptor (PR) antagonists, such as mifepristone (RU486), lack specificity and display partial agonist properties, leading to potential drawbacks in their clinical use. Recent x-ray crystallographic studies have identified key contacts involved in the binding of agonists and antagonists with PR opening the way for a new rational strategy for inactivating PR. We report here the synthesis and characterization of a novel class of PR antagonists (APRn) designed from such studies. The lead molecule, the homosteroid APR19, displays in vivo endometrial anti-P4 activity. APR19 inhibits P4-induced PR recruitment and transactivation from synthetic and endogenous gene promoters. Importantly, it exhibits high PR selectivity with respect to other steroid hormone receptors and is devoid of any partial agonist activity on PR target gene transcription. Two-hybrid and immunostaining experiments reveal that APR19-bound PR is unable to interact with either steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 (SRC1 and SCR2) or nuclear receptor corepressor (NcoR) and silencing mediator of retinoid acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT), in contrast to RU486-PR complexes. APR19 also inhibits agonist-induced phosphorylation of serine 294 regulating PR transcriptional activity and turnover kinetics. In silico docking studies based on the crystal structure of the PR ligand-binding domain show that, in contrast to P4, APR19 does not establish stabilizing hydrogen bonds with the ligand-binding cavity, resulting in an unstable ligand-receptor complex. Altogether, these properties highly distinguish APR19 from RU486 and likely its derivatives, suggesting that it belongs to a new class of pure antiprogestins that inactivate PR by a passive mechanism. These specific PR antagonists open new perspectives for long-term hormonal therapy.

Related: Breast Cancer

Paskova L, Smesny Trtkova K, Fialova B, et al.
Different effect of sodium butyrate on cancer and normal prostate cells.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2013; 27(5):1489-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sodium butyrate, as a naturally occurring inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACI), is a non-toxic agent, with an ability to change histone acetylation and expression of large number genes. This study shows different effects of sodium butyrate on expression and transcription activity of the androgen receptor in cancer (LNCaP, C4-2) and normal (RWPE-1) prostate cells. Moreover, we studied the coregulator expressions and histone acetylation alteration in cancer and normal cells. Coregulators, coactivators as well as corepressors, play an important role in AR-mediated growth and progression of prostate cancer. There is a competition between coactivators and corepressors for binding on the AR and therefore the changes in coregulators expression and ratio could be important for prostate cancer survival. Our study was focused on two coregulators, SMRT and p300, which interact with AR in multiprotein complex and affect the AR transcription activity. Our data indicate that sodium butyrate has an effect on AR coregulators expression, transcription activity and histone acetylation in cancer cells, but there is only minimal effect in normal cells. In addition, the results of changes in acetylation level on lysine residues of histone H4 after sodium butyrate treatment confirm its epigenetic effect on prostate cancer cells.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Qi J, Tripathi M, Mishra R, et al.
The E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity.
Cancer Cell. 2013; 23(3):332-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development.

Related: Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction AR: androgen receptor

DeKelver RC, Yan M, Ahn EY, et al.
Attenuation of AML1-ETO cellular dysregulation correlates with increased leukemogenic potential.
Blood. 2013; 121(18):3714-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
AML1-ETO (RUNX1-ETO) fusion proteins are generated by the 8;21 translocation, commonly found in acute myeloid leukemia, which fuses the AML1 (RUNX1) and ETO (MTG8, RUNX1T1) genes. Previous studies have shown that AML1-ETO interferes with AML1 function but requires additional cooperating mutations to induce leukemia development. In mouse models, AML1-ETO forms lacking the C-terminus have been shown to have greatly enhanced leukemogenic potential. Here, we investigate the role of 2 AML1-ETO C-terminal-interacting proteins, N-CoR, a transcriptional corepressor, and SON, a splicing/transcription factor required for cell cycle progression, in AML1-ETO-induced leukemia development. AML1-ETO-W692A loses N-CoR binding at NHR4, displays attenuated transcriptional repression ability and decreased cellular dysregulation, and promotes leukemia in vivo. These results support the importance of the degree of dysregulation by AML1-ETO in cellular transformation and demonstrate that AML1-ETO-W692A can be used as an effective experimental model for determining which factors compromise the leukemogenic potential of AML1-ETO.

Related: Leukemia

Jiao B, Ren ZH, Liu P, et al.
8-CPT-cAMP/all-trans retinoic acid targets t(11;17) acute promyelocytic leukemia through enhanced cell differentiation and PLZF/RARα degradation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(9):3495-500 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
The refractoriness of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(11;17)(q23;q21) to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based therapy concerns clinicians and intrigues basic researchers. By using a murine leukemic model carrying both promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger/retinoic acid receptor-α (PLZF/RARα) and RARα/PLZF fusion genes, we discovered that 8-chlorophenylthio adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-CPT-cAMP) enhances cellular differentiation and improves gene trans-activation by ATRA in leukemic blasts. Mechanistically, in combination with ATRA, 8-CPT-cAMP activates PKA, causing phosphorylation of PLZF/RARα at Ser765 and resulting in increased dissociation of the silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors/nuclear receptor corepressor from PLZF/RARα. This process results in changes of local chromatin and transcriptional reactivation of the retinoic acid pathway in leukemic cells. Meanwhile, 8-CPT-cAMP also potentiated ATRA-induced degradation of PLZF/RARα through its Ser765 phosphorylation. In vivo treatment of the t(11;17) APL mouse model demonstrated that 8-CPT-cAMP could significantly improve the therapeutic effect of ATRA by targeting a leukemia-initiating cell activity. This combined therapy, which induces enhanced differentiation and oncoprotein degradation, may benefit t(11;17) APL patients.

Related: Chromosome 11 Chromosome 17 Signal Transduction

De Amicis F, Russo A, Avena P, et al.
In vitro mechanism for downregulation of ER-α expression by epigallocatechin gallate in ER+/PR+ human breast cancer cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013; 57(5):840-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
SCOPE: Exposure of the breast to estrogens and other sex hormones is an important cancer risk factor and estrogen receptor downregulators are attracting significant clinical interest. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound found in green tea, has gained considerable attention for its antitumor properties. Here we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which EGCG regulates ER-α expression in ER+ PR+ breast cancer cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Western blotting analysis, real-time PCR, and transient transfections of deletion fragments of the ER-α gene promoter show that EGCG downregulates ER-α protein, mRNA, and gene promoter activity with a concomitant reduction of ER-α genomic and nongenomic signal. These events occur through p38(MAPK) /CK2 activation, causing the release from Hsp90 of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) and its consequent nuclear translocation as evidenced by immunofluorescence studies. EMSA, and ChIP assay reveal that, upon EGCG treatment, PR-B is recruited at the half-PRE site on ER-α promoter. This is concomitant with the formation of a corepressor complex containing NCoR and HDAC1 while RNA polymerase II is displaced. The events are crucially mediated by PR-B isoform, since they are abrogated with PR-B siRNA.
CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence for a mechanism by which EGCG downregulates ER-α and explains the inhibitory action of EGCG on the proliferation of ER+ PR+ cancer cells tested. We suggest that the EGCG/PR-B signaling should be further exploited for clinical approach.

Related: Breast Cancer Signal Transduction ESR1

Cartron PF, Blanquart C, Hervouet E, et al.
HDAC1-mSin3a-NCOR1, Dnmt3b-HDAC1-Egr1 and Dnmt1-PCNA-UHRF1-G9a regulate the NY-ESO1 gene expression.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):452-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NY-ESO1 gene is a cancer/testis antigen considered to be suitable target for the immunotherapy of human malignancies. Despite the identification of the epigenetical silencing of the NY-ESO1 gene in a large variety of tumors, the molecular mechanism involved in this phenomenon is not fully elucidated. In two non epithelial cancers (glioma and mesothelioma), we found that the epigenetic regulation of the NY-ESO1 gene requires the sequential recruitment of the HDAC1-mSin3a-NCOR, Dnmt3b-HDAC1-Egr1 and Dnmt1-PCNA-UHRF1-G9a complexes. Thus, our data illustrate the orchestration of a sequential epigenetic mechanism including the histone deacetylation and methylation, and the DNA methylation processes.

Related: Mesothelioma CTAG1B (CTAG, NY-ESO-1)

Lit LC, Scott S, Zhang H, et al.
LATS2 is a modulator of estrogen receptor alpha.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(1):53-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen Receptor α (ERα), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors, plays a central role in breast cancer development. More than two-thirds of patients with breast cancer are ERα-positive; however, a proportion becomes resistant. Phosphorylation of ERα is one of the mechanisms associated with resistance to endocrine therapy. In a kinome screen, we have identified the large tumor suppressor homolog-2 (LATS2) as a potential kinase, acting on ERα.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The role of LATS2 on activation of ERα transcription and its functional consequences was examined by various molecular and cellular biology techniques.
RESULTS: LATS2 co-localises with ERα in the nucleus. LATS2-silencing increases expression of ERα-regulated genes and inhibits proliferation. At the protein level, inhibition of LATS2 reduces the expression of cyclin-D1 and Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor (NCoR) while increasing the expression of p27.
CONCLUSION: Identifying novel kinases which modulate ERα activity is relevant to therapeutics. LATS2 modulates ERα-regulated gene transcription, through direct and/or indirect interactions with ERα.

Related: Breast Cancer Signal Transduction LATS2

Choi HK, Yoo JY, Jeong MH, et al.
Protein kinase A phosphorylates NCoR to enhance its nuclear translocation and repressive function in human prostate cancer cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2013; 228(6):1159-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates diverse protein substrates to modulate their function. In this study, we found that PKA specifically phosphorylates the RD1 (repression domain 1) domain of nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR). We demonstrated that the Serine-70 of NCoR is identified the critical amino acid for PKA-dependent NCoR phosphorylation. Importantly, we found that PKA-dependent phosphorylation enhances the nuclear translocation of NCoR. More importantly, the activation of PKA enhanced the repressive activity of NCoR in a reporter assay and potentiated the antagonist activity in the androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription. Taken together, these results uncover a regulatory mechanism by which PKA positively modulates NCoR function in transcriptional regulation in prostate cancer.

Related: Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction AR: androgen receptor KLK3

Zhang L, Gong C, Lau SL, et al.
SpliceArray profiling of breast cancer reveals a novel variant of NCOR2/SMRT that is associated with tamoxifen resistance and control of ERα transcriptional activity.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(1):246-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene expression profiling aimed at classifying and prognosing breast cancer has yielded signatures with little, if any, concordance. However, expression arrays used in these studies do not discriminate alternate RNA splice isoforms that vary widely in cancer and may resolve this problem. In this study, we profiled splice isoforms in a panel of tamoxifen-sensitive and -resistant cell lines, defining a novel variant (BQ323636.1) of the nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCOR2) that was associated with tamoxifen resistance. Overexpression of this variant in a tamoxifen-sensitive cell line induced its resistance to tamoxifen. We confirmed our initial findings from cell lines in 77 breast tumors from a Chinese cohort, where BQ323636.1 expression was higher in tamoxifen-resistant patients than tamoxifen-sensitive patients. For patients who were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and had received tamoxifen treatment, higher BQ323636.1 expression level correlated with distant metastasis. High expression level of BQ323636.1 was found to be associated with poorer overall and disease-free survival for patients who had received tamoxifen treatment. Notably, higher BQ323636.1 versus NCOR2 wild-type ratio was also associated with negative ER and progesterone receptor (PR) status, and triple-negative status (ER-/PR-/HER2- receptor status). Mechanistic investigations showed that under conditions of tamoxifen exposure, BQ323636.1 suppressed the transcriptional activity of ERα, exhibiting promoter-regulating functions. Our findings highlight a novel splice variant of the ERα corepressor NCOR2 as a candidate biomarker in breast cancer that not only predicts tamoxifen response but may be targeted to overcome tamoxifen resistance.

Related: Breast Cancer

Doig CL, Singh PK, Dhiman VK, et al.
Recruitment of NCOR1 to VDR target genes is enhanced in prostate cancer cells and associates with altered DNA methylation patterns.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(2):248-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
The current study investigated transcriptional distortion in prostate cancer cells using the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as a tool to examine how epigenetic events driven by corepressor binding and CpG methylation lead to aberrant gene expression. These relationships were investigated in the non-malignant RWPE-1 cells that were 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) responsive (RWPE-1) and malignant cell lines that were 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) partially responsive (RWPE-2) and resistant (PC-3). These studies revealed that selective attenuation and repression of VDR transcriptional responses in the cancer cell lines reflected their loss of antiproliferative sensitivity. This was evident in VDR target genes including VDR, CDKN1A (encodes p21( (waf1/cip1) )) and GADD45A; NCOR1 knockdown alleviated this malignant transrepression. ChIP assays in RWPE-1 and PC-3 cells revealed that transrepression of CDKN1A was associated with increased NCOR1 enrichment in response to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment. These findings supported the concept that retained and increased NCOR1 binding, associated with loss of H3K9ac and increased H3K9me2, may act as a beacon for the initiation and recruitment of DNA methylation. Overexpressed histone methyltransferases (KMTs) were detectable in a wide panel of prostate cancer cell lines compared with RWPE-1 and suggested that generation of H3K9me2 states would be favored. Cotreatment of cells with the KMT inhibitor, chaetocin, increased 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated induction of CDKN1A expression supporting a role for this event to disrupt CDKN1A regulation. Parallel surveys in PC-3 cells of CpG methylation around the VDR binding regions on CDKN1A revealed altered basal and VDR-regulated DNA methylation patterns that overlapped with VDR-induced recruitment of NCOR1 and gene transrepression. Taken together, these findings suggest that sustained corepressor interactions with nuclear-resident transcription factors may inappropriately transform transient-repressive histone states into more stable and repressive DNA methylation events.

Related: Apoptosis CDKN1A Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction

Margalef P, Fernández-Majada V, Villanueva A, et al.
A truncated form of IKKα is responsible for specific nuclear IKK activity in colorectal cancer.
Cell Rep. 2012; 2(4):840-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear IKKα regulates gene transcription by phosphorylating specific substrates and has been linked to cancer progression and metastasis. However, the mechanistic connection between tumorigenesis and IKKα activity remains poorly understood. We have now analyzed 288 human colorectal cancer samples and found a significant association between the presence of nuclear IKK and malignancy. Importantly, the nucleus of tumor cells contains an active IKKα isoform with a predicted molecular weight of 45 kDa (p45-IKKα) that includes the kinase domain but lacks several regulatory regions. Active nuclear p45-IKKα forms a complex with nonactive IKKα and NEMO that mediates phosphorylation of SMRT and histone H3. Proteolytic cleavage of FL-IKKα into p45-IKKα is required for preventing the apoptosis of CRC cells in vitro and sustaining tumor growth in vivo. Our findings identify a potentially druggable target for treating patients with advance refractory CRC.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Smith CL, Migliaccio I, Chaubal V, et al.
Elevated nuclear expression of the SMRT corepressor in breast cancer is associated with earlier tumor recurrence.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 136(1):253-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
Silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT), also known as nuclear corepressor 2 (NCOR2) is a transcriptional corepressor for multiple members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors, including estrogen receptor-α (ERα). In the classical model of corepressor action, SMRT binds to antiestrogen-bound ERα at target promoters and represses ERα transcriptional activity and gene expression. Herein SMRT mRNA and protein expression was examined in a panel of 30 breast cancer cell lines. Expression of both parameters was found to vary considerably amongst lines and the correlation between protein and mRNA expression was very poor (R (2) = 0.0775). Therefore, SMRT protein levels were examined by immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray of 866 patients with stage I-II breast cancer. Nuclear and cytoplasmic SMRT were scored separately according to the Allred score. The majority of tumors (67 %) were negative for cytoplasmic SMRT, which when detected was found at very low levels. In contrast, nuclear SMRT was broadly detected. There was no significant difference in time to recurrence (TTR) according to SMRT expression levels in the ERα-positive tamoxifen-treated patients (P = 0.297) but the difference was significant in the untreated patients (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, ERα-positive tamoxifen-untreated patients with high nuclear SMRT expression (SMRT 5-8, i.e., 2nd to 4th quartile) had a shorter TTR (HR = 1.94, 95 % CI, 1.24-3.04; P = 0.004) while there was no association with SMRT expression for ERα-positive tamoxifen-treated patients. There was no association between SMRT expression and overall survival for patients, regardless of whether they received tamoxifen. Thus while SMRT protein expression was not predictive of outcome after antiestrogen therapy, it may have value in predicting tumor recurrence in patients not receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.

Related: Breast Cancer ESR1

Cui J, Germer K, Wu T, et al.
Cross-talk between HER2 and MED1 regulates tamoxifen resistance of human breast cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(21):5625-34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
Despite the fact that most breast cancer patients have estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive tumors, up to 50% of the patients are or soon develop resistance to endocrine therapy. It is recognized that HER2 activation is one of the major mechanisms contributing to endocrine resistance. In this study, we report that the ER coactivator MED1 is a novel cross-talk point for the HER2 and ERα pathways. Tissue microarray analysis of human breast cancers revealed that MED1 expression positively correlates most strongly with HER2 status of the tumors. MED1 was highly phosphorylated, in a HER2-dependent manner, at the site known to be critical for its activation. Importantly, RNAi-mediated attenuation of MED1 sensitized HER2-overexpressing cells to tamoxifen treatment. MED1 and its phosphorylated form, but not the corepressors N-CoR and SMRT, were recruited to the ERα target gene promoter by tamoxifen in HER2-overexpressing cells. Significantly, MED1 attenuation or mutation of MED1 phosphorylation sites was sufficient to restore the promoter recruitment of N-CoR and SMRT. Notably, we found that MED1 is required for the expression of not only traditional E2-ERα target genes but also the newly described EGF-ERα target genes. Our results additionally indicated that MED1 is recruited to the HER2 gene and required for its expression. Taken together, these findings support a key role for MED1 in HER2-mediated tamoxifen resistance and suggest its potential usage as a therapeutic target to simultaneously block both ERα and HER2 pathways for the treatment of this type of endocrine resistant breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer

Liao S, Desouki MM, Gaile DP, et al.
Differential copy number aberrations in novel candidate genes associated with progression from in situ to invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(12):1067-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
Only a minority of intraductal carcinomas of the breast give rise to stromally invasive disease. We microdissected 206 paraffin blocks representing 116 different cases of low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Fifty-five were pure DCIS (PD) cases without progression to invasive carcinoma. Sixty-one cases had a small invasive component. DNA was extracted from microdissected sections and hybridized to high-density bacterial artificial chromosome arrays. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 118 hybridized DNA samples yielded data on 69 samples that were suitable for further statistical analysis. This cohort included 20 pure DCIS cases, 25 mixed DCIS (MD), and 24 mixed invasive carcinoma samples. PD cases had a higher frequency of DNA copy number changes than MD cases, and the latter had similar DNA profiles compared to paired invasive carcinomas. Copy number changes on 13 chromosomal arms occurred at different rates in PD versus MD lesions. Eight of 19 candidate genes residing at those loci were confirmed to have differential copy number changes by quantitative PCR. NCOR2/SMRT and NR4A1 (both on 12q), DYNLRB2 (16q), CELSR1, UPK3A, and ST13 (all on 22q) were more frequently amplified in PD. Moreover, NCOR2, NR4A1, and DYNLRB2 showed more frequent copy number losses in MD. GRAP2 (22q) was more often amplified in MD, whereas TAF1C (16q) was more commonly deleted in PD. A multigene model comprising these candidate genes discriminated between PD and MD lesions with high accuracy. These findings suggest that the propensity to invade the stroma may be encoded in the genome of intraductal carcinomas.

Related: Breast Cancer CGH

He XY, Yang WM, Tang WT, et al.
TRAV gene expression in PBMCs and TILs in patients with breast cancer analyzed by a DNA melting curve (FQ-PCR) technique for TCR α chain CDR3 spectratyping.
Neoplasma. 2012; 59(6):693-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To explore the expression of the TRAV gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the patients with breast cancer using a DNA melting curve (FQ-PCR) technique for T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain CDR3 spectratyping. Peripheral blood samples and tissue samples were obtained from thirty breast cancer patients. Total RNA was extracted from PBMCs and tumor tissues and then reverse transcribed into cDNA. FQ-PCR was used to amplify the human TCR alpha chain CDR3 region with the primers to the TRAV and TRAC genes. TCR alpha chain CDR3 spectratyping and partial CDR3 sequencing were used to determine use of TRAV gene product in T cell responses. TCR alpha CDR3 spectratyping showed preferential usage of certain TRAV genes in the PBMCs and TILs of all patients with breast cancer. The frequencies of TRAV1.1, TRAV9, and TRAV29 exceeded 30% in PBMCs and the frequencies of TRAV1.1 and TRAV22 exceeded 30% in TILs. More than three quarters of the patients (23/30) overexpressed the same gene in both PBMCs and TILs; for example, patient-1 highly expressed TRAV9 in the PBMCs and TILs. Patients with positive or negative tumor markers of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), pS2, C-erbB-2, nm23, P53, and Ki-67 showed no significant common TRAV gene expression, but some TRAV gene preferential usage frequencies exceeded 20%. For example, five of seven patients positive for ER had high levels of expression of TRAV1.1 and TRAV3. Finally, the amino acid sequence of TCR CDR3 region showed some common motifs in some of the patients.
CONCLUSIONS: TRAV gene expression was complex and diverse in the patients with breast cancer. The TRAV gene usage may be closely related to the diversity of breast tumor antigens and the differential immune responses observed in individual patients. Research into the immunological mechanism of T cells may provide guidance for individual T cell-directed therapy for breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer

Godoy AS, Sotomayor PC, Villagran M, et al.
Altered corepressor SMRT expression and recruitment to target genes as a mechanism that change the response to androgens in prostate cancer progression.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 423(3):564-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR) is required for the development and progression of prostate cancer (CaP) from androgen-dependence to androgen-resistance. Both corepressors and coactivators regulate AR-mediated transcriptional activity, and aberrant expression or activity due to mutation(s) contributes to changes in AR function in the progression to androgen resistance acquired during hormonal ablation therapies. Primary culture of epithelial cells from androgen-dependent CWR22 and androgen-resistant CWR22R xenograft tumors were used to evaluate the effect of androgens on AR function, and the association with coactivators (SRC-1 and TIF-2) and corepressors (SMRT and NCoR). Both androgen-dependent CWR22 and androgen-resistant CWR22R cells expressed functional AR as the receptor bind ligand with high affinity and increased trafficking to the nuclei in the presence of androgens. However, in the presence of androgens, AR-mediated transcriptional activity in androgen-sensitive CWR22 cells was limited to a 2-fold increase, as compared to a 6-fold increase in androgen-resistance CWR22R cells. In androgen-sensitive CWR22 cells, immunoblot, confocal microscopy, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that the androgen bound AR transcriptional initiation complex in the PSA promoter contained corepressor SMRT, resulting in limited receptor transcriptional activity. In contrast, increased AR-mediated transcriptional activity in the CWR22R cells was consistent with decreased expression and recruitment of the corepressors SMRT/NCoR, as well as increased recruitment of the coactivator TIF-2 to the receptor complex. Similar changes in the response to androgens were observed in the LNCaP/C4-2 model of androgen resistance prostate cancer. Thus, altered recruitment and loss of corepressors SMRT/NCoR may provide a mechanism that changes the response of AR function to ligands and contributes to the progression of the advanced stages of human prostate cancer.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Yoo JY, Choi HK, Choi KC, et al.
Nuclear hormone receptor corepressor promotes esophageal cancer cell invasion by transcriptional repression of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 in a casein kinase 2-dependent manner.
Mol Biol Cell. 2012; 23(15):2943-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/07/2015 Related Publications
Aberrant expression of casein kinase 2 (CK2) is associated with tumor progression; however, the molecular mechanism by which CK2 modulates tumorigenesis is incompletely understood. In this paper, we show that CK2α phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) at Ser-2436 to stabilize the NCoR against the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation pathway. Importantly, NCoR promoted the invasion of esophageal cancer cells in a CK2-dependent manner. By using cyclic DNA microarray analysis, we identified CXCL10/IP-10 as a novel CK2α-NCoR cascade-regulated gene. The depletion of both NCoR and HDAC3 commonly derepressed IP-10 transcription, demonstrating the functional engagement of the NCoR-HDAC3 axis in IP-10 transcriptional repression. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that c-Jun recruits NCoR-HDAC3 corepressor complexes to the (AP1 site of IP-10, leading to histone hypoacetylation and IP-10 down-regulation. Collectively these data suggest that the CK2α-NCoR cascade selectively represses the transcription of IP-10 and promotes oncogenic signaling in human esophageal cancer cells.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Signal Transduction


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. NCOR2, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/NCOR2.htm Accessed: date

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