Research IndicatorsGraph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: PCDH7 (cancer-related)
BACKGROUND: Though p53 mutations are rare in ES, there is a strong indication that p53 mutant tumours form a particularly bad prognostic group. As such, novel treatment strategies are warranted that would specifically target and eradicate tumour cells containing mutant p53 in this subset of ES patients.
METHODS: PRIMA-1(Met), also known as APR-246, is a small organic molecule that has been shown to restore tumour-suppressor function primarily to mutant p53 and also to induce cell death in various cancer types. In this study, we interrogated the ability of APR-246 to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumour growth in ES cells with different p53 mutations.
RESULTS: APR-246 variably induced apoptosis, associated with Noxa, Puma or p21(WAF1) upregulation, in both mutant and wild-type p53 harbouring cells. The apoptosis-inducing capability of APR-246 was markedly reduced in ES cell lines transfected with p53 siRNA. Three ES cell lines established from the same patient at different stages of the disease and two cell lines of different patients with identical p53 mutations all exhibited different sensitivities to APR-246, indicating cellular context dependency. Comparative transcriptome analysis on the three cell lines established from the same patient identified differential expression levels of several TP53 and apoptosis-associated genes such as APOL6, PENK, PCDH7 and MST4 in the APR-246-sensitive cell line relative to the less APR-246-sensitive cell lines.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study reporting the biological response of Ewing sarcoma cells to APR-246 exposure and shows gross variability in responses. Our study also proposes candidate genes whose expression might be associated with ES cells' sensitivity to APR-246. With APR-246 currently in early-phase clinical trials, our findings call for caution in considering it as a potential adjuvant to conventional ES-specific chemotherapeutics.
Li AM, Tian AX, Zhang RX, et al.Protocadherin-7 induces bone metastasis of breast cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 436(3):486-90 [PubMed
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Breast cancer had a propensity to metastasize to bone, resulting in serious skeletal complications associated with poor outcome. Previous study showed that Protocadherin-7 (PCDH7) play an important role in brain metastatic breast cancer, however, the role of PCDH7 in bone metastatic breast cancer has never been explored. In the present study, we found that PCDH7 expression was up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assays. Furthermore, suppression of PCDH7 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro by MTT, scratch, and transwell assays. Most importantly, overexpression of PCDH7 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and formation of bone metastasis in vivo. These data provide an important insight into the role of PCDH7 in bone metastasis of breast cancer.
Beukers W, Hercegovac A, Vermeij M, et al.Hypermethylation of the polycomb group target gene PCDH7 in bladder tumors from patients of all ages.
J Urol. 2013; 190(1):311-6 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Bladder tumors in patients younger than 20 years show a low incidence of the genetic and epigenetic aberrations typically found in older patients. One of the most common epigenetic aberrations in human malignancies is DNA hypermethylation. Polycomb group complexes have an important role during lineage choices in embryogenesis and their target genes are 12 times more likely to be methylated than nonpolycomb group target genes. We hypothesized that methylation of polycomb group target genes is an early event in urothelial carcinogenesis and thus might be observed in young patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We stratified 167 patients by age into 4 groups, including age less than 20 years in 14, 20 to 40 in 48, 40 to 60 in 47 and greater than 60 in 58. Five previously identified polycomb group target genes (MEIS1, ONECUT2, OTX1, PCDH7 and SOX21) were selected for methylation analysis. Methylation ratios were calculated by using the unmethylated and methylated signal. The outcome represented the fraction of methylated cells within one tumor. Genes with similar methylation ratios in all age groups were considered as potential bladder cancer initiating candidates.
RESULTS: Three genes showed higher methylation ratios in tumors from older patients, including ONECUT2, SOX21 and OTX1 (each p <0.001). MEIS1 showed a similar methylation ratio in all groups but the median methylation ratio was low. PCDH7 showed a similar median methylation percent in all age categories, ie 54% at less than 20, 59% at 20 to 40, 59% at 40 to 60 and 67% at greater than 60 years (p = 0.1).
CONCLUSIONS: Tumors from young patients showed less methylation for most markers. PCDH7 showed high methylation ratios in all age categories. Therefore, it could have an important role in early urothelial carcinogenesis.
The cadherin family is classified into classical cadherins, desmosomal cadherins and protocadherins (PCDHs). Genomic structures distinguish between PCDHs and other cadherins, and between clustered and non-clustered PCDHs. The phylogenetic analysis with full sequences of non-clustered PCDHs enabled them to be further classified into three subgroups: δ1 (PCDH1, PCDH7, PCDH9, PCDH11 and PCDH20), δ2 (PCDH8, PCDH10, PCDH12, PCDH17, PCDH18 and PCDH19) and ε (PCDH15, PCDH16, PCDH21 and MUCDHL). ε-PCDH members except PCDH21 have either higher or lower numbers of cadherin repeats than those of other PCDHs. Non-clustered PCDHs are expressed predominantly in the nervous system and have spatiotemporally diverse expression patterns. Especially, the region-specific expressions of non-clustered PCDHs have been observed in cortical area of early postnatal stage and in caudate putaman and/or hippocampal formation of mature brains, suggesting that non-clustered PCDHs play roles in the circuit formation and maintenance. The non-clustered PCDHs appear to have homophilic/heterophilc cell-cell adhesion properties, and each member has diverse cell signaling partnership distinct from those of other members (PCDH7/TAF1; PCDH8/TAO2β; PCDH10/Nap1; PCDH11/β-catenin; PCDH18/mDab1). Furthermore, each PCDH has several isoforms with differential cytoplasmic sequences, suggesting that one PCDH isoform could activate intracellular signaling differential from other isoforms. These facts suggest that non-clustered PCDHs play roles as a mediator of a regulator of other molecules as well as cell-cell adhesion. Furthermore, some non-clustered PCDHs have been considered to be involved in neuronal diseases such as autism-spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and female-limited epilepsy and cognitive impairment, suggesting that they play multiple, tightly regulated roles in normal brain function. In addition, some non-clustered PCDHs have been suggested as candidate tumor suppressor genes in several tissues. Although molecular adhesive and regulatory properties of some PCDHs began to be unveiled, the endeavor to understand the molecular mechanism of non-clustered PCDH is still in its infancy and requires future study.
PURPOSE: Lung cancer, of which 85% is non-small-cell (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We used genome-wide analysis of tumor tissue to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tumors are prognostic factors in early-stage NSCLC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred early-stage NSCLC patients from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) were used as a discovery set and 89 NSCLC patients collected by the National Institute of Occupational Health, Norway, were used as a validation set. DNA was extracted from flash-frozen lung tissue with at least 70% tumor cellularity. Genome-wide genotyping was done using the high-density SNP chip. Copy numbers were inferred using median smoothing after intensity normalization. Cox models were used to screen and validate significant SNPs associated with the overall survival.
RESULTS: Copy number gains in chromosomes 3q, 5p, and 8q were observed in both MGH and Norwegian cohorts. The top 50 SNPs associated with overall survival in the MGH cohort (P < or = 2.5 x 10(-4)) were selected and examined using the Norwegian cohort. Five of the top 50 SNPs were validated in the Norwegian cohort with false discovery rate lower than 0.05 (P < .016) and all five were located in known genes: STK39, PCDH7, A2BP1, and EYA2. The numbers of risk alleles of the five SNPs showed a cumulative effect on overall survival (P(trend) = 3.80 x 10(-12) and 2.48 x 10(-7) for MGH and Norwegian cohorts, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Five SNPs were identified that may be prognostic of overall survival in early-stage NSCLC.
Singh AP, Bafna S, Chaudhary K, et al.Genome-wide expression profiling reveals transcriptomic variation and perturbed gene networks in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.
Cancer Lett. 2008; 259(1):28-38 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previously, we have developed a unique in vitro LNCaP cell model, which includes androgen-dependent (LNCaP-C33), androgen-independent (LNCaP-C81) and an intermediate phenotype (LNCaP-C51) cell lines resembling the stages of prostate cancer progression to hormone independence. This model is advantageous in overcoming the heterogeneity associated with the prostate cancer up to a certain extent. We characterized and compared the gene expression profiles in LNCaP-C33 (androgen-dependent) and LNCaP-C81 (androgen-independent) cells using Affymetrix GeneChip array analyses. Multiple genes were identified exhibiting differential expression during androgen-independent progression. Among the important genes upregulated in androgen-independent cells were PCDH7, TPTE, TSPY, EPHA3, HGF, MET, EGF, TEM8, etc., whereas many candidate tumor suppressor genes (HTATIP2, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN1C, TP53, TP73, ICAM1, SOCS1/2, SPRY2, PPP2CA, PPP3CA, etc.) were decreased. Pathway prediction analysis identified important gene networks associated with growth-promoting and apoptotic signaling that were perturbed during androgen-independent progression. Further investigation of one of the genes, PPP2CA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of a serine phosphatase PP2A, a potent tumor suppressor, revealed that its expression was decreased in prostate cancer compared to adjacent normal/benign tissue. Furthermore, the downregulated expression of PPP2CA was significantly correlated with tumor stage and Gleason grade. Future studies on the identified differentially expressed genes and signaling pathways may be helpful in understanding the biology of prostate cancer progression and prove useful in developing novel prognostic biomarkers and therapy for androgen-refractory prostate cancer.
Zhang Z, DuBois RNDetection of differentially expressed genes in human colon carcinoma cells treated with a selective COX-2 inhibitor.
Oncogene. 2001; 20(33):4450-6 [PubMed
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Numerous reports suggest that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decrease mortality from colorectal cancer. To better understand all of the mechanisms underlying this effect, the global pattern of gene expression in colon carcinoma cells following treatment with NS-398, a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor was evaluated. We utilized suppression subtractive hybridization combined with differential screening to identify genes whose expression was affected following treatment. Among the subtracted cDNA fragments confirmed as differentially expressed, there were two which are known to be involved in the regulation of cell adhesion (human FAT and proto-cadherin-7). We identified two other genes whose levels were decreased and these are known to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation (cyclin K and p-100). We identified additional genes which are involved in different signaling pathways which regulate programmed cell death (Dynamin 2, Pdcd4 and LIP.1). These results provide evidence that some of the effects of NS-398 on carcinoma cells may be due to modulation of genes which regulate programmed cell death, cell proliferation and cell-cell communication. Additional studies are underway to determine the biological function of the novel genes that were identified.
Zondervan PE, Wink J, Alers JC, et al.Molecular cytogenetic evaluation of virus-associated and non-viral hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of 26 carcinomas and 12 concurrent dysplasias.
J Pathol. 2000; 192(2):207-15 [PubMed
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The worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is approximately one million cases a year. This makes HCC one of the most frequent human malignancies, especially in Asia and Africa, although the incidence is increasing also in the western world. HCC is a complication of chronic liver disease, with cirrhosis as the most important risk factor. Viral co-pathogenesis makes cirrhosis due to hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection a very important factor in the development of HCC. As curative therapy is often ruled out due to the late detection of HCC, it would be attractive to find parameters which predict malignant transformation in HBV- and HCV-infected livers. This study has used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to analyse 26 HCCs (11 non-viral, nine HBV, six HCV) and 12 concurrent dysplasias (five non-viral, five HBV, two HCV). Frequent gain (> or =25% of all tumours) was detected, in decreasing order of frequency, on 8q (69%), 1q (46%), 17q (46%), 12q (42%), 20q (31%), 5p (27%), 6q (27%), and Xq (27%). Frequent loss (> or =25% of all tumours) was found, in decreasing order of frequency, on 8p (58%), 16q (54%), 4q (42%), 13q (39%), 1p (35%), 4p (35%), 16p (35%), 18q (35%), 14q (31%), 17p (31%), 9p (27%), and 9q (27%). Minimal overlapping regions could be determined at multiple locations (candidate genes in parentheses). Minimal regions of overlap for deletions were assigned to 4p14-15 (PCDH7), 8p21-22 (FEZ1), 9p12-13, 13q14-31 (RB1), 14q31 (TSHR), 16p12-13.1 (GSPT1), 16q21-23 (CDH1), 17p12-13 (TP53), and 18q21-22 (DPC4, DCC). Minimal overlapping amplified sites could be seen at 8q24 (MYC), 12q15-21 (MDM2), 17q22-25 (SSTR2, GH1), and 20q12-13.2 (MYBL2, PTPN1). A single high level amplification was seen on 5q21 in an HBV-related tumour. Aberrations appeared more frequent in HBV-related HCCs than in HCV-associated tumours (p=0.008). This was most prominent with respect to losses (p=0.004), specifically loss on 4p (p=0.007), 16q (p=0.04), 17p (p=0.04), and 18q (p=0.03). In addition, loss on 17p was significantly lower in non-viral cancers than in HBV-related HCC (p<0.001). Furthermore, loss on 13q was more prevalent in HCCs in non-cirrhotic livers (p=0.02), thus suggesting a different, potentially more aggressive, pathway in neoplastic progression. A tendency (p=0.07) was observed for loss on 9q in high-stage tumours; no specific changes were found in relation to tumour grade. A subset of the HCC-associated genetic changes was disclosed in the preneoplastic stage, i.e. liver cell dysplasia. This group of dysplasias showed frequent gain on 17q (25%) and frequent loss on 16q (33%), 4q (25%), and 17p (25%). The majority of the dysplasias with alterations revealed genetic changes that were also present in the primary tumour. In conclusion, firstly, this study has provided a detailed map of genomic changes occurring in HCC of viral and non-viral origin, and has suggested candidate genes. Loss on 17p, including the TP53 region, appeared significantly more prevalent in HBV-associated liver cancers, whereas loss on 13q, with possible involvement of RB1, was distinguished as a possible genetic biomarker. Secondly, CGH analysis of liver cell dysplasia, both viral and non-viral, has revealed HCC-specific early genetic changes, thereby confirming its preneoplastic nature. Finally, genes residing in these early altered regions, such as CDH1 or TP53, might be associated with hepatocellular carcinogenesis.