Gene Summary

Gene:FAT1; FAT atypical cadherin 1
Aliases: FAT, ME5, CDHF7, CDHR8, hFat1
Summary:This gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila fat gene, which encodes a tumor suppressor essential for controlling cell proliferation during Drosophila development. The gene product is a member of the cadherin superfamily, a group of integral membrane proteins characterized by the presence of cadherin-type repeats. In addition to containing 34 tandem cadherin-type repeats, the gene product has five epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and one laminin A-G domain. This gene is expressed at high levels in a number of fetal epithelia. Its product probably functions as an adhesion molecule and/or signaling receptor, and is likely to be important in developmental processes and cell communication. Transcript variants derived from alternative splicing and/or alternative promoter usage exist, but they have not been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protocadherin Fat 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)

Cancer Overview

Morris et al, 2013 found that the FAT1 gene is deleted and mutated at a high prevalence across multiple types of cancers, and FAT1 suppresses cancer cell growth and proliferation, contributing to aberrant Wnt activation. They suggest that FAT1 is a tumour suppressor gene driving loss of chromosome 4q35, a prevalent region of deletion in cancer - though other tumour suppressors in 4q35 can't be ruled out.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Head and Neck CancersFAT1 and Head and Neck Cancers
Morris, et al(2013) identified FAT1 mutations in 4 of 60 (7%) head and neck cancers, after filtering out known SNPs.
View Publications28
Oral Cavity CancerFAT1 and Oral Cavity Cancer View Publications11
Brain and CNS TumoursFAT1 and Glioblastoma
As part of a study of FAT1 Morris, et al(2013) assayed copy number in 42 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor samples using quantitative PCR, and found a 24 (57%) had homozygous deletion of FAT1.
View Publications6
Esophageal CancerFAT1 mutation in Esophogeal Cancer
Lin DC, et al (2014) reported mutation of FAT1 as part of sequenced whole exomes (WES) study of genomic and molecular characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. 20 tumours were analysed in an initial 'discovery' cohort, and then a further 119 samples to validate. The They found that FAT1 protein expression was downregulated in ESCC and that homozygous deletions of FAT1 occurred in 3.4% of ESCCs.
View Publications7
Colorectal CancerFAT1 and Colorectal Cancer
Morris, et al(2013) identified FAT1 mutations in 3 of 39 (8%) colon cancers, after filtering out known SNPs.
View Publications5

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FAT1 (cancer-related)

Liu G, Huang K, Jie Z, et al.
CircFAT1 sponges miR-375 to promote the expression of Yes-associated protein 1 in osteosarcoma cells.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to identify new molecular targets for treatment of osteosarcoma. Circular RNAs are a class of endogenous RNAs that are extensively found in mammalian cells and exert critical functions in the regulation of gene expression, but in osteosarcoma the underlying molecular mechanism of circular RNAs remain poorly understood. Here we assessed the tumorigenesis properties of a circular RNA, circFAT1 in osteosarcoma.
METHODS: The effects of circFAT1/miR-375/YAP1 was evaluated on human osteosarcoma cells growth, apoptosis, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis. Signaling pathways were analyzed by western blotting, qRT-PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization, chromogenic in situ hybridization,RNA Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. The consequence of circFAT1 short hairpin RNA combined or not with miR-375 sponge was evaluated in mice bearing 143B xenografts on tumor growth.
RESULTS: In this study, we observed significant upregulation of circFAT1 originating from exon 2 of the FAT1 gene in human osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of circFAT1 effectively prevented the migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and repressed osteosarcoma growth in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that circFAT1 contains a binding site for the microRNA-375 (miR-375) and can abundantly sponge miR-375 to upregulate the expression of Yes-associated protein 1. Moreover, inhibition of miR-375 reversed attenuation of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, which was induced by circFAT1 knockdown, and therefore promoted tumorigenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a novel function of circFAT1 in tumorigenesis and suggest a new therapeutic target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Ren W, Sun Q, Wu PY, et al.
Profiles of genomic alterations in primary esophageal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(48):e13413 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is a rare tumor with FDC differentiation that typically arises within lymph nodes but can also occur extranodally. To date, the primary esophageal FDC sarcoma has not been reported in the English literature.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We described a 67-year-old female who foremostly presented with dysphagia, and the patient was readmitted due to a dry cough and pain of his right shoulder 2 years after initial treatment.
DIAGNOSES: Primary esophageal FDC sarcoma with the right superior mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
INTERVENTIONS: The esophageal tumor was removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection at the first hospitalization. At the second hospitalization 2 years after the initial visit, the tracheal stent loaded with (125) iodine radioactive seeds was placed. The profiles of genetic variations and immunotherapeutic biomarkers were also explored by next-generation sequencing protocol from the patient's blood, esophageal primary, and mediastinal metastatic tumor samples.
OUTCOMES: The patient's symptom transitorily relieved, but she gave up further treatment and died 2 months after the tracheal stent was placed. As for the genomic alterations, we found 9 gene mutations in all the samples, including checkpoint kinase 2(CHEK2), FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1), tumor protein 53 (TP53), DPYD, ERBB2 interacting protein (ERBB2IP), FBXW7, KMT2D, PPP2R1A, TSC2, whereas amplification of MYC was only in the metastatic example. The analysis of clonal evolution and phylogenetic tree showed the propagation and replay of polyclonal esophageal FDC sarcoma. At the same time, the detection of biomarkers for immunotherapy revealed microsatellite stable and mismatch repair-proficient (pMMR), which predicted a relatively poor anti-programmed death (PD-1)/programmed death ligand (PD-L1) immunotherapy outcome. On the contrary, the tumor mutational burdens were 10 mutations per 1 million bases in both the primary and metastatic tumor sample, which ranked the top 23.3% in solid tumors mutational burdens database of Geneseeq and might be a good predictor of the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.
LESSONS: To the best of our knowledge, this case report announced the first case of extranodal primary esophageal FDC sarcoma in the world, and firstly revealed its unique genetic alterations profiles, which might contribute to further in-depth study of this rare disease.

Zhao L, Chi W, Cao H, et al.
Screening and clinical significance of tumor markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through bioinformatics analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(1):143-154 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In order to identify potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and treatment targets for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the present study obtained the gene expression profiles in HNSCC through public data mining, and core genes were identified using a series of bioinformatics analysis methods and databases. A total of nine hub genes (SPP1, ITGA6, TMPRSS11D, MMP1, LAMC2, FAT1, ACTA1, SERPINE1 and CEACAM1) were identified to be significantly correlated with HNSCC. Furthermore, overall survival analysis demonstrated that the expression values of hub genes were associated with overall survival in HNSCC. Furthermore, certain of the identified genes, including, TMPRSS11D, ACTA1 and CEACAM1, have not been thoroughly investigated in HNSCC previously. Taken together, the nine hub genes obtained by screening in the present study may serve as potential tumor markers and important prognostic indicators for HNSCC.

Ishaque N, Abba ML, Hauser C, et al.
Whole genome sequencing puts forward hypotheses on metastasis evolution and therapy in colorectal cancer.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4782 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Incomplete understanding of the metastatic process hinders personalized therapy. Here we report the most comprehensive whole-genome study of colorectal metastases vs. matched primary tumors. 65% of somatic mutations originate from a common progenitor, with 15% being tumor- and 19% metastasis-specific, implicating a higher mutation rate in metastases. Tumor- and metastasis-specific mutations harbor elevated levels of BRCAness. We confirm multistage progression with new components ARHGEF7/ARHGEF33. Recurrently mutated non-coding elements include ncRNAs RP11-594N15.3, AC010091, SNHG14, 3' UTRs of FOXP2, DACH2, TRPM3, XKR4, ANO5, CBL, CBLB, the latter four potentially dual protagonists in metastasis and efferocytosis-/PD-L1 mediated immunosuppression. Actionable metastasis-specific lesions include FAT1, FGF1, BRCA2, KDR, and AKT2-, AKT3-, and PDGFRA-3' UTRs. Metastasis specific mutations are enriched in PI3K-Akt signaling, cell adhesion, ECM and hepatic stellate activation genes, suggesting genetic programs for site-specific colonization. Our results put forward hypotheses on tumor and metastasis evolution, and evidence for metastasis-specific events relevant for personalized therapy.

Lin T, Zhang B, He H
Identification of genes correlated with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S675-S679 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objectives: The objective was to study the mechanisms of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Materials and Methods: We analyzed microarrays of GSE23558 and GSE25103. GSE23558 and GSE25103 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. GSE23558 included 27 OSCC samples, 4 independent and 1 pooled normal samples. GSE25103 included 112 OSCC samples and ten normal samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) separately were obtained by limma package and plink software. Then, candidate disease genes were screened from the common genes of the genes carrying SNPs and the DEGs using Fisher's combination method. Using TargetMine online tool, potential functions of the candidate disease genes were analyzed by functional and pathway enrichment analyses. Besides, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of these genes was constructed by STRING and Cytoscape software. Furthermore, modules of PPI network were screened by the ClusterONE.
Results: We screened 2353 DEGs and 35635 risk SNPs in OSCC samples compared with normal samples. Moreover, CA9 was the most significant upregulated genes. There were 754 candidate disease genes, including 299 upregulated (e.g., VEGFC and FAT1) and 455 downregulated genes. For the candidate disease genes, the enriched functions were mainly in biological process categories. Importantly, FN1 (degree = 42) and CCNA2 (degree = 38) had high degrees in the PPI network. Furthermore, FN1 and CCNA2 were separately involved in module 1 and module 2 of the PPI network. FN1, CCNA2, CA9, VEGFC, and FAT1 might affect OSCC.
Conclusion: In general, our study obtained important genes implicated in OSCC.

Xicola RM, Manojlovic Z, Augustus GJ, et al.
Lack of APC somatic mutation is associated with early-onset colorectal cancer in African Americans.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(11):1331-1341 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
African Americans (AAs) have higher incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with other US populations. They present with more right-sided, microsatellite stable disease and are diagnosed at earlier ages compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). To gain insight into these trends, we conducted exome sequencing (n = 45), copy number (n = 33) and methylation analysis (n = 11) of microsatellite stable AA CRCs. Results were compared with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Two of the 45 tumors contained POLE mutations. In the remaining 43 tumors, only 27 (63%) contained loss-of-function mutations in APC compared with 80% of TCGA NHW CRCs. APC-mutation-negative CRCs were associated with an earlier onset of CRC (P = 0.01). They were also associated with lower overall mutation burden, fewer copy number variants and a DNA methylation signature that was distinct from the CpG island methylator phenotype characterized in microsatellite unstable disease. Three of the APC-mutation-negative CRCs had loss-of-function mutations in BCL9L. Mutations in driver genes identified by TCGA exome analysis were less frequent in AA CRC cases than TCGA NHWs. Genes that regulate the WNT signaling pathway, including SOX9, GATA6, TET1, GLIS1 and FAT1, were differentially hypermethylated in APC-mutation-negative CRCs, suggesting a novel mechanism for cancer development in these tumors. In summary, we have identified a subtype of CRC that is associated with younger age of diagnosis, lack of APC mutation, microsatellite and chromosome stability, lower mutation burden and distinctive methylation changes.

Coudray N, Ocampo PS, Sakellaropoulos T, et al.
Classification and mutation prediction from non-small cell lung cancer histopathology images using deep learning.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(10):1559-1567 [PubMed] Related Publications
Visual inspection of histopathology slides is one of the main methods used by pathologists to assess the stage, type and subtype of lung tumors. Adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) are the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer, and their distinction requires visual inspection by an experienced pathologist. In this study, we trained a deep convolutional neural network (inception v3) on whole-slide images obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas to accurately and automatically classify them into LUAD, LUSC or normal lung tissue. The performance of our method is comparable to that of pathologists, with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97. Our model was validated on independent datasets of frozen tissues, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and biopsies. Furthermore, we trained the network to predict the ten most commonly mutated genes in LUAD. We found that six of them-STK11, EGFR, FAT1, SETBP1, KRAS and TP53-can be predicted from pathology images, with AUCs from 0.733 to 0.856 as measured on a held-out population. These findings suggest that deep-learning models can assist pathologists in the detection of cancer subtype or gene mutations. Our approach can be applied to any cancer type, and the code is available at https://github.com/ncoudray/DeepPATH .

Lin SC, Lin LH, Yu SY, et al.
FAT1 somatic mutations in head and neck carcinoma are associated with tumor progression and survival.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(11):1320-1330 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, the incidence and mortality rates of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have increased worldwide. Therefore, understanding genomic alterations in HNSCC carcinogenesis is crucial for appropriate diagnosis and therapy. Protocadherin FAT1, which encodes 4588 amino acid residues, regulates complex mechanisms to promote oncogenesis or suppression of malignancies. Multiplex PCR-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed FAT1 somatic mutations. The clinicopathologic implications of FAT1 in HNSCC were investigated using expression assays, and the functional role of FAT1 in HNSCC pathogenesis was determined using ectopic expression and knockdown experiments. Approximately 29% patients with HNSCC harbored damaging FAT1 mutations. InVEx algorithm identified FAT1 as a significant functional mutation burden. Each type of mutation (missense, nonsense and frameshift) accounted for nearly one-third of deleterious mutations. FAT1 mutations correlated with lower FAT1 expression in tumors. The knockdown of the endogenous expression of FAT1 and exogenous expression of crucial FAT1 domains unequivocally indicated that FAT1 suppressed the migration and invasion capability of HNSCC cells. Functional analysis suggested that nonsense mutations in FAT1 result in the loss of the suppression of tumor progression. FAT1 mutations and downregulation defined nodal involvement, lymphovascular permeation and tumor recurrence. In addition, FAT1 mutations and downregulation are independent predictors of poor disease-free survival in patients with HNSCC. This study is the first to perform multiplex PCR-based NGS to indicate marked non-synonymous FAT1 mutations in HNSCC, which are prognostic indicators. The gene analysis strategy proposed for detecting FAT1 mutations may be a valid method for mutation screening.

Martin D, Degese MS, Vitale-Cross L, et al.
Assembly and activation of the Hippo signalome by FAT1 tumor suppressor.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2372 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
Dysregulation of the Hippo signaling pathway and the consequent YAP1 activation is a frequent event in human malignancies, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. A pancancer analysis of core Hippo kinases and their candidate regulating molecules revealed few alterations in the canonical Hippo pathway, but very frequent genetic alterations in the FAT family of atypical cadherins. By focusing on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which displays frequent FAT1 alterations (29.8%), we provide evidence that FAT1 functional loss results in YAP1 activation. Mechanistically, we found that FAT1 assembles a multimeric Hippo signaling complex (signalome), resulting in activation of core Hippo kinases by TAOKs and consequent YAP1 inactivation. We also show that unrestrained YAP1 acts as an oncogenic driver in HNSCC, and that targeting YAP1 may represent an attractive precision therapeutic option for cancers harboring genomic alterations in the FAT1 tumor suppressor genes.

Hylebos M, Op de Beeck K, van den Ende J, et al.
Molecular analysis of an asbestos-exposed Belgian family with a high prevalence of mesothelioma.
Fam Cancer. 2018; 17(4):569-576 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial clustering of malignant mesothelioma (MM) has been linked to the presence of germline mutations in BAP1. However, families with multiple MM patients, without segregating BAP1 mutation were described, suggesting the existence of other predisposing genetic factors. In this study, we report a previously undescribed Belgian family, in which BAP1 was found to be absent in the epithelial malignant mesothelial cells of the index patient. Whole exome analysis did not reveal a germline or somatic BAP1 variant. Also, no germline or somatic copy number changes in the BAP1 region could be identified. However, germline variants, predicted to be damaging, were detected in 11 other 'Cancer census genes' (i.e. MPL, RBM15, TET2, FAT1, HLA-A, EGFR, KMT2C, BRD3, NOTCH1, RB1 and MYO5A). Of these, the one in RBM15 seems to be the most interesting given its low minor allele frequency and absence in the germline DNA of the index patient's mother. The importance of this 'Cancer census gene' in familial MM clustering needs to be evaluated further. Nevertheless, this study strengthens the suspicion that, next to germline BAP1 alterations, other genetic factors might predispose families to the development of MM.

Hu ZY, Xie N, Tian C, et al.
Identifying Circulating Tumor DNA Mutation Profiles in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients with Multiline Resistance.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 32:111-118 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: In cancer patients, tumor gene mutations contribute to drug resistance and treatment failure. In patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), these mutations increase after multiline treatment, thereby decreasing treatment efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene mutation patterns in MBC patients to predict drug resistance and disease progression.
METHOD: A total of 68 MBC patients who had received multiline treatment were recruited. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) mutations were evaluated and compared among hormone receptor (HR)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subgroups.
RESULTS: The baseline gene mutation pattern (at the time of recruitment) varied among HR/HER2 subtypes. BRCA1 and MED12 were frequently mutated in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients, PIK3CA and FAT1 mutations were frequent in HR+ patients, and PIK3CA and ERBB2 mutations were frequent in HER2+ patients. Gene mutation patterns also varied in patients who progressed within either 3 months or 3-6 months of chemotherapy treatment. For example, in HR+ patients who progressed within 3 months of treatment, the frequency of TERT mutations significantly increased. Other related mutations included FAT1 and NOTCH4. In HR+ patients who progressed within 3-6 months, PIK3CA, TP53, MLL3, ERBB2, NOTCH2, and ERS1 were the candidate mutations. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie disease progression at different times after treatment initiation. In the COX model, the ctDNA TP53 + PIK3CA gene mutation pattern successfully predicted progression within 6 months.
CONCLUSION: ctDNA gene mutation profiles differed among HR/HER2 subtypes of MBC patients. By identifying mutations associated with treatment resistance, we hope to improve therapy selection for MBC patients who received multiline treatment.

Alamoud KA, Kukuruzinska MA
Emerging Insights into Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Head and Neck Cancer.
J Dent Res. 2018; 97(6):665-673 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck cancer presents primarily as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a debilitating malignancy fraught with high morbidity, poor survival rates, and limited treatment options. Mounting evidence indicates that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles in the pathobiology of HNSCC. Wnt/β-catenin signaling affects multiple cellular processes that endow cancer cells with the ability to maintain and expand immature stem-like phenotypes, proliferate, extend survival, and acquire aggressive characteristics by adopting mesenchymal traits. A central component of canonical Wnt signaling is β-catenin, which balances its role as a structural component of E-cadherin junctions with its function as a transcriptional coactivator of numerous target genes. Recent genomic characterization of head and neck cancer revealed that while β-catenin is not frequently mutated in HNSCC, its activity is unchecked by more common mutations in genes encoding upstream regulators of β-catenin, NOTCH1, FAT1, and AJUBA. Wnt/β-catenin signaling affects a wide range epigenetic and transcriptional activities, mediated by the interaction of β-catenin with different transcription factors and transcriptional coactivators and corepressors. Furthermore, Wnt/β-catenin functions in a network with many signaling and metabolic pathways that modulate its activity. In addition to its effects on tumor epithelia, β-catenin activity regulates the tumor microenvironment by regulating extracellular matrix remodeling, fibrotic processes, and immune response. These multifunctional oncogenic effects of β-catenin make it an attractive bona fide target for HNSCC therapy.

Lim SM, Cho SH, Hwang IG, et al.
Investigating the Feasibility of Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing to Guide the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 51(1):300-312 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a deadly disease in which precision medicine needs to be incorporated. We aimed to implement next-generation sequencing (NGS) in determining actionable targets to guide appropriate molecular targeted therapy in HNSCC patients.
Materials and Methods: Ninety-three tumors and matched blood samples underwent targeted sequencing of 244 genes using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform with an average depth of coverage of greater than 1,000×. Clinicopathological data from patients were obtained from 17 centers in Korea, and were analyzed in correlation with NGS data.
RESULTS: Ninety-two of the 93 tumors were amenable to data analysis. TP53 was the most common mutation, occurring in 47 (51%) patients, followed by CDKN2A (n=23, 25%), CCND1 (n=22, 24%), and PIK3CA (n=19, 21%). The total mutational burden was similar between human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative vs. positive tumors, although TP53, CDKN2A and CCND1 gene alterations occurred more frequently in HPV-negative tumors. HPV-positive tumors were significantly associated with immune signature-related genes compared to HPV-negative tumors. Mutations of NOTCH1 (p=0.027), CDKN2A (p < 0.001), and TP53 (p=0.038) were significantly associated with poorer overall survival. FAT1 mutations were highly enriched in cisplatin responders, and potentially targetable alterations such as PIK3CA E545K and CDKN2A R58X were noted in 14 patients (15%).
CONCLUSION: We found several targetable genetic alterations, and our findings suggest that implementation of precision medicine in HNSCC is feasible. The predictive value of each targetable alteration should be assessed in a future umbrella trial using matched molecular targeted agents.

Cavalieri S, Perrone F, Miceli R, et al.
Efficacy and safety of single-agent pan-human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) inhibitor dacomitinib in locally advanced unresectable or metastatic skin squamous cell cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2018; 97:7-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In recurrent or metastatic (R/M) skin squamous cell cancer (sSCC) not amenable to radiotherapy (RT) or surgery, chemotherapy (CT) has a palliative intent and limited clinical responses. The role of oral pan-HER inhibitor dacomitinib in this setting was investigated within a clinical trial.
METHODS: Patients with diagnosis of R/M sSCC were treated. Dacomitinib was started at a dose of 30 mg daily (QD) for 15 d, followed by 45 mg QD. Primary end-point was response rate (RR). Tumour samples were analysed through next-generation sequencing using a custom panel targeting 36 genes associated with sSCC.
RESULTS: Forty-two patients (33 men; median age 77 years) were treated. Most (86%) received previous treatments consisting in surgery (86%), RT (50%) and CT (14%). RR was 28% (2% complete response; 26% partial response), disease control rate was 86%. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 6 and 11 months, respectively. Most patients (93%) experienced at least one adverse event (AE): diarrhoea, skin rash (71% each), fatigue (36%) and mucositis (31%); AEs grade 3-4 occurred in 36% of pts. In 16% of cases, treatment was discontinued because of drug-related toxicity. TP53, NOTCH1/2, KMT2C/D, FAT1 and HER4 were the most frequently mutated genes. BRAF, NRAS and HRAS mutations were more frequent in non-responders, and KMT2C and CASP8 mutations were restricted to this subgroup.
CONCLUSIONS: In sSCC, dacomitinib showed activity similar to what was observed with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents, and durable clinical benefit was observed. Safety profile was comparable to previous experiences in other cancers. Molecular pt selection could improve therapeutic ratio.

Hu X, Zhai Y, Shi R, et al.
FAT1 inhibits cell migration and invasion by affecting cellular mechanical properties in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(5):2136-2146 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1) belongs to the cadherin superfamily and has been reported to regulate cell‑cell adhesion and other cell behaviors, suggesting its pivotal roles in human cancers. We previously identified FAT1 as one of the significant mutant genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the present study, the knockdown of FAT1 expression in YSE2 and Colo680N cell lines was carried out by lentivirus, and we found that knockdown of FAT1 led to acceleration of cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, we detected the cell adhesive force and cell elasticity force by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and found that the suppression of endogenous expression of FAT1 led to a decrease in the cell adhesive force and increase in the cell elasticity force compared with the control groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that FAT1 altered cellular mechanical properties leading to deregulation of cell migration and invasion of ESCC, which may be a novel target for ESCC therapy.

Feng J, Gong XY, Jia YJ, et al.
[Spectrum of somatic mutations and their prognostic significance in adult patients with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2018; 39(2):98-104 [PubMed] Related Publications

Han MR, Shin S, Park HC, et al.
Mutational signatures and chromosome alteration profiles of squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva.
Exp Mol Med. 2018; 50(2):e442 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) consists of two different etiologic categories: human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated (HPV (+)) and HPV-non-associated (HPV (-)). There have been no genome-wide studies on the genetic alterations of vulvar SCCs or on the differences between HPV (+) and HPV (-) vulvar SCCs. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 6 HPV (+) and 9 HPV (-) vulvar SCCs and found known mutations (TP53, CDKN2A and HRAS) and copy number alterations (CNAs) (7p and 8q gains and 2q loss) in HPV (-) SCCs. In HPV (+), we found novel mutations in PIK3CA, BRCA2 and FBXW7 that had not been reported in vulvar SCCs. HPV (-) SCCs exhibited more mutational loads (numbers of nonsilent mutations and driver mutations) than HPV (+) SCCs, but the CNA loads and mutation signatures between HPV (+) and HPV (-) SCCs did not differ. Of note, 40% and 40% of the 15 vulvar SCCs harbored PIK3CA and FAT1 alterations, respectively. In addition, we found that the SCCs harbored kataegis (a localized hypermutation) in 2 HPV (+) SCCs and copy-neutral losses of heterozygosity in 4 (one HPV (+) and 3 HPV (-)) SCCs. Our data indicate that HPV (+) and HPV (-) vulvar SCCs may have different mutation and CNA profiles but that there are genomic features common to SCCs. Our data provide useful information for both HPV (+) and HPV (-) vulvar SCCs and may aid in the development of clinical treatment strategies.

Hu XL, Zhai YF, Li GD, et al.
[FAT1 inhibits cell proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through regulating the expression of CDK4/CDK6/CCND1 complex].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2018; 40(1):14-20 [PubMed] Related Publications

Dubot C, Bernard V, Sablin MP, et al.
Comprehensive genomic profiling of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma reveals FGFR1 amplifications and tumour genomic alterations burden as prognostic biomarkers of survival.
Eur J Cancer. 2018; 91:47-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We aimed at identifying deleterious genomic alterations from untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients, and assessing their prognostic value.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrieved 122 HNSCC patients who underwent primary surgery. Targeted NGS was used to analyse a panel of 100 genes selected among the most frequently altered genes in HNSCC and potential therapeutic targets. We selected only deleterious (activating or inactivating) single nucleotide variations, and copy number variations for analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the prognostic value of altered genes.
RESULTS: A median of 2 (range: 0-10) genomic alterations per sample was observed. Most frequently altered genes involved the cell cycle pathway (TP53 [60%], CCND1 [30%], CDKN2A [25%]), the PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway (PIK3CA [12%]), tyrosine kinase receptors (EGFR [9%], FGFR1 [5%]) and cell differentiation (FAT1 [7%], NOTCH1 [4%]). TP53 mutations (p = 0.003), CCND1 amplifications (p = 0.04), CDKN2A alterations (p = 0.02) and FGFR1 amplifications (p = 0.003), correlated with shorter overall survival (OS). The number of genomic alterations was significantly higher in the HPV-negative population (p = 0.029) and correlated with a shorter OS (p < 0.0001). Only TP53 mutation and FGFR1 amplification status remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that genomic alterations involving the cell cycle (TP53, CCND1, CDKN2A), as well as FGFR1 amplifications and tumour genomic alterations burden are prognostic biomarkers and might be therapeutic targets for patients with HNSCC.

Lai K, Harwood CA, Purdie KJ, et al.
Genomic analysis of atypical fibroxanthoma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0188272 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), is a rare type of skin cancer affecting older individuals with sun damaged skin. Since there is limited genomic information about AFX, our study seeks to improve the understanding of AFX through whole-exome and RNA sequencing of 8 matched tumor-normal samples. AFX is a highly mutated malignancy with recurrent mutations in a number of genes, including COL11A1, ERBB4, CSMD3, and FAT1. The majority of mutations identified were UV signature (C>T in dipyrimidines). We observed deletion of chromosomal segments on chr9p and chr13q, including tumor suppressor genes such as KANK1 and CDKN2A, but no gene fusions were found. Gene expression profiling revealed several biological pathways that are upregulated in AFX, including tumor associated macrophage response, GPCR signaling, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). To further investigate the presence of EMT in AFX, we conducted a gene expression meta-analysis that incorporated RNA-seq data from dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Ours is the first study to employ high throughput sequencing for molecular profiling of AFX. These data provide valuable insights to inform models of carcinogenesis and additional research towards tumor-directed therapy.

Griewank KG, Wiesner T, Murali R, et al.
Atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma harbor frequent NOTCH1/2 and FAT1 mutations and similar DNA copy number alteration profiles.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(3):418-428 [PubMed] Related Publications
Atypical fibroxanthomas and pleomorphic dermal sarcomas are tumors arising in sun-damaged skin of elderly patients. They have differing prognoses and are currently distinguished using histological criteria, such as invasion of deeper tissue structures, necrosis and lymphovascular or perineural invasion. To investigate the as-yet poorly understood genetics of these tumors, 41 atypical fibroxanthomas and 40 pleomorphic dermal sarcomas were subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing approaches as well as DNA copy number analysis by comparative genomic hybridization. In an analysis of the entire coding region of 341 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in 13 atypical fibroxanthomas using an established hybridization-based next-generation sequencing approach, we found that these tumors harbor a large number of mutations. Gene alterations were identified in more than half of the analyzed samples in FAT1, NOTCH1/2, CDKN2A, TP53, and the TERT promoter. The presence of these alterations was verified in 26 atypical fibroxanthoma and 35 pleomorphic dermal sarcoma samples by targeted amplicon-based next-generation sequencing. Similar mutation profiles in FAT1, NOTCH1/2, CDKN2A, TP53, and the TERT promoter were identified in both atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma. Activating RAS mutations (G12 and G13) identified in 3 pleomorphic dermal sarcoma were not found in atypical fibroxanthoma. Comprehensive DNA copy number analysis demonstrated a wide array of different copy number gains and losses, with similar profiles in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma. In summary, atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma are highly mutated tumors with recurrent mutations in FAT1, NOTCH1/2, CDKN2A, TP53, and the TERT promoter, and a range of DNA copy number alterations. These findings suggest that atypical fibroxanthomas and pleomorphic dermal sarcomas are genetically related, potentially representing two ends of a common tumor spectrum and distinguishing these entities is at present still best performed using histological criteria.

Gleber-Netto FO, Zhao M, Trivedi S, et al.
Distinct pattern of TP53 mutations in human immunodeficiency virus-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer. 2018; 124(1):84-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVIIs) have a higher incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and clinical and histopathological differences have been observed in their tumors in comparison with those of HNSCC patients without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The reasons for these differences are not clear, and molecular differences between HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC may exist. This study compared the mutational patterns of HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC.
METHODS: The DNA of 20 samples of HIV-related HNSCCs and 32 samples of non-HIV-related HNSCCs was sequenced. DNA libraries covering exons of 18 genes frequently mutated in HNSCC (AJUBA, CASP8, CCND1, CDKN2A, EGFR, FAT1, FBXW7, HLA-A, HRAS, KEAP1, NFE2L2, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NSD1, PIK3CA, TGFBR2, TP53, and TP63) were prepared and sequenced on an Ion Personal Genome Machine sequencer. DNA sequencing data were analyzed with Ion Reporter software. The human papillomavirus (HPV) status of the tumor samples was assessed with in situ hybridization, the MassARRAY HPV multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay, and p16 immunostaining. Mutation calls were compared among the studied groups.
RESULTS: HIV-related HNSCC revealed a distinct pattern of mutations in comparison with non-HIV-related HNSCC. TP53 mutation frequencies were significantly lower in HIV-related HNSCC. Mutations in HIV+ patients tended to be TpC>T nucleotide changes for all mutated genes but especially for TP53.
CONCLUSIONS: HNSCC in HIVIIs presents a distinct pattern of genetic mutations, particularly in the TP53 gene. HIV-related HNSCC may have a distinct biology, and an effect of the HIV virus on the pathogenesis of these tumors should not be ruled out. Cancer 2018;124:84-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

Sharma V, Nandan A, Sharma AK, et al.
Signature of genetic associations in oral cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(10):1010428317725923 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral cancer etiology is complex and controlled by multi-factorial events including genetic events. Candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and next-generation sequencing identified various chromosomal loci to be associated with oral cancer. There is no available review that could give us the comprehensive picture of genetic loci identified to be associated with oral cancer by candidate gene studies-based, genome-wide association studies-based, and next-generation sequencing-based approaches. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed database to identify the loci associated with oral cancer by exclusive candidate gene studies-based, genome-wide association studies-based, and next-generation sequencing-based study approaches. The information of loci associated with oral cancer is made online through the resource "ORNATE." Next, screening of the loci validated by candidate gene studies and next-generation sequencing approach or by two independent studies within candidate gene studies or next-generation sequencing approaches were performed. A total of 264 loci were identified to be associated with oral cancer by candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies, and next-generation sequencing approaches. In total, 28 loci, that is, 14q32.33 (AKT1), 5q22.2 (APC), 11q22.3 (ATM), 2q33.1 (CASP8), 11q13.3 (CCND1), 16q22.1 (CDH1), 9p21.3 (CDKN2A), 1q31.1 (COX-2), 7p11.2 (EGFR), 22q13.2 (EP300), 4q35.2 (FAT1), 4q31.3 (FBXW7), 4p16.3 (FGFR3), 1p13.3 (GSTM1-GSTT1), 11q13.2 (GSTP1), 11p15.5 (H-RAS), 3p25.3 (hOGG1), 1q32.1 (IL-10), 4q13.3 (IL-8), 12p12.1 (KRAS), 12q15 (MDM2), 12q13.12 (MLL2), 9q34.3 (NOTCH1), 17p13.1 (p53), 3q26.32 (PIK3CA), 10q23.31 (PTEN), 13q14.2 (RB1), and 5q14.2 (XRCC4), were validated to be associated with oral cancer. "ORNATE" gives a snapshot of genetic loci associated with oral cancer. All 28 loci were validated to be linked to oral cancer for which further fine-mapping followed by gene-by-gene and gene-environment interaction studies is needed to confirm their involvement in modifying oral cancer.

Srivastava C, Irshad K, Dikshit B, et al.
FAT1 modulates EMT and stemness genes expression in hypoxic glioblastoma.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(4):805-812 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by the presence of hypoxia, stemness and local invasiveness. We have earlier demonstrated that FAT1 promotes invasiveness, inflammation and upregulates HIF-1α expression and its signaling in hypoxic GBM. Here, we have identified the role of FAT1 in regulating EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and stemness characteristics in GBM. The expression of FAT1, EMT (Snail/LOX/Vimentin/N-cad), stemness (SOX2/OCT4/Nestin/REST) and hypoxia markers (HIF-1α/VEGF/PGK1/CA9) was upregulated in ≥39% of GBM tumors (n = 31) with significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.05) of the expression of FAT1 with LOX/Vimentin/SOX2/HIF-1α/PGK1/VEGF/CA9. Furthermore, positive correlation (p ≤ 0.01) of FAT1 with Vimentin/N-cad/SOX2/REST/HIF-1α has been observed in TCGA GBM-dataset (n = 430). Analysis of cells (U87MG/A172) exposed to severe hypoxia (0.2%O

Upadhyay P, Gardi N, Desai S, et al.
Genomic characterization of tobacco/nut chewing HPV-negative early stage tongue tumors identify MMP10 asa candidate to predict metastases.
Oral Oncol. 2017; 73:56-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Nodal metastases status among early stage tongue squamous cell cancer patients plays a decisive role in the choice of treatment, wherein about 70% patients can be spared from surgery with an accurate prediction of negative pathological lymph node status. This underscores an unmet need for prognostic biomarkers to stratify the patients who are likely to develop metastases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed high throughput sequencing of fifty four samples derived from HPV negative early stage tongue cancer patients habitual of chewing betel nuts, areca nuts, lime or tobacco using whole exome (n=47) and transcriptome (n=17) sequencing that were analyzed using in-house computational tools. Additionally, gene expression meta-analyses were carried out for 253 tongue cancer samples. The candidate genes were validated using qPCR and immuno-histochemical analysis in an extended set of 50 early primary tongue cancer samples.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Somatic analysis revealed a classical tobacco mutational signature C:G>A:T transversion in 53% patients that were mutated in TP53, NOTCH1, CDKN2A, HRAS, USP6, PIK3CA, CASP8, FAT1, APC, and JAK1. Similarly, significant gains at genomic locus 11q13.3 (CCND1, FGF19, ORAOV1, FADD), 5p15.33 (SHANK2, MMP16, TERT), and 8q24.3 (BOP1); and, losses at 5q22.2 (APC), 6q25.3 (GTF2H2) and 5q13.2 (SMN1) were observed in these samples. Furthermore, an integrated gene-expression analysis of 253 tongue tumors suggested an upregulation of metastases-related pathways and over-expression of MMP10 in 48% tumors that may be crucial to predict nodal metastases in early tongue cancer patients. In overall, we present the first descriptive portrait of somatic alterations underlying the genome of tobacco/nut chewing HPV-negative early tongue cancer, and identify MMP10 asa potential prognostic biomarker to stratify those likely to develop metastases.

Viel A, Bruselles A, Meccia E, et al.
A Specific Mutational Signature Associated with DNA 8-Oxoguanine Persistence in MUTYH-defective Colorectal Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2017; 20:39-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
8-Oxoguanine, a common mutagenic DNA lesion, generates G:C>T:A transversions via mispairing with adenine during DNA replication. When operating normally, the MUTYH DNA glycosylase prevents 8-oxoguanine-related mutagenesis by excising the incorporated adenine. Biallelic MUTYH mutations impair this enzymatic function and are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in MUTYH-Associated Polyposis (MAP) syndrome. Here, we perform whole-exome sequencing that reveals a modest mutator phenotype in MAP CRCs compared to sporadic CRC stem cell lines or bulk tumours. The excess G:C>T:A transversion mutations in MAP CRCs exhibits a novel mutational signature, termed Signature 36, with a strong sequence dependence. The MUTYH mutational signature reflecting persistent 8-oxoG:A mismatches occurs frequently in the APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, FAT4, TP53, FAT1, AMER1, KDM6A, SMAD4 and SMAD2 genes that are associated with CRC. The occurrence of Signature 36 in other types of human cancer indicates that DNA 8-oxoguanine-related mutations might contribute to the development of cancer in other organs.

Lee Y, Park S, Lee SH, Lee H
Characterization of genetic aberrations in a single case of metastatic thymic adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):330 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thymic adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare subtype of thymic epithelial tumors. Due to its rarity, there is currently no sequencing approach for thymic adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: We performed whole exome and transcriptome sequencing on a case of thymic adenocarcinoma and performed subsequent validation using Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: The case of thymic adenocarcinoma showed aggressive behaviors with systemic bone metastases. We identified a high incidence of genetic aberrations, which included somatic mutations in RNASEL, PEG10, TNFSF15, TP53, TGFB2, and FAT1. Copy number analysis revealed a complex chromosomal rearrangement of chromosome 8, which resulted in gene fusion between MCM4 and SNTB1 and dramatic amplification of MYC and NDRG1. Focal deletion was detected at human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, which was previously observed in thymic epithelial tumors. We further investigated fusion transcripts using RNA-seq data and found an intergenic splicing event between the CTBS and GNG5 transcript. Finally, enrichment analysis using all the variants represented the immune system dysfunction in thymic adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Thymic adenocarcinoma shows highly malignant characteristics with alterations in several cancer-related genes.

Su SC, Lin CW, Liu YF, et al.
Exome Sequencing of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Reveals Molecular Subgroups and Novel Therapeutic Opportunities.
Theranostics. 2017; 7(5):1088-1099 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an epithelial malignancy affecting a variety of subsites in the oral cavity, is prevalent in Asia. The survival rate of OSCC patients has not improved over the past decades due to its heterogeneous etiology, genetic aberrations, and treatment outcomes. Improvement in therapeutic strategies and tailored treatment options is an unmet need. To unveil the mutational spectrum, whole-exome sequencing of 120 OSCC from male individuals in Taiwan was conducted. Analyzing the contributions of the five mutational signatures extracted from the dataset of somatic variations identified four groups of tumors that were significantly associated with demographic and clinical features. In addition, known (

Hu X, Zhai Y, Kong P, et al.
FAT1 prevents epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) via MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in esophageal squamous cell cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 397:83-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
FAT1 regulates cell-cell adhesion, cell growth, cell migration, and actin dynamics as either oncogene or tumor suppressor in human cancers. We previously identified FAT1 was one of significant mutant genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the function and underlying mechanism of FAT1 in ESCC have not been explored. In this study, we report that FAT1 expression was significantly lower in ESCC tumor tissues. Exogenous expression of FAT1 led to inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation, as well as cell migration and invasion whereas FAT1 knockdown showed the opponent trends in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, FAT1 knockdown led to a statistically decrease of E-cadherin expression and a dramatically increase expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Snail in a MAPK/ERK pathway-dependent manner. Meanwhile, over-expression of FAT1 resulted in the opposite trends. These alterations were abrogated in the presence of U0126, a MEK specific inhibitor. Collectively, our studies identified a novel role for FAT1 in inhibiting tumor growth and EMT occurrence in ESCC. We proposed that disruption of MAPK/ERK pathway by FAT1 contributes the EMT in ESCC and has important implications for understanding ESCC development.

Panaccione A, Zhang Y, Mi Y, et al.
Chromosomal abnormalities and molecular landscape of metastasizing mucinous salivary adenocarcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2017; 66:38-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland (MAC) is a lethal cancer with unknown molecular etiology and a high propensity to lymph node metastasis. Mostly due to its orphan status, MAC remains one of the least explored cancers that lacks cell lines and mouse models that could help translational and pre-clinical studies. Surgery with or without radiation remains the only treatment modality but poor overall survival (10-year, 44%) underscores the urgent need for mechanism-based therapies.
METHODS: We developed the first patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model for pre-clinical MAC studies and a cell line that produces aggressively growing tumors after subcutaneous injection into nude mice. We performed cytogenetic, exome, and proteomic profiling of MAC to identify driving mutations, therapeutic targets, and pathways involved in aggressive cancers based on TCGA database mining and GEO analysis.
RESULTS: We identified in MAC KRAS (G13D) and TP53 (R213X) mutations that have been previously reported as drivers in a variety of highly aggressive cancers. Somatic mutations were also found in KDM6A, KMT2D, and other genes frequently mutated in colorectal and other cancers: FAT1, NBEA, RELN, RLP1B, and ZFHX3. Proteomic analysis of MAC implied epigenetic up-regulation of a genetic program involved in proliferation and cancer stem cell maintenance.
CONCLUSION: Genomic and proteomic analyses provided the first insight into potential molecular drivers of MAC metastases pointing at common mechanisms of CSC propagation in aggressive cancers. The in vitro/in vivo models that we created should aid in the development and validation of new treatment strategies against MAC.

Morris LG, Kaufman AM, Gong Y, et al.
Recurrent somatic mutation of FAT1 in multiple human cancers leads to aberrant Wnt activation.
Nat Genet. 2013; 45(3):253-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 13/12/2019 Related Publications
Aberrant Wnt signaling can drive cancer development. In many cancer types, the genetic basis of Wnt pathway activation remains incompletely understood. Here, we report recurrent somatic mutations of the Drosophila melanogaster tumor suppressor-related gene FAT1 in glioblastoma (20.5%), colorectal cancer (7.7%), and head and neck cancer (6.7%). FAT1 encodes a cadherin-like protein, which we found is able to potently suppress cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by binding β-catenin and antagonizing its nuclear localization. Inactivation of FAT1 via mutation therefore promotes Wnt signaling and tumorigenesis and affects patient survival. Taken together, these data strongly point to FAT1 as a tumor suppressor gene driving loss of chromosome 4q35, a prevalent region of deletion in cancer. Loss of FAT1 function is a frequent event during oncogenesis. These findings address two outstanding issues in cancer biology: the basis of Wnt activation in non-colorectal tumors and the identity of a 4q35 tumor suppressor.

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