|Gene:||PKD2; polycystin 2, transient receptor potential cation channel|
|Aliases: || PC2, PKD4, Pc-2, APKD2, TRPP2 |
|Summary:||This gene encodes a member of the polycystin protein family. The encoded protein is a multi-pass membrane protein that functions as a calcium permeable cation channel, and is involved in calcium transport and calcium signaling in renal epithelial cells. This protein interacts with polycystin 1, and they may be partners in a common signaling cascade involved in tubular morphogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease type 2. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]|
|Databases:||OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Source:||NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019|
What does this gene/protein do?
PKD2 is implicated in:
- actinin binding
- aorta development
- ATPase binding
- basal cortex
- basal plasma membrane
- branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis
- calcium ion binding
- calcium ion transmembrane transport
- calcium ion transport
- calcium-induced calcium release activity
- cell cycle arrest
- cell-cell junction
- cellular response to fluid shear stress
- cellular response to hydrostatic pressure
- cellular response to osmotic stress
- cellular response to reactive oxygen species
- centrosome duplication
- cilium part
- cytoplasmic sequestering of transcription factor
- cytoskeletal protein binding
- detection of mechanical stimulus
- detection of nodal flow
- determination of heart left/right asymmetry
- determination of left/right symmetry
- embryonic placenta development
- endoplasmic reticulum
- endoplasmic reticulum membrane
- filamentous actin
- heart development
- HLH domain binding
- identical protein binding
- integral to cytosolic side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane
- integral to lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane
- integral to plasma membrane
- ion channel binding
- JAK-STAT cascade
- kidney development
- liver development
- mesonephric duct development
- mesonephric tubule development
- metanephric ascending thin limb development
- metanephric cortex development
- metanephric cortical collecting duct development
- metanephric distal tubule development
- metanephric mesenchyme development
- metanephric part of ureteric bud development
- metanephric S-shaped body morphogenesis
- metanephric smooth muscle tissue development
- microtubule basal body
- mitotic spindle
- motile primary cilium
- negative regulation of cell proliferation
- negative regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle
- negative regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity
- neural tube development
- nonmotile primary cilium
- placenta blood vessel development
- plasma membrane
- polycystin complex
- positive regulation of cell cycle arrest
- positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity involved in G1/S
- positive regulation of gene expression
- positive regulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive calcium-release channel activity
- positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process
- positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
- potassium channel activity
- protein binding
- protein homodimerization activity
- receptor binding
- regulation of calcium ion import
- regulation of cAMP metabolic process
- regulation of cell proliferation
- release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol
- renal artery morphogenesis
- renal tubule morphogenesis
- sodium ion transmembrane transport
- spinal cord development
- voltage-gated calcium channel activity
- voltage-gated cation channel activity
- voltage-gated ion channel activity
- voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Data from Gene Ontology
via CGAP [Hide]
Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: PKD2 (cancer-related)
Autosomal polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited renal disease characterized by the development of numerous fluid-filled cysts in both kidneys. We investigated miRNA-mediated regulatory systems and networks that play an important role during cystogenesis through integrative analysis of miRNA- and RNA-seq using two ADPKD mouse models (conditional Pkd1- or Pkd2-deficient mice), at three different time points (P1, P3, and P7). At each time point, we identified 13 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) and their potential targets in agreement with cyst progression in both mouse models. These targets were involved in well-known signaling pathways linked to cystogenesis. More specifically, we found that the actin cytoskeleton pathway was highly enriched and connected with other well-known pathways of ADPKD. We verified that miR-182-5p regulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and promotes ADPKD cystogenesis by repressing its target genes-Wasf2, Dock1, and Itga4-in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that actin cytoskeleton may play an important role in renal cystogenesis, and miR-182-5p is a novel regulator of actin cytoskeleton and cyst progression. Furthermore, this study provides a systemic network of both key miRNAs and their targets associated with cyst growth in ADPKD.
Data indicate significant phenotypic and genotypic overlap, plus a common pathogenesis, between two groups of inherited disorders, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases (ADPKD), a significant cause of ESRD, and autosomal dominant polycystic liver diseases (ADPLD), which result in significant PLD with minimal PKD. Eight genes have been associated with ADPKD (
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with progressive enlargement of multiple renal cysts, often leading to renal failure that cannot be prevented by a current treatment. Two proteins encoded by two genes are associated with ADPKD: PC1 (
Yu S, Qin X, Chen T, et al.MicroRNA-106b-5p regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity by targeting polycystic kidney disease-2 in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Anticancer Drugs. 2017; 28(8):852-860 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Systemic therapy with cytotoxic agents remains one of the main treatment methods for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, that, when combined with other drugs, is an effective treatment for NSCLC. However, effective cancer therapy is hindered by a patient's resistance to cisplatin. Unfortunately, the potential mechanism underlying such resistance remains unclear. In this study, we explored the mechanism of microRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b-5p), which is involved in the resistance to cisplatin in the A549 cell line of NSCLC. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression of miR-106-5p in the A549 and the A549/DDP cell line of NSCLC. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle and cell apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assays and western blot were performed to confirm whether polycystic kidney disease-2 (PKD2) is a direct target gene of miR-106b-5p. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the distribution of PKD2 expression in patients who are sensitive and resistant to cisplatin. The experiments indicated that the expression of miR-106b-5p was significantly decreased in A549/DDP compared with that in A549. MiR-106b-5p affected the tolerance of cells to cisplatin by negatively regulating PKD2. Upregulation of miR-106b-5p or downregulation of PKD2 expression can cause A549/DDP cells to become considerably more sensitive to cisplatin. The results showed that miR-106b-5p enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin by targeting the expression of PKD2. These findings suggest that the use of miR-106b-5p may be a promising clinical strategy in the treatment of NSCLC.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is driven by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Recent work suggests that epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein function may play a role in ADPKD pathogenesis. In this study, we identified SMYD2, a SET and MYND domain protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a regulator of renal cyst growth. SMYD2 was upregulated in renal epithelial cells and tissues from Pkd1-knockout mice as well as in ADPKD patients. SMYD2 deficiency delayed renal cyst growth in postnatal kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Pkd1 and Smyd2 double-knockout mice lived longer than Pkd1-knockout mice. Targeting SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, delayed cyst growth in both early- and later-stage Pkd1 conditional knockout mouse models. SMYD2 carried out its function via methylation and activation of STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, leading to increased cystic renal epithelial cell proliferation and survival. We further identified two positive feedback loops that integrate epigenetic regulation and renal inflammation in cyst development: SMYD2/IL-6/STAT3/SMYD2 and SMYD2/TNF-α/NF-κB/SMYD2. These pathways provide mechanisms by which SMYD2 might be induced by cyst fluid IL-6 and TNF-α in ADPKD kidneys. The SMYD2 transcriptional target gene Ptpn13 also linked SMYD2 to other PKD-associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling, via PTPN13-mediated phosphorylation.
Wu K, Shen B, Jiang F, et al.TRPP2 Enhances Metastasis by Regulating Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(6):2203-2215 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Surgery and chemotherapy treatments of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HLSCC) may fail due to metastasis, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role. TRPP2, a nonselective cation channel, is expressed in various cell types and participates in many biological processes. Here, we show that TRPP2 enhanced metastasis by regulating EMT.
METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry, western blotting, Ca2+ imaging, transwell and wound healing assays to investigate TRPP2 expression levels in HLSCC tissue, and the role of TRPP2 in invasion and metastasis of a human laryngocarcinoma cell line (Hep2 cell).
RESULTS: We found that TRPP2 protein expression levels were significantly increased in HLSCC tissue; higher TRPP2 levels were associated with decreased patient survival time and degree of differentiation and advanced clinical stage. Knockdown of TRPP2 by transfection with TRPP2 siRNA markedly suppressed ATP-induced Ca2+ release, wound healing, and cell invasion in Hep2 cells. Moreover, TRPP2 siRNA significantly decreased vimentin expression but increased E-cadherin expression in Hep2 cells. In the EMT signalling pathway, TRPP2 siRNA significantly decreased Smad4, STAT3, SNAIL, SLUG and TWIST expression in Hep2 cells.
CONCLUSION: We revealed a previously unknown function of TRPP2 in cancer development and a TRPP2-dependent mechanism underlying laryngocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis. Our results suggest that TRPP2 may be used as a biomarker for evaluating patient prognosis and as a novel therapeutic target in HLSCC.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genetic defects in polycystin-1 or -2 (PC1 or PC2) cause polycystic liver disease associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PLD-ADPKD). Progressive cyst growth is sustained by a cAMP-dependent Ras/ERK/HIFα pathway, leading to increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) signaling. In PC2-defective cholangiocytes, cAMP production in response to [Ca
METHODS: PC2/AC6 double conditional knockout (KO) mice were generated (Pkd2/AC6 KO) and compared to Pkd2 KO mice. The AC5 inhibitor SQ22,536 or AC5 siRNA were used in isolated cholangiocytes while the inhibitor was used in biliary organoid and animals; liver tissues were harvested for histochemical analysis.
RESULTS: When comparing Pkd2/AC6 KO to Pkd2 KO mice, no decrease in liver cyst size was found, and cellular cAMP after [Ca
LAY SUMMARY: Polycystic liver diseases are characterized by progressive cyst growth until their complications mandate surgery or liver transplantation. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that inhibiting cell proliferation, which is induced by increased levels of cAMP, may represent a novel therapeutic target to slow the progression of the disease.
Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) is caused by variants in PRKCSH, SEC63, and LRP5, whereas autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is caused by variants in PKD1 and PKD2. Liver cyst development in these disorders is explained by somatic loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild-type allele in the developing cyst. We hypothesize that we can use this mechanism to identify novel disease genes that reside in LOH regions. In this study, we aim to map abnormal genomic regions using high-density SNP microarrays to find novel PLD genes. We collected 46 cysts from 23 patients with polycystic or sporadic hepatic cysts, and analyzed DNA from those cysts using high-resolution microarray (n=24) or Sanger sequencing (n=22). We here focused on regions of homozygosity on the autosomes (>3.0 Mb) and large CNVs (>1.0 Mb). We found frequent LOH in PRKCSH (22/29) and PKD1/PKD2 (2/3) cysts of patients with known heterozygous germline variants in the respective genes. In the total cohort, 12/23 patients harbored abnormalities outside of familiar areas. In individual ADPLD cases, we identified germline events: a 2q13 complex rearrangement resulting in BUB1 haploinsufficiency, a 47XXX karyotype, chromosome 9q copy-number loss, and LOH on chromosome 3p. The latter region was overlapping with an LOH region identified in two other cysts. Unique germline and somatic abnormalities occur frequently in and outside of known genes underlying cysts. Each liver cyst has a unique genetic makeup. LOH driver gene BUB1 may imply germline causes of genetic instability in PLD.
Purpose To define the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging prevalence of pancreatic cysts in a cohort of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) compared with a control group without ADPKD that was matched for age, sex, and renal function. Materials and Methods In this HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, all patients with ADPKD provided informed consent; for control subjects, informed consent was waived. Patients with ADPKD (n = 110) with mutations identified in PKD1 or PKD2 and control subjects without ADPKD or known pancreatic disease (n = 110) who were matched for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and date of MR imaging examination were evaluated for pancreatic cysts by using axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted images obtained at 1.5 T. Total kidney volume and liver volume were measured. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential associations between collected variables and presence of pancreatic cysts among patients with ADPKD. The number, size, location, and imaging characteristics of the cysts were recorded. Results Patients with ADPKD were significantly more likely than control subjects to have at least one pancreatic cyst (40 of 110 patients [36%] vs 25 of 110 control subjects [23%]; P = .027). In a univariate analysis, pancreatic cysts were more prevalent in patients with ADPKD with mutations in PKD2 than in PKD1 (21 of 34 patients [62%] vs 19 of 76 patients [25%]; P = .0002). In a multivariable logistic regression model, PKD2 mutation locus was significantly associated with the presence of pancreatic cysts (P = .0004) and with liver volume (P = .038). Patients with ADPKD and a pancreatic cyst were 5.9 times more likely to have a PKD2 mutation than a PKD1 mutation after adjusting for age, race, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, liver volume, and total kidney volume. Conclusion Pancreatic cysts were more prevalent in patients with ADPKD with PKD2 mutation than in control subjects or patients with PKD1 mutation. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Chebib FT, Jung Y, Heyer CM, et al.Effect of genotype on the severity and volume progression of polycystic liver disease in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016; 31(6):952-60 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (APDKD) genotype influences renal phenotype severity but its effect on polycystic liver disease (PLD) is unknown. Here we analyzed the influence of genotype on liver phenotype severity.
METHODS: Clinical data were retrieved from electronic records of patients who were mutation screened with the available liver imaging (n = 434). Liver volumes were measured by stereology (axial or coronal images) and adjusted to height (HtLV).
RESULTS: Among the patients included, 221 (50.9%) had truncating PKD1 (PKD1-T), 141 (32.5%) nontruncating PKD1 (PKD1-NT) and 72 (16.6%) PKD2 mutations. Compared with PKD1-NT and PKD2, patients with PKD1-T had greater height-adjusted total kidney volumes (799 versus 610 and 549 mL/m; P < 0.001). HtLV was not different (1042, 1095 and 1058 mL/m; P = 0.64) between the three groups, but females had greater HtLVs compared with males (1114 versus 1015 mL/m; P < 0.001). Annualized median liver growth rates were 1.68, 1.5 and 1.24% for PKD1-T, PKD1-NT and PKD2 mutations, respectively (P = 0.49), and remained unaffected by the ADPKD genotype when adjusted for age, gender and baseline HtLV. Females <48 years of age had higher annualized growth rates compared with those who were older (2.65 versus 0.09%; P < 0.001). After age 48 years, 58% of females with severe PLD had regression of HtLV, while HtLV continued to increase in males.
CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the renal phenotype, the ADPKD genotype was not associated with the severity or growth rate of PLD in ADKPD patients. This finding, along with gender influence, indicates that modifiers beyond the disease gene significantly influence the liver phenotype.
Although much is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), few effective treatment is currently available. Here, we explore the in vivo effects of causal gene replacement in orthologous gene models of ADPKD in mice. Wild-type mice with human PKD2 transgene (PKD2(tg)) overexpressed polycystin (PC)-2 in several tissues, including the kidney and liver, and showed no significant cyst formation in either organ. We cross-mated PKD2(tg) with a Pkd2-null mouse model, which is embryonically lethal and forms renal and pancreatic cysts. Pkd2(-/-) mice with human PKD2 transgene (Pkd2(-/-);PKD2(tg)) were born in expected Mendelian ratios, indicating that the embryonic lethality of the Pkd2(-/-) mice was rescued. Pkd2(-/-);PKD2(tg) mice survived up to 12 months and exhibited moderate to severe cystic phenotypes of the kidney, liver, and pancreas. Moreover, Pkd2(-/-) mice with homozygous PKD2(tg)-transgene alleles (Pkd2(-/-);PKD2(tg/tg)) showed significant further amelioration of the cystic severity compared to that in Pkd2(-/-) mice with a hemizygous PKD2(tg) allele (Pkd2(-/-);PKD2(tg)), suggesting that the ADPKD phenotype was improved by increased transgene dosage. On further analysis, cystic improvement mainly resulted from reduced proliferation, rather apoptosis, of cyst-prone epithelial cells in the mouse model. The finding that the functional restoration of human PC2 significantly rescued ADPKD phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner suggests that increasing PC2 activity may be beneficial in some forms of ADPKD.
Gargalionis AN, Korkolopoulou P, Farmaki E, et al.Polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 are involved in the acquisition of aggressive phenotypes in colorectal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(7):1515-27 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The polycystins PC1 and PC2 are emerging as major players in mechanotransduction, a process that influences all steps of the invasion/metastasis cascade. We hypothesized that PC1 and PC2 facilitate cancer aggressiveness. Immunoblotting, RT-PCR, semi-quantitative and quantitative real-time PCR and FACS analyses were employed to investigate the effect of polycystin overexpression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The impact of PC1 inhibition on cancer-cell proliferation was evaluated through an MTT assay. In vitro data were analyzed by Student's t-test. HT29 human xenografts were treated with anti-PC1 (extracellular domain) inhibitory antibody and analyzed via immunohistochemistry to determine the in vivo role of PC1 in CRC. Clinical significance was assessed by examining PC1 and PC2 protein expression in CRC patients (immunohistochemistry). In vivo and clinical data were analyzed by non-parametric tests, Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test and Cox model. All statistical tests were two-sided. PC1 overexpression promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCT116 cells, while PC2 overexpression results in upregulation of the mTOR pathway in SW480 cells. PC1 inhibition causes reduced cell proliferation in CRC cells inducing tumor necrosis and suppressing EMT in HT29 tumor xenografts. In clinical study, PC1 and PC2 overexpression associates with adverse pathological parameters, including invasiveness and mucinous carcinomas. Moreover, PC1 overexpression appears as an independent prognostic factor of reduced recurrence-free survival (HR = 1.016, p = 0.03) and lowers overall survival probability, while aberrant PC2 expression predicts poor overall survival (p = 0.0468). These results support, for the first time, a direct link between mechanosensing polycystins (PC1 and PC2) and CRC progression.
Seeger-Nukpezah T, Proia DA, Egleston BL, et al.Inhibiting the HSP90 chaperone slows cyst growth in a mouse model of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(31):12786-91 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a progressive genetic syndrome with an incidence of 1:500 in the population, arising from inherited mutations in the genes for polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) or polycystic kidney disease 2 (PKD2). Typical onset is in middle age, with gradual replacement of renal tissue with thousands of fluid-filled cysts, resulting in end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. There currently are no approved therapies to slow or cure ADPKD. Mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 genes abnormally activate multiple signaling proteins and pathways regulating cell proliferation, many of which we observe, through network construction, to be regulated by heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Inhibiting HSP90 with a small molecule, STA-2842, induces the degradation of many ADPKD-relevant HSP90 client proteins in Pkd1(-/-) primary kidney cells and in vivo. Using a conditional Cre-mediated mouse model to inactivate Pkd1 in vivo, we find that weekly administration of STA-2842 over 10 wk significantly reduces initial formation of renal cysts and kidney growth and slows the progression of these phenotypes in mice with preexisting cysts. These improved disease phenotypes are accompanied by improved indicators of kidney function and reduced expression and activity of HSP90 clients and their effectors, with the degree of inhibition correlating with cystic expansion in individual animals. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicates that HSP90 is overexpressed and HSP90 inhibitors are selectively retained in cystic versus normal kidney tissue, analogous to the situation observed in solid tumors. These results provide an initial justification for evaluating HSP90 inhibitors as therapeutic agents for ADPKD.
Frank V, Habbig S, Bartram MP, et al.Mutations in NEK8 link multiple organ dysplasia with altered Hippo signalling and increased c-MYC expression.
Hum Mol Genet. 2013; 22(11):2177-85 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Mutations affecting the integrity and function of cilia have been identified in various genes over the last decade accounting for a group of diseases called ciliopathies. Ciliopathies display a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild manifestations to lethal combinations of multiple severe symptoms and most of them share cystic kidneys as a common feature. Our starting point was a consanguineous pedigree with three affected fetuses showing an early embryonic phenotype with enlarged cystic kidneys, liver and pancreas and developmental heart disease. By genome-wide linkage analysis, we mapped the disease locus to chromosome 17q11 and identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in NEK8/NPHP9 that encodes a kinase involved in ciliary dynamics and cell cycle progression. Missense mutations in NEK8/NPHP9 have been identified in juvenile cystic kidney jck mice and in patients suffering from nephronophthisis (NPH), an autosomal-recessive cystic kidney disease. This work confirmed a complete loss of NEK8 expression in the affected fetuses due to nonsense-mediated decay. In cultured fibroblasts derived from these fetuses, the expression of prominent polycystic kidney disease genes (PKD1 and PKD2) was decreased, whereas the oncogene c-MYC was upregulated, providing potential explanations for the observed renal phenotype. We furthermore linked NEK8 with NPHP3, another NPH protein known to cause a very similar phenotype in case of null mutations. Both proteins interact and activate the Hippo effector TAZ. Taken together, our study demonstrates that NEK8 is essential for organ development and that the complete loss of NEK8 perturbs multiple signalling pathways resulting in a severe early embryonic phenotype.
Kim BH, Park EY, Yoo KH, et al.N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 is involved in the regulation of cystogenesis in transgenic mice overexpressing human PKD2 gene.
Proteomics. 2013; 13(1):134-41 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inheritable and progressive kidney disease featured by the formation of fluid-filled cysts. In a previous study, transgenic mice overexpressing human PKD2 gene were produced as an ADPKD animal model. To select genes controlled by PKD2, 2DE was performed using kidney tissues of 12- and 18-month-old transgenic mice. The protein localization was detected by immunohistochemistry, and 3D culture was utilized to observe in vitro cystogenesis. As a result, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was chosen as a candidate regulator gene of cystogenesis. NDRG1 is an intracellular protein involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation. This gene was expressed much higher in the kidney of hPKD2 TG mice. Also, the high level of NDRG1 protein was detected in the cyst lining epithelial cells. The hypothesis that PKD2 gene regulates NDRG1 expression was supported, and NDRG1 knockdown resulted in attenuation of cyst growth in vitro. Furthermore, NDRG1 knockdown suppressed cellular growth in mouse inner medullary collecting duct-3 cells. We found that early growth response 1, a transcription factor that binds to the NDRG1 promoter, was mediated in the NDRG1 expression regulation by PKD2. In this study, we found the novel gene that was involved in cystogenesis, which will provide the new insight in ADPKD.
Although protein kinase D3 (PKD3) has been shown to contribute to prostate cancer cell growth and survival, the role of PKD in prostate cancer cell motility remains unclear. Here, we show that PKD2 and PKD3 promote nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression/activation, which are crucial for prostate cancer cell invasion. Silencing of endogenous PKD2 and/or PKD3 markedly decreased prostate cancer cell migration and invasion, reduced uPA and uPA receptor (uPAR) expression and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) expression. These results were further substantiated by the finding that PKD2 and PKD3 promoted the activity of uPA and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). Furthermore, depletion of PKD2 and/or PKD3 decreased the level of binding of the p65 subunit of NF-κB to the promoter of the gene encoding uPA (PLAU), suppressing transcriptional activation of uPA. Endogenous PKD2 and PKD3 interacted with inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase β (IKKβ); PKD2 mainly regulated the phosphorylated IKK (pIKK)-phosphorylated IκB (pIκB)-IκB degradation cascade, p65 nuclear translocation, and phosphorylation of Ser276 on p65, whereas PKD3 was responsible for the phosphorylation of Ser536 on p65. Conversely, inhibition of uPA transactivation by PKD3 silencing was rescued by constitutive Ser536 p65 phosphorylation, and reduced tumor cell invasion resulting from PKD2 or PKD3 silencing was rescued by ectopic expression of p65. Interestingly, PKD3 interacted with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), suppressing HDAC1 expression and decreasing its binding to the uPA promoter. Moreover, depletion of HDAC1 resulted in recovery of uPA transactivation in PKD3-knockdown cells. Taken together, these data suggest that PKD2 and PKD3 coordinate to promote prostate cancer cell invasion through p65 NF-κB- and HDAC1-mediated expression and activation of uPA.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In polycystic kidney disease and polycystic liver disease (PLD), the normally nonproliferative hepato-renal epithelia acquire a proliferative, cystic phenotype that is linked to overexpression of cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25)A phosphatase and cell-cycle deregulation. We investigated the effects of Cdc25A inhibition in mice and rats via genetic and pharmacologic approaches.
METHODS: Cdc25A(+/-) mice (which have reduced levels of Cdc25A) were cross-bred with polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (Pkhd1(del2/del2)) mice (which have increased levels of Cdc25A and develop hepatic cysts). Cdc25A expression was analyzed in livers of control and polycystic kidney (PCK) rats, control and polycystic kidney 2 (Pkd2(ws25/-)) mice, healthy individuals, and patients with PLD. We examined effects of pharmacologic inhibition of Cdc25A with vitamin K3 (VK3) on the cell cycle, proliferation, and cyst expansion in vitro; hepato-renal cystogenesis in PCK rats and Pkd2(ws25/-)mice; and expression of Cdc25A and the cell-cycle proteins regulated by Cdc25A. We also examined the effects of the Cdc25A inhibitor PM-20 on hepato-renal cystogenesis in Pkd2(ws25/-) mice.
RESULTS: Liver weights and hepatic and fibrotic areas were decreased by 32%-52% in Cdc25A(+/-):Pkhd1(del2/del2) mice, compared with Pkhd1(del2/del2) mice. VK3 altered the cell cycle and reduced proliferation of cultured cholangiocytes by 32%-83% and decreased growth of cultured cysts by 23%-67%. In PCK rats and Pkd2(ws25/-) mice, VK3 reduced liver and kidney weights and hepato-renal cystic and fibrotic areas by 18%-34%. PM-20 decreased hepato-renal cystogenesis in Pkd2(ws25/-) mice by 15%.
CONCLUSIONS: Cdc25A inhibitors block cell-cycle progression and proliferation, reduce liver and kidney weights and cyst growth in animal models of polycystic kidney disease and PLD, and might be developed as therapeutics for these diseases.
Mutations of PKD1 and PKD2 account for most cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Compared with PKD2, patients with PKD1 typically have more severe renal disease. Here, we report a follow-up study of a unique multigeneration family with bilineal ADPKD (NFL10) in which a PKD1 disease haplotype and a PKD2 (L736X) mutation co-segregated with 18 and 14 affected individuals, respectively. In our updated genotype-phenotype analysis of the family, we found that PKD1-affected individuals had uniformly mild renal disease similar to the PKD2-affected individuals. By sequencing all the exons and splice junctions of PKD1, we identified two missense mutations (Y528C and R1942H) from a PKD1-affected individual. Although both variants were predicted to be damaging to the mutant protein, only Y528C co-segregated with all of the PKD1-affected individuals in NFL10. Studies in MDCK cells stably expressing wild-type and mutant forms of PKD found that cell lines expressing the Y528C variant formed cysts in culture and displayed increased rates of growth and apoptosis. Thus, Y528C functions as a hypomorphic PKD1 allele. These findings have important implications for pathogenic mechanisms and molecular diagnostics of ADPKD.
Fedeles SV, Tian X, Gallagher AR, et al.A genetic interaction network of five genes for human polycystic kidney and liver diseases defines polycystin-1 as the central determinant of cyst formation.
Nat Genet. 2011; 43(7):639-47 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease results from mutations in PRKCSH or SEC63. The respective gene products, glucosidase IIβ and SEC63p, function in protein translocation and quality control pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we show that glucosidase IIβ and Sec63p are required in mice for adequate expression of a functional complex of the polycystic kidney disease gene products, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2. We find that polycystin-1 is the rate-limiting component of this complex and that there is a dose-response relationship between cystic dilation and levels of functional polycystin-1 following mutation of Prkcsh or Sec63. Reduced expression of polycystin-1 also serves to sensitize the kidney to cyst formation resulting from mutations in Pkhd1, the recessive polycystic kidney disease gene. Finally, we show that proteasome inhibition increases steady-state levels of polycystin-1 in cells lacking glucosidase IIβ and that treatment with a proteasome inhibitor reduces cystic disease in orthologous gene models of human autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease.
Tan YC, Blumenfeld J, Michaeel A, et al.Aberrant PKD2 splicing due to a presumed novel missense mutation in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Clin Genet. 2011; 80(3):287-92 [PubMed
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Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by abnormal proliferation of renal tubular epithelium, leading to massive kidney enlargement and progressive chronic kidney disease. ADPKD is caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Herein, we describe and characterize a novel missense mutation in the PKD2 gene (c.1320G>T) in a 41-year-old White man with kidney cysts and a family history of ADPKD. This mutation abolishes a conserved acceptor splice site of intron 5, resulting in a premature termination following the addition of three aberrant amino acids (PKD2 p.L441C fsX4). We demonstrate that the aberrantly spliced transcript is found in substantial amounts in the patient's peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), and show that this alternative splicing of exon 6 occurs, to a lesser magnitude, in other patients with ADPKD and in normal control individuals. The biological and clinical significance of this splice variant in ADPKD is currently unknown.
Harris PCWhat is the role of somatic mutation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease?
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010; 21(7):1073-6 [PubMed
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Loss of polycystin-2 (PC2) in mice (Pkd2(-/-)) results in total body edema, focal hemorrhage, structural cardiac defects, abnormal left-right axis, hepatorenal and pancreatic cysts, and embryonic lethality. The molecular mechanisms by which loss of PC2 leads to these phenotypes remain unknown. We generated a model to allow targeted Pkd2 inactivation using the Cre-loxP system. Global inactivation of Pkd2 produced a phenotype identical to Pkd2(-/-) mice with undetectable PC2 protein and perinatal lethality. Using various Cre mouse lines, we found that kidney, pancreas, or time-specific deletion of Pkd2 led to cyst formation. In addition, we developed an immortalized renal collecting duct cell line with inactive Pkd2; these cells had aberrant cell-cell contact, ciliogenesis, and tubulomorphogenesis. They also significantly upregulated beta-catenin, axin2, and cMyc. Our results suggest that loss of PC2 disrupts normal behavior of renal epithelial cells through dysregulation of beta-catenin-dependent signaling, revealing a potential role for this signaling pathway in PC2-associated ADPKD.
Bian GH, Cao G, Lv XY, et al.Down-regulation of Pkd2 by siRNAs suppresses cell-cell adhesion in the mouse melanoma cells.
Mol Biol Rep. 2010; 37(5):2387-95 [PubMed
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The Pkd2 gene encodes an integral protein (~130 kDa), named polycystin-2 (PC-2). PC-2 is mainly involved in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Recently, polycystin-1/polycystin-2 complex has been shown to act as an adhesion complex mediating or regulating cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion, suggesting that PC-2 may play a role in cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions. Here, we knocked down the expression of Pkd2 gene with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in the mouse melanoma cells (B16 cells), indicating that the cells transfected with the targeted siRNAs significantly suppressed cell-cell adhesion, but not cell-matrix adhesion, compared to the cells transfected with non-targeted control (NC) siRNA. This study provides the first directly functional evidence that PC-2 mediates cell-cell adhesion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PC-2 modulated cell-cell adhesion may be, at least partially, associated with E-cadherin. Collectively, these findings for the first time showed that PC-2 may mediate cell-cell adhesion, at least partially, through E-cadherin.
Yamano Y, Uzawa K, Saito K, et al.Identification of cisplatin-resistance related genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 126(2):437-49 [PubMed
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Resistance to cisplatin is a major obstacle to successful treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). To investigate the molecular mechanism of this resistance, we compared the gene expression profiles between the cisplatin-sensitive SCC cell lines (Sa-3, H-1 and KB) and the cisplatin-resistant cell lines established from them (Sa-3R, H-1R and KB-R) using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarray. We identified 199 genes differentially expressed in each group. To identify important functional networks and ontologies to cisplatin resistance, the 199 genes were analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool. Fifty-one of these genes were mapped to genetic networks, and we validated the top-10 upregulated genes by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Five novel genes, LUM, PDE3B, PDGF-C, NRG1 and PKD2, showed excellent concordance with the microarray data. In 48 patients with oral SCC (OSCC), positive immunohistochemical staining for the five genes correlated with chemoresistance to cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. In addition, the expression of the five genes predicted the patient outcomes with chemotherapy. Furthermore, siRNA-directed suppressed expression of the five genes resulted in enhanced susceptibility to cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These results suggested that these five novel genes have great potential for predicting the efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy against OSCC. Global gene analysis of cisplatin-resistant cell lines may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying clinical cisplatin resistance and improve the efficacy of chemotherapy for human HNSCC.
The pathogenic mechanisms of human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have been well known to include the mutational inactivation of PKD2. Although haploinsufficiency and loss of heterozygosity at the Pkd2 locus can cause cyst formation in mice, polycystin-2 is frequently expressed in the renal cyst of human ADPKD, raising the possibility that deregulated activation of PKD2 may be associated with the cystogenesis of human ADPKD. To determine whether increased PKD2 expression is physiologically pathogenic, we generated PKD2-overexpressing transgenic mice. These mice developed typical renal cysts and an increase of proliferation and apoptosis, which are reflective of the human ADPKD phenotype. These manifestations were first observed at six months, and progressed with age. In addition, we found that ERK activation was induced by PKD2 overexpression via B-Raf signaling, providing a possible molecular mechanism of cystogenesis. In PKD2 transgenic mice, B-Raf/MEK/ERK sequential signaling was up-regulated. Additionally, the transgenic human polycystin-2 partially rescues the lethality of Pkd2 knock-out mice and therefore demonstrates that the transgene generated a functional product. Functional strengthening or deregulated activation of PKD2 may be a direct cause of ADPKD. The present study provides evidence for an in vivo role of overexpressed PKD2 in cyst formation. This transgenic mouse model should provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanism of human ADPKD.
Vora N, Perrone R, Bianchi DWReproductive issues for adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2008; 51(2):307-18 [PubMed
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Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common disorder. However, the consequences of ADPKD on male and female reproductive health are not widely known. Several abnormalities are found in men with ADPKD, including necrospermia, immotile sperm, seminal vesicle cysts, and ejaculatory duct cysts. Female fertility is not affected. Affected women with ADPKD and normal renal function have a high rate of successful uncomplicated pregnancies. Pregnant women with ADPKD with compromised kidney function should be monitored carefully for the development of hypertension and preeclampsia. Their fetuses should be examined sonographically for signs of uteroplacental insufficiency, such as intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios. The diagnosis of ADPKD should always be considered when prenatal sonographic findings of hyperechogenic enlarged kidneys are found. In this setting, a family history and renal sonogram of both parents is indicated. Sequencing of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes is available and can be used for both prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. We review in detail these topics to familiarize physicians taking care of patients with ADPKD with the reproductive issues that confront affected individuals.
Amura CR, Brodsky KS, Groff R, et al.VEGF receptor inhibition blocks liver cyst growth in pkd2(WS25/-) mice.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007; 293(1):C419-28 [PubMed
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Proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells is an integral part of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) cyst growth. Cytokines and growth factors within cyst fluids are positioned to induce cyst growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pleiotropic growth factor present in ADPKD liver cyst fluids (human 1,128 +/- 78, mouse 2,787 +/- 136 pg/ml) and, to a lesser extent, in ADPKD renal cyst fluids (human 294 +/- 41, mouse 191 +/- 90 pg/ml). Western blotting showed that receptors for VEGF (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) were present in both normal mouse bile ducts and pkd2(WS25/-) liver cyst epithelial cells. Treatment of pkd2(WS25/-) liver cyst epithelial cells with VEGF (50-50,000 pg/ml) or liver cyst fluid induced a proliferative response. The effect on proliferation of liver cyst fluid was inhibited by SU-5416, a potent VEGF receptor inhibitor. Treatment of pkd2(WS25/-) mice between 4 and 8 mo of age with SU-5416 markedly reduced the cyst volume density of the liver (vehicle 9.9 +/- 4.3%, SU-5416 1.8 +/- 0.7% of liver). SU-5416 treatment between 4 and 12 mo of age markedly protected against increases in liver weight [pkd2(+/+) 4.8 +/- 0.2%, pkd2(WS25/-)-vehicle 10.8 +/- 1.9%, pkd2(WS25/-)-SU-5416 4.8 +/- 0.4% body wt]. The capacity of VEGF signaling to induce in vitro proliferation of pkd2(WS25/-) liver cyst epithelial cells and inhibition of in vivo VEGF signaling to retard liver cyst growth in pkd2(WS25/-) mice indicates that the VEGF signaling pathway is a potentially important therapeutic target in the treatment of ADPKD liver cyst disease.
Woerner AC, Au KS, Williams AT, et al.Tuberous sclerosis complex and polycystic kidney disease together: an exception to the contiguous gene syndrome.
Genet Med. 2006; 8(3):197-8 [PubMed
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Tahvanainen E, Tahvanainen P, Kääriäinen H, Höckerstedt KPolycystic liver and kidney diseases.
Ann Med. 2005; 37(8):546-55 [PubMed
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There have been remarkable advances in research on polycystic liver and kidney diseases recently, covering cloning of new genes, refining disease classifications, and advances in understanding more about the molecular pathology of these diseases. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary disease affecting kidneys. It affects 1/400 to 1/1000 live births and accounts for 5% of the end stage renal disease in the United States and Europe, and is caused by gene defects in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes. Compared to ADPKD, polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is a milder disease and does not lower life expectancy. Both diseases are usually adult-onset diseases. Defects in genes, which code the hepatocystin and SEC63 proteins, have just recently been found to cause PCLD. It now seems that ADPKD is caused by malfunction of the primary cilia, a cell organ sensing fluid movement, and that PCLD is a sequel from defects in protein processing. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) belongs to a group of congenital hepatorenal fibrocystic syndromes. All ARPKD patients have a gene defect in a gene called PKHD1, the protein product of which localizes to primary cilia. We summarize the present clinical and molecular knowledge of these diseases in this review.
The biology of renal development has become increasingly complex because technical advances in genetics and cell biology have been used to study this aspect of embryogenesis. The molecular biology and genetics of renal development may seem inconsequential and frustrating to the practicing clinician, but insight into fundamental mechanisms of renal development are necessary to understand clinical breakthroughs that will occur in the future. As a basis for appreciating these concepts, specific paradigms of renal development are illustrated and the investigative strategies used to develop them are summarized in this article.