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Canada, USA

Latest Research Publications related to North America

Latest Research Publications related to North America

Kibble A, Kuenneman K, de Las Heras Prat P
American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) - 55th Annual Meeting (May 31-June 4, 2019 - Chicago, Illinois, USA).
Drugs Today (Barc). 2019; 55(6):407-415 [PubMed] Related Publications
The theme for this year's meeting of the American Association of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) was 'Caring for Every Patient, Learning from Every Patient'. The meeting consisted of oral, plenary and educational sessions, as well as poster presentations and discussions about important topics in the field of oncology, such as precision medicine, the latest in cancer research impacting patient care, new treatment options and insights for improving access to care. This 55th ASCO annual meeting was held from May 31 to June 4 in Chicago, Illinois, and was attended by over 40,000 cancer experts from around the world who followed a robust program providing opportunities to teach, engage and, most importantly, bring the oncology field together with the aim of improving care for patients with a cancer diagnosis. This report covers some of the later-stage developments and results presented at the meeting.

Kim HS, El-Serag HB
The Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the USA.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2019; 21(4):17 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss current knowledge and recent findings regarding the epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the USA.
RECENT FINDING: The US incidence rate of HCC is increasing, although the pace may have somewhat slowed since 2010. In 2012, incidence rates of HCC in Hispanics surpassed those of Asians. The recent epidemiological changes in major risk factors for HCC include increasing hepatitis C virus post-sustained virologic response, suppressed hepatitis B virus on nucleoside analogues, and alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has the greatest proportion of the burden of the main risk factors for HCC in the USA, followed by alcoholic liver disease, and hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections. This review focuses on current knowledge regarding the recent epidemiological trends in HCC, with an emphasis on future directions.

Li AJ, Feldman SM, McNally RK, Kannan K
Distribution of Organohalogen and Synthetic Musk Compounds in Breast Adipose Tissue of Breast Cancer Patients in Ulster County, New York, USA.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2019; 77(1):68-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
We determined the concentrations of 98 halogenated organic compounds and synthetic musks in breast fat tissues of 50 breast cancer patients (age range: 34-77 years) collected during 1996-1998 in Ulster County, New York, USA. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated biphenyl 153 (PBB-153), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) were analyzed in breast fat tissues, and 46 analytes were found at a detection frequency of ≥ 65% and at concentrations in the decreasing order of OCPs > PCBs > SMCs > PBDEs > PBB-153. PCBs (median: 323 ng/g wet wt) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs, median: 293 ng/g wet wt) were the major compounds found in breast fat tissues. Among PCB congeners, hexa- and hepta-chlorobiphenyls (60% of total PCBs) were the abundant ones. p,p'-DDE accounted for more than 99% of the total DDT concentrations. The concentrations of SMCs and PBDEs were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of PCBs and DDTs. 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-r-2-benzopyran (median: 33 ng/g wet wt) was the most abundant SMC, whereas BDE-47 (median: 4.5 ng/g wet wt) was the most dominant PBDE congener present in breast tissues. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) between women's age and concentrations of DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene and PCBs in breast tissues was found. Concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs, and SMCs were not significantly different between malignant and benign tumor cases. This study adds baseline information on target tissue burdens of persistent organic contaminants in breast cancer patients.

Flannery K, Boyd M, Black-Shinn J, et al.
Outcomes in patients with metastatic bladder cancer in the USA: a retrospective electronic medical record study.
Future Oncol. 2019; 15(12):1323-1334 [PubMed] Related Publications

Pillai A, Couri T, Charlton M
Liver Allocation Policies in the USA: Past, Present, and the Future.
Dig Dis Sci. 2019; 64(4):985-992 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identifying the optimal allocation policy with regard to hepatocellular carcinoma has been a persistent and evolving challenge. The current criteria for LT for HCC endorsed by the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) are based on the Milan Criteria: a solitary tumor < 5 cm, or maximum of three tumors ≤ 3 cm each, without vascular invasion or evidence of extrahepatic spread. Contraindications to HCC exception points include: stage 1 HCC, ruptured HCC, extrahepatic HCC, and main portal or hepatic vein HCC invasion. Based upon projected waitlist dropout rates due to tumor growth, patients with HCC are assigned MELD standardized exception points. In addition to tumor size and number, AFP levels are an important predictor of recurrence of HCC following liver transplantation. Standardized exception points for HCC patients are not awarded to patients with AFP levels > 1000 ng/mL that do not decrease to < 500 ng/mL with treatment. Appeals for MELD exception points for patients with HCC vary widely between UNOS regions, with success of nonstandardized exception point appeals varying from 3.1 to 21% between regions. In an effort to make prioritization for HCC more consistent, a national liver review board (NLRB)is being convened that will focus on developing a national guidance for assessing common requests and addressing exception points, including for HCC.

Darwich R, Ghazawi FM, Rahme E, et al.
Retinoblastoma Incidence Trends in Canada: A National Comprehensive Population-Based Study.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2019; 56(2):124-130 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence rates and geographic distribution of retinoblastoma in Canada to aid cancer control programs.
METHODS: Patients with retinoblastoma whose data were available from the Canadian Cancer Registry (CCR) and Le Registre Québécois du Cancer (LRQC) were studied. Using third edition International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) codes, the authors examined the incidence rates and geographic distribution of patients with retinoblastoma between 1992 and 2010. Patient data including sex, age, and laterality of the retinoblastoma were analyzed.
RESULTS: Between 1992 and 2010 in Canada, the average annual incidence rate of retinoblastoma was 11.58 cases per 1 million children younger than 5 years (95% CI [confidence interval]: 10.48 to 12.76). The incidence rate was stable over time, with an average age at diagnosis of 2.30 ± 6.85 years and no gender predilection. The laterality of the reported cases was 81.48% for uni-lateral cases and 18.52% for bilateral cases. Provincially, Nova Scotia had twice the national average and the highest incidence rates of retinoblastoma across the Canadian provinces.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to define the disease burden of retinoblastoma and to highlight important longitudinal, geographic, and spatial differences in the distribution of retinoblastoma in Canada between 1992 and 2010. The results of this study indicate continuity of clinical trends between Canada, the United States, and other developed countries. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2019;56(2):124-130.].

Smith-Palmer J, Takizawa C, Valentine W
Literature review of the burden of prostate cancer in Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Canada.
BMC Urol. 2019; 19(1):19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most frequently reported cancer in males in Europe, and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The aim of the current review was to characterize the clinical, economic and humanistic burden of disease associated with prostate cancer in France, Germany, the UK and Canada.
METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases to identify studies reporting incidence and/or mortality rates, costs and health state utilities associated with prostate cancer in the settings of interest. For inclusion, studies were required to be published in English in full-text form from 2006 onwards.
RESULTS: Incidence studies showed that in all settings the incidence of prostate cancer has increased substantially over the past two decades, driven in part by increased uptake of prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening leading to earlier identification of tumors, but which has also led to over-treatment, compounding the economic burden of disease. Mortality rates have declined over the same time frame, driven by earlier detection and improvements in treatment. Both prostate cancer itself, as well as treatment and treatment-related complications, are associated with reduced quality of life.
CONCLUSIONS: Prostate cancer is associated with a significant clinical and economic burden, whilst earlier detection and aggressive treatment is associated with improved survival, over-treatment of men with indolent tumors compounds the already significant burden of disease and treatment can lead to long-term side effects including impotence and impaired urinary and/or bowel function. There is currently an unmet clinical need for diagnostic and/or prognostic tools that facilitate personalized prostate cancer treatment, and potentially reduce the clinical, economic and humanistic burden of invasive cancer treatment.

Giganti F, Stabile A, Moore CM
Magnetic resonance imaging and prostate cancer: Perspectives from the UK, Europe and USA.
Arch Esp Urol. 2019; 72(2):135-141 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is yet no international consensus on the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for prostate cancer diagnosis, with different uses in different health care systems around the world. In this report we will discuss the use of mpMRI in the United Kingdom, Europe and in the United States of America, comparing the most important guidelines and major papers over the last few years.

Gosselin S, McWhirter JE
Assessing the content and comprehensiveness of provincial and territorial indoor tanning legislation in Canada.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2019; 39(2):45-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Canadian provincial and territorial governments have enacted legislation in response to health risks of artificial ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning. This legislation, which differs from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, regulates the operation of indoor tanning facilities. The content and comprehensiveness of such legislation-and its differences across jurisdictions-have not been analyzed. To address this research gap, we conducted a systematic, comprehensive scan and content analysis on provincial and territorial indoor tanning legislation, including regulations and supplementary information.
METHODS: Legislative information was collected from the Canadian Legal Information Institute database and an environmental scan was conducted to locate supplementary information. Through a process informed by the content of the legislation, previous research and health authority recommendations, we developed a 59-variable codebook. Descriptive statistics were calculated.
RESULTS: All provinces and one of three territories have legislation regulating indoor tanning. Areas of strength across jurisdictions are youth access restrictions (n = 11), posting of warning signs (n = 11), penalties (n = 11) and restrictions on advertising and marketing targeted to youth (n = 7). Few jurisdictions, however, cover areas such as protective eyewear (n = 4), unsupervised tanning (n = 4), provisions for inspection frequency (n = 4), misleading health claims in advertisements directed toward the general public (n = 2) and screening of high-risk clients (n = 0).
CONCLUSION: All provinces and one territory have made progress in regulating the indoor tanning industry, particularly by prohibiting youth and using warning labels to communicate risk. Legislative gaps should be addressed in order to better protect Canadians from this avoidable skin cancer risk.

Morrison VA, Shou Y, Bell JA, et al.
Evaluation of treatment patterns and survival among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the USA.
Future Oncol. 2019; 15(9):1021-1034 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate treatment patterns of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
PATIENTS & METHODS: First-line and relapsed/refractory treatment patterns and survival outcomes following first-line therapy in adult patients newly diagnosed with DLBCL were evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 1436 DLBCL patients initiated treatment and mainly received a combination regimen versus monotherapy (92.1 vs 7.9%). Patients who received monotherapy were older with more comorbidities and had shorter progression-free survival than patients receiving combination therapy (median: 31.3 vs 55.8 months). In the second-line setting (n = 164), rituximab-based combination regimens were most common; 25% underwent stem cell transplantation, and were younger with fewer comorbidities.
CONCLUSION: These results illustrate the need for new treatment options for patients unable to tolerate initial combination therapy and transplant-ineligible patients who require salvage therapy.

Urquhart R, Kendell C, Geldenhuys L, et al.
The role of scientific evidence in decisions to adopt complex innovations in cancer care settings: a multiple case study in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Implement Sci. 2019; 14(1):14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Health care delivery and outcomes can be improved by using innovations (i.e., new ideas, technologies, and practices) supported by scientific evidence. However, scientific evidence may not be the foremost factor in adoption decisions and is rarely sufficient. The objective of this study was to examine the role of scientific evidence in decisions to adopt complex innovations in cancer care.
METHODS: Using an explanatory, multiple case study design, we examined the adoption of complex innovations in five purposively sampled cases in Nova Scotia, Canada. Data were collected via documents and key informant interviews. Data analysis involved an in-depth analysis of each case, followed by a cross-case analysis to develop theoretically informed, generalizable knowledge on the role of scientific evidence in innovation adoption that may be applied to similar settings and contexts.
RESULTS: The analyses identified key concepts alongside important caveats and considerations. Key concepts were (1) scientific evidence underpinned the adoption process, (2) evidence from multiple sources informed decision-making, (3) decision-makers considered three key issues when making decisions, and (4) champions were essential to eventual adoption. Caveats and considerations related to the presence of urgent problems and short-term financial pressures and minimizing risk.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed the different types of issues decision-makers consider while making these decisions and why different sources of evidence are needed in these processes. Future research should examine how different types of evidence are legitimized and why some types are prioritized over others.

Hou SI, Cao X
A Cross-sectional Study of Cancer Knowledge and Beliefs Among Faith-based Chinese in the USA Versus Taiwan.
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019; 52(1):60-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study examined cancer knowledge, beliefs, and practice among faith-based Chinese in the USA versus Taiwan to gain better understandings on how environment and culture might play a role for tailored cancer education programs.
METHODS: A self-administered survey included a validated 10-item Cancer Screening Belief Scale (CSBS), an 8-item Cancer Screening Knowledge Test (CSKT), and a 14-item cancer Warning Signs Test (CWST) was administered. Participants were recruited from 9 Chinese churches (5 in the USA and 4 in Taiwan).
RESULTS: A total of 372 Chinese participated, 50% lived in the USA and 50% in Taiwan. Mean age was 44.31 (standard deviation, 14.74), 60% males, and majority had college education (85%). Taiwan participants scored higher on both CSKT (6.13 vs. 5.52; p<0.001) and CWST (6.80 vs. 5.38; p<0.001). Although perceived screening benefits and barriers were similar, Taiwan participants endorsed higher on screening norms (11.67 vs. 10.82; p<0.001). Taiwan participants also indicated more doctor recommending cancer screenings (42.1% vs. 29.6%; p=0.015), USA participants were more likely to have had annual health exams (65.4% vs. 48.9%; p=0.002). Regression results showed that those resided in the USA were 2.38 times more likely to report annual health exams. Married status (odds ratio [OR], 2.85), college education (OR, 2.38), doctor's recommendation (OR, 2.87), no family cancer history (OR, 2.47), and those with lower barriers were significant factors on annual health exams.
CONCLUSIONS: Taiwan participants scored higher on cancer knowledge and screening norms, while more USA participants reported annual health exams. Taiwan's universal healthcare might play a role on the different healthcare seeking patterns.

Althoff KN, Gebo KA, Moore RD, et al.
Contributions of traditional and HIV-related risk factors on non-AIDS-defining cancer, myocardial infarction, and end-stage liver and renal diseases in adults with HIV in the USA and Canada: a collaboration of cohort studies.
Lancet HIV. 2019; 6(2):e93-e104 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adults with HIV have an increased burden of non-AIDS-defining cancers, myocardial infarction, end-stage liver disease, and end-stage renal disease. The objective of this study was to estimate the population attributable fractions (PAFs) of preventable or modifiable HIV-related and traditional risk factors for non-AIDS-defining cancers, myocardial infarction, end-stage liver disease, and end-stage renal disease outcomes.
METHODS: We included participants receiving care in academic and community-based outpatient HIV clinical cohorts in the USA and Canada from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2014, who contributed to the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design and who had validated non-AIDS-defining cancers, myocardial infarction, end-stage liver disease, or end-stage renal disease outcomes. Traditional risk factors were tobacco smoking, hypertension, elevated total cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, renal impairment (stage 4 chronic kidney disease), and hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections. HIV-related risk factors were low CD4 count (<200 cells per μL), detectable plasma HIV RNA (>400 copies per mL), and history of a clinical AIDS diagnosis. PAFs and 95% CIs were estimated to quantify the proportion of outcomes that could be avoided if the risk factor was prevented.
FINDINGS: In each of the study populations for the four outcomes (1405 of 61 500 had non-AIDS-defining cancer, 347 of 29 515 had myocardial infarctions, 387 of 35 044 had end-stage liver disease events, and 255 of 35 620 had end-stage renal disease events), about 17% were older than 50 years at study entry, about 50% were non-white, and about 80% were men. Preventing smoking would avoid 24% (95% CI 13-35) of these cancers and 37% (7-66) of the myocardial infarctions. Preventing elevated total cholesterol and hypertension would avoid the greatest proportion of myocardial infarctions: 44% (30-58) for cholesterol and 42% (28-56) for hypertension. For liver disease, the PAF was greatest for hepatitis C infection (33%; 95% CI 17-48). For renal disease, the PAF was greatest for hypertension (39%; 26-51) followed by elevated total cholesterol (22%; 13-31), detectable HIV RNA (19; 9-31), and low CD4 cell count (13%; 4-21).
INTERPRETATION: The substantial proportion of non-AIDS-defining cancers, myocardial infarction, end-stage liver disease, and end-stage renal disease outcomes that could be prevented with interventions on traditional risk factors elevates the importance of screening for these risk factors, improving the effectiveness of prevention (or modification) of these risk factors, and creating sustainable care models to implement such interventions during the decades of life of adults living with HIV who are receiving care.
FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the US Health Resources and Services Administration, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, and the Government of Alberta.

Reade CJ, Elit LM
Current Quality of Gynecologic Cancer Care in North America.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2019; 46(1):1-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evaluating the quality of care received by gynecologic cancer patients in the real world is essential for excellent outcomes. The recent population-based literature looking at quality of care was reviewed for all gynecologic malignancies. Outcomes are generally highest when care is provided by high-volume providers in high-volume cancer centers. Provision of care according to clinical practice guidelines has also been demonstrated to improve outcomes in many situations. Disparities exist for marginalized groups in terms of the care they receive and subsequent outcomes. Health systems need to improve care for these populations.

McClelland S, Sandler KA, Degnin C, et al.
Is moderate hypofractionation accepted as a new standard of care in north america for prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy? Survey of genitourinary expert radiation oncologists.
Int Braz J Urol. 2019 Mar-Apr; 45(2):273-287 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Several recent randomized clinical trials have evaluated hypofractionated regimens against conventionally fractionated EBRT and shown similar effectiveness with conflicting toxicity results. The current view regarding hypofractionation compared to conventional EBRT among North American genitourinary experts for management of prostate cancer has not been investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was distributed to 88 practicing North American GU physicians serving on decision - making committees of cooperative group research organizations. Questions pertained to opinions regarding the default EBRT dose and fractionation for a hypothetical example of a favorable intermediate - risk prostate cancer (Gleason 3 + 4). Treatment recommendations were correlated with practice patterns using Fisher's exact test.
RESULTS: Forty - two respondents (48%) completed the survey. We excluded from analysis two respondents who selected radical hypofractionation with 5 - 12 fractions as a preferred treatment modality. Among the 40 analyzed respondents, 23 (57.5%) recommend conventional fractionation and 17 (42.5%) recommended moderate hypofractionation. No demographic factors were found to be associated with preference for a fractionation regimen. Support for brachytherapy as a first choice treatment modality for low - risk prostate cancer was borderline significantly associated with support for moderate hypofractionated EBRT treatment modality (p = 0.089).
CONCLUSIONS: There is an almost equal split among North American GU expert radiation oncologists regarding the appropriateness to consider moderately hypofractionated EBRT as a new standard of care in management of patients with prostate cancer. Physicians who embrace brachytherapy may be more inclined to support moderate hypofractionated regimen for EBRT. It is unclear whether reports with longer followups will impact this balance, or whether national care and reimbursement policies will drive the clinical decisions. In the day and age of patient - centered care delivery, patients should receive an objective recommendation based on available clinical evidence. The stark division among GU experts may influence the design of future clinical trials utilizing EBRT for patients with prostate cancer.

Al-Husseini MJ, Kunbaz A, Saad AM, et al.
Trends in the incidence and mortality of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder for the last four decades in the USA: a SEER-based analysis.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) accounts for around 95% of bladder cancers and is the 4th most common cancer among men and the tenth most common in women, in the US. There is a constant need to clarify current TCC incidence and mortality rates among different population groups for better clinical practice guidelines. We aimed to describe the TCC incidence and incidence-based mortality by demographic and tumor-related characteristics over the last 40 years in the US.
METHODS: We obtained data from the SEER 18 registries to study TCC cases that were diagnosed between the years 1973 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates and incidence-based mortality rates in different demographic and tumor-related characteristics and expressed rates by 100,000 person-years. We then calculated the annual changes in incidence and incidence-based mortality rates and displayed them as annual percent changes (APCs).
RESULTS: There were 182,114 patients with TCC between 1973 and 2014 in the United States. Overall incidence rates of TCC increased 0.16% (95% CI, 0.02-0.30, p = .02) per year over the study period. However, the incidence declined significantly since 2007; (95%CI,-1.89- -0.77, p < .001), except among the elderly and African Americans, which increased significantly over the study period. Overall TCC mortality rates did not change over the study period. However, since 2000 it started to decrease significantly.
CONCLUSION: TCC incidence and incidence-based mortality rates had been showing significant increases over the previous decades. However, significant declines in both incidence and incidence-based mortality rates have been observed over the recent years, except in some patients with certain racial groups. Improved understanding of the etiological and ecological factors of TCC could lead to further declines in incidence and incidence-based mortality rates.

Hess LM, Cui ZL, Mytelka DS, et al.
Treatment patterns and survival outcomes for patients receiving second-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer in the USA.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2019; 34(4):581-588 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death in the USA. It is important to identify patients who may experience poor outcomes from available treatments.
METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, treatment patterns and survival outcomes were described among adult patients from the Flatiron Health electronic medical records database who were treated with at least two lines of therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer in the USA between January 2013 and May 2018. Patients with rapid progression were defined as those whose time from start of first- to second-line therapy was ≤ 183 days.
RESULTS: A total of 14,315 patients formed the study cohort. The most common first-line treatments were FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) plus bevacizumab, received by 34.7% (n = 4962) of patients, followed by FOLFOX alone (17.1%, n = 2445). Of all patients, 6991 (48.9%) also received second-line anti-cancer therapy and of those, 3338 (47.7%) had rapid progression and 3653 (52.3%) did not. Median overall survival from the start of first- and second-line therapy was 20.8 months (95% CI 20.2-21.3) and 14.5 months (95% CI 13.9-15.0) for the entire study population, respectively. Median overall survival from the start of second-line therapy was 14.1 (95% CI 13.2-14.8) for patients with rapid progression and 14.6 months (95% CI 13.8-15.4) for patients without rapid progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer lived less than 2 years in this real-world database. While the time to initiation of second-line therapy was by definition longer among patients without rapidly progressing disease, survival outcomes were comparable from initiation of second-line therapy.

Jackson R, Wang L, Jembere N, et al.
Why Do Women Get Cervical Cancer in an Organized Screening Program in Canada?
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2019; 23(1):1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine factors associated with the development of cervical malignancy among women participating in an organized cervical screening program.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed examining the screening histories 2 to 10 years before diagnosis of invasive cancer in Ontario women between 2011 and 2014.
RESULTS: A total of 2,002 cases of cervical cancer were identified; 1,358 (68%) were squamous cell carcinomas and 644 (32%) were adenocarcinomas. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 50.3 years. More than 60% of the cohort had at least 1 cytology test within 2 to 10 years of their diagnosis. Of the women having a cytology result 24 to 36 months before diagnosis, 69% had a normal cytology whereas only 7% had a high-grade cytology result. Stage of cancer was most advanced in women who did not have cytology in the 2 to 10 years before their diagnosis. On multivariate regression, those with cervical cancer who were less likely to have undergone screening include older age, advanced stage, lower income, not having a family physician, and those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Although nonparticipation in screening is the greatest factor associated with cervical cancer diagnosis, failure of cervical cytology to detect cytologic abnormalities in women 2 to 3 and 3 to 5 years before diagnosis is of concern. Efforts must be directed to recruitment of women for screening as well as improving the sensitivity of screening tests to detect existing abnormalities.

Nguyen LT, Guo M, Naugler C, Rashid-Kolvear F
Incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
BMC Res Notes. 2018; 11(1):780 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The epidemiology of chronic myeloid leukemia is shifting due to the aging global population and the recent discovery and availability of targeted treatment options. This study provides recent data regarding the incidence of CML in Calgary, a major Canadian city. Data from patients diagnosed with CML by bone marrow sample analysis from 2011 to 2015 were collected from the database of the sole centralized cytogenetics facility in service of Calgary and its surrounding area.
RESULTS: With an average of 10.2 newly diagnosed cases per year in Calgary from 2011 to 2015, the incidence rate was calculated to be 0.75 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.57-0.99). With age standardization, the incidence was 0.87 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.82-0.91) for the Canadian population, which was low compared to other developed Western nations. The highest incidence rates were observed in the older patient categories, however there was a broad age distribution for incident cases and the median age at diagnosis was 48. There was a general male bias for CML most pronounced at the younger ages. Our description of CML incidence will help to inform healthcare planners amidst the dramatically altered treatment of this hematological neoplasm.

Teckle P, Peacock S, McBride ML, et al.
Long-term effects of cancer on earnings of childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors - a population-based study from British Columbia, Canada.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2018; 18(1):826 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The patterns and determinants of long-term income among young people surviving cancer, and differences compared to peers, have not yet been fully explored. The objectives of this paper are to describe long-term income among young survivors of cancer, the impact of socio-demographic, disease, and treatment factors on long-term income, and income relative to the general population.
METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with comparison group from the general population, using linked population-based registries, clinical data, and tax-records. Multivariate random effects regression models were used to determine survivor income, compare long-term income between survivors and comparators, and assess income determinants. Subjects included all residents of British Columbia (BC), Canada, diagnosed with cancer before 25 years of age and surviving 5 years or more. Comparators were selected from the BC general population matched by gender and birth year.
RESULTS: Young cancer survivors earned significantly less than the general population. In addition, survivors of central nervous system tumors have significantly lower incomes than lymphoma survivors. Survivors who received radiation therapy have significantly lower income. Results should be interpreted with caution as the comparator group was matched by gender and date of birth.
CONCLUSIONS: Depending on original diagnosis, treatment, and other characteristics, survivors face significantly lower income than peers and may require supports to gain and retain paid employment. Lower income will affect their opportunity for independent living, and will reduce productivity in the labour force.

Hu L, Griffith DA, Chun Y
Space-Time Statistical Insights about Geographic Variation in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates: Florida, USA, 2000⁻2011.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018; 15(11) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
The geographic distribution of lung cancer rates tends to vary across a geographic landscape, and covariates (e.g., smoking rates, demographic factors, socio-economic indicators) commonly are employed in spatial analysis to explain the spatial heterogeneity of these cancer rates. However, such cancer risk factors often are not available, and conventional statistical models are unable to fully capture hidden spatial effects in cancer rates. Introducing random effects in the model specifications can furnish an efficient approach to account for variations that are unexplained due to omitted variables. Especially, a random effects model can be effective for a phenomenon that is static over time. The goal of this paper is to investigate geographic variation in Florida lung cancer incidence data for the time period 2000⁻2011 using random effects models. In doing so, a Moran eigenvector spatial filtering technique is utilized, which can allow a decomposition of random effects into spatially structured (SSRE) and spatially unstructured (SURE) components. Analysis results confirm that random effects models capture a substantial amount of variation in the cancer data. Furthermore, the results suggest that spatial pattern in the cancer data displays a mixture of positive and negative spatial autocorrelation, although the global map pattern of the random effects term may appear random.

Arora N, Talhouk A, McAlpine JN, et al.
Long-term mortality among women with epithelial ovarian cancer: a population-based study in British Columbia, Canada.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1039 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Among women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), histotype is one of the major prognostic factors. However, few data are available on histotype- specific survival and mortality estimates among these patients. We therefore examined survival and causes of death among women with EOC by histotype.
METHODS: A population- based cohort including all ovarian cancer patients diagnosed in British Columbia (BC) between 1990 and 2014 was built using population-based administrative datasets. We compared causes of death within histotypes, by age at diagnosis, BRCA status, and time since diagnosis.
RESULTS: A total of 6975 women were identified as having been diagnosed with EOC between 1990 and 2014 in BC. The most common cause of death among these women was ovarian cancer until 10 years post diagnosis when other causes surpassed ovarian cancer as the leading cause of death. Among women with serous EOCs, ovarian cancer was the leading cause of death 12 years after diagnosis, whereas ovarian cancer was the leading cause of death for 8 years among women with non- serous EOCs. Among women with serous EOCs, ovarian cancer was the leading cause of death for 12 years among younger women (< 60 years of age) compared to 8 years among women > = 60 years of age, and those with BRCA mutations were more likely to die from ovarian cancer than those without a BRCA mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Within 10 years from diagnosis, ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women diagnosed with EOC.

Blommel JG, Chacon AR, Bagatell SJ
The illness experience of an undocumented immigrant in the USA.
BMJ Case Rep. 2018; 2018 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 11 million people living and working in the USA do so without documentation. This group represents a disenfranchised minority with adverse experiences and unique comorbidities that faces significant obstacles to receiving healthcare, including fear of deportation, language barriers, financial barriers and difficulty navigating an inconsistent and fragmented system. Healthcare is therefore often sought once symptoms have become critical, which can lead to more severe disease processes and multiple new diagnoses at presentation even in previously healthy patients. Here we present the case of a previously healthy 32-year-old undocumented immigrant who presented to a South Florida hospital with abdominal pain, diarrhoea and leg pain. He was diagnosed with both diabetes mellitus and chronic myelogenous leukaemia after a prolonged 20-day hospital stay. Culturally sensitive providers and dedicated staff play a major role in connecting patients to outpatient care after an acute illness, which most often occurs at charity clinics.

Ferdous M, Lee S, Goopy S, et al.
Barriers to cervical cancer screening faced by immigrant women in Canada: a systematic scoping review.
BMC Womens Health. 2018; 18(1):165 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The objective of this scoping study is to review the published literature and summarize findings related to barriers experienced by immigrant women in Canada while accessing cervical cancer screening.
METHODS: Electronic databases of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature were searched using comprehensive sets of keywords, without restricting the time period or language. Articles were selected based on the following criteria: (a) the study population consisted of Canadian immigrant women and healthcare providers and other stakeholders serving immigrant women, (b) the research focused on the barriers to accessing cervical cancer screening, and (c) the study was conducted in Canada.
RESULTS: Extracted data were grouped and analyzed, resulting in barriers comprised of six themes: economic barriers, cultural barriers, language barriers, healthcare system-related barriers, knowledge-related barriers, and individual-level barriers. Lack of education, low income, preference for a female physician, lack of knowledge, lack of effective communication, and embarrassment were some of the most common barriers mentioned.
CONCLUSIONS: Immigrant access to health services, including cervical cancer screening, is a complex issue concerning a wide range of barriers. Our findings offer insights into barriers to cervical cancer screening in immigrant communities in Canada that can be used to assist policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers enhance the health and well-being of these populations by mitigating barriers and improving screening.

Jiang L, Gilbert J, Langley H, et al.
Breast cancer detection method, diagnostic interval and use of specialized diagnostic assessment units across Ontario, Canada.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2018; 38(10):358-367 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is detected through screening or through signs and symptoms. In Canada, mammograms for breast cancer screening are offered in organized programs or independently (opportunistic screening). Province of Ontario breast Diagnostic Assessment Units (DAUs) are facility-based programs that provide coordinated breast cancer diagnostic services, as opposed to usual care, in which the primary care provider arranges the tests and consultations. This study describes breast cancer detection method, diagnostic interval and DAU use across Ontario.
METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 6898 women with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2011. We used the Ontario Cancer Registry linked to administrative health care databases. We determined the detection method using the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP) data and physician claims. The diagnostic interval was the time between the initial screen, specialist referral or first diagnostic test and the cancer diagnosis. The diagnostic route (whether through DAU or usual care) was determined based on the OBSP records and biopsy or surgery location. We mapped the diagnostic interval and DAU coverage geographically by women's residence.
RESULTS: In 2011, 36% of Ontario breast cancer patients were screen-detected, with a 48% rate among those aged 50 to 69. The provincial median diagnostic interval was 32 days, with county medians ranging from 15 to 65 days. Provincially, 48.4% were diagnosed at a DAU, and this ranged from zero to 100% across counties.
CONCLUSION: The screening detection rate in age-eligible breast cancer patients was lower than published population-wide screening rates. Geographic mapping of the diagnostic interval and DAU use reveals regional variations in cancer diagnostic care that need to be addressed.

Nazha S, Tanguay S, Kapoor A, et al.
Cost-utility of Sunitinib Versus Pazopanib in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in Canada using Real-world Evidence.
Clin Drug Investig. 2018; 38(12):1155-1165 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The development of new targeted therapies in kidney cancer has shaped disease management in the metastatic phase. Our study aims to conduct a cost-utility analysis of sunitinib versus pazopanib in first-line setting in Canada for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients using real-world data.
METHODS: A Markov model with Monte-Carlo microsimulations was developed to estimate the clinical and economic outcomes of patients treated in first-line with sunitinib versus pazopanib. Transition probabilities were estimated using observational data from a Canadian database where real-life clinical practice was captured. The costs of therapies, disease progression, and management of adverse events were included in the model in Canadian dollars ($Can). Utility and disutility values were included for each health state. Incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated for a time horizon of 5 years, from the Canadian Healthcare System perspective.
RESULTS: The cost difference was $36,303 and the difference in quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was 0.54 in favour of sunitinib with an ICUR of $67,227/QALY for sunitinib versus pazopanib. The major cost component (56%) is related to best supportive care (BSC) where patients tend to stay for a longer period of time compared to other states. The difference in life years gained (LYG) between sunitinib and pazopanib was 1.21 LYG (33.51 vs 19.03 months) and the ICER was $30,002/LYG. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the model with a high probability of sunitinib being a cost-effective option when compared to pazopanib.
CONCLUSION: When using real-world evidence, sunitinib is found to be a cost-effective treatment compared to pazopanib in mRCC patients in Canada.

Gaskin J, Coyle D, Whyte J, Krewski D
Utility gains from reductions in the modifiable burden of lung cancer attributable to residential radon in Canada.
Can J Public Health. 2018; 109(4):598-609 [PubMed] Related Publications
RESEARCH QUESTION: The objective of this analysis is to estimate the modifiable burden of disease according to the annual number of lung cancer deaths prevented and the associated period gain in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for the 2012 populations in Canada from reductions in residential radon exposures.
INTERVENTIONS: Two postulated interventions for residential radon mitigation in new construction are assessed, corresponding to a 50% reduction and an 85% reduction in radon nationally, in the provinces/territories, and in 17 census metropolitan areas in Canada.
METHODS: Data were derived from two recent Canadian radon surveys conducted by the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, along with Canadian mortality and quality of life data. Analyses adopted a lifetime horizon and a discount rate of 1.5%. A period life-table analysis was conducted using age- and sex-specific all-cause and lung cancer mortality rates, adjusted for smoking, and the BEIR VI exposure-age-concentration model for radon-attributable risk of lung cancer mortality.
RESULTS: A reduction in residential radon by 50% could prevent 681 lung cancer deaths, associated with a gain of 15,445 QALYs in the Canadian population at a discount rate of 1.5%; a reduction in radon by 85% could prevent 1263 lung cancer deaths, associated with a gain of 26,336 QALYs. On a per population basis, the Yukon was estimated to benefit most from radon mitigation.
CONCLUSION: The magnitude of QALY gains in Canada estimated under the two radon mitigation scenarios is appreciable but varies considerably across provinces due to variability in indoor radon concentrations and smoking rates.

Bae H, Tsuchiya J, Okamoto T, et al.
Standardization of [F-18]FDG PET/CT for response evaluation by the Radiologic Society of North America-Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (RSNA-QIBA) profile: preliminary results from the Japan-QIBA (J-QIBA) activities for Asian international multicenter phase II trial.
Jpn J Radiol. 2018; 36(11):686-690 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In an Asian international multicenter phase II trial conducted in patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), [F-18]FDG-PET/CT was used for evaluation of the therapeutic response. Standardization of the PET/CT scanners was necessary before patient enrollment. We therefore standardized the scanners by phantom tests based on the profile approved by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA) of Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tests were conducted on 12 scanners in 12 facilities in compliance with the QIBA Profile and used National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) body phantoms. We measured three parameters (standardized uptake value [SUV], resolution and noise) and adjusted the imaging parameter values. The indexes recommended in the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine (JSNM) guideline were also evaluated.
RESULTS: In a total of 12 facilities, 6 facilities required no change in imaging conditions and 6 facilities required changes in imaging parameters. After revision, the three measurements (SUV, resolution and noise) met QIBA criteria at all sites, but 10 of the 12 scanners did not meet JSNM criteria.
CONCLUSION: We standardized imaging conditions using phantoms as required in the RSNA-QIBA profile for response evaluation by [F-18]FDG PET/CT images in a multicenter study.

Peiris L, Olson D, Kelly D
Oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery in Canada: breaking new ground in general surgical training
Can J Surg. 2018; 61(5):294-299 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Summary: Oncoplastic breast surgery combines certain plastic surgery procedures with a breast cancer resection to minimize the cosmetic penalty. We compared current practices in breast surgery in Canada and the UK, looking at the classification of oncoplastic breast surgery, management of larger tumours that would otherwise mandate a mastectomy, and the breast surgeon’s role in immediate breast reconstruction. Reconstructive breast surgery has always fallen within the domain of the plastic surgeon, but surgical subspecialization and more focused fellowship training have meant that breast surgeons with the appropriate skillset can offer these procedures. This evolution of the breast surgeon has led to the birth of a new field of breast surgery known as oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery. Those tasked with developing surgical training programs in Canada must now decide whether to train breast surgeons in these techniques to improve long-term quality of life among Canadian patients with breast cancer.

Gibson-Helm M, Dokras A, Karro H, et al.
Knowledge and Practices Regarding Polycystic Ovary Syndrome among Physicians in Europe, North America, and Internationally: An Online Questionnaire-Based Study.
Semin Reprod Med. 2018; 36(1):19-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To inform knowledge translation by identifying evidence-practice gaps in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) care and variations between disciplines and across world regions via an online, anonymous, devised questionnaire distributed via professional societies and completed by 1,495 physicians (2015-2016).
METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression analyses generated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between outcome measures and world region, specialty, annual patients with PCOS, age, and sex.
RESULTS: Features corresponding to Rotterdam diagnostic criteria were well recognized (e.g., irregular menstrual cycles by 99% of physicians), but psychological implications were recognized only by 29 to 64%. Reproductive endocrinologists were more likely to use Rotterdam diagnostic criteria (OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 2.3-4.3;
CONCLUSION: Knowledge gaps in PCOS care to be addressed internationally include physician awareness of the breadth of PCOS features, application of diagnostic criteria, and recommending lifestyle management effectively.

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