Gene Summary

Gene:ARID5B; AT-rich interaction domain 5B
Aliases: MRF2, DESRT, MRF-2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the AT-rich interaction domain (ARID) family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein forms a histone H3K9Me2 demethylase complex with PHD finger protein 2 and regulates the transcription of target genes involved in adipogenesis and liver development. This gene also plays a role in cell growth and differentiation of B-lymphocyte progenitors, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 5B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)

Cancer Overview

Large-scale genome-wide association studies have implicated 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [rs7073837, rs10821936, rs10994982, rs7089424, and rs10740055] in the ARID5B gene as being associated with the increased risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Logistic Models
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Infant
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Genotype
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Ikaros Transcription Factor
  • Young Adult
  • Chromosome 7
  • Alleles
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Transcription
  • ARID5B
  • Chromosome 10
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Siblings
  • Risk Factors
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Haplotypes
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Genetic Loci
  • Incidence
  • Genomics
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Newborns
  • Adolescents
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Odds Ratio
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genetic Variation
  • United Kingdom
  • Chromosome 14
  • Germ-Line Mutation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), childSNP rs10821936 and increased risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblasic Leukemia
SNP rs10821936 of the ARID5B gene is associated with a modestly increased risk of childhood ALL. This was confirmed in a meta analysis of 39,116 subjects from 13 studies (Guo et al, 2014) (P < 0.0001, OR = 1.27, 95 %CI, 1.17-1.37)
View Publications24
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), childSNP rs10994982 and increased risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblasic Leukemia View Publications12
Endometrial CancerARID5B mutations in Endometrial Carcinoma
In an array- and sequencing-based analysis of 373 endometrial carcinomas Laird et al (2013 mutations in ARID5B. Also, from endometrial cancers in the ICGC and COSMIC databases (accessed 07/02/14) 13% and 12% had mutations in ARID5B respectfully.
View Publications3

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ARID5B (cancer-related)

Bhat A, Shah R, Bhat GR, et al.
Association of ARID5B and IKZF1 Variants with Leukemia from Northern India.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2019; 23(3):176-179 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leukemia is a heterogeneous disorder, characterized by elevated proliferation of white blood cells. Various genetic studies have assessed the contributory roles of several single nucleotide polymorphisms with the development of leukemia. The role of genetic variation in the ARID5B and IKZF1 genes has previously been identified in various population groups; however, the role of these variants in the north Indian populations of Jammu and Kashmir is unknown.
AIM: In this study, we explored the association of the newly identified genetic variants, rs10740055 of ARID5B and rs6964823 of IKZF1, with leukemic patients from Jammu and Kashmir of northern India.
METHODS: The variants were genotyped using TaqMan allele discrimination assays for 616 individuals (210 leukemic cases and 406 healthy controls). The association of each SNP with the disease was evaluated using logistic regression.
RESULTS: It was observed that the variants rs6964823 (IKZF1) and rs10740055 (ARID5B) showed significant associations with odds ratio (OR) and p-values of 1.5 (1.0-2.3 at 95% confidence interval [CI]) and 0.04; and 2.5 (1.5-4.1 at 95% CI) and 0.0002, respectively. We also evaluated the cumulative effect for both the variants by combining the risk genotypes and obtained and OR of 4.9.
DISCUSSION: It was found that the variants rs10740055 of ARID5B and rs6964823 of IKZF1 act individually and additively as risk factors in the development of leukemia in the populations of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India.

Cuevas D, Valls J, Gatius S, et al.
Targeted sequencing with a customized panel to assess histological typing in endometrial carcinoma.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(5):585-598 [PubMed] Related Publications
The two most frequent types of endometrial cancer (EC) are endometrioid (EEC) and serous carcinomas (SC). Differential diagnosis between them is not always easy. A subset of endometrial cancers shows misleading microscopical features, which cause problems in differential diagnosis, and may be a good scenario for next-generation sequencing. Previous studies have assessed the usefulness of targeted sequencing with panels of generic cancer-associated genes in EC histological typing. Based on the analysis of TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), EEC and SC have different mutational profiles. In this proof of principle study, we have performed targeted sequencing analysis with a customized panel, based on the TCGA mutational profile of EEC and SC, in a series of 24 tumors (16 EEC and 8 SC). Our panel comprised coding and non-coding sequences of the following genes: ABCC9, ARID1A, ARID5B, ATR, BCOR, CCND1, CDH19, CHD4, COL11A1, CSDE1, CSMD3, CTCF, CTNNB1, EP300, ERBB2, FBXW7, FGFR2, FOXA2, KLLN, KMT2B, KRAS, MAP3K4, MKI67, NRAS, PGAP3, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PPP2R1A, PRPF18, PTEN, RPL22, SCARNA11, SIN3A, SMARCA4, SPOP, TAF1, TP53, TSPYL2, USP36, and WRAP53. Targeted sequencing validation by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry was performed in a group of genes. POLE mutation status was assessed by Sanger sequencing. The most mutated genes were PTEN (93.7%), ARID1A (68.7%), PIK3CA (50%), and KMT2B (43.7%) for EEC, and TP53 (87.5%), PIK3CA (50%), and PPP2R1A (25%) for SC. Our panel allowed correct classification of all tumors in the two categories (EEC, SC). Coexistence of mutations in PTEN, ARID1A, and KMT2B was diagnostic of EEC. On the other hand, absence of PTEN, ARID1A, and KMT2B mutations in the presence of TP53 mutation was diagnostic of SC. This proof of concept study demonstrates the suitability of targeted sequencing with a customized endometrial cancer gene panel as an additional tool for confirming histological typing.

Zhang L, Jiang Y, Lu X, et al.
Genomic characterization of cervical cancer based on human papillomavirus status.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(3):629-637 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: It is uncommon for cervical cancer patients to be diagnosed without a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. As prophylactic vaccines against high-risk HPV types are an ineffective preventive measure for these patients it is essential to identify differential biomarkers that may be associated with detection, prognosis and novel targeted therapies. The objective of this study was to compare the two entities, HPV+ and HPV- cervical cancers, based on TCGA public data.
METHODS: We collected and analyzed clinical information of 299 cervical cancer patients as the first step, then identified differential expressed genes and conducted downstream analyses to characterize this tumor based on HPV status, including functional annotation, pathway mapping, survival analysis and comparative somatic mutation landscapes. We further inferred the likelihood of responding to traditional treatment including radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
RESULTS: It was found that HPV- tumors were likely to occur at an older age and were often adenocarcinomas or adenosquamous carcinomas, and there was no significant overall survival difference between HPV+ vs. HPV- tumors. Gene expression profiles of HPV+ and HPV- tumors differed especially in ANKRD7, SERPINB3, EMX2, MEI1, RNF212, RP11-13 K12.5, RP11-325F22.2 and ZFR2 which were significantly relevant to cervical cancer prognosis. TP53, ARID5B, ARID1A, CTNNB1 and PTEN were significantly differentially mutated between HPV+ and HPV- tumors. Results of radiotherapy analyses demonstrated that CDO1, PCDHB2 and MYOD1 were different between the two subsets. In addition, RP11-299 L17.3, SLC14A2, FGF18 and OASL represented different drug-sensitivity to cisplatin between both.
CONCLUSIONS: These potential biomarkers may offer insights to further personalize therapeutic decision-making to improve survival in HPV- cervical cancer patients.

Yamakawa T, Waer C, Itakura K
AT-rich interactive domain 5B regulates androgen receptor transcription in human prostate cancer cells.
Prostate. 2018; 78(16):1238-1247 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) is one of the most important and dynamically regulated factors in prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Despite the importance of AR expression regulation, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. ARID5B, an AT-rich interaction domain DNA-binding motif-containing transcription factor, is expressed higher in primary PCa than normal prostate, and correlated with AR expression. We therefore hypothesized that ARID5B could regulate AR expression.
METHODS: Correlation between AR and ARID5B expression was analyzed using publicly and commercially available microarray data. To examine the role of ARID5B in AR expression, ARID5B was knocked down in VCaP and LNCaP cells, then mRNA and protein levels of AR were measured and an in vitro cell proliferation assay was performed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to further examine molecular mechanisms.
RESULTS: Knockdown of ARID5B suppressed the AR mRNA and protein expression in VCaP and LNCaP cells and decreased in vitro cell proliferation. Suppression of ARID5B decreased the occupancy of active RNA polymerase II in the AR promoter, indicating that ARID5B regulates AR transcription. The active histone mark, H3K4me3, occupancy was decreased with ARID5B knockdown.
CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that AR transcription is positively regulated by ARID5B through H3K4me3 recruitment in the AR promoter. Our findings reveal novel mechanisms of AR transcription, which is dynamically regulated in prostate tumor progression.

Ngoc PCT, Tan SH, Tan TK, et al.
Identification of novel lncRNAs regulated by the TAL1 complex in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(10):2138-2151 [PubMed] Related Publications
TAL1/SCL is one of the most prevalent oncogenes in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). TAL1 and its regulatory partners (GATA3, RUNX1, and MYB) positively regulate each other and coordinately regulate the expression of their downstream target genes in T-ALL cells. However, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulated by these factors are largely unknown. Here we established a bioinformatics pipeline and analyzed RNA-seq datasets with deep coverage to identify lncRNAs regulated by TAL1 in T-ALL cells. Our analysis predicted 57 putative lncRNAs that are activated by TAL1. Many of these transcripts were regulated by GATA3, RUNX1, and MYB in a coordinated manner. We identified two novel transcripts that were activated in multiple T-ALL cell samples but were downregulated in normal thymocytes. One transcript near the ARID5B gene locus was specifically expressed in TAL1-positive T-ALL cases. The other transcript located between the FAM49A and MYCN gene locus was also expressed in normal hematopoietic stem cells and T-cell progenitor cells. In addition, we identified a subset of lncRNAs that were negatively regulated by TAL1 and positively regulated by E-proteins in T-ALL cells. This included a known lncRNA (lnc-OAZ3-2:7) located near the RORC gene, which was expressed in normal thymocytes but repressed in TAL1-positive T-ALL cells.

Urayama KY, Takagi M, Kawaguchi T, et al.
Regional evaluation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia genetic susceptibility loci among Japanese.
Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1):789 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed mostly in populations of European and Hispanic ancestry have confirmed an inherited genetic basis for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but these associations are less clear in other races/ethnicities. DNA samples from ALL patients (aged 0-19 years) previously enrolled onto a Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group trial were collected during 2013-2015, and underwent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray genotyping resulting in 527 B-cell ALL for analysis. Cases and control data for 3,882 samples from the Nagahama Study Group and Aichi Cancer Center Study were combined, and association analyses across 10 previous GWAS-identified regions were performed after targeted SNP imputation. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in Japanese and other populations were evaluated using the varLD score based on 1000 Genomes data. Risk associations for ARID5B (rs10821936, OR = 1.84, P = 6 × 10

Leong WZ, Tan SH, Ngoc PCT, et al.
ARID5B as a critical downstream target of the TAL1 complex that activates the oncogenic transcriptional program and promotes T-cell leukemogenesis.
Genes Dev. 2017; 31(23-24):2343-2360 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The oncogenic transcription factor

Cao S, Yang J, Qian X, et al.
The functional polymorphisms of ARID5B and IKZF1 are associated with acute myeloid leukemia risk in a Han Chinese population.
Gene. 2018; 647:115-120 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since two genome-wide association studies identified the same susceptible region at ARID5B and IKZF1 for acute leukemia in Caucasians in the same time, several research groups have confirmed the similar results in different ethnicities and of different acute leukemia subtypes (ALL and AML). However, the causal variants of these two genes were not identified. In this study, we systematically screened 6 potentially functional SNPs in ARID5B and IKZF1 genes, and conducted a case-control study including 660 AML cases and 1034 cancer-free controls to investigate the associations between these SNPs and AML risk. We found that the variant alleles of rs4509706 and rs11761922 could significantly increase the risk of AML (rs4509706: OR=1.35, 95%CI=1.12-1.62 in additive model; rs11761922: OR=1.29, 95%CI=1.02-1.62 in recessive model). Luciferase reporter assay showed that both rs11761922-G and rs4509706-C significantly increased the luciferase levels as compared with rs11761922-C and rs4509706-T in K562 cells (P<0.05 for rs11761922 and P<0.001 for rs4509706). Our results indicated that rs4509706 and rs11761922 may play important roles in AML development in Chinese population.

Gutierrez-Camino A, Martin-Guerrero I, García-Orad A
Genetic susceptibility in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Med Oncol. 2017; 34(10):179 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy and a leading cause of death due to disease in children. The genetic basis of ALL susceptibility has been supported by its association with certain congenital disorders and, more recently, by several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These GWAS identified common variants in ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, CDKN2A, PIP4K2A, LHPP and ELK3 influencing ALL risk. However, the risk variants of these SNPs were not validated in all populations, suggesting that some of the loci could be population specific. On the other hand, the currently identified risk SNPs in these genes only account for 19% of the additive heritable risk. This estimation indicates that additional susceptibility variants could be discovered. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most important findings carried out in genetic susceptibility of childhood ALL in all GWAS and subsequent studies and we will also point to future directions that could be explored in the near future.

Archer NP, Perez-Andreu V, Stoltze U, et al.
Family-based exome-wide association study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia among Hispanics confirms role of ARID5B in susceptibility.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0180488 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We conducted an exome-wide association study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) among Hispanics to confirm and identify novel variants associated with disease risk in this population. We used a case-parent trio study design; unlike more commonly used case-control studies, this study design is ideal for avoiding issues with population stratification bias among this at-risk ethnic group. Using 710 individuals from 323 Guatemalan and US Hispanic families, two inherited SNPs in ARID5B reached genome-wide level significance: rs10821936, RR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.70-3.14, p = 1.7×10-8 and rs7089424, RR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.64-3.01, p = 5.2×10-8. Similar results were observed when restricting our analyses to those with the B-ALL subtype: ARID5B rs10821936 RR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.63-3.02, p = 9.63×10-8 and ARID5B rs7089424 RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.57-2.88, p = 2.81×10-7. Notably, effect sizes observed for rs7089424 and rs10821936 in our study were >20% higher than those reported among non-Hispanic white populations in previous genetic association studies. Our results confirmed the role of ARID5B in childhood ALL susceptibility among Hispanics; however, our assessment did not reveal any strong novel inherited genetic risks for acute lymphoblastic leukemia among this ethnic group.

Nakka P, Archer NP, Xu H, et al.
Novel Gene and Network Associations Found for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Using Case-Control and Family-Based Studies in Multiethnic Populations.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017; 26(10):1531-1539 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Bekker-Méndez VC, Núñez-Enríquez JC, Torres Escalante JL, et al.
ARID5B, CEBPE and PIP4K2A Germline Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mexican Patients: A MIGICCL Study.
Arch Med Res. 2016; 47(8):623-628 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the leading cause of childhood cancer-related deaths worldwide. Multiples studies have shown that ALL seems to be originated by an interaction between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors. The ARID5B polymorphisms are among the most reproducible ALL associated-risk alleles in different populations. The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of ARID5B, CEBPE, and PIP4K2 risk alleles for the development of ALL in children from Mexico City and Yucatan, Mexico.
METHODS: A study was conducted with a total of 761 unrelated subjects. Two hundred eighty five ALL cases (111 from Yucatan and 174 from Mexico City) and 476 healthy subjects. Genotyping included the rs7088318 (PIP4K2A), rs10821936 (ARID5B), rs7089424 (ARID5B) and rs2239633 (CEBPE) polymorphisms.
RESULTS: Associations between ALL and rs10821936 and rs7089424 ARID5B SNPs were found (OR = 1.9, 95% CI (1.5-2.4) and OR = 2.0, 95% CI (1.6-2.5), respectively). Moreover, a higher risk was observed in the homozygous risk genotypes of carriers from Mexico City (OR = 3.1, 95% CI (2.0-4.9) and OR 3.1, CI 95% (2.0-4.8), respectively). Otherwise, the rs7088318 (PIP4K2A) and rs2239633 (CEBPE) polymorphisms were not associated with ALL risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that ARID5B confers risk for childhood ALL in a Mexican population.

Al-Absi B, Noor SM, Saif-Ali R, et al.
Association of ARID5B gene variants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Yemeni children.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(4):1010428317697573 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies have shown an association between ARID5B gene polymorphisms and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the association between ARID5B variants and acute lymphoblastic leukemia among the Arab population still needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ARID5B variants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Yemeni children. A total of 14 ARID5B gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 289 Yemeni children, of whom 136 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 153 were controls, using the nanofluidic Dynamic Array (Fluidigm 192.24 Dynamic Array). Using logistic regression adjusted for age and gender, the risks of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were presented as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We found that nine SNPs were associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia under additive genetic models: rs7073837, rs10740055, rs7089424, rs10821936, rs4506592, rs10994982, rs7896246, rs10821938, and rs7923074. Furthermore, the recessive models revealed that six SNPs were risk factors for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: rs10740055, rs7089424, rs10994982, rs7896246, rs10821938, and rs7923074. The gender-specific impact of these SNPs under the recessive genetic model revealed that SNPs rs10740055, rs10994982, and rs6479779 in females, and rs10821938 and rs7923074 in males were significantly associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Under the dominant model, SNPs rs7073837, rs10821936, rs7896246, and rs6479778 in males only showed striking association with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The additive model revealed that SNPs with significant association with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were rs10821936 (both males and females); rs7073837, rs10740055, rs10994982, and rs4948487 (females only); and rs7089424, rs7896246, rs10821938, and rs7923074 (males only). In addition, the ARID5B haplotype block (CGAACACAA) showed a higher risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The haplotype (CCCGACTGC) was associated with protection against acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In conclusion, our study has shown that ARID5B variants are associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Yemeni children with several gender biases of ARID5B single nucleotide polymorphisms reported.

Studd JB, Vijayakrishnan J, Yang M, et al.
Genetic and regulatory mechanism of susceptibility to high-hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at 10p21.2.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:14616 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite high-hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (HD-ALL) being the most common subgroup of paediatric ALL, its aetiology remains unknown. Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated association at 10q21.2. Here, we sought to determine how this region influences HD-ALL risk. We impute genotypes across the locus, finding the single nucleotide polymorphism rs7090445 highly associated with HD-ALL (P=1.54 × 10

Takita J
Genetic and epigenetic aberrations of pediatric leukemia and clinical applications.
Rinsho Ketsueki. 2016; 57(10):2294-2300 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. Although fusion genes generated by chromosomal rearrangements are the most frequent genetic alterations in pediatric ALL, fusions are insufficient for the development of this disease, and thus, cannot serve as therapeutic targets for ALL. Recently, integrated genetic analysis using next generation sequencing technology has revealed the genetic landscapes of pediatric ALL. These studies disclosed that in addition to fusion genes, aberrations of cell proliferation pathways and epigenetic regulations are also involved in the pathogenesis of pediatric ALL. On the other hand, more recently, abnormalities of supper enhancer regions of TAL1 have been detected as a novel oncogenic mechanism of pediatric T cell ALL. Furthermore, germline mutations of ARID5B, PAX5, and GATA3 have been found to be involved in the genetic risk of developing ALL. Therefore, currently, the molecular mechanisms of pediatric ALL have been fully disclosed.

Li CW, Chen BS
Investigating core genetic-and-epigenetic cell cycle networks for stemness and carcinogenic mechanisms, and cancer drug design using big database mining and genome-wide next-generation sequencing data.
Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(19):2593-2607 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated that cell cycle plays a central role in development and carcinogenesis. Thus, the use of big databases and genome-wide high-throughput data to unravel the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying cell cycle progression in stem cells and cancer cells is a matter of considerable interest. Real genetic-and-epigenetic cell cycle networks (GECNs) of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and HeLa cancer cells were constructed by applying system modeling, system identification, and big database mining to genome-wide next-generation sequencing data. Real GECNs were then reduced to core GECNs of HeLa cells and ESCs by applying principal genome-wide network projection. In this study, we investigated potential carcinogenic and stemness mechanisms for systems cancer drug design by identifying common core and specific GECNs between HeLa cells and ESCs. Integrating drug database information with the specific GECNs of HeLa cells could lead to identification of multiple drugs for cervical cancer treatment with minimal side-effects on the genes in the common core. We found that dysregulation of miR-29C, miR-34A, miR-98, and miR-215; and methylation of ANKRD1, ARID5B, CDCA2, PIF1, STAMBPL1, TROAP, ZNF165, and HIST1H2AJ in HeLa cells could result in cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis through NFκB, TGF-β, and PI3K pathways. We also identified 3 drugs, methotrexate, quercetin, and mimosine, which repressed the activated cell cycle genes, ARID5B, STK17B, and CCL2, in HeLa cells with minimal side-effects.

Bhandari P, Ahmad F, Mandava S, Das BR
Association of Genetic Variants in ARID5B, IKZF1 and CEBPE with Risk of Childhood de novo B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in India.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):3989-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous genetic disease and its etiology remains poorly understood. Recent genome wide association and replication studies have highlighted specic polymorphisms contributing to childhood ALL predispositions mostly in European populations. It is unclear if these observations generalize to other populations with a lower incidence of ALL. The current case-control study evaluated variants in ARID5B (rs7089424, rs10821936), IKZF1 (rs4132601) and CEBPE (rs2239633) genes, which appear most significantly associated with risk of developing childhood B-lineage ALL.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using TaqMan assays, genotyping was conducted for 162 de novo B-lineage ALL cases and 150 unrelated healthy controls in India. Appropriate statistical methods were applied.
RESULTS: Genotypic and allelic frequencies differed significantly between cases and controls at IKZF1-rs4132601 (p=0.039, p=0.015) and ARID5B-rs10821936 (p=0.028, p=0.026). Both rs10821936 (p=0.019; OR 0.67; 95% CI=0.47-0.94) and rs4132601 (p=0.018; OR 0.67; 95%CI 0.48-0.94) were associated with reduced disease risk. Moreover, gender- analysis revealed male-specific risk associations for rs10821936 (p=0.041 CT+CC) and rs4132601 (p=0.005 G allele). Further, ARID5B-rs7089424 and CEBPE-rs2239633 showed a trend towards decreased disease risk but without significance (p=0.073; p=0.73).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide the rst evidence that SNPs ARID5B- rs10821936 and IKZF1-rs4132601 are associated with decreased B-lineage ALL susceptibility in Indian children. Understanding the effects of these variants in different ethnic groups is crucial as they may confer different risk of ALL within different populations.

Singh B, Kinne HE, Milligan RD, et al.
Important Role of FTO in the Survival of Rare Panresistant Triple-Negative Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells Facing a Severe Metabolic Challenge.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0159072 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously shown that only 0.01% cells survive a metabolic challenge involving lack of glutamine in culture medium of SUM149 triple-negative Inflammatory Breast Cancer cell line. These cells, designated as SUM149-MA for metabolic adaptability, are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, and they efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. We hypothesized that obesity-related molecular networks, which normally help in cellular and organismal survival under metabolic challenges, may help in the survival of MA cells. The fat mass and obesity-associated protein FTO is overexpressed in MA cells. Obesity-associated cis-acting elements in non-coding region of FTO regulate the expression of IRX3 gene, thus activating obesity networks. Here we found that IRX3 protein is significantly overexpressed in MA cells (5 to 6-fold) as compared to the parental SUM149 cell line, supporting our hypothesis. We also obtained evidence that additional key regulators of energy balance such as ARID5B, IRX5, and CUX1 P200 repressor could potentially help progenitor-like TNBC cells survive in glutamine-free medium. MO-I-500, a pharmacological inhibitor of FTO, significantly (>90%) inhibited survival and/or colony formation of SUM149-MA cells as compared to untreated cells or those treated with a control compound MO-I-100. Curiously, MO-I-500 treatment also led to decreased levels of FTO and IRX3 proteins in the SUM149 cells initially surviving in glutamine-free medium as compared to MO-I-100 treatment. Interestingly, MO-I-500 treatment had a relatively little effect on cell growth of either the SUM149 or SUM149-MA cell line when added to a complete medium containing glutamine that does not pose a metabolic challenge. Importantly, once selected and cultured in glutamine-free medium, SUM149-MA cells were no longer affected by MO-I-500 even in Gln-free medium. We conclude that panresistant MA cells contain interconnected molecular networks that govern developmental status and energy balance, and genetic and epigenetic alterations that are selected during cancer evolution.

Walker CJ, Miranda MA, O'Hern MJ, et al.
MonoSeq Variant Caller Reveals Novel Mononucleotide Run Indel Mutations in Tumors with Defective DNA Mismatch Repair.
Hum Mutat. 2016; 37(10):1004-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing has revolutionized cancer genetics, but accurately detecting mutations in repetitive DNA sequences, especially mononucleotide runs, remains a challenge. This is a particular concern for tumors with defective mismatch repair (MMR) that accumulate strand-slippage mutations. We developed MonoSeq to improve indel mutation detection in mononucleotide runs, and used MonoSeq to investigate strand-slippage mutations in endometrial cancers, a tumor type that has frequent loss of MMR. We performed extensive Sanger sequencing to validate both clonal and subclonal MonoSeq mutation calls. Eighty-one regions containing mononucleotide runs were sequenced in 540 primary endometrial cancers (223 with defective MMR). Our analyses revealed that the overall mutation rate in MMR-deficient tumors was 20-30-fold higher than in MMR-normal tumors. MonoSeq analysis identified several previously unreported mutations, including a novel hotspot in an A7 run in the terminal exon of ARID5B.The ARID5B indel mutations were seen in both MMR-deficient and MMR-normal tumors, suggesting biologic selection. The analysis of tumor mRNAs revealed the presence of mutant transcripts that could result in translation of neopeptides. Improved detection of mononucleotide run strand-slippage mutations has clear implications for comprehensive mutation detection in tumors with defective MMR. Indel frameshift mutations and the resultant antigenic peptides could help guide immunotherapy strategies.

Gharbi H, Ben Hassine I, Soltani I, et al.
Association of genetic variation in IKZF1, ARID5B, CDKN2A, and CEBPE with the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Tunisian children and their contribution to racial differences in leukemia incidence.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2016; 33(3):157-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) focusing on pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common malignancy in children younger than 15 years old, have found evidence that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IKZF1 (7p12.2), ARID5B (10q21.2), CDKN2A (9p21.3), and CEBPE (14q11.2) are strongly associated to the risk of developing pediatric ALL. These studies have been conducted in European and Thai populations, and it is unclear whether these observations generalize to other populations with a lower incidence of pediatric ALL. In order to explore the impact of these variants on pediatric ALL risk in the Tunisian population, we genotyped 58 cases of pediatric ALL and 150 controls for SNPs rs4132601 (7p12.2), rs7089424 (10q21.2), rs3731217 (9p21.3), and rs2239633 (14q11.2). Our results, which are consistent with findings in European populations, show that 3 SNPs, i.e., rs4132601 (P = .00116, odds ratio [OR] = 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.42, 5.87]), rs7089424 (P = .0022, OR = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.31, 0.79]), and rs2239633 (P = .0010, OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.29, 0.75]) are significantly associated with a higher risk of developing pediatric ALL (P < .05). Furthermore, we show differences in allele frequencies in SNPs between Tunisian and Caucasian and/or Thai populations (e.g., CEBPE, rs2239633; population attributable risk [PAR] ∼15-fold the PAR of Thai population). These differences, combined with differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations and differences in size between populations, may contribute to racial differences in pediatric ALL incidence.

Pandzic T, Larsson J, He L, et al.
Transposon Mutagenesis Reveals Fludarabine Resistance Mechanisms in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(24):6217-6227 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify resistance mechanisms for the chemotherapeutic drug fludarabine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), as innate and acquired resistance to fludarabine-based chemotherapy represents a major challenge for long-term disease control.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used piggyBac transposon-mediated mutagenesis, combined with next-generation sequencing, to identify genes that confer resistance to fludarabine in a human CLL cell line.
RESULTS: In total, this screen identified 782 genes with transposon integrations in fludarabine-resistant pools of cells. One of the identified genes is a known resistance mediator DCK (deoxycytidine kinase), which encodes an enzyme that is essential for the phosphorylation of the prodrug to the active metabolite. BMP2K, a gene not previously linked to CLL, was also identified as a modulator of response to fludarabine. In addition, 10 of 782 transposon-targeted genes had previously been implicated in treatment resistance based on somatic mutations seen in patients refractory to fludarabine-based therapy. Functional characterization of these genes supported a significant role for ARID5B and BRAF in fludarabine sensitivity. Finally, pathway analysis of transposon-targeted genes and RNA-seq profiling of fludarabine-resistant cells suggested deregulated MAPK signaling as involved in mediating drug resistance in CLL.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first forward genetic screen for chemotherapy resistance in CLL. The screen pinpointed novel genes and pathways involved in fludarabine resistance along with previously known resistance mechanisms. Transposon screens can therefore aid interpretation of cancer genome sequencing data in the identification of genes modifying sensitivity to chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res; 22(24); 6217-27. ©2016 AACR.

Hsu LI, Briggs F, Shao X, et al.
Pathway Analysis of Genome-wide Association Study in Childhood Leukemia among Hispanics.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016; 25(5):815-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is nearly 20% higher among Hispanics than non-Hispanic Whites. Previous studies have shown evidence for association between risk of ALL and variation within IKZF1, ARID5B, CEBPE, CDKN2A, GATA3, and BM1-PIP4K2A genes. However, variants identified only account for <10% of the genetic risk of ALL.
METHODS: We applied pathway-based analyses to genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the California Childhood Leukemia Study to determine whether different biologic pathways were overrepresented in childhood ALL and major ALL subtypes. Furthermore, we applied causal inference and data reduction methods to prioritize candidate genes within each identified overrepresented pathway, while accounting for correlation among SNPs.
RESULTS: Pathway analysis results indicate that different ALL subtypes may involve distinct biologic mechanisms. Focal adhesion is a shared mechanism across the different disease subtypes. For ALL, the top five overrepresented Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways include axon guidance, protein digestion and absorption, melanogenesis, leukocyte transendothelial migration, and focal adhesion (PFDR < 0.05). Notably, these pathways are connected to downstream MAPK or Wnt signaling pathways which have been linked to B-cell malignancies. Several candidate genes for ALL, such as COL6A6 and COL5A1, were identified through targeted maximum likelihood estimation.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show distinct biologic pathways are overrepresented in different ALL subtypes using pathway-based approaches, and identified potential gene candidates using causal inference methods.
IMPACT: The findings demonstrate that newly developed bioinformatics tools and causal inference methods can provide insights to furthering our understanding of the pathogenesis of leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 815-22. ©2016 AACR.

de Smith AJ, Walsh KM, Hansen HM, et al.
Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test Using ddPCR (SMART-ddPCR): An Accurate Method for Assessment of Preferential Allelic Imbalance in Tumor DNA.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0143343 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The extent to which heritable genetic variants can affect tumor development has yet to be fully elucidated. Tumor selection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles, a phenomenon called preferential allelic imbalance (PAI), has been demonstrated in some cancer types. We developed a novel application of digital PCR termed Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test using Droplet Digital PCR (SMART-ddPCR) for accurate assessment of tumor PAI, and have applied this method to test the hypothesis that heritable SNPs associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may demonstrate tumor PAI. These SNPs are located at CDKN2A (rs3731217) and IKZF1 (rs4132601), genes frequently lost in ALL, and at CEBPE (rs2239633), ARID5B (rs7089424), PIP4K2A (rs10764338), and GATA3 (rs3824662), genes located on chromosomes gained in high-hyperdiploid ALL. We established thresholds of AI using constitutional DNA from SNP heterozygotes, and subsequently measured allelic copy number in tumor DNA from 19-142 heterozygote samples per SNP locus. We did not find significant tumor PAI at these loci, though CDKN2A and IKZF1 SNPs showed a trend towards preferential selection of the risk allele (p = 0.17 and p = 0.23, respectively). Using a genomic copy number control ddPCR assay, we investigated somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) underlying AI at CDKN2A and IKZF1, revealing a complex range of alterations including homozygous and hemizygous deletions and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, with varying degrees of clonality. Copy number estimates from ddPCR showed high agreement with those from multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays. We demonstrate that SMART-ddPCR is a highly accurate method for investigation of tumor PAI and for assessment of the somatic alterations underlying AI. Furthermore, analysis of publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas identified 16 recurrent SCNA loci that contain heritable cancer risk SNPs associated with a matching tumor type, and which represent candidate PAI regions warranting further investigation.

Xu H, Zhang H, Yang W, et al.
Inherited coding variants at the CDKN2A locus influence susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7553 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is increasing evidence from genome-wide association studies for a strong inherited genetic basis of susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children, yet the effects of protein-coding variants on ALL risk have not been systematically evaluated. Here we show a missense variant in CDKN2A associated with the development of ALL at genome-wide significance (rs3731249, P=9.4 × 10(-23), odds ratio=2.23). Functional studies indicate that this hypomorphic variant results in reduced tumour suppressor function of p16(INK4A), increases the susceptibility to leukaemic transformation of haematopoietic progenitor cells, and is preferentially retained in ALL tumour cells. Resequencing the CDKN2A-CDKN2B locus in 2,407 childhood ALL cases reveals 19 additional putative functional germline variants. These results provide direct functional evidence for the influence of inherited genetic variation on ALL risk, highlighting the important and complex roles of CDKN2A-CDKN2B tumour suppressors in leukaemogenesis.

Davalieva K, Kostovska IM, Kiprijanovska S, et al.
Proteomics analysis of malignant and benign prostate tissue by 2D DIGE/MS reveals new insights into proteins involved in prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2015; 75(14):1586-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The key to a more effective diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic management of prostate cancer (PCa) could lie in the direct analysis of cancer tissue. In this study, by comparative proteomics analysis of PCa and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissues we attempted to elucidate the proteins and regulatory pathways involved in this disease.
METHODS: The samples used in this study were fresh surgical tissues with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa (n = 19) and BPH (n = 33). We used two dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) and bioinformatics analysis.
RESULTS: Thirty-nine spots with statistically significant 1.8-fold variation or more in abundance, corresponding to 28 proteins were identified. The IPA analysis pointed out to 3 possible networks regulated within MAPK, ERK, TGFB1, and ubiquitin pathways. Thirteen of the identified proteins, namely, constituents of the intermediate filaments (KRT8, KRT18, DES), potential tumor suppressors (ARHGAP1, AZGP1, GSTM2, and MFAP4), transport and membrane organization proteins (FABP5, GC, and EHD2), chaperons (FKBP4 and HSPD1) and known cancer marker (NME1) have been associated with prostate and other cancers by numerous proteomics, genomics or functional studies. We evidenced for the first time the dysregulation of 9 proteins (CSNK1A1, ARID5B, LYPLA1, PSMB6, RABEP1, TALDO1, UBE2N, PPP1CB, and SERPINB1) that may have role in PCa. The UBE2N, PSMB6, and PPP1CB, involved in cell cycle regulation and progression were evaluated by Western blot analysis which confirmed significantly higher abundances of UBE2N and PSMB6 and significantly lower abundance of PPP1CB in PCa.
CONCLUSION: In addition to the identification of substantial number of proteins with known association with PCa, the proteomic approach in this study revealed proteins not previously clearly related to PCa, providing a starting point for further elucidation of their function in disease initiation and progression.

Rudant J, Orsi L, Bonaventure A, et al.
ARID5B, IKZF1 and non-genetic factors in the etiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the ESCALE study.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0121348 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified that frequent polymorphisms in ARID5B and IKZF1, two genes involved in lymphoid differentiation, increase the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These findings markedly modified the current field of research on the etiology of ALL. In this new context, the present exploratory study investigated the possible interactions between these at-risk alleles and the non-genetic suspected ALL risk factors that were of sufficient prevalence in the French ESCALE study: maternal use of home insecticides during pregnancy, preconception paternal smoking, and some proxies for early immune modulation, i.e. breastfeeding, history of common infections before age one year, and birth order. The analyses were based on 434 ALL cases and 442 controls of European origin, drawn from the nationwide population-based case-control study ESCALE. Information on non-genetic factors was obtained by standardized telephone interview. Interactions between rs10740055 in ARID5B or rs4132601 in IKZF1 and each of the suspected non-genetic factors were tested, with the SNPs coded as counts of minor alleles (trend variable). Statistical interactions were observed between rs4132601 and maternal insecticide use (p = 0.012), breastfeeding p = 0.017) and repeated early common infections (p = 0.0070), with allelic odds ratios (OR) which were only increased among the children not exposed to insecticides (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.3, 2.4), those who had been breastfed (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.3, 2.5) and those who had had repeated early common infections (OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.8). The allelic ORs were close to one among children exposed to insecticides, who had not been breastfed and who had had no or few common infections. Repeated early common infections interacted with rs10740055 (p = 0.018) in the case-only design. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether these observations of a modification of the effect of the at-risk alleles by non-genetic factors are chance findings or reflect true underlying mechanisms.

Hsu LI, Chokkalingam AP, Briggs FB, et al.
Association of genetic variation in IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE and surrogates for early-life infections with the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Hispanic children.
Cancer Causes Control. 2015; 26(4):609-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies focusing on European-ancestry populations have identified ALL risk loci on IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE. To capture the impacts of these genes on ALL risk in the California Hispanic population, we comprehensively assessed the variation within the genes and further assessed the joint effects between the genetic variation and surrogates for early-life infections (the presence of older siblings, daycare attendance, and ear infections).
METHODS: Genotypic data for 323 Hispanic ALL cases and 454 controls from the California Childhood Leukemia Study were generated using Illumina OmniExpress v1 platform. Logistic regression assuming a log-additive model estimated odds ratios (OR) associated with each SNP, adjusted for age, sex, and the first five principal components. In addition, we examined potential interactions between six ALL risk alleles and surrogates for early-life infections using logistic regression models that included an interaction term.
RESULTS: Significant associations between genotypes at IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE and ALL risk were identified: rs7780012, OR 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.71 (p = 0.004); rs7089424, OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.70-2.65 (p = 1.16 × 10(-9)); rs4982731, OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.37-2.08 (p = 2.35 × 10(-6)), respectively. Evidence for multiplicative interactions between genetic variants and surrogates for early-life infections with ALL risk was not observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with findings in non-Hispanic White population, our study showed that variants within IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE were associated with increased ALL risk, and the effects for ARID5B and CEBPE were most prominent in the high-hyperdiploid ALL subtype in the California Hispanic population. Results implicate the ARID5B, CEBPE, and IKZF1 genes in the pathogenesis of childhood ALL.

Evans TJ, Milne E, Anderson D, et al.
Confirmation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia variants, ARID5B and IKZF1, and interaction with parental environmental exposures.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e110255 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have established association of ARID5B and IKZF1 variants with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors alone appear to make a relatively minor contribution to disease risk. The polygenic nature of childhood ALL predisposition together with the timing of environmental triggers may hold vital clues for disease etiology. This study presents results from an Australian GWAS of childhood ALL cases (n = 358) and population controls (n = 1192). Furthermore, we utilised family trio (n = 204) genotypes to extend our investigation to gene-environment interaction of significant loci with parental exposures before conception, and child's sex and age. Thirteen SNPs achieved genome wide significance in the population based case/control analysis; ten annotated to ARID5B and three to IKZF1. The most significant SNPs in these regions were ARID5B rs4245595 (OR 1.63, CI 1.38-1.93, P = 2.13×10(-9)), and IKZF1 rs1110701 (OR 1.69, CI 1.42-2.02, p = 7.26×10(-9)). There was evidence of gene-environment interaction for risk genotype at IKZF1, whereby an apparently stronger genetic effect was observed if the mother took folic acid or if the father did not smoke prior to pregnancy (respective interaction P-values: 0.04, 0.05). There were no interactions of risk genotypes with age or sex (P-values >0.2). Our results evidence that interaction of genetic variants and environmental exposures may further alter risk of childhood ALL however, investigation in a larger population is required. If interaction of folic acid supplementation and IKZF1 variants holds, it may be useful to quantify folate levels prior to initiating use of folic acid supplements.

Urayama KY, Manabe A
Genomic evaluations of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia susceptibility across race/ethnicities.
Rinsho Ketsueki. 2014; 55(10):2242-8 [PubMed] Related Publications

Milanovich S, Peterson J, Allred J, et al.
Sall4 overexpression blocks murine hematopoiesis in a dose-dependent manner.
Exp Hematol. 2015; 43(1):53-64.e1-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) is a transcription factor that exists in two splice isoforms, SALL4a and SALL4b, and regulates transcription in embryonic stem cells, hematopoiesis, and acute myeloid leukemia. Constitutive overexpression of SALL4 in mice induces acute myeloid leukemia. Interestingly, a potential benefit of using SALL4 to facilitate ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell expansion has been proposed. However, distinct roles for how SALL4 contributes to normal versus malignant processes remain undefined. Here we show that SALL4b is the predominant isoform in murine hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Overexpression of either SALL4 isoform in hematopoietic stem cells or progenitors impairs hematopoietic colony formation and expansion in vitro. Lineage-negative bone marrow overexpressing SALL4b fails to engraft and reconstitute hematopoiesis when transplanted. We found that both SALL4a and SALL4b overexpression impair hematopoiesis, in part through dose-dependent repression of BMI1. Additionally, we have identified the following potential novel SALL4 target genes in hematopoiesis: ARID5B (SALL4a and SALL4b), EZH2, and KLF2 (SALL4a). Lastly, we found that SALL4 expression is variable in acute myeloid leukemia, ranging from no expression to levels comparable to embryonic stem cells. These results show that SALL4 isoforms contribute to only a subset of acute myeloid leukemia and that overexpression of SALL4 isoforms impairs hematopoiesis through repression of BMI1. Together these data demonstrate the sensitivity of hematopoiesis to appropriately balanced SALL4 expression, highlighting the importance of regulating this dynamic in potential therapeutic applications such as ex vivo stem cell expansion.

Guo LM, Xi JS, Ma Y, et al.
ARID5B gene rs10821936 polymorphism is associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis based on 39,116 subjects.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(1):709-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among children. Two recent genome-wide association studies and several replicated studies have provided convincing evidence that inherited genetic variation in ARID5B contributes to childhood ALL predisposition. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis to systematically summarize the association between ARID5B genetic polymorphism and the risk for ALL. We conducted a search of case-control studies on the association of ARID5B genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to ALL in PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang database in China, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Data from eligible studies were extracted for meta-analysis. ALL risk associated with ARID5B genetic polymorphism was estimated by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Nine articles including 13 case-control studies were included in the present meta-analysis. We found that rs10821936 polymorphism in ARID5B gene was associated with increased risk for ALL (P < 0.0001; OR = 1.27; 95%CI, 1.17-1.37). This meta-analysis suggests that ARID5B genetic polymorphism was associated with the increased risk of ALL.

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