CDX1

Gene Summary

Gene:CDX1; caudal type homeobox 1
Location:5q32
Summary:This gene is a member of the caudal-related homeobox transcription factor gene family. The encoded DNA-binding protein regulates intestine-specific gene expression and enterocyte differentiation. It has been shown to induce expression of the intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene, and inhibit beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homeobox protein CDX-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • beta Catenin
  • HT29 Cells
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • RTPCR
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Models, Genetic
  • Transcription
  • DNA Methylation
  • Avian Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Signal Transduction
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Cancer DNA
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Epigenetics
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • CpG Islands
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Homeobox Genes
  • Base Sequence
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Metaplasia
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Chromosome 5
  • Messenger RNA
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Binding Sites
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • CDX2 Transcription Factor
  • Young Adult
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDX1 (cancer-related)

Chen C, Peng H, Huang X, et al.
Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation and gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(4):4507-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Previous studies have suggested that DNA methylation involved in the development of ESCC. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the regulation and maintenance of the methylome as well as their relationship with ESCC remain poorly understood. Herein, we used methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and RNA-Seq to investigate whole-genome DNA methylation patterns and the genome expression profiles in ESCC samples. The results of MeDIP-Seq analyses identified differentially methylated regions (DMRs) covering almost the entire genome with sufficient depth and high resolution. The gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the DMRs related genes belonged to several different ontological domains, such as cell cycle, adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. The RNA-Seq analysis identified a total of 6150 differentially expressed genes (3423 up-regulated and 2727 down-regulated). The significant GO terms showed that these genes belonged to several molecular functions and biological pathways. Moreover, the bisulfite-sequencing of genes MLH1, CDH5, TWIST1 and CDX1 confirmed the methylation status identified by MeDIP-Seq. And the mRNA expression levels of MLH1, TWIST1 and CDX1 were consistent with their DNA methylation profiles. The DMR region of MLH1 was found to correlate with survival. The identification of whole-genome DNA methylation patterns and gene expression profiles in ESCC provides new insight into the carcinogenesis of ESCC and represents a promising avenue through which to investigate novel therapeutic targets.

Holst S, Deuss AJ, van Pelt GW, et al.
N-glycosylation Profiling of Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Reveals Association of Fucosylation with Differentiation and Caudal Type Homebox 1 (CDX1)/Villin mRNA Expression.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016; 15(1):124-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Various cancers such as colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with alterations in protein glycosylation. CRC cell lines are frequently used to study these (glyco)biological changes and their mechanisms. However, differences between CRC cell lines with regard to their glycosylation have hitherto been largely neglected. Here, we comprehensively characterized the N-glycan profiles of 25 different CRC cell lines, derived from primary tumors and metastatic sites, in order to investigate their potential as glycobiological tumor model systems and to reveal glycans associated with cell line phenotypes. We applied an optimized, high-throughput membrane-based enzymatic glycan release for small sample amounts. Released glycans were derivatized to stabilize and differentiate between α2,3- and α2,6-linked N-acetylneuraminic acids, followed by N-glycosylation analysis by MALDI-TOF(/TOF)-MS. Our results showed pronounced differences between the N-glycosylation patterns of CRC cell lines. CRC cell line profiles differed from tissue-derived N-glycan profiles with regard to their high-mannose N-glycan content but showed a large overlap for complex type N-glycans, supporting their use as a glycobiological cancer model system. Importantly, we could show that the high-mannose N-glycans did not only occur as intracellular precursors but were also present at the cell surface. The obtained CRC cell line N-glycan features were not clearly correlated with mRNA expression levels of glycosyltransferases, demonstrating the usefulness of performing the structural analysis of glycans. Finally, correlation of CRC cell line glycosylation features with cancer cell markers and phenotypes revealed an association between highly fucosylated glycans and CDX1 and/or villin mRNA expression that both correlate with cell differentiation. Together, our findings provide new insights into CRC-associated glycan changes and setting the basis for more in-depth experiments on glycan function and regulation.

Karpathakis A, Dibra H, Pipinikas C, et al.
Prognostic Impact of Novel Molecular Subtypes of Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(1):250-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SINET) are the commonest malignancy of the small intestine; however, underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Whole-genome and -exome sequencing has demonstrated that SINETs are mutationally quiet, with the most frequent known mutation in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B gene (CDKN1B) occurring in only ∼8% of tumors, suggesting that alternative mechanisms may drive tumorigenesis. The aim of this study is to perform genome-wide molecular profiling of SINETs in order to identify pathogenic drivers based on molecular profiling. This study represents the largest unbiased integrated genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic analysis undertaken in this tumor type.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we present data from integrated molecular analysis of SINETs (n = 97), including whole-exome or targeted CDKN1B sequencing (n = 29), HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina) array profiling (n = 69), methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (n = 16), copy-number variance analysis (n = 47), and Whole-Genome DASL (Illumina) expression array profiling (n = 43).
RESULTS: Based on molecular profiling, SINETs can be classified into three groups, which demonstrate significantly different progression-free survival after resection of primary tumor (not reached at 10 years vs. 56 months vs. 21 months, P = 0.04). Epimutations were found at a recurrence rate of up to 85%, and 21 epigenetically dysregulated genes were identified, including CDX1 (86%), CELSR3 (84%), FBP1 (84%), and GIPR (74%).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive integrated molecular analysis of SINETs. We have demonstrated that these tumors are highly epigenetically dysregulated. Furthermore, we have identified novel molecular subtypes with significant impact on progression-free survival.

Hatano Y, Semi K, Hashimoto K, et al.
Reducing DNA methylation suppresses colon carcinogenesis by inducing tumor cell differentiation.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(7):719-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
The forced reduction of global DNA methylation suppresses tumor development in several cancer models in vivo. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these suppressive effects remain unclear. In this report, we describe our findings showing that a genome-wide reduction in the DNA methylation levels induces cellular differentiation in association with decreased cell proliferation in Apc (Min/+) mouse colon tumor cells in vivo. Colon tumor-specific DNA methylation at Cdx1 is reduced in the DNA-hypomethylated tumors accompanied by Cdx1 derepression and an increased expression of intestinal differentiation-related genes. Furthermore, a histological analysis revealed that Cdx1 derepression in the DNA-hypomethylated tumors is correlated with the differentiation of colon tumor cells. Similarly, the treatment of human colon cancer cell lines with a hypomethylating agent induces differentiation-related genes, including CDX1. We herein propose that DNA demethylation exerts a tumor suppressive effect in the colon by inducing tumor cell differentiation.

Sajjad EA, Sikora K, Paciejewski T, et al.
Intraparenchymal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the frontal lobe--a case report and molecular detection of specific gene fusions from archival FFPE sample.
Clin Neuropathol. 2015 Sep-Oct; 34(5):288-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare tumor of cartilaginous origin characterized by its bimorphic pattern composed of highly undifferentiated small round cells separated by islands of well-differentiated hyaline cartilage. It exhibits higher malignancy and earlier occurrence in comparison to classic chondrosarcomas. Recently identified HEY1-NCOA2 and IRF2BP2-CDX1 gene fusions confirm their distinct molecular origin and pose a promising diagnostic marker. The majority of cases arise from craniofacial bones. In this study, we present a rare case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma encompassed within the brain parenchyma of the frontal lobe without any dural or bone attachment. We demonstrate histopathological findings and confirm the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion in a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival sample using simple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. IRF2BP2-CDX1 gene fusion was absent in the analyzed sample. The clinical follow-up is also presented with a review of treatment modalities for this entity.

Jones MF, Hara T, Francis P, et al.
The CDX1-microRNA-215 axis regulates colorectal cancer stem cell differentiation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(13):E1550-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor caudal-type homeobox 1 (CDX1) is a key regulator of differentiation in the normal colon and in colorectal cancer (CRC). CDX1 activates the expression of enterocyte genes, but it is not clear how the concomitant silencing of stem cell genes is achieved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important mediators of gene repression and have been implicated in tumor suppression and carcinogenesis, but the roles of miRNAs in differentiation, particularly in CRC, remain poorly understood. Here, we identified microRNA-215 (miR-215) as a direct transcriptional target of CDX1 by using high-throughput small RNA sequencing to profile miRNA expression in two pairs of CRC cell lines: CDX1-low HCT116 and HCT116 with stable CDX1 overexpression, and CDX1-high LS174T and LS174T with stable CDX1 knockdown. Validation of candidate miRNAs identified by RNA-seq in a larger cell-line panel revealed miR-215 to be most significantly correlated with CDX1 expression. Quantitative ChIP-PCR and promoter luciferase assays confirmed that CDX1 directly activates miR-215 transcription. miR-215 expression is depleted in FACS-enriched cancer stem cells compared with unsorted samples. Overexpression of miR-215 in poorly differentiated cell lines causes a decrease in clonogenicity, whereas miR-215 knockdown increases clonogenicity and impairs differentiation in CDX1-high cell lines. We identified the genome-wide targets of miR-215 and found that miR-215 mediates the repression of cell cycle and stemness genes downstream of CDX1. In particular, the miR-215 target gene BMI1 has been shown to promote stemness and self-renewal and to vary inversely with CDX1. Our work situates miR-215 as a link between CDX1 expression and BMI1 repression that governs differentiation in CRC.

Samadani AA, Akhavan-Niaki H
Interaction of sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway with cancer stem cell genes in gastric cancer.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer may appear by frequent genetic or epigenetic changes in oncogenes, tumor suppressor or DNA mismatch repair genes. Molecular studies show the possibility of involvement of certain cancer pathways in gastric cancer. In this respect, DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic alterations in gastric cancer and identifying the signaling mechanism and also methylation of some genes that are involved in gastric cancer can help to improve treatment strategies. Relatively, there are many reported methylation alteration of genes in stem cells in all kinds of tumors with some of these genes having a key role in tumor development. Correspondingly, KLF5, CDX1/2, WNT1 and FEM1A are considerable genes in gastric cancer, although many researches and studies have illustrated that sonic hedgehog and expression of its signaling cascade proteins are related in gastric cancer. Relatively, modification in these genes causes many eclectic cancers such as rhabdomyosarcoma and diverse kinds of digestive system tumor development. Conspicuously, these master genes have a noticeable role in stem cell's growth regulation as well as other kinds of cancer such as breast cancer and leukemia. Hence, we concluded that research and studies on methylation and expression of these genes and also the investigation of molecular signaling in gastric cancer can acquire impressive conclusions in order to control and treat this common place and serious problem.

Drew JE, Farquharson AJ, Mayer CD, et al.
Predictive gene signatures: molecular markers distinguishing colon adenomatous polyp and carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113071 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2), proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12), differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2), apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1), fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1), structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES), gene transcription (HDAC1), stem cell (LGR5), endothelial (VWF) and mucin production (MUC2). Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material.

Hryniuk A, Grainger S, Savory JG, Lohnes D
Cdx1 and Cdx2 function as tumor suppressors.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(48):33343-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In humans, colorectal cancer is often initiated through APC loss of function, which leads to crypt hyperplasia and polyposis driven by unrestricted canonical Wnt signaling. Such polyps typically arise in the colorectal region and are at risk of transforming to invasive adenocarcinomas. Although colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, the processes impacting initiation, transformation, and invasion are incompletely understood. Murine APC(Min/+) mutants are often used to model colorectal cancers; however, they develop nonmetastatic tumors confined largely to the small intestine and are thus not entirely representative of the human disease. APC(Min/+) alleles can collaborate with mutations impacting other pathways to recapitulate some aspects of human colorectal cancer. To this end, we assessed APC(Min/+)-induced polyposis following somatic loss of the homeodomain transcription factor Cdx2, alone or with a Cdx1 null allele, in the adult gastrointestinal tract. APC(Min/+)-Cdx2 mutants recapitulated several aspects of human colorectal cancer, including an invasive phenotype. Notably, the concomitant loss of Cdx1 led to a significant increase in the incidence of tumors in the distal colon, relative to APC(Min/+)-Cdx2 offspring, demonstrating a previously unrecognized role for this transcription factor in colorectal tumorigenesis. These findings underscore previously unrecognized roles for Cdx members in intestinal tumorigenesis.

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Bjerkehagen B, et al.
Chromosome aberrations and HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene in a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):40-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are fast-growing tumors that account for 2-10% of primary chondrosarcomas. Cytogenetic information is restricted to 12 cases that did not show a specific aberration pattern. Recently, two fusion genes were described in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas: a recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 found in tumors that had not been cytogenetically characterized and an IRF2BP2-CDX1 found in a tumor carrying a t(1;5)(q42;q32) translocation as the sole chromosomal abnormality. Here, we present the cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in which the patient had two histologically indistinguishable tumor lesions, one in the neck and one in the thigh. An abnormal clone with the G-banding karyotype 46,XX,add(6)(q23),add(8)(p23),del(10)(p11),+12,-15[6] was found in the neck tumor whereas a normal karyotype, 46,XX, was found in the tumor of the thigh. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing showed that exon 4 of HEY1 was fused to exon 13 of NCOA2 in the sample from the thigh lesion; we did not have spare material to perform a similar analysis of the neck tumor. Examining the published karyotypes we observed numerical or structural aberrations of chromosome 8 in the majority of the karyotyped mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. Chromosome 8 was also structurally affected in the present study. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind this nonrandom involvement are unknown, but the presence on 8q of two genes, HEY1 and NCOA2, now known to be involved in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma tumorigenesis is, of course, suggestive.

Green NH, Nicholls Z, Heath PR, et al.
Pulsatile exposure to simulated reflux leads to changes in gene expression in a 3D model of oesophageal mucosa.
Int J Exp Pathol. 2014; 95(3):216-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oesophageal exposure to duodenogastroesophageal refluxate is implicated in the development of Barrett's metaplasia (BM), with increased risk of progression to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The literature proposes that reflux exposure activates NF-κB, driving the aberrant expression of intestine-specific caudal-related homeobox (CDX) genes. However, early events in the pathogenesis of BM from normal epithelium are poorly understood. To investigate this, our study subjected a 3D model of the normal human oesophageal mucosa to repeated, pulsatile exposure to specific bile components and examined changes in gene expression. Initial 2D experiments with a range of bile salts observed that taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC) impacted upon NF-κB activation without causing cell death. Informed by this, the 3D oesophageal model was repeatedly exposed to TCDC in the presence and absence of acid, and the epithelial cells underwent gene expression profiling. We identified ~300 differentially expressed genes following each treatment, with a large and significant overlap between treatments. Enrichment analysis (Broad GSEA, DAVID and Metacore™; GeneGo Inc) identified multiple gene sets related to cell signalling, inflammation, proliferation, differentiation and cell adhesion. Specifically NF-κB activation, Wnt signalling, cell adhesion and targets for the transcription factors PTF1A and HNF4α were highlighted. Our data suggest that HNF4α isoform switching may be an early event in Barrett's pathogenesis. CDX1/2 targets were, however, not enriched, suggesting that although CDX1/2 activation reportedly plays a role in BM development, it may not be an initial event. Our findings highlight new areas for investigation in the earliest stages of BM pathogenesis of oesophageal diseases and new potential therapeutic targets.

Ku HJ, Kim HY, Kim HH, et al.
Bile acid increases expression of the histamine-producing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase, in gastric cells.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(1):175-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the effect of bile acid on the expression of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which is a major enzyme involved in histamine production, and gene expression of gastric transcription factors upon cooperative activation.
METHODS: HDC expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and promoter assay in human gastric precancerous tissues, normal stomach tissue, and gastric cancer cell lines. The relationship between gastric precancerous state and HDC expression induced by bile acid was determined. The association between the expression of HDC and various specific transcription factors in gastric cells was also evaluated. MKN45 and AGS human gastric carcinoma cell lines were transfected with farnesoid X receptor (FXR), small heterodimer partner (SHP), and caudal-type homeodomain transcription factor (CDX)1 expression plasmids. The effects of various transcription factors on HDC expression were monitored by luciferase-reporter promoter assay.
RESULTS: Histamine production and secretion in the stomach play critical roles in gastric acid secretion and in the pathogenesis of gastric diseases. Here, we show that bile acid increased the expression of HDC, which is a rate-limiting enzyme of the histamine production pathway. FXR was found to be a primary regulatory transcription factor for bile acid-induced HDC expression. In addition, the transcription factors CDX1 and SHP synergistically enhanced bile acid-induced elevation of HDC gene expression. We confirmed similar expression patterns for HDC, CDX1, and SHP in patient tissues.
CONCLUSION: HDC production in the stomach is associated with bile acid exposure and its related transcriptional regulation network of FXR, SHP, and CDX1.

Akhavan-Niaki H, Samadani AA
Molecular insight in gastric cancer induction: an overview of cancer stemness genes.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 68(3):463-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most outgoing human cancers in the world. Two main functional types were described: Intestinal adenocarcinoma and diffuse one. The most important purpose of this review is to analyze and investigate the main genetic factors involved in tumorogenesis of stomach and the molecular mechanism of their expression regulation alongside with the importance of cancer stem cells and their relationship with gastric cancer. It is evident that proper diagnosis of molecular case of cancer may lead to absolute treatment and at least reduction in the disease severity. However, stemness factors such as Sox2, Oct3/4, and Nanog were related with induced pluripotent stem cells, proposing a correlation between these stemness factors and cancer stem cells. Moreover, aberrant induction by Helicobacter pylori of the intestinal-specific homeobox transcription factors, CDX1 and CDX2, also plays an important role in this modification. There are some genes which are directly activated by CDX1 in gastric cancer and distinguished stemness-related reprogramming factors like SALL4 and KLF5. Correspondingly, we also aimed to present the main important epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin modeling of stemness genes in disease development. Remarkably, a better understanding of molecular bases of cancer may lead to novel diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approaches by some genetic and epigenetic changes such as gene amplifications, gene silencing by DNA methylation, losses of imprinting, LOH, and mutations. Consequently, genome-wide searches of gene expression are widely important for surveying the proper mechanisms of cancer emergence and development. Conspicuously, this review explains an outline of the molecular mechanism and new approaches in gastric cancer.

Ashley N, Yeung TM, Bodmer WF
Stem cell differentiation and lumen formation in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary tumors.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(18):5798-809 [PubMed] Related Publications
Single cancer stem-like cells (CSC) from colorectal cancers can be functionally identified by their ability to form large lumen-containing colonies in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. These colonies contain the three types of differentiated colorectal epithelial cells, and single cells obtained from them can reproduce themselves and form tumors efficiently in immunodeficient mice. In this study, we show how hypoxia affects these CSC-derived lumens to control differentiation of stem-like cells and enterocytes via the homeobox gene CDX1. Lumens were identified by F-actin staining and they expressed many characteristics associated with normal differentiated intestinal epithelium, including brush border enzymes, polarization, and tight junctions. RNA interference-mediated silencing of CDX1 reduced lumen formation. Inhibitory effects of hypoxia on lumen formation and stem cell differentiation, including suppression of CDX1 expression, could be mimicked by inhibiting prolyl-hydroxylases that activate HIF1, suggesting that HIF1 is a critical mediator of the effects of hypoxia in this setting. Cell line-derived lumens were phenotypically indistinguishable from colorectal tumor glandular structures used by pathologists to grade tumor differentiation. Parallel results to those obtained with established cell lines were seen with primary cultures from fresh tumors. This in vitro approach to functional characterization of CSCs and their differentiation offers a valid model to study colorectal tumor differentiation and differentiation of colorectal CSCs, with additional uses to enable high-throughput screening for novel anticancer compounds.

Zhang R, Kang KA, Kim KC, et al.
Oxidative stress causes epigenetic alteration of CDX1 expression in colorectal cancer cells.
Gene. 2013; 524(2):214-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The intestine-specific transcription factor, caudal type homeobox-1 (CDX1), is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that plays key roles in regulating intestinal epithelial differentiation and proliferation. It is aberrantly down-regulated in colorectal cancers and colon cancer-derived cell lines by promoter hypermethylation. Since the effects of oxidative stress on the transcription of tumor suppressor genes are largely unknown, this study explored the epigenetic alterations that occur during reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced silencing of CDX1 in colorectal cancer cells. Oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) down-regulated CDX1 mRNA levels and protein expression in the human colorectal cancer cell line, T-84. This down-regulation was abolished by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine. In addition, the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) markedly attenuated the decrease in mRNA and protein expression levels induced by H2O2. Moreover, methylation-specific PCR data revealed that H2O2 treatment increased CDX1 promoter methylation, and treatment with 5-Aza-dC reversed this effect, suggesting that an epigenetic regulatory mechanism triggered by ROS-induced methylation may be involved in CDX1 expression. Furthermore, H2O2 treatment resulted in up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) expression and activity, and enhanced the association between DNMT1 and HDAC1. Taken together, these results suggest that ROS-induced oxidative stress silences the tumor suppressor CDX1 through epigenetic regulation, and may therefore be associated with the progression of colorectal cancer.

Bornschein J, Tóth K, Selgrad M, et al.
Dysregulation of CDX1, CDX2 and SOX2 in patients with gastric cancer also affects the non-malignant mucosa.
J Clin Pathol. 2013; 66(9):819-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The interplay between gastric and intestinal transcription factors has an important impact on gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gene expression of CDX1, CDX2, SOX2 and related downstream genes in tumour and tumour surrounding gastric tissue of 48 gastric cancer patients with 30 healthy controls. There was no difference of gene expression of CDX1 and CDX2 between tumour or tumour-adjacent and tumour-distant mucosa, but both factors were significantly higher expressed in cancer patients compared with controls (p<0.01). SOX2 was downregulated in tumour tissue compared to controls, whereas tumour-adjacent and tumour-distant mucosa showed intermediate SOX2 expression. Laurén type and Helicobacter pylori infection had no significant impact on expression of the transcription factors. Expression of CDX1 and CDX2 was higher in the presence of intestinal metaplasia. The differential regulation of the gene expression of CDX1, CDX2 and SOX2 in patients with gastric cancer affects not only the tumour but also the non-neoplastic tumour-distant mucosa.

Li T, Lu YY, Zhao XD, et al.
MicroRNA-296-5p increases proliferation in gastric cancer through repression of Caudal-related homeobox 1.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(6):783-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Caudal-related homeobox 1 (CDX1), an intestinal-specific transcription factor, has been reported to have vital roles in gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM). Although IM is a high-risk factor for gastric cancer (GC), the specific role of CDX1 in GC is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDX1 and its functional roles in GC, and its upstream regulatory mechanisms at the microRNA (miRNA) level were further explored. We found that CDX1 is lost in GC when compared with adjacent IM tissues. Gain-of-function studies showed that CDX1 significantly inhibited GC cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, we identified and verified an onco-mir, miR-296-5p, as a direct upstream regulator of CDX1. miR-296-5p overexpression significantly promoted GC cell growth and attenuated the CDX1-induced anti-growth effects by recurring cell cycle distribution and apoptotic status, whereas knockdown of miR-296-5p decreased GC cell growth. Furthermore, we found that the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation and the subsequent downstream changes in protein levels related to cell cycle and apoptosis partly account for the miR-296-5p-CDX1-induced GC growth promotion. In addition, the detection of miR-296-5p and expression of CDX1 in primary GC tissues and adjacent IM tissues revealed that miR-296-5p is inversely correlated with CDX1, further supporting our in vitro results. Our results showed an anti-growth effect of CDX1 and identified its miRNA regulatory mechanism in GC. The identification of this novel miR-296-5p-CDX1-ERK1/2 axis sheds new light on the understanding of the process from IM to GC and may provide therapeutic targets for the treatment of GC.

Nyquist KB, Panagopoulos I, Thorsen J, et al.
Whole-transcriptome sequencing identifies novel IRF2BP2-CDX1 fusion gene brought about by translocation t(1;5)(q42;q32) in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49705 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (MCs) account for 3-10% of primary chondrosarcomas. The cytogenetic literature includes only ten such tumours with karyotypic information and no specific aberrations have been identified. Using a purely molecular genetic approach a HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene was recently detected in 10 of 15 investigated MCs. The fusion probably arises through intrachromosomal rearrangement of chromosome arm 8 q. We report a new case of MC showing a t(1;5)(q42;q32) as the sole karyotypic aberration. Through FISH and whole transcriptome sequencing analysis we found a novel fusion between the IRF2BP2 gene and the transcription factor CDX1 gene arising from the translocation. The IRF2BP2-CDX1 has not formerly been described in human neoplasia. In our hospital's archives three more cases of MC were found, and we examined them looking for the supposedly more common HEY1-NCOA2 fusion, finding it in all three tumours but not in the case showing t(1;5) and IRF2BP2-CDX1 gene fusion. This demonstrates that genetic heterogeneity exists in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.

Lengerke C, Daley GQ
Caudal genes in blood development and leukemia.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012; 1266:47-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Members of the caudal gene family (in mice and humans: Cdx1, Cdx2, and Cdx4) have been studied during early development as regulators of axial elongation and anteroposterior patterning. In the adult, Cdx1 and Cdx2, but not Cdx4, have been intensively explored for their function in intestinal tissue homeostasis and the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal cancers. Involvement in embryonic hematopoiesis was first demonstrated in zebrafish, where cdx genes render posterior lateral plate mesoderm competent to respond to genes specifying hematopoietic fate, and compound mutations in cdx genes thus result in a bloodless phenotype. Parallel studies performed in zebrafish embryos and murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) delineate conserved pathways between fish and mammals, corroborating a BMP/Wnt-Cdx-Hox axis during blood development that can be employed to augment derivation of blood progenitors from pluripotent stem cells in vitro. The molecular regulation of Cdx genes appears complex, as more recent data suggest involvement of non-Hox-related mechanisms and the existence of auto- and cross-regulatory loops governed by morphogens. Here, we will review the role of Cdx genes during hematopoietic development by comparing effects in zebrafish and mice and discuss their participation in malignant blood diseases.

Kim HA, Koo BK, Cho JH, et al.
Notch1 counteracts WNT/β-catenin signaling through chromatin modification in colorectal cancer.
J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(9):3248-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Crosstalk between the Notch and wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT) signaling pathways has been investigated for many developmental processes. However, this negative correlation between Notch and WNT/β-catenin signaling activity has been studied primarily in normal developmental and physiological processes in which negative feedback loops for both signaling pathways are intact. We found that Notch1 signaling retained the capability of suppressing the expression of WNT target genes in colorectal cancers even when β-catenin destruction by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) complex was disabled. Activation of Notch1 converted high-grade adenoma into low-grade adenoma in an Apcmin mouse colon cancer model and suppressed the expression of WNT target genes in human colorectal cancer cells through epigenetic modification recruiting histone methyltransferase SET domain bifurcated 1 (SETDB1). Extensive microarray analysis of human colorectal cancers also showed a negative correlation between the Notch1 target gene, Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein 1 (NRARP), and WNT target genes. Notch is known to be a strong promoter of tumor initiation, but here we uncovered an unexpected suppressive role of Notch1 on WNT/β-catenin target genes involved in colorectal cancer.

Tagawa T, Haraguchi T, Hiramatsu H, et al.
Multiple microRNAs induced by Cdx1 suppress Cdx2 in human colorectal tumour cells.
Biochem J. 2012; 447(3):449-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mammalian transcriptional factors, Cdx1 and Cdx2 (Cdx is caudal-type homeobox) are paralogues and critical for the cellular differentiation of intestinal or colorectal epithelia. It has been reported previously that in Cdx1 transgenic or knockout mice, endogenous Cdx2 levels are inversely correlated with Cdx1 levels. Recently, we found that exogenous Cdx1 expression can suppress Cdx2 in a human colorectal tumour cell line, SW480, although the underlying molecular mechanisms were unclear. In the present study, we show that several microRNAs induced by exogenous Cdx1 expression directly bind to the CDX2 mRNA 3'UTR (untranslated region) to destabilize these transcripts, finally leading to their degradation. Using microarray analysis, we found that several miRNAs that were computationally predicted to target CDX2 mRNAs are up-regulated by exogenous Cdx1 expression in SW480 cells. Among these molecules, we identified miR-9, miR-16 and miR-22 as having the potential to suppress Cdx2 through the binding of the 3'UTR to its transcript. Importantly, simultaneous mutations of both the miR-9- and miR-16-binding sites in the CDX2 3'UTR were shown to be sufficient to block Cdx2 suppression. The results of the present study suggest a unique feature of miRNAs in which they contribute to homoeostasis by limiting the levels of transcription factors belonging to the same gene family.

Rau TT, Rogler A, Frischauf M, et al.
Methylation-dependent activation of CDX1 through NF-κB: a link from inflammation to intestinal metaplasia in the human stomach.
Am J Pathol. 2012; 181(2):487-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The caudal homeobox factor 1 (CDX1) is an essential transcription factor for intestinal differentiation. Its aberrant expression in intestinal metaplasia of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a hallmark within the gastritis-metaplasia-carcinoma sequence. CDX1 expression is influenced by certain pathways, such as Wnt, Ras, or NF-κB signaling; however, these pathways alone cannot explain the transient expression of CDX1 in intestinal metaplasia or the molecular inactivation mechanism of its loss in cases of advanced gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the epigenetic inactivation of CDX1 by promoter methylation, as well as the functional link of CDX1 promoter methylation to the inflammatory NF-κB signaling pathway. We identified methylation-dependent NF-κB binding to the CDX1 promoter and quantified it using competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A methylated CDX1 promoter was associated with closed chromatin structure, reduced NF-κB binding, and transcriptional silencing. Along the gastritis-metaplasia-carcinoma sequence, we observed a biphasic pattern of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) protein expression and an inverse biphasic pattern of CDX1 promoter methylation; both are highly consistent with CDX1 protein expression. The stages of hyper-, hypo-, and hyper-methylation patterns of the CDX1 promoter were inversely correlated with the NF-κB signaling activity along this sequence. In conclusion, these functionally interacting events drive CDX1 expression and contribute to intestinal metaplasia, epithelial dedifferentiation, and carcinogenesis in the human stomach.

Bhat AA, Sharma A, Pope J, et al.
Caudal homeobox protein Cdx-2 cooperates with Wnt pathway to regulate claudin-1 expression in colon cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e37174 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulation of tight junctions (TJs) is often associated with human diseases including carcinogenesis and recent studies support role of TJ integral proteins in the regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). In this regard, expression of claudin-1, a key constituent of TJs, is highly increased in colon cancer and is causally associated with the tumor growth and progression. However, mechanism/s underlying regulation of claudin-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells remains poorly understood. In our studies, we have identified putative binding sites for intestinal transcription factors Cdx1, -2 and GATA4 in the 5'-flanking region of the claudin-1 gene. Our further studies using full length and/or deletion mutant constructs in two different human colon cancer cell lines, SW480 and HCT116, showed key role of Cdx1, Cdx2 and GATA4 in the regulation of claudin-1 mRNA expression. However, overexpression of Cdx2 had the most potent effect upon claudin-1 mRNA expression and promoter activity. Also, in colon cancer patient samples, we observed a significant and parallel correlation between claudin-1 and Cdx2 expressions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed the Cdx2 binding with claudin-1 promoter in vivo. Using Cdx2 deletion mutant constructs, we further mapped the Cdx2 C-terminus domain to be important in the regulation of claudin-1 promoter activity. Interestingly, co-expression of activated β-catenin further induced the Cdx2-dependent upregulation of claudin-1 promoter activity while expression of the dominant negative (dn)-TCF-4 abrogated this activation. Taken together, we conclude that homeodomain transcription factors Cdx1, Cdx2 and GATA4 regulate claudin-1 gene expression in human colon cancer cells. Moreover, a functional crosstalk between Wnt-signaling and transcriptional activation related to caudal-related homeobox (Cdx) proteins and GATA-proteins is demonstrated in the regulation of claudin-1 promoter-activation.

Arango D, Al-Obaidi S, Williams DS, et al.
Villin expression is frequently lost in poorly differentiated colon cancer.
Am J Pathol. 2012; 180(4):1509-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are classified as having microsatellite instability (MSI) or chromosomal instability (CIN); herein termed microsatellite stable (MSS). MSI colon cancers frequently display a poorly differentiated histology for which the molecular basis is not well understood. Gene expression and immunohistochemical profiling of MSS and MSI CRC cell lines and tumors revealed significant down-regulation of the intestinal-specific cytoskeletal protein villin in MSI colon cancer, with complete absence in 62% and 17% of MSI cell lines and tumors, respectively. Investigation of 577 CRCs linked loss of villin expression to poorly differentiated histology in MSI and MSS tumors. Furthermore, mislocalization of villin from the membrane was prognostic for poorer outcome in MSS patients. Loss of villin expression was not due to coding sequence mutations, epigenetic inactivation, or promoter mutation. Conversely, in transient transfection assays villin promoter activity reflected endogenous villin expression, suggesting transcriptional control. A screen of gut-specific transcription factors revealed a significant correlation between expression of villin and the homeobox transcription factor Cdx-1. Cdx-1 overexpression induced villin promoter activity, Cdx-1 knockdown down-regulated endogenous villin expression, and deletion of a key Cdx-binding site within the villin promoter attenuated promoter activity. Loss of Cdx-1 expression in CRC lines was associated with Cdx-1 promoter methylation. These findings demonstrate that loss of villin expression due to Cdx-1 loss is a feature of poorly differentiated CRCs.

Rönsch K, Jäger M, Schöpflin A, et al.
Class I and III HDACs and loss of active chromatin features contribute to epigenetic silencing of CDX1 and EPHB tumor suppressor genes in colorectal cancer.
Epigenetics. 2011; 6(5):610-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a driving force during initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. Yet, the Wnt/β-catenin targets CDX1, EPHB2, EPHB3 and EPHB4 (EPHB2-4) act as tumor suppressors in intestinal epithelial cells and frequently appear to be transcriptionally silenced in carcinomas. The molecular mechanisms which underlie the apparent loss of expression of a subset of Wnt/β-catenin targets in a background of persistent pathway activity are largely unknown. To gain insight into this, we quantified expression of CDX1 and EPHB2-4 in human tissue specimens of case-matched colorectal normal mucosa, adenoma and invasive carcinoma. In particular EPHB2-4 display biphasic, albeit not strictly coincident, expression profiles with elevated levels in adenomas and decreased transcription in approximately 30% of the corresponding carcinomas. Consistent with their divergent and variable expression we observed considerable heterogeneity among the epigenetic landscapes at CDX1 and EPHB2-4 in a model of colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Unlike the inactive CDX1 locus, EPHB2-4 maintain DNA hypomethylation of their promoter regions in the silent state. A strong reduction of active histone modifications consistently parallels reduced expression of CDX1 and EPHB3 and to some extent of EPHB2. Accordingly, treatment with inhibitors for DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) restored CDX1 and EPHB2-4 expression depending upon epigenetic features at their promoters but also upon cellular background. Overall our findings show that downregulation of CDX1 and EphB receptor genes occurs independently and that different branches of epigenetic control systems including class I and III HDACs contribute to epigenetic silencing of Wnt/β-catenin targets during colorectal tumorigenesis.

Yeung TM, Gandhi SC, Bodmer WF
Hypoxia and lineage specification of cell line-derived colorectal cancer stem cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108(11):4382-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia is an important regulator of normal and cancer stem cell (CSC) differentiation. Colorectal CSCs from SW1222, LS180, and CCK81 colorectal cancer-derived cell lines are able to differentiate into complex 3D lumen-containing structures in normoxia, whereas in hypoxia, they form undifferentiated dense colonies that have reduced expression of the enterocyte differentiation marker CDX1, lack goblet cell formation, and have increased expression of BMI1 and activated Notch1. Hypoxia increases the clonogenicity of CSCs, which is cumulative as each round of hypoxia enriches for more CSCs. The hypoxic phenotype is reversible, because cells from hypoxic-dense colonies are able to reform differentiated structures when regrown in normoxia. We show that CDX1 is able to stimulate the generation of lumens even in hypoxia and has a negative feedback on BMI1 expression. Knockdown of CDX1 reduces lumen formation but does not affect goblet cell formation, suggesting that enterocytes and goblet cells form from different progenitor cells. Notch inhibition by dibenzazepine (DBZ) allowed CSCs to form goblet cells in both normoxia and hypoxia. Finally, we show that Hif1α, but not CA9, is an important mediator of the effects of hypoxia on the clonogenicity and differentiation of CSCs. In summary, hypoxia maintains the stem-like phenotype of colorectal cell line-derived CSCs and prevents differentiation of enterocytes and goblet cells by regulating CDX1 and Notch1, suggesting that this regulation is an important component of how hypoxia controls the switch between stemness and differentiation in CSCs.

Starkova J, Zamostna B, Mejstrikova E, et al.
HOX gene expression in phenotypic and genotypic subgroups and low HOXA gene expression as an adverse prognostic factor in pediatric ALL.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010; 55(6):1072-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HOX genes play an important role in both normal lymphopoiesis and leukemogenesis. However, HOX expression patterns in leukemia cells compared to normal lymphoid progenitors have not been systematically studied in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) subtypes.
PROCEDURE: The RNA expression levels of HOXA, HOXB, and CDX1/2 genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR in a cohort of 61 diagnostic pediatric ALL samples and FACS-sorted subpopulations of normal lymphoid progenitors.
RESULTS: The RNA expression of HOXA7-10, HOXA13, and HOXB2-4 genes was exclusively detected in leukemic cells and immature progenitors. The RNA expression of HOXB6 and CDX2 genes was exclusively detected in leukemic cells but not in B-lineage cells at any of the studied developmental stages. HOXA3-4, HOXA7, and HOXB3-4 genes were differentially expressed between BCP-ALL and T-ALL subgroups, and among genotypically defined MLL/AF4, TEL/AML1, BCR/ABL, hyperdiploid and normal karyotype subgroups. However, this differential expression did not define specific clusters in hierarchical cluster analysis. HOXA7 gene was low expressed at the RNA level in patients with hyperdiploid leukemia, whereas HOXB7 and CDX2 genes were low expressed in TEL/AML1-positive and BCR/ABL-positive cases, respectively. In contrast to previous findings in acute myeloid leukemia, high HOXA RNA expression was associated with an excellent prognosis in Cox's regression model (P = 0.03). In MLL/AF4-positive ALL, lower HOXA RNA expression correlated with the methylation status of their promoters.
CONCLUSIONS: HOX gene RNA expression cannot discriminate leukemia subgroups or relative maturity of leukemic cells. However, HOXA RNA expression correlates with prognosis, and particular HOX genes are expressed in specific genotypically characterized subgroups.

Koslowski M, Türeci O, Huber C, Sahin U
Selective activation of tumor growth-promoting Ca2+ channel MS4A12 in colon cancer by caudal type homeobox transcription factor CDX2.
Mol Cancer. 2009; 8:77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colon cancer-associated MS4A12 is a novel colon-specific component of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) entry sensitizing cells for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated effects on proliferation and chemotaxis. In the present study, we investigated regulation of the MS4A12 promoter to understand the mechanisms responsible for strict transcriptional restriction of this gene to the colonic epithelial cell lineage. DNA-binding assays and luciferase reporter assays showed that MS4A12 promoter activity is governed by a single CDX homeobox transcription factor binding element. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of intestine-specific transcription factors CDX1 and CDX2 and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in LoVo and SW48 colon cancer cells revealed that MS4A12 transcript and protein expression is essentially dependent on the presence of endogenous CDX2. In summary, our findings provide a rationale for colon-specific expression of MS4A12. Moreover, this is the first report establishing CDX2 as transactivator of tumor growth-promoting gene expression in colon cancer, adding to untangle the complex and conflicting biological functions of CDX2 in colon cancer and supporting MS4A12 as important factor for normal colonic development as well as for the biology and treatment of colon cancer.

Colleypriest BJ, Palmer RM, Ward SG, Tosh D
Cdx genes, inflammation and the pathogenesis of Barrett's metaplasia.
Trends Mol Med. 2009; 15(7):313-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metaplasia is the conversion of one cell or tissue type to another and can predispose patients to neoplasia. Perhaps one of the best-known examples of metaplasia is Barrett's metaplasia (BM), a pathological condition in which the distal oesophageal epithelium switches from stratified squamous to intestinal-type columnar epithelium. BM predisposes to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and is the consequence of long-term acid bile reflux. The incidence of BM and oesophageal adenocarcinoma has risen dramatically in recent years. A key event in the pathogenesis of BM is the induction of oesophageal CDX2 expression. Importantly, recent data reveal the molecular mechanisms that link inflammation in the development of Barrett's metaplasia, CDX2 and the progression to cancer. This review highlights the relationship between inflammation, metaplasia and carcinogenesis.

Riedt T, Ebinger M, Salih HR, et al.
Aberrant expression of the homeobox gene CDX2 in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2009; 113(17):4049-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the caudal (cdx) family of homeobox proteins are essential regulators of embryonic blood development in zebrafish. Previously, we reported that the murine homologues (Cdx1, Cdx2, and Cdx4) affect formation and differentiation of embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells. Consistent with the notion that embryonic pathways can reactivate during adult oncogenesis, recent studies suggest involvement of CDX2 in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we study CDX2 in healthy and leukemic human lymphoid cells, and show that a majority of leukemic samples display various degrees of aberrant CDX2 expression. Analysis of a cohort of 37 childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients treated in our hospital reveals that high CDX2 expression levels at diagnosis correlate with persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD) during the course of treatment. Thus, CDX2 expression levels may serve as a marker for adverse prognosis in pediatric ALL.

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