Gene Summary

Gene:DRD2; dopamine receptor D2
Aliases: D2R, D2DR
Summary:This gene encodes the D2 subtype of the dopamine receptor. This G-protein coupled receptor inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity. A missense mutation in this gene causes myoclonus dystonia; other mutations have been associated with schizophrenia. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. A third variant has been described, but it has not been determined whether this form is normal or due to aberrant splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:D(2) dopamine receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DRD2 (cancer-related)

Moses-Fynn E, Tang W, Beyene D, et al.
Correlating blood-based DNA methylation markers and prostate cancer risk in African-American men.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(9):e0203322 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The objective of this work was to investigate the clinical significance of promoter gene DNA methylation changes in whole blood from African-American (AA) men with prostate cancer (PCa). We used high throughput pyrosequencing analysis to quantify percentage DNA methylation levels in a panel of 8 genes (RARβ2, TIMP3, SPARC, CDH13, HIN1, LINE1, CYB5R2 and DRD2) in blood DNA obtained from PCa and non-cancerous controls cases. Correlations of methylation status and various clinicopathological features were evaluated. Six genes tested achieved significant difference in DNA methylation levels between the PCa compared to control cases (P < 0.05). The TIMP3 loci demonstrated significant correlation of DNA methylation with age for all cases analyzed (p < 0.05). We observed an inverse correlation between CDH13 methylation (p = 0.045; r = -0.21) and serum vitamin D level whereas TIMP3 methylation (p = 0.021; r = -0.24) and DRD2 methylation (p = 0.056; r = -0.201) showed inverse correlation with supplementary vitamin D in the cancer cases. We also observed a direct correlation between methylation of RARβ2 (p = 0.0036; r = 0.293) and SPARC (p = 0.0134; r = 0.20) loci with PSA level in the controls but not the cancer cases. In addition, alcohol cases significantly correlated with higher RARβ2 methylation (p = 0.0314) in comparison with non-alcohol cases. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation of DRD2 methylation (p = 0.0349; r = -0.343) and Gleason score. Our data suggests that promoter methylation occurred more frequently in the blood of AA PCa and is associated with various clinicopathological features in AA men with PCa.

Tung MC, Wen YC, Wang SS, et al.
Dopamine receptor D2 genetic variations is associated with the risk and clinicopathological variables of urothelial cell carcinoma in a Taiwanese population.
Int J Med Sci. 2018; 15(11):1187-1193 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) is overexpressed in several kinds of cancers and was correlated with the prognosis of these cancers. Polymorphisms within the DRD2 gene were shown to be associated with lung and colon cancers. The purpose of this study was to explore effects of

Liang L, Zeng JH, Qin XG, et al.
Distinguishable Prognostic Signatures of Left- and Right-Sided Colon Cancer: a Study Based on Sequencing Data.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(2):475-490 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Left- and right-sided colon cancers are considered to be two different diseases and have altered outcomes. However, specific molecules to predict the prognosis of left- and right-sided colon cancers are currently lacking.
METHODS: Expression profiling of colon cancer were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of left- and right-sided colon cancers were compared by DESeq analysis. The prognostic values of DEGs were assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Prognostic index models of two side colon cancers were conducted with prognostic values genes, respectively. Interaction of DEGs was then analyzed by the protein-protein interaction (PPI). Different biology function of two sides of colon cancer was assessed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA).
RESULTS: A total of 167 DEGs were identified between left- and right-sided colon cancers based on TCGA data. Using univariate COX regression analysis, five genes (PHACTR3, CKMT2, CYP2W1, ERFE, HOXC4) were related to overall survival in left-sided, and eight distinguishable genes (EREG, ERFE, HOXC6, SLC22A31, TFF1, GFI1, ZG16, RASL10B) in right-sided. Further, left-sided prognostic model was established with PHACTR3 and CKMT2 (HR=2.040; 95%CI=1.004-4.145; P=0.049). Distinguishable prognostic signature for right-sided colon cancer was established based on EREG, ERFE, GFI1, and RASL10B (HR=3.530; 95%CI: 1.934-6.444; P< 0.001) in multivariate analysis. PPI analysis of 167 DEGs showed that CCL5, GNG4, GNLY, GZMH, DRD2, and FASLG genes were at the core of interaction network. In GSEA function analysis, four pathways, including antigen processing and presentation, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, intestinal immune network for Iga production, and type I diabetes mellitus, were significantly enriched in the DEGs of the right-sided colon cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: This study constructs a panel of potential prognostic model of left- and right-sided colon cancers, respectively. We also provide molecular biological alterations between left- and right-sided colon cancers.

Gholipour N, Ohradanova-Repic A, Ahangari G
A novel report of MiR-4301 induces cell apoptosis by negatively regulating DRD2 expression in human breast cancer cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(8):6408-6417 [PubMed] Related Publications
In several cancers, microRNA (miRNAs) play vital roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance, and metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression levels of miR-4301 in human breast cancer and investigate whether its potential roles involved targeting Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was also used to examine the expression levels of miR-4301 in human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and SKBR3. In these cell lines, MTT assay, immunofluorescence staining, caspase assay, proliferation assay, and flow cytometry were conducted to explore the potential functions of miR-4301. The effects of modulating miR-4301 on transcription levels of DRD2 were subsequently confirmed via qRT-PCR. miR-4301 expression levels were significantly decreased in human breast cancer specimens and cell lines (P < 0.05). Transfection of miR-4301 in breast cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Expression analysis indicated that miR-4301 was inversely correlated with DRD2 expression in breast cancer specimens. qRT-PCR showed that miR-4301 negatively regulated DRD2 expression. Downregulation of DRD2 expression in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and SKBR3 cells suppressed cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis.

Kline CLB, Ralff MD, Lulla AR, et al.
Role of Dopamine Receptors in the Anticancer Activity of ONC201.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(1):80-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ONC201/TIC10 is a first-in-class small molecule inducer of TRAIL that causes early activation of the integrated stress response. Its promising safety profile and broad-spectrum efficacy in vitro have been confirmed in Phase I/II trials in several advanced malignancies. Binding and reporter assays have shown that ONC201 is a selective antagonist of the dopamine D2-like receptors, specifically, DRD2 and DRD3. We hypothesized that ONC201's interaction with DRD2 plays a role in ONC201's anticancer effects. Using cBioportal and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses, we confirmed that DRD2 is expressed in different cancer cell types in a cell type-specific manner. On the other hand, DRD3 was generally not detectable. Overexpressing DRD2 in cells with low DRD2 levels increased ONC201-induced PARP cleavage, which was preceded and correlated with an increase in ONC201-induced CHOP mRNA expression. On the other hand, knocking out DRD2 using CRISPR/Cas9 in three cancer cell lines was not sufficient to abrogate ONC201's anticancer effects. Although ONC201's anticancer activity was not dependent on DRD2 expression in the cancer cell types tested, we assessed the cytotoxic potential of DRD2 blockade. Transient DRD2 knockdown in HCT116 cells activated the integrated stress response and reduced cell number. Pharmacological antagonism of DRD2 significantly reduced cell viability. Thus, we demonstrate in this study that disrupting dopamine receptor expression and activity can have cytotoxic effects that may at least be in part due to the activation of the integrated stress response. On the other hand, ONC201's anticancer activity goes beyond its ability to antagonize DRD2, potentially due to ONC201's ability to activate other pathways that are independent of DRD2. Nevertheless, blocking the dopamine D1-like receptor DRD5 via siRNA or the use of a pharmacological antagonist promoted ONC201-induced anticancer activity.

Song J, Kim BC, Nguyen DT, et al.
Levodopa (L-DOPA) attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress response and cell death signaling through DRD2 in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells under α-synuclein-induced toxicity.
Neuroscience. 2017; 358:336-348 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the formation of Lewy bodies (LBs) in dopaminergic neurons. α-Synuclein (α-syn), a major protein component of LBs, is known to regulate synaptic plasticity, with a crucial role in memory and motor function in the central nervous system. Levodopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; also known as L-DOPA) is considered the most effective medication for controlling the symptoms of PD. However, it is unclear whether L-DOPA improves the neuropathology of PD. In the present study, we investigated the effect of L-DOPA on SH-SY5Y neuronal cells under α-syn-induced toxicity. We assessed the protein and mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death markers using western blot analysis and reverse transcription-PCR. Our data showed that L-DOPA could attenuate ER stress markers, including the levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), C/EBPhomologous protein expression (CHOP), immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-binding protein (BiP), sliced X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP-1), and reduce nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling through dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells under α-syn-induced toxicity. In conclusion, we suggest that L-DOPA may attenuate the neuropathology of PD by regulating signaling related to DRD2 in neuronal cells under α-syn-induced toxicity. Our study, therefore, indicates an additional role for L-DOPA in the treatment of PD.

Maniero C, Garg S, Zhao W, et al.
NEFM (Neurofilament Medium) Polypeptide, a Marker for Zona Glomerulosa Cells in Human Adrenal, Inhibits D1R (Dopamine D1 Receptor)-Mediated Secretion of Aldosterone.
Hypertension. 2017; 70(2):357-364 [PubMed] Related Publications
Heterogeneity among aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) has been highlighted by the discovery of somatic mutations.

Li Y, Wang W, Wang F, et al.
Paired related homeobox 1 transactivates dopamine D2 receptor to maintain propagation and tumorigenicity of glioma-initiating cells.
J Mol Cell Biol. 2017; 9(4):302-314 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly invasive brain tumor with limited therapeutic means and poor prognosis. Recent studies indicate that glioma-initiating cells/glioma stem cells (GICs/GSCs) may be responsible for tumor initiation, infiltration, and recurrence. GICs could aberrantly employ molecular machinery balancing self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic neural precursors. Here, we find that paired related homeobox 1 (PRRX1), a homeodomain transcription factor that was previously reported to control skeletal development, is expressed in cortical neural progenitors and is required for their self-renewal and proper differentiation. Further, PRRX1 is overrepresented in glioma samples and labels GICs. Glioma cells and GICs depleted with PRRX1 could not propagate in vitro or form tumors in the xenograft mouse model. The GIC self-renewal function regulated by PRRX1 is mediated by dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2). PRRX1 directly binds to the DRD2 promoter and transactivates its expression in GICs. Blockage of the DRD2 signaling hampers GIC self-renewal, whereas its overexpression restores the propagating and tumorigenic potential of PRRX1-depleted GICs. Finally, PRRX1 potentiates GICs via DRD2-mediated extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and AKT activation. Thus, our study suggests that therapeutic targeting the PRRX1-DRD2-ERK/AKT axis in GICs is a promising strategy for treating GBMs.

Peverelli E, Giardino E, Treppiedi D, et al.
Dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) and somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) agonists are effective in inhibiting proliferation of progenitor/stem-like cells isolated from nonfunctioning pituitary tumors.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 140(8):1870-1880 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of progenitor/stem cells in pituitary tumorigenesis, resistance to pharmacological treatments and tumor recurrence is still unclear. This study investigated the presence of progenitor/stem cells in non-functioning pituitary tumors (NFPTs) and tested the efficacy of dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) and somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) agonists to inhibit in vitro proliferation. They found that 70% of 46 NFPTs formed spheres co-expressing stem cell markers, transcription factors (DAX1, SF1, ERG1) and gonadotropins. Analysis of tumor behavior showed that spheres formation was associated with tumor invasiveness (OR = 3,96; IC: 1.05-14.88, p = 0.036). The in vitro reduction of cell proliferation by DRD2 and SSTR2 agonists (31 ± 17% and 35 ± 13% inhibition, respectively, p < 0.01 vs. basal) occurring in about a half of NFPTs cells was conserved in the corresponding spheres. Accordingly, these drugs increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 and decreased cyclin D3 expression in spheres. In conclusion, they provided further evidence for the existence of cells with a progenitor/stem cells-like phenotype in the majority of NFPTs, particularly in those with invasive behavior, and demonstrated that the antiproliferative effects of dopaminergic and somatostatinergic drugs were maintained in progenitor/stem-like cells.

Bueno C, Trarbach EB, Bronstein MD, Glezer A
Cabergoline and prolactinomas: lack of association between DRD2 polymorphisms and response to treatment.
Pituitary. 2017; 20(3):295-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: About 80% of prolactinomas respond to dopamine agonists (DA) with hormonal normalization and tumor shrinkage. Mechanisms of DA resistance include reduction of dopamine receptor subtype 2 (DRD2) expression, short and long isoform ratio and post-receptor mechanisms. It was suggested that polymorphisms in the gene encoding dopamine receptor subtype 2 gene (DRD2) could be associated with variable effectiveness of cabergoline (CAB).
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of DRD2 polymorphisms in responsiveness of CAB treatment in patients with prolactinoma.
STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Cross-sectional retrospective case-control study analyzing the frequency of five DRD2 polymorphisms in 148 patients with prolactinoma and 349 healthy subjects. The association of genetic variants and clinical characteristics with CAB responsiveness was performed in 118 patients (mean age at diagnosis 29 years; range 11-61 years) with hormonal evaluation. Patients with prolactin (PRL) normalization were considered as responders.
RESULTS: No association in genotypes and allele proportions was found comparing patients and controls. On pharmacogenetic study, 118 patients on CAB were included and 20% were non-responders. No association was found between clinical characteristics (gender, age, PRL level and tumor size at diagnosis) and polymorphisms of DRD2 with CAB responsiveness. Otherwise, there was association between polymorphisms rs1076560 (allele A) and rs1800497 (allele T) and the presence of macroadenomas.
CONCLUSION: No correlation was found between DRD2 polymorphisms and CAB responsiveness in patients with prolactinoma. More data are necessary in order to assess the influence of DRD2 genotyping on DA treatment response.

Mukoyama N, Yoshimi A, Goto A, et al.
An Analysis of Behavioral and Genetic Risk Factors for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Japanese Subjects.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2016; 39(11):1852-1858 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are individual differences in the frequency of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in cancer patients. We investigated the individual variability in susceptibility to CINV with focus on both behavioral factors and genetic factors in Japanese cancer patients. We performed a prospective study to investigate the association between patient attributes (backgrounds and habits as well as gene polymorphisms) and anorexia, nausea, or vomiting in 55 Japanese cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at Nagoya University Hospital. We found that gender (female), use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, susceptibility to motion sickness, and anxiety were associated with the frequency of CINV. Gene polymorphisms of rs1076560 (dopamine D

Jandaghi P, Najafabadi HS, Bauer AS, et al.
Expression of DRD2 Is Increased in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma and Inhibitors Slow Tumor Growth in Mice.
Gastroenterology. 2016; 151(6):1218-1231 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Incidence of and mortality from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common form of pancreatic cancer, are almost equivalent, so better treatments are needed. We studied gene expression profiles of PDACs and the functions of genes with altered expression to identify new therapeutic targets.
METHODS: We performed microarray analysis to analyze gene expression profiles of 195 PDAC and 41 non-tumor pancreatic tissue samples. We undertook an extensive analysis of the PDAC transcriptome by superimposing interaction networks of proteins encoded by aberrantly expressed genes over signaling pathways associated with PDAC development to identify factors that might alter regulation of these pathways during tumor progression. We performed tissue microarray analysis to verify changes in expression of candidate protein using an independent set of 152 samples (40 nontumor pancreatic tissues, 63 PDAC sections, and 49 chronic pancreatitis samples). We validated the functional relevance of the candidate molecule using RNA interference or pharmacologic inhibitors in pancreatic cancer cell lines and analyses of xenograft tumors in mice.
RESULTS: In an analysis of 38,276 human genes and loci, we identified 1676 genes that were significantly up-regulated and 1166 genes that were significantly down-regulated in PDAC compared with nontumor pancreatic tissues. One gene that was up-regulated and associated with multiple signaling pathways that are dysregulated in PDAC was G protein subunit αi2, which has not been previously associated with PDAC. G protein subunit αi2 mediates the effects of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling; PDAC tissues had a slight but significant increase in DRD2 messenger RNA. Levels of DRD2 protein were substantially increased in PDACs, compared with non-tumor tissues, in tissue microarray analyses. RNA interference knockdown of DRD2 or inhibition with pharmacologic antagonists (pimozide and haloperidol) reduced proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells, induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis, and reduced cell migration. RNA interference knockdown of DRD2 in pancreatic tumor cells reduced growth of xenograft tumors in mice, and administration of the DRD2 inhibitor haloperidol to mice with orthotopic xenograft tumors reduced final tumor size and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: In gene expression profile analysis of PDAC samples, we found the DRD2 signaling pathway to be activated. Inhibition of DRD2 in pancreatic cancer cells reduced proliferation and migration, and slowed growth of xenograft tumors in mice. DRD2 antagonists routinely used for management of schizophrenia might be tested in patients with pancreatic cancer.

Akbari ME, Kashani FL, Ahangari G, et al.
The effects of spiritual intervention and changes in dopamine receptor gene expression in breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer. 2016; 23(6):893-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females in Iran and in most of the developed countries. Studies have shown that having chronic stress in individuals predisposes several types of cancer including breast cancer. Research results showed that spiritual factors correlate with indices of physical consequences such as heart disease, cancer, and death, so do psychiatric conditions and changes in receptor gene expression in depression, anxiety, and social dysfunction. Different studies demonstrated the role of neurotransmitters in occurrence and progression of cancers. They affected cells by their various types of receptors. An effective gene in mental and physical conditions is Dopamine receptor. Accordingly, the study was conducted to evaluate effects of psychotherapy (spiritual intervention) on changes in Dopamine receptor gene expressions in breast cancer patients. 90 female volunteers, including 30 healthy individuals and 60 diagnosed with breast cancer, considering exclusion criteria, were selected for the purpose of the study. The breast cancer patients were further categorized into experimental and control groups of 30 each. Blood samples were collected both prior to and following the spiritual intervention to analyze changes in their dopamine gene receptor expressions. We observed that DRD2-DRD4 in the control group (breast cancer patients) PBMC increased compared to healthy individuals. Also, DRD2-DRD4 in intervention group PBMC decreased compared to the control group and to even lower than those of healthy individuals. The findings were of great significance in management and treatment of cancer because they revealed the possibility of using alternative treatments (e.g., spiritual interventions) apart from conventional medical treatments.

Wesmiller SW, Sereika SM, Bender CM, et al.
Exploring the multifactorial nature of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women following surgery for breast cancer.
Auton Neurosci. 2017; 202:102-107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are two of the most frequent and distressing complications following surgical procedures, with as many as 80% of patients considered to be at risk. Despite recognition of well-established risk factors and the subsequent use of clinical guidelines, 20-30% of women do not respond to antiemetic protocols, indicating that there may be a genetic risk.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the incidence and explore the risk factors associated with PONV after surgery in women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer.
METHODS: A prospective cohort design was employed to measure PONV in women recruited prior to surgery. DNA was extracted from saliva samples collected prior to discharge. Polymorphisms for seven candidate genes with a known role in one of the neural pathways associated with PONV were included in this study; serotonin receptor (HTR3A), serotonin transport (SLC6A4), tryptophan (TPH), dopamine receptors (DRD2/ANKK and DRD3), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and histamine (H1).
RESULTS: Twenty-nine (29.8%) women experienced nausea and 10 (11%) experienced nausea and vomiting while in the PACU despite administration of multiple antiemetic medications. Women who experienced PONV had higher levels of pain and received more opioids than those women who did not experienced PONV. Odds ratios demonstrated that alleles for the COMT, DRD3, and TPH genes were associated with decreased PONV.
CONCLUSION: The understanding of the multifactorial nature of PONV and the recognition of genetic risk will ultimately lead to the development of personalized interventions to manage these frequent and often debilitating symptoms.

Allen JE, Kline CL, Prabhu VV, et al.
Discovery and clinical introduction of first-in-class imipridone ONC201.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(45):74380-74392 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ONC201 is the founding member of a novel class of anti-cancer compounds called imipridones that is currently in Phase II clinical trials in multiple advanced cancers. Since the discovery of ONC201 as a p53-independent inducer of TRAIL gene transcription, preclinical studies have determined that ONC201 has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects against a broad range of tumor cells but not normal cells. The mechanism of action of ONC201 involves engagement of PERK-independent activation of the integrated stress response, leading to tumor upregulation of DR5 and dual Akt/ERK inactivation, and consequent Foxo3a activation leading to upregulation of the death ligand TRAIL. ONC201 is orally active with infrequent dosing in animals models, causes sustained pharmacodynamic effects, and is not genotoxic. The first-in-human clinical trial of ONC201 in advanced aggressive refractory solid tumors confirmed that ONC201 is exceptionally well-tolerated and established the recommended phase II dose of 625 mg administered orally every three weeks defined by drug exposure comparable to efficacious levels in preclinical models. Clinical trials are evaluating the single agent efficacy of ONC201 in multiple solid tumors and hematological malignancies and exploring alternative dosing regimens. In addition, chemical analogs that have shown promise in other oncology indications are in pre-clinical development. In summary, the imipridone family that comprises ONC201 and its chemical analogs represent a new class of anti-cancer therapy with a unique mechanism of action being translated in ongoing clinical trials.

Würth R, Barbieri F, Pattarozzi A, et al.
Phenotypical and Pharmacological Characterization of Stem-Like Cells in Human Pituitary Adenomas.
Mol Neurobiol. 2017; 54(7):4879-4895 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence and functional role of tumor stem cells in benign tumors, and in human pituitary adenomas in particular, is a debated issue that still lacks a definitive formal demonstration. Fifty-six surgical specimens of human pituitary adenomas were processed to establish tumor stem-like cultures by selection and expansion in stem cell-permissive medium or isolating CD133-expressing cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of these cells was performed (1) ex vivo, by immunohistochemistry analysis on paraffin-embedded tissues; (2) in vitro, attesting marker expression, proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and drug sensitivity; and (3) in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Within pituitary adenomas, we identified rare cell populations expressing stem cell markers but not pituitary hormones; we isolated and expanded in vitro these cells, obtaining fibroblast-free, stem-like cultures from 38 pituitary adenoma samples. These cells grow as spheroids, express stem cell markers (Oct4, Sox2, CD133, and nestin), show sustained in vitro proliferation as compared to primary cultures of differentiated pituitary adenoma cells, and are able to differentiate in hormone-expressing pituitary cells. Besides, pituisphere cells, apparently not tumorigenic in mice, engrafted in zebrafish embryos, inducing pro-angiogenic and invasive responses. Finally, pituitary adenoma stem-like cells express regulatory pituitary receptors (D2R, SSTR2, and SSTR5), whose activation by a dopamine/somatostatin chimeric agonist exerts antiproliferative effects. In conclusion, we provide evidence that human pituitary adenomas contain a subpopulation fulfilling biological and phenotypical signatures of tumor stem cells that may represent novel therapeutic targets for therapy-resistant tumors.

Huang H, Wu K, Ma J, et al.
Dopamine D2 receptor suppresses gastric cancer cell invasion and migration via inhibition of EGFR/AKT/MMP-13 pathway.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2016; 39:113-120 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dopamine (DA), an important neurotransmitter, has been reported to play a negative role in tumor progression. DA acts its role via dopamine receptors (DRs), which can be divided into five receptor subtypes (D1R-D5R). Among these receptor subtypes, D2R has been found to inhibit IGF-I-induced gastric cancer cell growth. However, the functions of D2R in gastric cancer cell invasion remain elusive. Here, we found that D2R expression was decreased in gastric cancer cells. DA treatment dose-dependently inhibited EGF-mediated gastric cancer cell invasion and migration via D2R. Furthermore, D2R decreased EGF-mediated MMP-13 production, and attenuated EGFR and AKT activation. Together with the results that EGF promoted gastric cancer cell invasion and migration via EGFR/AKT pathway, these data indicate that DA treatment, acting via D2R, suppresses gastric cancer cell invasion and migration via inhibition of EGFR/AKT/MMP-13 pathway. Thus, our findings suggest that use of D2R agonist may have a potential therapeutic effect on gastric cancer.

Park SH, Chung YM, Ma J, et al.
Pharmacological activation of FOXO3 suppresses triple-negative breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(27):42110-42125 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal form of breast cancer. Lacking effective therapeutic options hinders treatment of TNBC. Here, we show that bepridil (BPD) and trifluoperazine (TFP), which are FDA-approved drugs for treatment of schizophrenia and angina respectively, inhibit Akt-pS473 phosphorylation and promote FOXO3 nuclear localization and activation in TNBC cells. BPD and TFP inhibit survival and proliferation in TNBC cells and suppress the growth of TNBC tumors, whereas silencing FOXO3 reduces the BPD- and TFP-mediated suppression of survival in TNBC cells. While BPD and TFP decrease the expression of oncogenic c-Myc, KLF5, and dopamine receptor DRD2 in TNBC cells, silencing FOXO3 diminishes BPD- and TFP-mediated repression of the expression of these proteins in TNBC cells. Since c-Myc, KLF5, and DRD2 have been suggested to increase cancer stem cell-like populations in various tumors, reducing these proteins in response to BPD and TFP suggests a novel FOXO3-dependent mechanism underlying BPD- and TFP-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells.

Peculis R, Balcere I, Rovite V, et al.
Polymorphisms in MEN1 and DRD2 genes are associated with the occurrence and characteristics of pituitary adenomas.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2016; 175(2):145-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Although pituitary adenomas (PAs) affect a significant proportion of the population, only a fraction have the potential to become clinically relevant during an individual's lifetime, causing hormonal imbalance or complications due to mass effect. The overwhelming majority of cases are sporadic and without a clear familial history, and the genotype-phenotype correlation in PA patients is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of genes known for their role in familial cases on drug response and tumor suppression in the development and pathology of PAs in a patient group from Latvia.
DESIGN: The study included 143 cases and 354 controls, we investigated the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes (SSTR2, SSTR5, DRD2, MEN1, AIP, GNAS, and PRKAR1A) associated with pituitary tumor occurrence, phenotype, and clinical symptoms.
METHODS: Genotyping of 96 tag and nonsynonymous SNPs was performed in the genomic regions of interest.
RESULTS: We discovered a significant association (OR=17.8, CI 0.95=2.18-145.5, P=0.0002) between a rare MEN1 mutation (rs2959656) and clinically active adenoma in our patients. Additionally, rs7131056 at DRD2 was associated with a higher occurrence of extrasellar growth in patients with prolactinoma and somatotropinoma (OR=2.79, CI 0.95=1.58-4.95, P=0.0004).
CONCLUSIONS: rs2959656, a nonsynonymous variant in MEN1, is associated with the development of clinically active PA. Furthermore, rs7131056 in DRD2 contributes to either faster growth of the adenoma or reduced symptomatic presentation, allowing PAs to become larger before detection.

Marcus MW, Raji OY, Duffy SW, et al.
Incorporating epistasis interaction of genetic susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms in a lung cancer risk prediction model.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(1):361-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Incorporation of genetic variants such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) into risk prediction models may account for a substantial fraction of attributable disease risk. Genetic data, from 2385 subjects recruited into the Liverpool Lung Project (LLP) between 2000 and 2008, consisting of 20 SNPs independently validated in a candidate-gene discovery study was used. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and random forest (RF) were used to explore evidence of epistasis among 20 replicated SNPs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify similar risk predictors for lung cancer in the LLP risk model for the epidemiological model and extended model with SNPs. Both models were internally validated using the bootstrap method and model performance was assessed using area under the curve (AUC) and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Using MDR and RF, the overall best classifier of lung cancer status were SNPs rs1799732 (DRD2), rs5744256 (IL-18), rs2306022 (ITGA11) with training accuracy of 0.6592 and a testing accuracy of 0.6572 and a cross-validation consistency of 10/10 with permutation testing P<0.0001. The apparent AUC of the epidemiological model was 0.75 (95% CI 0.73-0.77). When epistatic data were incorporated in the extended model, the AUC increased to 0.81 (95% CI 0.79-0.83) which corresponds to 8% increase in AUC (DeLong's test P=2.2e-16); 17.5% by NRI. After correction for optimism, the AUC was 0.73 for the epidemiological model and 0.79 for the extended model. Our results showed modest improvement in lung cancer risk prediction when the SNP epistasis factor was added.

van Adrichem RC, de Herder WW, Kamp K, et al.
Effects of Somatostatin Analogs and Dopamine Agonists on Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2-Induced Insulin Receptor Isoform A Activation by Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells.
Neuroendocrinology. 2016; 103(6):815-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) express insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-related factors [IGF1, IGF2; insulin receptor (IR)-A, IR-B; IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) 1-3] as well as somatostatin (SSTRs) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs).
OBJECTIVES: To (1) compare mRNA expression of IGF-related factors in human pancreatic NET (panNET) cell lines with that in human GEP-NETs to evaluate the usefulness of these cells as a model for studying the IGF system in GEP-NETs, (2) determine whether panNET cells produce growth factors that activate IR-A, and (3) investigate whether somatostatin analogs (SSAs) and/or dopamine agonists (DAs) influence the production of these growth factors.
METHODS: In panNET cells (BON-1 and QGP-1) and GEP-NETs, mRNA expression of IGF-related factors was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Effects of the SSAs octreotide and pasireotide (PAS), the DA cabergoline (CAB), and the dopastatin BIM-23A760 (all 100 nM) were evaluated at the IGF2 mRNA and protein level (by ELISA) and regarding IR-A bioactivity (by kinase receptor activation assay) in panNET cells.
RESULTS: panNET cells and GEP-NETs had comparable expression profiles of IGF-related factors. Especially in BON-1 cells, IGF2 and IR-A were most highly expressed. PAS + CAB inhibited IGF2 (-29.5 ± 4.9%, p < 0.01) and IGFBP3 (-20.0 ± 4.0%, p < 0.01) mRNA expression in BON-1 cells. In BON-1 cells, IGF2 protein secretion was significantly inhibited with BIM-23A760 (-23.7 ± 3.8%). BON-1- but not QGP-1- conditioned medium stimulated IR-A bioactivity. In BON-1 cells, IR-A bioactivity was inhibited by BIM-23A760 and PAS + CAB (-37.8 ± 2.1% and -30.9 ± 4.1%, respectively, p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: (1) The BON-1 cell line is a representative model for studying the IGF system in GEP-NETs, (2) BON-1 cells produce growth factors (IGF2) activating IR-A, and (3) combined SSTR and D2R targeting with PAS + CAB and BIM-23A760 suppresses IGF2-induced IR-A activation.

Cai L, Leng ZG, Guo YH, et al.
Dopamine agonist resistance-related endocan promotes angiogenesis and cells viability of prolactinomas.
Endocrine. 2016; 52(3):641-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the first-line treatment of prolactinomas. They function through the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) in the tumor cells. Endocan, also called endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM1), has been described as a marker of neoangiogenesis. However, whether ESM1 promotes the resistance of prolactinomas to DA therapy is largely unknown. In our study, 25 patients with prolactinomas were divided into resistant- and sensitive- groups according to the clinical response to bromocriptine. We found that ESM1-microvessel density of resistant prolactinomas was significantly higher than that of sensitive prolactinomas (47.9 ± 11.6, n = 8, vs 13.1 ± 2.8, n = 17, p = 0.0006), indicating that ESM1 was a DA resistance-related gene. Immunostaining showed that ESM1 was expressed in tumor vessels and sporadic tumor cells, and ESM1 was overlapped with the Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA) and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) in the tumor vessels. Silencing of ESM1 markedly suppressed the viability of GH3 and MMQ cells in vitro, and furthermore, significantly increased the sensitivity of GH3 and MMQ cells to DA treatment. Additionally, silencing of ESM1 down-regulated the angiogenesis-associated genes, such as VEGFR2, FGF2, CD34, CD31, VWF, and EGFR. Knockdown of ESM1 decreased endothelial tube formation of HUVECs, and significantly increased the sensitivity of HUVECs to Avastin treatment. Therefore, we first demonstrate that DA resistance-related ESM1 promotes the angiogenesis and tumor cells growth of prolactinomas, suggesting that ESM1 may be a novel therapeutic target for prolactinomas.

Drastikova M, Beranek M, Gabalec F, et al.
Expression profiles of somatostatin, dopamine, and estrogen receptors in pituitary adenomas determined by means of synthetic multilocus calibrators.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2016; 160(2):238-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Pituitary adenomas (PA) are non-invasive benign tumors with a high autopsy prevalence. They are classified according to the type of hormone secreted (prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin, folitropin, or luteinizing hormone). Clinically non-functioning adenomas (CNFA) lacking the typical hypersecretion of hormones make up a significant portion of PA. The aim of the study was to determine the complete expression profiles of somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-SSTR5), dopamine receptors type 2 (D2R), and estrogen receptors (ER1) in various types of PA.
METHODS: Adenoma specimens were obtained from 206 patients during transsphenoidal resection. For quantitative analysis, reverse transcription and consequent real-time PCR with synthetic multilocus calibrators (SMC) were used. The obtained data were normalized to the number of transcripts of the beta-glucuronidase gene.
RESULTS: The use of SMC enabled the alignment of individual calibration functions for all the receptors. No relationships between the expression of the receptors and the tumor size, site of extension, gender or age at diagnosis were significant. In growth hormone-secreting adenomas, D2R and SSTR2 transcripts were extensively expressed, followed by ER1, SSTR5, SSTR3, and SSTR1. In patients with macroprolactinomas, transsphenoidal resection was indicated because dopamine agonists did not normalize prolactin levels. D2R, ER1 and SSTR1 transcripts were significantly transcribed. Corticotroph adenomas showed high levels of D2R and ER1 transcripts and lower amounts of SSTR2 and SSTR1 transcripts. SSTR5 transcripts were very low. Subjects with CNFA dominantly expressed D2R and ER1, followed by SSTR2 and SSTR3 mRNA.
CONCLUSION: We evaluated SSTR1-SSTR5, D2R, and ER1 expressions in a large group of pituitary adenomas and we found that determining their individual expression profiles could help when choosing the optimal postoperative treatment.

Ilhan M, Kahraman OT, Turan S, et al.
Does DRD2 polymorphism influence the clinical characteristics of prolactinoma?
Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2015; 76(5):614-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Genetic alterations explaining the clinical variability of prolactinomas still could not be clarified and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) polymorphism is a putative candidate for the variable response to dopaminergic treatment. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of DRD2 TaqI A polymorphism on initial and follow-up characteristics of prolactinoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients with prolactinoma and 98 age and gender matched control subjects were recruited to the case-control study. Serum prolactin levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and DRD2 polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction length polymorphism analysis.
RESULTS: Decrease of prolactin levels and the tumor shrinkage after cabergoline treatment were 93.9±5.9% and 58.3±33.1% in microadenomas and 96.1±6.1% and 51.7±29.3 in macroadenomas (P=0.02 and P>0.05, respectively). We observed no significant difference for DRD2 genotypes and the alleles between the patients and healthy group (P>0.05). Prolactin levels before treatment were correlated with tumor diameter before and after treatment and the percentage of prolactin decrease with treatment (P<0.001 r=0.58, P<0.001 r=0.40 and P<0.001 r=0.47, respectively). Tumor diameter before the treatment was also correlated with the tumor diameter after the treatment (P<0.001 r=0.64) and the percentage of prolactin decrease (P=0.01 r=0.30). However, no significant association was found between characteristics of prolactinoma and DRD2 genotypes and alleles (P>0.05).
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that DRD2 TaqI A receptor polymorphism was not associated with the development of prolactinoma and its clinical characteristics. Future studies are needed to clarify the clinical implications of genetic alterations in prolactinoma.

Cherubini E, Di Napoli A, Noto A, et al.
Genetic and Functional Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Human Dopamine Receptor and Transporter Genes in Small Cell Lung Cancer.
J Cell Physiol. 2016; 231(2):345-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
The regulatory role of dopamine (DA) in endocrine, cardiovascular and renal functions has been extensively studied and used for clinical purposes. More recently DA has been indicated as a regulatory molecule for immune cells and malignant cell proliferation. We assessed the expression and the functional role DA, DA receptors, and transporters in primary small cell lung cancer (SCLC). By HPLC DA plasma levels were more elevated in SCLC patients in comparison with NSCLC patients and healthy controls. SCLC cell expressed DA D1- and D2-like receptors and membrane and vesicular transporters at protein and mRNA levels. We also investigated the effects of independent D1- or D2-like receptor stimulation on SCLC cell cultures. DA D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 induced the increase of cAMP levels and DARPP-32 protein expression without affecting SCLC growth rate. Cell treatment with the DA D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 inhibited SKF38393 effects. In contrast, the DA D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (10 μM) counteracted, in a dose and time dependent way, SCLC cell proliferation, it did not affect cAMP levels and decreased phosphorylated AKT that was induced by DA D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride. However, in only one SCLC line, stimulation of DA D2 receptor failed to inhibit cell proliferation in vitro. This effect was associated to the existence of rs6275 and rs6277 polymorphisms in the D2 gene. These results gave more insight into DA control of lung cancer cell behavior and suggested the existence of different SCLC phenotypes.

Mertens F, Gremeaux L, Chen J, et al.
Pituitary tumors contain a side population with tumor stem cell-associated characteristics.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2015; 22(4):481-504 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pituitary adenomas cause significant endocrine and mass-related morbidity. Little is known about the mechanisms that underlie pituitary tumor pathogenesis. In the present study, we searched for a side population (SP) in pituitary tumors representing cells with high efflux capacity and potentially enriched for tumor stem cells (TSCs). Human pituitary adenomas contain a SP irrespective of hormonal phenotype. This adenoma SP, as well as the purified SP (pSP) that is depleted from endothelial and immune cells, is enriched for cells that express 'tumor stemness' markers and signaling pathways, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-linked factors. Pituitary adenomas were found to contain self-renewing sphere-forming cells, considered to be a property of TSCs. These sphere-initiating cells were recovered in the pSP. Because benign pituitary adenomas do not grow in vitro and have failed to expand in immunodeficient mice, the pituitary tumor cell line AtT20 was further used. We identified a SP in this cell line and found it to be more tumorigenic than the non-SP 'main population'. Of the two EMT regulatory pathways tested, the inhibition of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) signaling reduced EMT-associated cell motility in vitro as well as xenograft tumor growth, whereas the activation of TGFβ had no effect. The human adenoma pSP also showed upregulated expression of the pituitary stem cell marker SOX2. Pituitaries from dopamine receptor D2 knockout (Drd2(-/-)) mice that bear prolactinomas contain more pSP, Sox2(+), and colony-forming cells than WT glands. In conclusion, we detected a SP in pituitary tumors and identified TSC-associated characteristics. The present study adds new elements to the unraveling of pituitary tumor pathogenesis and may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

Gao H, Wang F, Lan X, et al.
Lower PRDM2 expression is associated with dopamine-agonist resistance and tumor recurrence in prolactinomas.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:272 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the first-line treatment for prolactinomas, which account for 25-30% of functioning pituitary adenomas, and bromocriptine (BRC) is the only commercially available DAs in China. However, tumors are resistant to therapy in 5-18% of patients.
METHODS: The exomes of six responsive prolactinomas and six resistant prolactinomas were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing.
RESULTS: Using stringent variant calling and filtering parameters, ten somatic variants that were mainly associated with DNA repair or protein metabolic processes were identified. New resistant variants were identified in multiple genes including PRDM2, PRG4, MUC4, DSPP, DPCR1, RP1L1, MX2, POTEF, C1orf170, and KRTAP10-3. The expression of these genes was then quantified by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) in 12 prolactinomas and 3 normal pituitary glands. The mRNA levels of PRDM2 were approximately five-fold lower in resistant prolactinomas than in responsive tumors (p < 0.05). PRDM2 protein levels were lower in resistant prolactinomas than in responsive tumors, as determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis (p < 0.05). Overexpression of PRDM2 upregulated dopamine receptor D2 (D2DR) and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MMQ cells. PRDM2 showed a synergistic effect with BRC on the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion and MMQ cell viability, and low PRDM2 expression was associated with tumor recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: PRDM2 downregulation may play a role in dopamine-agonist resistance and tumor recurrence in prolactinomas.

Pornour M, Ahangari G, Hejazi SH, et al.
Dopamine receptor gene (DRD1-DRD5) expression changes as stress factors associated with breast cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(23):10339-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide and a most prevalent malignancy in Iranian women. Chronic stress may make an important contribution to cancer, especially in the breast. Numerous studies showed roles of neurotransmitters in the occurrence and progression of cancers which are mediated by their various types of receptors. This study was conducted to evaluate alterations in the expression profile of dopamine receptor genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as stress factors in breast cancer patients and the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 30 patients and 30 healthy individuals. Total mRNA was extracted from PBMC and MCF-7 cells and RT-PCR was performed to confirm the presence of five dopamine receptors (DRD1-DRD5). Expression changes of dopamine receptor genes were evaluated by real time PCR. We observed that DRD2-DRD4 in PBMCs of breast cancer patients were increased compared to healthy individuals. In addition, all dopamine receptor subtypes but DRD1 were expressed in MCF-7 cells. Therefore, alterations of these receptors as stress factorsshould be assessed for selecting appropriate drugs such as D2-like agonists for treatment of breast cancer after performing complimentary tests. Determining the expression profile of dopamine receptor genes thus seems promising.

Gabalec F, Drastikova M, Cesak T, et al.
Dopamine 2 and somatostatin 1-5 receptors coexpression in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
Physiol Res. 2015; 64(3):369-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated quantitated expression of dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and somatostatin receptors of the five types (SSTR1-SSTR5) in a large series of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (CNFAs). Co-expression of these receptors in individual adenomas was studied as well as correlation between receptor types. Adenoma tissue from 198 patients who underwent surgery for CNFAs was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. D2R and SSTR1-3 mRNA was expressed in all 198 adenomas. SSTR4 and SSTR5 were detectable in 85 % and 61 % of adenomas, respectively. Expression of D2R was significantly higher than that of the somatostatin receptors. The median relative expressions were as follows from highest D2R > SSTR3 > SSTR2 > SSTR1 > SSTR5 > SSTR4. High relative expression (ratio to beta-glucuronidase mRNA > 1) of D2R was found in 60 % of tumors, high expression of SSTR1 in 7.5 %, SSTR2 in 7 %, SSTR3 in 4 % and SSTR5 in 0.5 %. The quantity of D2R correlated positively with expression of SSTR2 and SSTR3, and negatively with SSTR1 and SSTR5. Among histological adenoma types, SSTR1 was significantly higher in null-cell adenomas and SSTR3 was lower in silent corticotroph adenomas. In conclusions, in CNFAs, high expression of somatostatin receptors is much less common than that of D2R, and co-expression of both these receptors is exceptional. D2R and SSTR3 seem to be the most promising targets for pharmacological treatment.

Vieira Neto L, Wildemberg LE, Moraes AB, et al.
Dopamine receptor subtype 2 expression profile in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and in vivo response to cabergoline therapy.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2015; 82(5):739-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To determine the dopamine receptor subtype 2 (DR2) mRNA levels and protein expression and to evaluate the effect of adjuvant cabergoline therapy on tumour volume (TV) in patients with postoperative residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA).
METHODS: The mRNA expression was quantified by real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan(®)), and protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Tumours were classified according to the percentage of immunostained cells for DR2 as scores 1 (<50% of stained cells) or 2 (≥50%). Cabergoline was started at least 6 months after surgery in nine patients with residual tumours (3 mg/week). The cabergoline effect was prospectively evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging using three-dimensional volume calculation. TV reduction >25% was considered significant.
RESULTS: The DR2 mRNA expression was variable but was observed in 100% of the samples (N = 20). DR2 protein expression was also observed in all the tumours (N = 34). Twenty-nine tumours (85%) were classified as score 2. The median DR2 mRNA expression was higher in the tumours classified as score 2 compared with score 1 (P = 0·007). TV reduction with cabergoline therapy was observed in 67% of the patients (6/9). The median TV before and after 6 months of treatment was 1·90 cm(3) (0·61-8·74) and 1·69 cm(3) (0·36-4·20) [P = 0·02], respectively.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, DR2 is expressed in all adenomas and the majority of the patients in this study displayed tumour shrinkage on cabergoline (CAB) therapy. Thus, CAB might be useful in adjuvant therapy in NFPA patients with residual tumours after surgery.

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