Gene Summary

Gene:FOSL1; FOS like 1, AP-1 transcription factor subunit
Aliases: FRA, FRA1, fra-1
Summary:The Fos gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fos-related antigen 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Protein Binding
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Disease Progression
  • Transcription Factors
  • Down-Regulation
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer RNA
  • Chromosome 11
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun
  • Phenotype
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Promoter Regions
  • Gene Expression
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Western Blotting
  • siRNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • MicroRNAs
  • Cell Movement
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Phosphorylation
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FOSL1 (cancer-related)

Cheng YF, Wang XM, Yan M, Xiao JG
[Expression of the Fra-1 gene in the peripheral blood of children with Wilms tumor].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2019; 21(2):161-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of the Fra-1 gene in the peripheral blood of children with Wilms tumor and its clinical significance.
METHODS: Fifty children pathologically diagnosed with Wilms tumor between December 2012 and January 2018 were enrolled as the case group, and 40 healthy children for physical examination were selected as the control group. Among the 45 children with Wilms tumor who were followed up, the children with continuous remission were included in the ideal efficacy group (n=33), and those with recurrence, metastasis or death were included in the poor efficacy group (n=12). Peripheral blood samples were collected from all subjects. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of Fra-1.
RESULTS: The case group had significantly higher mRNA expression of Fra-1 in peripheral blood than the control group (P<0.05). In the case group, Fra-1 mRNA expression was significantly different between the individuals with and without distant metastasis and those with different TNM stages (P<0.05), but was not significantly different between the individuals with different sexes, ages, tumor diabetes, tumor locations and alpha-fetoprotein levels (P>0.05). The mRNA expression of Fra-1 was significantly lower in the ideal efficacy group than in the poor efficacy group (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Fra-1 may be involved in the development of Wilms tumor and plays a certain role in its development, invasion and metastasis, but the mechanism remains to be further studied.

Fiscon G, Conte F, Paci P
SWIM tool application to expression data of glioblastoma stem-like cell lines, corresponding primary tumors and conventional glioma cell lines.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2018; 19(Suppl 15):436 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well-known that glioblastoma contains self-renewing, stem-like subpopulation with the ability to sustain tumor growth. These cells - called cancer stem-like cells - share certain phenotypic characteristics with untransformed stem cells and are resistant to many conventional cancer therapies, which might explain the limitations in curing human malignancies. Thus, the identification of genes controlling the differentiation of these stem-like cells is becoming a successful therapeutic strategy, owing to the promise of novel targets for treating malignancies.
METHODS: Recently, we developed SWIM, a software able to unveil a small pool of genes - called switch genes - critically associated with drastic changes in cell phenotype. Here, we applied SWIM to the expression profiling of glioblastoma stem-like cells and conventional glioma cell lines, in order to identify switch genes related to stem-like phenotype.
RESULTS: SWIM identifies 171 switch genes that are all down-regulated in glioblastoma stem-like cells. This list encompasses genes like CAV1, COL5A1, COL6A3, FLNB, HMMR, ITGA3, ITGA5, MET, SDC1, THBS1, and VEGFC, involved in "ECM-receptor interaction" and "focal adhesion" pathways. The inhibition of switch genes highly correlates with the activation of genes related to neural development and differentiation, such as the 4-core OLIG2, POU3F2, SALL2, SOX2, whose induction has been shown to be sufficient to reprogram differentiated glioblastoma into stem-like cells. Among switch genes, the transcription factor FOSL1 appears as the brightest star since: it is down-regulated in stem-like cells; it highly negatively correlates with the 4-core genes that are all up-regulated in stem-like cells; the promoter regions of the 4-core genes harbor a consensus binding motif for FOSL1.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the inhibition of switch genes in stem-like cells could induce the deregulation of cell communication pathways, contributing to neoplastic progression and tumor invasiveness. Conversely, their activation could restore the physiological equilibrium between cell adhesion and migration, hampering the progression of cancer. Moreover, we posit FOSL1 as promising candidate to orchestrate the differentiation of cancer stem-like cells by repressing the 4-core genes' expression, which severely halts cancer growth and might affect the therapeutic outcome. We suggest FOSL1 as novel putative therapeutic and prognostic biomarker, worthy of further investigation.

García-Díez I, Hernández-Muñoz I, Hernández-Ruiz E, et al.
Transcriptome and cytogenetic profiling analysis of matched in situ/invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas from immunocompetent patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(3):164-174 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although most cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) develop from actinic keratoses (AKs), the key events in this evolution remain unclear. We have combined the results of different genomic and expression array platforms on matched concomitant samples of sun-exposed skin (SES), AK, and cSCC from 10 immunocompetent patients. Gene expression analysis and copy number alterations were assessed using GeneChip Human Gene 2.0 ST Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and CytoScan HD Cytogenetics Solution (Affymetrix) platforms, respectively. Integration of transcriptome and genome results was evaluated using the DR-Integrator tool. Additional studies (qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot) were performed for selected genes. FOSL1 and BNC1 encode transcription factors whose expression was increased in cSCC in the expression array and the qPCR. By immunohistochemistry, FOSL1 showed an intense staining at the invasive front of cSCC samples and BNC1 expression varied from a nuclear (SES) to a cytoplasmic location (cSCC). Western blot analyses confirmed the enhancement of FOSL1 and BNC1. In addition, the smallest overlapping regions (SORIs) of genomic imbalance involving at least three of the samples were selected. One of the SORIs was a deletion in the p24.1 band of chromosome 3, shared by seven of the cSCCs. A strong correlation in the integration analysis was found for NEK10, a gene contained in the previously mentioned SORI. Loss of NEK10 expression in cSCC was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. In addition, functional studies in NEK10 depleted cells were performed. In conclusion, we identified FOSL1 and BNC1, which could act as tumor drivers, and NEK10, which could function as a tumor suppressor, to be differentially expressed during cSCC development.

Saitoh Y, Bureta C, Sasaki H, et al.
The histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589 inhibits undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma growth via downregulation of FOS-like antigen 1.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(2):234-246 [PubMed] Related Publications
Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is the second most frequent soft tissue sarcoma. Because of its resistance to chemotherapy, UPS patients are treated with surgical resection and complementary radiotherapy. However, since standard chemotherapy has not been established, unresectable or metastatic cases result in a poor prognosis. Therefore, the identification of a more effective therapy for UPS patients is needed. The development and progression of malignant tumors involve epigenetic alterations, and histone deacetylases (HDAC) have become a promising chemotherapeutic target. In this study, we investigated the potential effects and mechanisms of an HDAC inhibitor, LBH589, in UPS cells. We confirmed that LBH589 exhibits potent antitumor activities in four human UPS cell lines (GBS-1, TNMY-1, Nara-F, and Nara-H) and IC

Zeng Y, Shen Z, Gu W, Wu M
Bioinformatics analysis to identify action targets in NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells exposed to quercetin.
Pharm Biol. 2018; 56(1):393-398 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Quercetin exerts antiproliferative effects on gastric cancer. However, its mechanisms of action on gastric cancer have not been comprehensively revealed.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the mechanisms of action of quercetin against gastric cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells were treated with 15 μM quercetin or dimethyl sulfoxide (as a control) for 48 h. DNA isolated from cells was sequenced on a HiSeq 2500, and the data were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between groups. Then, enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs and a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Finally, the transcription factors (TFs)-DEGs regulatory network was visualized by Cytoscape software.
RESULTS: A total of 121 DEGs were identified in the quercetin group. In the PPI network, Fos proto-oncogene (FOS, degree = 12), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, degree = 12), Jun proto-oncogene (JUN, degree = 11), and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1 (CYP1A1, degree = 11) with higher degrees highly interconnected with other proteins. Of the 5 TF-DEGs, early growth response 1 (EGR1), FOS like 1 (FOSL1), FOS, and JUN were upregulated, while AHR was downregulated. Moreover, FOSL1, JUN, and Wnt family member 7B (WNT7B) were enriched in the Wnt signaling pathway.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: CYP1A1 highly interconnected with AHR in the PPI network. Therefore, FOS, AHR, JUN, CYP1A1, EGR1, FOSL1, and WNT7B might be targets of quercetin in gastric cancer.

Islam T, Rahman R, Gov E, et al.
Drug Targeting and Biomarkers in Head and Neck Cancers: Insights from Systems Biology Analyses.
OMICS. 2018; 22(6):422-436 [PubMed] Related Publications
The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, but robust biomarkers and diagnostics are still not available. This study provides in-depth insights from systems biology analyses to identify molecular biomarker signatures to inform systematic drug targeting in HNSCC. Gene expression profiles from tumors and normal tissues of 22 patients with histological confirmation of nonmetastatic HNSCC were subjected to integrative analyses with genome-scale biomolecular networks (i.e., protein-protein interaction and transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks). We aimed to discover molecular signatures at RNA and protein levels, which could serve as potential drug targets for therapeutic innovation in the future. Eleven proteins, 5 transcription factors, and 20 microRNAs (miRNAs) came into prominence as potential drug targets. The differential expression profiles of these reporter biomolecules were cross-validated by independent RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq datasets, and risk discrimination performance of the reporter biomolecules, BLNK, CCL2, E4F1, FOSL1, ISG15, MMP9, MYCN, MYH11, miR-1252, miR-29b, miR-29c, miR-3610, miR-431, and miR-523, was also evaluated. Using the transcriptome guided drug repositioning tool, geneXpharma, several candidate drugs were repurposed, including antineoplastic agents (e.g., gemcitabine and irinotecan), antidiabetics (e.g., rosiglitazone), dermatological agents (e.g., clocortolone and acitretin), and antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone), and binding affinities of the drugs to their potential targets were assessed using molecular docking analyses. The molecular signatures and repurposed drugs presented in this study warrant further attention for experimental studies since they offer significant potential as biomarkers and candidate therapeutics for precision medicine approaches to clinical management of HNSCC.

Zhang YL, Duan YJ, Song XF, Zhao RL
[Expression of Fra-1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017; 31(12):914-917 [PubMed] Related Publications

Shen H, Wang W, Ni B, et al.
Exploring the molecular mechanisms of osteosarcoma by the integrated analysis of mRNAs and miRNA microarrays.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(1):21-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequently occurring primary bone malignancy with a rapid progression and poor survival. In the present study, in order to examine the molecular mechanisms of OS, we analyzed the microarray of GSE28425. GSE28425 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, which also included the miRNA expression profile, GSE28423, and the mRNA expression profile, GSE28424. Each of the expression profiles included 19 OS cell lines and 4 normal bones. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were screened using the limma package in Bioconductor. The DEGs associated with tumors were screened and annotated. Subsequently, the potential functions of the DEGs were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. Furthermore, modules of the PPI network were screened using the ClusterOne plugin in Cytoscape. Additionally, the transcription factor (TF)-DEG regulatory network, DE-miRNA-DEG regulatory network and miRNA-function collaborative network were separately constructed to obtain key DEGs and DE-miRNAs. In total, 1,609 DEGs and 149 DE-miRNAs were screened. Upregulated FOS-like antigen 1 (FOSL1) also had the function of an oncogene. MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD2L1; degree, 65) and aurora kinase A (AURKA; degree, 64) had higher degrees in the PPI network of the DEGs. In the TF-DEG regulatory network, the TF, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) targeted the most DEGs. Moreover, in the DE-miRNA-DEG regulatory network, downregulated miR‑1 targeted many DEGs and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) was targeted by several highly expressed miRNAs. Moreover, in the miRNA-function collaborative networks of upregulated miRNAs, miR‑128 targeted myeloid dendritic associated functions. On the whole, our data indicate that MAD2L1, AURKA, STAT3, ESR1, FOSL1, miR‑1 and miR‑128 may play a role in the development and/or progressio of OS.

Chen X, Zhao M, Huang J, et al.
microRNA-130a suppresses breast cancer cell migration and invasion by targeting FOSL1 and upregulating ZO-1.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(6):4945-4956 [PubMed] Related Publications
FOSL1 is frequently overexpressed in multiple types of human cancers including invasive breast cancers and implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis. However, how FOSL1 is overexpressed in cancers remains to be elucidated. Several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to target FOSL1 and are downregulated in human cancers. Here, we report that miR-130a is a novel FOSL1 targeting miRNA. Using gene expression microarray analysis, we found that FOSL1 is among the most up-regulated genes in cells transfected with miR-130a inhibitors. Transient transfection-immunoblot, RNA-immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-130a directly targets FOSL1 mRNA at its 3'-UTR. Overexpression of miR-130a significantly reduced the levels of FOSL1 in invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cell lines and suppresses their migration and invasion. This inhibition can be rescued by ectopic expression of miR-130a-resistant FOSL1. Interestingly, we show that overexpression of miR-130a increased the levels of tight-junction protein ZO-1 while inhibition of miR-130a reduced the levels of ZO-1. We further show that miR-130a expression is significantly reduced in cancer tissues from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients, correlating significantly with the upregulation of FOSL1 expression, compared to non-TNBC tissues. Together, our results reveal that miR-130a directly targets FOSL1 and suppresses the inhibition of ZO-1, thus inhibiting cancer cell migration and invasion, in TNBCs.

Xi ZW, Liang WT
[Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells in vitro via regulating Fra-1].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2017; 37(12):1654-1659 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) overexpression on proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells and explore the possible mechanism.
METHODS: The mRNA expressions of SYK and Fra?1 in 10 clinical specimens of colorectal cancer and 10 adjacent tissues were measured with qRT?PCR, and their protein expressions were detected with Western blotting. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA.3.1?SYK was constructed and transfected into colorectal cancer cells to induce SYK overexpression, and the cell viability and proliferation were assessed using by MTT assay and BrdU assay, respectively; caspase?3 activity in the cells was evaluated with a commercial kit and the cell apoptosis was analyzed with Annexin?V FITC/PI assay.
RESULTS: The expressions of SYK were significantly decreased in colorectal cancer tissues and colorectal cancer cell lines. Transfection of pcDNA.3.1?SYK into the colorectal cancer cells induced obviously upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of SYK, which caused a significant suppression of the cell viability and proliferation and enhancement of the cell apoptosis along with a significant inhibition of Fra?1 expression.
CONCLUSION: s SYK overexpression inhibits the proliferation and promotes apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells, and these effects are possibly mediated by the regulation of Fra?1 expression by SYK.

Franco HL, Nagari A, Malladi VS, et al.
Enhancer transcription reveals subtype-specific gene expression programs controlling breast cancer pathogenesis.
Genome Res. 2018; 28(2):159-170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Noncoding transcription is a defining feature of active enhancers, linking transcription factor (TF) binding to the molecular mechanisms controlling gene expression. To determine the relationship between enhancer activity and biological outcomes in breast cancers, we profiled the transcriptomes (using GRO-seq and RNA-seq) and epigenomes (using ChIP-seq) of 11 different human breast cancer cell lines representing five major molecular subtypes of breast cancer, as well as two immortalized ("normal") human breast cell lines. In addition, we developed a robust and unbiased computational pipeline that simultaneously identifies putative subtype-specific enhancers and their cognate TFs by integrating the magnitude of enhancer transcription, TF mRNA expression levels, TF motif

Zhang YL, Song XF, Duan YJ, Zhao RL
[Expression and correlation of
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017; 52(12):927-932 [PubMed] Related Publications

Elangovan IM, Vaz M, Tamatam CR, et al.
FOSL1 Promotes Kras-induced Lung Cancer through Amphiregulin and Cell Survival Gene Regulation.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2018; 58(5):625-635 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The FOSL1/AP-1 transcription factor regulates gene expression, thereby controlling various pathophysiological processes. It is a major effector of RAS-ERK1/2 signaling and is activated in human lung epithelia by tumorigenic stimuli. Recent evidence shows an inverse correlation between FOSL1 expression and the survival of patients with lung cancer and adenocarcinomas; however, its role in lung tumorigenesis remains elusive. In this work, we sought to determine the role of FOSL1 in Kras-induced lung adenocarcinoma in vivo and its downstream effector mechanisms. We used mice expressing the Kras oncogene in the lung with concomitant Fosl1 deletion, Kras-activated murine alveolar epithelial cells (mAECs) with Fosl1 deletion, and KRAS mutant human lung adenocarcinoma (HLAC) cells with FOSL1 deficiency, and performed cell proliferation and gene expression analyses. Mutant Kras induced Fosl1 expression in vitro (mAECs) and in vivo (lung tissue), and mice with Fosl1 deletion showed reduced levels of mutant Kras-induced lung tumorigenesis and survived longer than Fosl1-sufficient mice. Studies with mutant Kras-activated mAECs and KRAS-mutant HLAC cells revealed that FOSL1 regulates mutant KRAS-induced gene expression, thereby controlling cell proliferation and survival. In contrast, FOSL1 depletion in non-KRAS-mutant HLAC cells and nonmalignant human lung epithelia had no effect. Our data support the notion that FOSL1-mediated expression of amphiregulin and apoptotic and antioxidative genes plays a role in regulating HLAC cell proliferation and survival. FOSL1 is a determinant of lung cancer in vivo and regulates HLAC cell proliferation and survival, largely in the context of KRAS mutations. Activation of FOSL1 in adenocarcinomas may be a prognostic marker and potential target for human lung cancer with KRAS mutations.

Carné Trécesson S, Souazé F, Basseville A, et al.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):1123 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In tumours, accumulation of chemoresistant cells that express high levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-X

Kong X, Kuilman T, Shahrabi A, et al.
Cancer drug addiction is relayed by an ERK2-dependent phenotype switch.
Nature. 2017; 550(7675):270-274 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Observations from cultured cells, animal models and patients raise the possibility that the dependency of tumours on the therapeutic drugs to which they have acquired resistance represents a vulnerability with potential applications in cancer treatment. However, for this drug addiction trait to become of clinical interest, we must first define the mechanism that underlies it. We performed an unbiased CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen on melanoma cells that were both resistant and addicted to inhibition of the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRAF, in order to functionally mine their genome for 'addiction genes'. Here we describe a signalling pathway comprising ERK2 kinase and JUNB and FRA1 transcription factors, disruption of which allowed addicted tumour cells to survive on treatment discontinuation. This occurred in both cultured cells and mice and was irrespective of the acquired drug resistance mechanism. In melanoma and lung cancer cells, death induced by drug withdrawal was preceded by a specific ERK2-dependent phenotype switch, alongside transcriptional reprogramming reminiscent of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In melanoma cells, this reprogramming caused the shutdown of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a lineage survival oncoprotein; restoring this protein reversed phenotype switching and prevented the lethality associated with drug addiction. In patients with melanoma that had progressed during treatment with a BRAF inhibitor, treatment cessation was followed by increased expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, which is associated with the phenotype switch. Drug discontinuation synergized with the melanoma chemotherapeutic agent dacarbazine by further suppressing MITF and its prosurvival target, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), and by inducing DNA damage in cancer cells. Our results uncover a pathway that underpins drug addiction in cancer cells, which may help to guide the use of alternating therapeutic strategies for enhanced clinical responses in drug-resistant cancers.

Xu H, Jin X, Yuan Y, et al.
Prognostic value from integrative analysis of transcription factors c-Jun and Fra-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a multicenter cohort study.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):7522 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcription factors c-Jun and Fra-1 have been reported to play a role during the initiation and progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, cohort studies are rarely reported. Here is an integrative analysis of their prognostic value in OSCC through a multicenter cohort study.313 OSCC patients were included in this study and received regular follow-up. The survival rate and hazard ratios(HR) were generated by survival analysis. The concordance probability and receiver operating characteristic curve area were chosen to measure the model discrimination. High expressions of c-Jun or Fra-1 were associated with poor prognosis, meanwhile the high expression of Fra-1 meant worse prognosis of patients than the high expression of c-Jun. Besides, the interaction effect of c-Jun and Fra-1 was antagonism, when the expression of c-Jun and Fra-1 was both high, the HR was lower than the hazard ratio when only the Fra-1 was at high expression. c-Jun and Fra-1 were both proved to be high risky predictors of death in OSCC, the antagonistic effect suggested that these biomarkers' activities could be influenced by each other. It may provide a new sight for the studies of OSCC prognosis and treatment.

Wu VM, Mickens J, Uskoković V
Bisphosphonate-Functionalized Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for the Delivery of the Bromodomain Inhibitor JQ1 in the Treatment of Osteosarcoma.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017; 9(31):25887-25904 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common neoplasia among children, and its survival statistics have been stagnating since the combinatorial anticancer therapy triad was first introduced. Here, we report on the assessment of the effect of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles loaded with medronate, the simplest bisphosphonate, as a bone-targeting agent and JQ1, a small-molecule bromodomain inhibitor, as a chemotherapeutic in different 2D and 3D K7M2 OS in vitro models. Both additives decreased the crystallinity of HAp, but the effect was more intense for medronate because of its higher affinity for HAp. As the result of PO

Gao XQ, Ge YS, Shu QH, Ma HX
Expression of Fra-1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma and its prognostic significance.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317709635 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to explore the clinical significance and prognostic value of Fra-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after curative resection. Fra-1 expression was investigated using a combination of techniques: immunohistochemistry for 66 samples of hepatocellular carcinoma and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays for 19 matched hepatocellular carcinoma specimens. Fra-1 was present in 38 of 66 (57.6%) tumor tissues, with intense staining in the nuclei. There was also positive staining in 14 of 66 (21.2%) adjacent peritumoral tissues, with weak staining in the cytoplasm. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays confirmed higher expression of Fra-1 messenger RNA and Fra-1 protein in tumor tissues than adjacent non-tumor tissues for 19 hepatocellular carcinoma samples (p < 0.001). Positive expression of Fra-1 was significantly related to vascular invasion and serum alpha-fetoprotein. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis found that overexpressed Fra-1 was correlated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival. Multivariate analysis identified Fra-1 as an independent prognostic factor. Fra-1 may be involved in the progress of hepatocellular carcinoma and could be a promising molecular candidate in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Wang C, Li Z, Shao F, et al.
High expression of Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1) facilitates progression of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma through MAPK/MEK/ERK/FRA-1 activation.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide,and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histological type both globally and in China. Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) has been found to be upregulated in ESCC. However, its role in tumourigenesis and progression of ESCC remains unclear.
METHODS: Using our previous ESCC mRNA profiling data, we screened upregulated genes to identify those required for proliferation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the level of CTHRC1 protein expression in 204 ESCC patients. Correlations between CTHRC1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics were assessed. In addition, pyrosequencing and 5-aza-dC treatment were performed to evaluate methylation status of CTHRC1 promoter. In vitro and in vivo analyses were also conducted to determine the role of CTHRC1 in ESCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and RNA sequencing and molecular experiments were performed to study the underlying mechanisms.
RESULTS: Based on mRNA profiling data, CTHRC1 was identified as one of the most significantly upregulated genes in ESCC tissues (n = 119, fold change = 20.5, P = 2.12E-66). RNA interference screening also showed that CTHRC1 was required for cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry confirmed markedly high CTHRC1 protein expression in tumour tissues, and high CTHRC1 expression was positively correlated with advanced T stage (P = 0.043), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023), TNM stage (P = 0.024) and poor overall survival (P = 0.020). Promoter hypomethylation at cg07757887 may contribute to increased CTHRC1 expression in ESCC cells and tumours. Forced overexpression of CTHRC1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas depletion of CTHRC1 suppressed these cellular functions in three ESCC cell lines and xenografts. CTHRC1 was found to activate FRA-1 (Fos-related antigen 1, also known as FOSL1) through the MAPK/MEK/ERK cascade, which led to upregulation of cyclin D1 and thus promoted cell proliferation. FRA-1 also induced snail1-mediated MMP14 (matrix metallopeptidase 14, also known as MT1-MMP) expression to facilitate ESCC cell invasion, migration, and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that CTHRC1 may act as an oncogenic driver in progression and metastasis of ESCC, and may serve as a potential biomarker for prognosis and personalized therapy.

Schachtschneider KM, Liu Y, Mäkeläinen S, et al.
Oncopig Soft-Tissue Sarcomas Recapitulate Key Transcriptional Features of Human Sarcomas.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):2624 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare mesenchymal tumors with a 5-year survival rate of 50%, highlighting the need for further STS research. Research has been hampered by limited human sarcoma cell line availability and the large number of STS subtypes, making development of STS cell lines and animal models representative of the diverse human STS subtypes critical. Pigs represent ideal human disease models due to their similar size, anatomy, metabolism, and genetics compared to humans. The Oncopig encodes inducible KRAS

Maurus K, Hufnagel A, Geiger F, et al.
The AP-1 transcription factor FOSL1 causes melanocyte reprogramming and transformation.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(36):5110-5121 [PubMed] Related Publications
The MAPK pathway is activated in the majority of melanomas and is the target of therapeutic approaches. Under normal conditions, it initiates the so-called immediate early response, which encompasses the transient transcription of several genes belonging to the AP-1 transcription factor family. Under pathological conditions, such as continuous MAPK pathway overactivation due to oncogenic alterations occurring in melanoma, these genes are constitutively expressed. The consequences of a permanent expression of these genes are largely unknown. Here, we show that FOSL1 is the main immediate early AP-1 member induced by melanoma oncogenes. We first examined its role in established melanoma cells. We found that FOSL1 is involved in melanoma cell migration as well as cell proliferation and anoikis-independent growth, which is mediated by the gene product of its target gene HMGA1, encoding a multipotent chromatin modifier. As FOSL1 expression is increased in patient melanoma samples compared to nevi, we investigated the effect of enhanced FOSL1 expression on melanocytes. Intriguingly, we found that FOSL1 acts oncogenic and transforms melanocytes, enabling subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. During the process of transformation, FOSL1 reprogrammed the melanocytes and downregulated MITF in a HMGA1-dependent manner. At the same time, AXL was upregulated, leading to a shift in the MITF/AXL balance. Furthermore, FOSL1 re-enforced pro-tumorigenic transcription factors MYC, E2F3 and AP-1. Together, this led to the enhancement of several growth-promoting processes, such as ribosome biogenesis, cellular detachment and pyrimidine metabolism. Overall, we demonstrate that FOSL1 is a novel reprogramming factor for melanocytes with potent tumor transformation potential.

Gallenne T, Ross KN, Visser NL, et al.
Systematic functional perturbations uncover a prognostic genetic network driving human breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(13):20572-20587 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prognostic classifiers conceivably comprise biomarker genes that functionally contribute to the oncogenic and metastatic properties of cancer, but this has not been investigated systematically. The transcription factor Fra-1 not only has an essential role in breast cancer, but also drives the expression of a highly prognostic gene set. Here, we systematically perturbed the function of 31 individual Fra-1-dependent poor-prognosis genes and examined their impact on breast cancer growth in vivo. We find that stable shRNA depletion of each of nine individual signature genes strongly inhibits breast cancer growth and aggressiveness. Several factors within this nine-gene set regulate each other's expression, suggesting that together they form a network. The nine-gene set is regulated by estrogen, ERBB2 and EGF signaling, all established breast cancer factors. We also uncover three transcription factors, MYC, E2F1 and TP53, which act alongside Fra-1 at the core of this network. ChIP-Seq analysis reveals that a substantial number of genes are bound, and regulated, by all four transcription factors. The nine-gene set retains significant prognostic power and includes several potential therapeutic targets, including the bifunctional enzyme PAICS, which catalyzes purine biosynthesis. Depletion of PAICS largely cancelled breast cancer expansion, exemplifying a prognostic gene with breast cancer activity. Our data uncover a core genetic and prognostic network driving human breast cancer. We propose that pharmacological inhibition of components within this network, such as PAICS, may be used in conjunction with the Fra-1 prognostic classifier towards personalized management of poor prognosis breast cancer.

Kavya K, Kumar MN, Patil RH, et al.
Differential expression of AP-1 transcription factors in human prostate LNCaP and PC-3 cells: role of Fra-1 in transition to CRPC status.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2017; 433(1-2):13-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis plays a vital role in the development of prostate and critical in the progression of prostate cancer. Androgen withdrawal initially regresses tumors but eventually develops into aggressive castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors are most likely to be associated with malignant transformation in prostate cancer. Hence, to determine the implication of AR and AP-1 in promoting the transition of prostate cancer to the androgen-independent state, we used AR-positive LNCaP and AR-negative PC-3 cells as an in vitro model system. The effect of dihydrotestosterone or anti-androgen bicalutamide on the cell proliferation and viability was assessed by MTT assay. Expression studies on AR, marker genes-PSA, TMPRSS2, and different AP-1 factors were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and expressions of AR and Fra-1 proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Dihydrotestosterone induced the cell proliferation in LNCaP with no effect on PC-3 cells. Bicalutamide decreased the viability of both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Dihydrotestosterone induced the expression of AR, PSA, c-Jun, and Fra-1 in LNCaP cells, and it was c-Jun and c-Fos in case of PC-3 cells, while bicalutamide decreased their expression. In addition, constitutive activation and non-regulation of Fra-1 by bicalutamide in PC-3 cells suggested that Fra-1, probably a key component, involved in transition of aggressive androgen-independent PC-3 cells with poor prognosis.

Mao Y, Zhao Q, Yin S, et al.
Genome-wide expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis of deregulated genes in human gastric cancer tissue after gastroscopy.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2018; 14(2):e29-e36 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and biological processes enriched in gastric cancer.
METHODS: We collected five human advanced gastric cancer tissues by gastroscopy and five peritumor normal tissues as controls and examined the gene expression changes by microarray. KEGG Orthology Based Annotation System annotation was used to identify pathways and biological processes regulated by the deregulated genes. Protein-protein interaction network analysis identified protein complex and functional modules. We also selected 14 genes for further verification by real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: Human gene expression profile analysis showed that 2028 deregulated genes were detected in gastric cancer compared with the control group (at least a 2.0-fold change and P < 0.05), among which there were 689 upregulated and 1339 downregulated genes. Interestingly, we identified some important genes, such as CXCL17, OTX1 and CCDC125, which have not previously been reported in gastric cancer. Real-time quantitative PCR results verified that CXCL8, OTX1, CEBPB, FOSL1, FOXS1, ARFRP1 and IRF9 were upregulated in gastric cancer and CCDC125, PPP1R36, SOX2, JUN and MIA2 were downregulated. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the biological processes of inflammatory response, angiogenesis, cell migration and pathways of chemokine signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway were enriched. We also selected the top 30 significant Gene Ontology terms and select pathways for a brief summary.
CONCLUSION: We performed a global analysis of the mRNA landscape in gastric cancer. Our results may stimulate a deeper understanding of the disease, and lead to the development of potential therapies and the identification of novel biomarkers.

Vallejo A, Perurena N, Guruceaga E, et al.
An integrative approach unveils FOSL1 as an oncogene vulnerability in KRAS-driven lung and pancreatic cancer.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:14294 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
KRAS mutated tumours represent a large fraction of human cancers, but the vast majority remains refractory to current clinical therapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by KRAS oncogene may yield alternative therapeutic strategies. Here we report the identification of a common transcriptional signature across mutant KRAS cancers of distinct tissue origin that includes the transcription factor FOSL1. High FOSL1 expression identifies mutant KRAS lung and pancreatic cancer patients with the worst survival outcome. Furthermore, FOSL1 genetic inhibition is detrimental to both KRAS-driven tumour types. Mechanistically, FOSL1 links the KRAS oncogene to components of the mitotic machinery, a pathway previously postulated to function orthogonally to oncogenic KRAS. FOSL1 targets include AURKA, whose inhibition impairs viability of mutant KRAS cells. Lastly, combination of AURKA and MEK inhibitors induces a deleterious effect on mutant KRAS cells. Our findings unveil KRAS downstream effectors that provide opportunities to treat KRAS-driven cancers.

Kumar K, DeCant BT, Grippo PJ, et al.
BET inhibitors block pancreatic stellate cell collagen I production and attenuate fibrosis in vivo.
JCI Insight. 2017; 2(3):e88032 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fibrotic reaction, which can account for over 70%-80% of the tumor mass, is a characteristic feature of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumors. It is associated with activation and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), which are key regulators of collagen I production and fibrosis in vivo. In this report, we show that members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins are expressed in primary PSCs isolated from human PDAC tumors, with BRD4 positively regulating, and BRD2 and BRD3 negatively regulating, collagen I expression in primary cancer-associated PSCs. We show that the inhibitory effect of pan-BET inhibitors on collagen I expression in primary cancer-associated PSCs is through blocking of BRD4 function. Importantly, we show that FOSL1 is repressed by BRD4 in primary cancer-associated PSCs and negatively regulates collagen I expression. While BET inhibitors do not affect viability or induce PSC apoptosis or senescence, BET inhibitors induce primary cancer-associated PSCs to become quiescent. Finally, we show that BET inhibitors attenuate stellate cell activation, fibrosis, and collagen I production in the EL-Kras

Liu W, Tian T, Liu L, et al.
A functional SNP rs1892901 in FOSL1 is associated with gastric cancer in Chinese population.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:41737 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FOSL1 (FOS like antigen 1) is one kind of proto-oncogene, and may play a vital role in carcinogenesis of multiple cancers. However, studies about the relationship between SNPs in FOSL1 and gastric cancer are still lacking. Thus, we investigated the association of seven SNPs in FOSL1 with gastric cancer using case-control design in a two-stage strategy (Screening stage: 1,140 gastric cancer cases and 1,547 controls; Replication stage: 1,006 cases and 2,273 controls). We found that rs1892901 was significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in additive model (adjusted OR = 1.25, 95%CI: 1.06-1.47, P = 0.008) in first stage. Following replication results revealed that the relationship between rs1892901 and gastric cancer risk was consistent with our primary results. In silico analysis showed that rs1892901 might alter multiple regulatory motifs, disturb protein binding, and affect the expression of FOSL1 and other important gastric cancer-related genes such as EGR1, CHD, EP300, FOS, JUN and FOSL2. Our findings indicated that functional SNP rs1892901 in FOSL1 might affect the expression of FOSL1, and ultimately increase the risk of gastric cancer. Further functional studies and large-scale population studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

Toyozumi T, Hoshino I, Takahashi M, et al.
Fra-1 Regulates the Expression of HMGA1, Which is Associated with a Poor Prognosis in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2017; 24(11):3446-3455 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The expression of Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) affects tumor progression, migration, and invasion. In this study, we identified the genes regulated by Fra-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: We constructed Fra-1 knockdown models via the transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) into ESCC cell lines (TE10, TE11). The expression levels of the genes in the knockdown models were analyzed using a microarray and a Biobase Upstream Analysis, while the expression levels of the candidate genes in the primary tumors of surgical specimens obtained from ESCC patients were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. The clinicopathological features were then analyzed.
RESULTS: The Biobase Upstream Analysis showed the high-mobility-group protein-1 (HMGA1) to be a significant gene regulated by Fra-1. Actual binding of Fra-1 to the promotor region of HMGA1 was revealed in subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation PCR experiments. Patients with a positive HMGA1 expression had a poor prognosis, and a multivariate analysis demonstrated a positive HMGA1 expression to be a significant independent prognostic factor.
CONCLUSION: HMGA1 is regulated by Fra-1 in ESCC, and the HMGA1 expression is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Downregulation of the HMGA1 expression may become a practical treatment strategy against ESCC in the future.

Makoukji J, Makhoul NJ, Khalil M, et al.
Gene expression profiling of breast cancer in Lebanese women.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:36639 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is commonest cancer in women worldwide. Elucidation of underlying biology and molecular pathways is necessary for improving therapeutic options and clinical outcomes. Molecular alterations in breast cancer are complex and involve cross-talk between multiple signaling pathways. The aim of this study is to extract a unique mRNA fingerprint of breast cancer in Lebanese women using microarray technologies. Gene-expression profiles of 94 fresh breast tissue samples (84 cancerous/10 non-tumor adjacent samples) were analyzed using GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to validate candidate genes. Differentially expressed genes between breast cancer and non-tumor tissues were screened. Significant differences in gene expression were established for COL11A1/COL10A1/MMP1/COL6A6/DLK1/S100P/CXCL11/SOX11/LEP/ADIPOQ/OXTR/FOSL1/ACSBG1 and C21orf37. Pathways/diseases representing these genes were retrieved and linked using PANTHER

Yang L, Feng S, Yang Y
Identification of transcription factors (TFs) and targets involved in the cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) by integrated analysis.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2016; 23(12):439-445 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study was designed to investigate the upstream transcription factors (TFs) and the signature genes in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), providing better clues on the regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic applications. Gene expression data sets of CCA were searched in the Gene Expression Omnibus database for integrated analysis. Functional annotation of differently expressed genes (DEGs) was then conducted and the TFs were identified. Moreover, a global transcriptional regulatory network of TFs-targets was constructed. Integrated analysis of five eligible Gene Expression Omnibus data sets led to a set of 993 DEGs and 48 TFs in CCA. The constructed TFs-targets regulatory network consisted of 697 TF-target interactions between 41 TFs and 436 DEGs. The top 10 TFs covering the most downstream DEGs were NFATC2, SOX10, ARID3A, ZNF263, NR4A2, GATA3, EGR1, PLAG1, STAT3 and FOSL1, which may have important roles in the tumorigenesis of CCA. Supporting the fact that defects of cell-cycle surveillance mechanism were closely related to various cancers, we found that cell cycle was the most significantly enriched pathway. KCNN2 and ADCY6 were involved in the bile secretion. Thus, their aberrant expression may be closely related to the pathogenesis of CCA. Particularly, we found that upregulation of EZH2 in CCA is a powerful potential marker for CCA.

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