Gene Summary

Gene:FTL; ferritin light chain
Aliases: LFTD, NBIA3
Summary:This gene encodes the light subunit of the ferritin protein. Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is composed of 24 subunits of the heavy and light ferritin chains. Variation in ferritin subunit composition may affect the rates of iron uptake and release in different tissues. A major function of ferritin is the storage of iron in a soluble and nontoxic state. Defects in this light chain ferritin gene are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases and hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ferritin light chain
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (9)

Latest Publications: FTL (cancer-related)

Kuskucu A, Tuysuz EC, Gurkan S, et al.
Co-polysomy of 1p/19q in glial tumors: Retrospective analysis of 221 cases from single center.
Gene. 2019; 701:161-168 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glial tumors are malignant brain tumors that arise from glial cells of brain or spine and have genetic aberrations in their genome. 1p/19q co-deletion is associated with increased Overall Survival (OS) time with enhanced response to chemo- and radio-therapy in oligodendrogliomas. However, prognostic significance of 1p/19q co-polysomy is still unclear. We evaluated 1p/19q status of 221 patients with glial tumor by Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH). Records of the patients were collected retrospectively. Our results demonstrated that 1p/19q co-polysomy was associated with decreased OS time, high P53 expression and frequently located in temporal lobe, whereas 1p/19q co-deletion was associated with increased overall survival time, low P53 expression and frontal lobe location. Furthermore, classification of patients based on both 1p/19q status and P53 expression revealed that patients with 1p/19q co-polysomy and high P53 expression had the worst prognosis. Lastly, our bioinformatic survival analysis revealed that high expression of SRM, ICMT, and FTL located in 1p36.13-p36.31 and 19q13.2-q13.33 region were related with decreased OS time in patients with Low Grade Glioma (LGG). The study demonstrated that 1p/19q co-polysomy is a poor prognostic marker for glial tumor.

Hamedi Asl D, Naserpour Farivar T, Rahmani B, et al.
The role of transferrin receptor in the Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis; L-ferritin as a novel marker for intestinal metaplasia.
Microb Pathog. 2019; 126:157-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori growth requirements is a prerequisite to invade gastric epithelium and the process of injury to gastric cells will eventually lead to gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of iron challenge on the expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis. The presence of Phosphoglucosamine mutase (glmM), cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) genes and mRNA expression of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (IRP2), Transferrin Receptor (TFRC) and Ferritin Light Chain (FTL) genes in samples of 28 normal gastric mucosa, 33 chronic gastritis, 29 gastritis with intestinal metaplasia, 29 intestinal type adenocarcinoma patients were examined by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze cellular localization and protein levels. In the all H. pylori positive tissues, particularly in the basal regions of foveolar cells, TFRC was overexpressed (P < 0.05), and regardless of the H. pylori infection, FTL was overexpressed in all patient, exclusively in metaplastic glandular cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, overexpression of IRP2 was associated with H. pylori positive chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia (P < 0.05). Our findings confirm the role of transferrin receptor in H. pylori attachment into the gastric mucosa to capture iron. Overexpression of FTL gene in metaplastic cells could be considered as a research background to investigate the role of this gene in the differentiation of gastric cells into intestinal metaplasia. In addition, this gene could be suggested as a diagnostic marker to be included among the other markers routinely performed by clinical diagnostic laboratories.

Bertoli S, Paubelle E, Bérard E, et al.
Ferritin heavy/light chain (FTH1/FTL) expression, serum ferritin levels, and their functional as well as prognostic roles in acute myeloid leukemia.
Eur J Haematol. 2019; 102(2):131-142 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We previously reported the prognostic value of serum ferritin in younger patients with intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aims of this study were to confirm this finding in a larger cohort regardless of age and prognostic subgroups, to explore the expression and functional role of ferritin in AML cells as well as the regulation of serum ferritin levels in AML patients.
PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Serum ferritin levels at diagnosis were collected in a cohort of 525 patients treated by intensive chemotherapy. In silico, in vitro, and in vivo analyses were conducted to assess the pattern of expression and functional role of FTH1 and FTL in AML.
RESULTS: We confirmed the independent prognostic value of serum ferritin. In transcriptomic databases, FTH1 and FTL were overexpressed in AML and leukemic stem cells compared to normal hematopoietic stem cells. The gene signature designed from AML patients overexpressing FTH1 revealed a significant enrichment in genes of the immune and inflammatory response including Nf-KB pathway, oxidative stress, or iron pathways. This gene signature was enriched in cytarabine-resistant AML cells in a patient-derived xenograft model. FTH1 protein was also overexpressed in patient's samples and correlated with the in vitro cytotoxic activity of cytarabine. Lastly, we demonstrated that chemotherapy induced an inflammatory response including a significant increase in serum ferritin levels between day 1 and 8 of induction chemotherapy that was blocked by dexamethasone.
CONCLUSION: Ferritin is deregulated in most AML patients likely through inflammation, associated with chemoresistance, and could represent a new therapeutic target.

Sarıman M, Abacı N, Sırma Ekmekçi S, et al.
Investigation of Gene Expressions of Myeloma Cells in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients by Transcriptome Analysis
Balkan Med J. 2019; 36(1):23-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by transformation of B cells into malignant cells. Although there are data regarding the molecular pathology of multiple myeloma, the molecular mechanisms of the disease have not been fully elucidated.
Aims: To investigate the gene expression profiles in bone marrow myeloma cells via RNA-sequencing technology.
Study Design: Cell study.
Methods: Myeloma cells from four patients with untreated multiple myeloma and B cells from the bone marrow of four healthy donors were sorted using a FACSAria II flow cytometer. The patient pool of myeloma cells and the control pool of B cells were the two comparative groups. A transcriptome analysis was performed and the results were analyzed using bioinformatics tools.
Results: In total, 18.806 transcripts (94.4%) were detected in the pooled multiple myeloma patient cells. A total of 992 regions were detected as new exon candidates or alternative splicing regions. In addition, 490 mutations (deletions or insertions), 1.397 single nucleotide variations, 415 fusion transcripts, 132 frameshift mutations, and 983 fusions, which were reported before in the National Center for Biotechnology Information, were detected with unknown functions in patients. A total of 35.268 transcripts were obtained (71%) (25.355 transcripts were defined previously) in the control pool. In this preliminary study, the first 50 genes were analyzed with the MSigDB, Enrichr, and Panther gene set enrichment analysis programs. The molecular functions, cellular components, pathways, and biological processes of the genes were obtained and statistical values were determined using bioinformatics tools and are presented as a supplemental file.

Łabno A, Warkocki Z, Kuliński T, et al.
Perlman syndrome nuclease DIS3L2 controls cytoplasmic non-coding RNAs and provides surveillance pathway for maturing snRNAs.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2016; 44(21):10437-10453 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The exosome-independent exoribonuclease DIS3L2 is mutated in Perlman syndrome. Here, we used extensive global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses to identify novel DIS3L2 substrates in human cells. We show that DIS3L2 regulates pol II transcripts, comprising selected canonical and histone-coding mRNAs, and a novel FTL_short RNA from the ferritin mRNA 5' UTR. Importantly, DIS3L2 contributes to surveillance of maturing snRNAs during their cytoplasmic processing. Among pol III transcripts, DIS3L2 particularly targets vault and Y RNAs and an Alu-like element BC200 RNA, but not Alu repeats, which are removed by exosome-associated DIS3. Using 3' RACE-Seq, we demonstrate that all novel DIS3L2 substrates are uridylated in vivo by TUT4/TUT7 poly(U) polymerases. Uridylation-dependent DIS3L2-mediated decay can be recapitulated in vitro, thus reinforcing the tight cooperation between DIS3L2 and TUTases. Together these results indicate that catalytically inactive DIS3L2, characteristic of Perlman syndrome, can lead to deregulation of its target RNAs to disturb transcriptome homeostasis.

Wu T, Li Y, Liu B, et al.
Expression of Ferritin Light Chain (FTL) Is Elevated in Glioblastoma, and FTL Silencing Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation via the GADD45/JNK Pathway.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149361 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence suggests that iron-associated proteins contribute to tumor initiation and development. Ferritin light chain (FTL), a key protein in iron metabolism, is associated with the survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of FTL in the pathogenesis of GBM. By using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we found that expression of FTL was higher in patients with GBM than in those with low-grade glioma. Immunofluorescence showed that FTL was mainly localized in the nucleus of GBM cells and was closely associated with mitotic spindles. Knockdown of FTL resulted in inhibition of cell growth and activation of the GADD45A/JNK pathway in GBM cells. Immunoblotting revealed that levels of GADD45A protein decreased in GBM cells when FTL expression increased. Furthermore, transfection of GADD45A in GBM cells significantly decreased cell viability, and this effect was impeded by co-transfection of FTL. Moreover, FTL was found to localize with GADD45A in GBM cells, and a coimmunoprecipitation experiment showed that the two proteins physically interacted. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which FTL regulates the growth of GBM cells via the GADD45/JNK pathway.

Buranrat B, Connor JR
Cytoprotective effects of ferritin on doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell death.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(5):2790-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ferritin is a major iron storage protein and essential for iron homeostasis. It has a wide range of functions in the body including iron delivery, immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Ferritin is overexpressed in many cancer cells, but its precise role in cancer is unclear. In the present study, we examined the functional roles of ferritin in protecting the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line against treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. The effects of ferritin (human liver ferritin) and doxorubicin on the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line were evaluated using the cell viability assay. The impact of decreasing ferritin light chain (FTL) and ferritin heavy chain (FTH) expression on doxorubicin sensitivity was assessed using siRNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also measured using the fluorescence probe CM-H2DCFDA. The mechanism of modulated chemosensitivity was evaluated by western blot analysis. Ferritin treatment activated MCF-7 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. While treatment with doxorubicin alone significantly increased intracelullar ROS production, the addition of ferritin decreased this ROS formation, thereby reducing doxorubicin‑induced MCF-7 cell death. The inhibition of FTL and FTH by siRNA sensitized cells to doxorubicin. Treatment with doxorubicin alone significantly induced the cell cycle‑dependent kinase inhibitor protein p21, whereas ferritin reduced p21 expression. Thus, ferritin plays a critical role in protecting MCF-7 cells against the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. A targeted reduction of ferritin may be a useful strategy for overcoming chemoresistance in breast cancer.

Muñiz Lino MA, Palacios-Rodríguez Y, Rodríguez-Cuevas S, et al.
Comparative proteomic profiling of triple-negative breast cancer reveals that up-regulation of RhoGDI-2 is associated to the inhibition of caspase 3 and caspase 9.
J Proteomics. 2014; 111:198-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: There are no targeted therapeutic modalities for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), thus it is associated with poor prognosis and worst clinical outcome. Here, our aim was to identify deregulated proteins in TNBC with potential therapeutic applications. Proteomics profiling of TNBC and normal breast tissues through two-dimensional electrophoresis and ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry revealed the existence of 16 proteins (RhoGDI-2, HSP27, SOD1, DJ1, UBE2N, PSME1, FTL, SH3BGRL, and eIF5A-1) with increased abundance in carcinomas. We also evidenced for the first time the deregulation of COX5, MTPN and DB1 proteins in TNBC that may represent novel tumor markers. Particularly, we confirmed the overexpression of the Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI-2) in distinct breast cancer subtypes, as well as in metastatic cell lines derived from lung, prostate, and breast cancer. Remarkably, targeted disruption of RhoGDI-2 by RNA interference induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and facilitated caspase-3 and -9 activation in two breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, suppression of RhoGDI-2 resulted in a robust sensitization of breast cancer cells to cisplatin therapy. In conclusion, we identified novel proteins deregulated in TNBC, and confirmed the overexpression of RhoGDI-2. We propose that RhoGDI-2 inhibition may be exploited as a potential therapeutic strategy along cisplatin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: There are no useful biomarkers neither targeted therapeutic modalities for triple-negative breast cancer, which highly contributes to the poor prognosis of this breast cancer subtype. In this work, we used two-dimensional electrophoresis and ESI-MS/MS spectrometry to identify novel deregulated proteins in breast cancer tissues. Particularly, our results showed that RhoGDI-2, a protein that has been associated to metastasis and poor survival in human cancers, is overexpressed in different subtypes of breast tumors, as well as in metastatic cell lines derived from lung, prostate, and breast cancer. Our data also provided novel insights about the role of RhoGDI-2 in apoptosis through intrinsic pathway inhibition. Importantly, they suggested that targeted modulation of RhoGDI-2 levels might be a useful strategy for breast cancer therapy.

Chekhun VF, Lukyanova NY, Burlaka CA, et al.
Iron metabolism disturbances in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with acquired resistance to doxorubicin and cisplatin.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(5):1481-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of resistance of cancer cells to therapeutic agents is the major obstacle in the successful treatment of breast cancer and the main cause of breast cancer recurrence. The results of several studies have demonstrated an important role of altered cellular iron metabolism in the progression of breast cancer and suggested that iron metabolism may be involved in the acquisition of a cancer cell drug-resistant phenotype. In the present study, we show that human MCF-7 breast cancer cells with an acquired resistance to the chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin (MCF-7/DOX) and cisplatin (MCF-7/CDDP) exhibited substantial alterations in the intracellular iron content and levels of iron-regulatory proteins involved in the cellular uptake, storage and export of iron, especially in profoundly increased levels of ferritin light chain (FTL) protein. The increased levels of FTL in breast cancer indicate that FTL may be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for breast cancer. Additionally, we demonstrate that targeted downregulation of FTL protein by the microRNA miR-133a increases sensitivity of MCF-7/DOX and MCF-7/CDDP cells to doxorubicin and cisplatin. These results suggest that correction of iron metabolism abnormalities may substantially improve the efficiency of breast cancer treatment.

Dadkhah E, Naseh H, Farshchian M, et al.
A cancer-array approach elucidates the immune escape mechanism and defects in the DNA repair system in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Iran Med. 2013; 16(8):463-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the second-most frequently diagnosed cancer in Northeast Iran, often diagnosed in advanced stages. No standard early diagnostic guideline has been proposed to date and current therapeutic modalities are not effective. Detection of tumor-specific biomarkers, which is the goal of this study, could prove useful in the diagnosis of ESCC. 
METHODS: To better understand the gene expression profile of ESCC, we analyzed tumor samples and corresponding adjacent normal tissues from ESCC patients by Chemiluminescent Human Cancer GEArrays. Candidate genes were verified by real-time PCR. 
RESULTS: Out of 440 cancer-related genes included in the array, 71 were overexpressed compared to normal tissue, with significant differences in 11 genes. There were 108 genes underexpressed, with significant differences in 5 genes. Until now, the AP2M1, FTL, UBE2L6, HLA-C, and HSPA8 overexpressed genes and XRCC5, TP53I3 and RAP1A underexpressed genes were not reported in ESCC. We chose the MMP2, HLA-G, and XRCC5 markers from 58 Iranian ESCC patients to verify the expression validity by real-time PCR. The microarray results were confirmed with two-tailed significance levels of P = 0.003 (MMP2), P = 0.000 (HLA-G) and P = 0.002(XRCC5). Analysis performed for the candidate genes using GNCpro online software highlighted two pathways, an immuno-modulatory response and DNA replication and repair. We successfully performed and validated Chemiluminescent GEArray gene expression profiling in ESCC. Several biomarkers that might be related to tumorigenesis in ESCC were identified.
CONCLUSION: Immuno-modulatory and DNA repair pathways could be used as targets to locate specific diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers for ESCC.

Gautam P, Nair SC, Gupta MK, et al.
Proteins with altered levels in plasma from glioblastoma patients as revealed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e46153 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common and lethal primary tumors of the central nervous system with high level of recurrence despite aggressive therapy. Tumor-associated proteins/peptides may appear in the plasma of these patients as a result of disruption of the blood-brain barrier in them, raising the scope for development of plasma-based tests for diagnosis and monitoring the disease. With this objective, we analyzed the levels of proteins present in the plasma from GBM patients using an iTRAQ based LC-MS/MS approach. Analysis with pooled plasma specimens from the patient and healthy control samples revealed high confidence identification of 296 proteins, of which 61 exhibited a fold-change ≥1.5 in the patient group. Forty-eight of them contained signal sequence. A majority have been reported in the differentially expressed transcript or protein profile of GBM tissues; 6 have been previously studied as plasma biomarkers for GBM and 16 for other types of cancers. Altered levels of three representative proteins-ferritin light chain (FTL), S100A9, and carnosinase 1 (CNDP1)-were verified by ELISA in a test set of ten individual plasma specimens. FTL is an inflammation marker also implicated in cancer, S100A9 is an important member of the Ca(2+) signaling cascade reported to be altered in GBM tissue, and CNDP1 has been reported for its role in the regulation of the levels of carnosine, implicated as a potential drug for GBM. These and other proteins in the dataset may form useful starting points for further clinical investigations for the development of plasma-based biomarker panels for GBM.

Descotes F, Jézéquel P, Spyratos F, et al.
Identification of potential prognostic biomarkers for node-negative breast tumours by proteomic analysis: a multicentric 2004 national PHRC study.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(1):92-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
We used a 2D-electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic approach to identify novel biomarkers in node-negative breast cancers. This retrospective study focused on a population of patients with ductal pN0M0 tumours. A subset of patients who developed metastases and in whose tumours were found high levels of uPA and PAI-1 (metastatic relapse, MR: n=20) were compared to another subset in whom no metastatic relapse occurred and whose tumours were found to have low levels of uPA and PAI-1 (no relapse, NR: n=21). We used a 2-DE coupled with MS approach to screen cytosol fractions using two pH-gradient scales, a broad scale (3.0-11.0) and a narrower scale focussing in on a protein rich region (5.0-8.0). This study was conducted on 41 cytosol specimens analyzed in duplicate on two platforms. The differential analysis of more than 2,000 spots in 2-DE gels, obtained on the two platforms, allowed the identification of 13 proteins which were confirmed by western blotting. Two proteins, GPDA and FABP4 were down-regulated in the MR subset whereas all the others were up-regulated. An in silico analysis revealed that GMPS (GUAA), GAPDH (G3P), CFL1 (COF1) and FTL (FRIL), the most informative genes, displayed a proliferation profile (high expression in basal-like, HER2+ and luminal B molecular subtypes). Inversely, similar to FABP4, GPD1 [GPDA] displayed a high expression in luminal A subtype, a profile characteristic of tumour suppressor genes. Despite the small size of our cohort, the 2-DE analysis gave interesting results which were confirmed by the in silico analysis showing that some of the corresponding genes had a strong prognostic impact in breast cancer, mostly because of their link with proliferation: GMPS, GAPDH, FTL and GPD1. A validation phase on a larger cohort is now needed before these biomarkers could be considered for use in clinical practice.

Eswaran J, Cyanam D, Mudvari P, et al.
Transcriptomic landscape of breast cancers through mRNA sequencing.
Sci Rep. 2012; 2:264 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a poorly defined genetic landscape, which poses a major challenge in diagnosis and treatment. By massively parallel mRNA sequencing, we obtained 1.2 billion reads from 17 individual human tissues belonging to TNBC, Non-TNBC, and HER2-positive breast cancers and defined their comprehensive digital transcriptome for the first time. Surprisingly, we identified a high number of novel and unannotated transcripts, revealing the global breast cancer transcriptomic adaptations. Comparative transcriptomic analyses elucidated differentially expressed transcripts between the three breast cancer groups, identifying several new modulators of breast cancer. Our study also identified common transcriptional regulatory elements, such as highly abundant primary transcripts, including osteonectin, RACK1, calnexin, calreticulin, FTL, and B2M, and "genomic hotspots" enriched in primary transcripts between the three groups. Thus, our study opens previously unexplored niches that could enable a better understanding of the disease and the development of potential intervention strategies.

Cozzi A, Rovelli E, Frizzale G, et al.
Oxidative stress and cell death in cells expressing L-ferritin variants causing neuroferritinopathy.
Neurobiol Dis. 2010; 37(1):77-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroferritinopathies are dominantly inherited movement disorders associated with nucleotide insertions in the L-ferritin gene that modify the protein's C-terminus. The insertions alter physical and functional properties of the ferritins, causing an imbalance in brain iron homeostasis. We describe the effects produced by the over-expression in HeLa and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of two pathogenic L-ferritin variants, 460InsA and 498InsTC. Both peptides co-assembled with endogenous ferritins, producing molecules with reduced iron incorporation capacity, acting in a dominant negative manner. The cells showed an increase in cell death and a decrease in proteasomal activity. The formation of iron-ferritin aggregates became evident after 10 days of variant expression and was not associated with increased cell death. The addition of iron chelators or antioxidants restored proteasomal activity and reduced aggregate formation. The data indicate that cellular iron imbalance and oxidative damage are primary causes of cell death, while aggregate formation is a secondary effect.

Veitch ZW, Guo B, Hembruff SL, et al.
Induction of 1C aldoketoreductases and other drug dose-dependent genes upon acquisition of anthracycline resistance.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009; 19(6):477-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that tumor cells overexpressing aldoketoreductases (AKRs) exhibit increased resistance to DNA damaging agents such as anthracyclines. AKRs may induce resistance to the anthracycline doxorubicin by catalyzing its conversion to the less toxic 13-hydroxy metabolite doxorubicinol. However, it has not been established whether during selection for anthracycline resistance, AKR overexpression in tumor cells can be correlated with the onset or magnitude of drug resistance and with appreciable conversion of anthracyclines to 13-hydroxy metabolites.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Through microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies involving rigid selection criteria and both correlative discriminate statistics and time-course models, we have identified several genes whose expression can be correlated with the onset and/or magnitude of anthracycline resistance, including AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Also associated with the onset or magnitude of anthracycline resistance were genes involved in drug transport (ABCB1, ABCC1), cell signaling and transcription (RDC1, CXCR4), cell proliferation or apoptosis (BMP7, CAV1), protection from reactive oxygen species (AKR1C2, AKR1C3, FTL, FTH, TXNRD1, MT2A), and structural or immune system proteins (IFI30, STMN1). As expected, doxorubicin-resistant and epirubicin-resistant cells exhibited higher levels of doxorubicinol than wild-type cells, although at insufficient levels to account for significant drug resistance. Nevertheless, an inhibitor of Akr1c2 (5beta-cholanic acid) almost completely restored sensitivity to doxorubicin in ABCB1-deficient doxorubicin-resistant cells, while having no effect on ABCB1-expressing epirubicin-resistant cells.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, we show for the first time that a variety of genes (particularly redox genes such as AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) can be temporally and causally correlated with the acquisition of anthracycline resistance in breast tumor cells.

Wang K, Xu X, Nie Y, et al.
Identification of tumor-associated antigens by using SEREX in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2009; 281(2):144-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To identify biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Screening the HCC cDNA library with HCC patients sera. Isolated proteins were used as antigens to detect antibodies from patients with HCC and control sera.
RESULTS: Eighty-one positive clones were identified. The frequencies of autoantibody against five HCC-associated antigens were higher in HCC than that in chronic hepatitis and normal human sera. The sensitivity and specificity of KRT23, AHSG and FTL antigens combination tests up to 98.2% in joint test and 90.0% in series test separately.
CONCLUSIONS: HCC associate antigens identified from this study supply candidate markers of diagnosis, combined detection and immunotherapy of HCC.

Liu Y, Zhu X, Zhu J, et al.
Identification of differential expression of genes in hepatocellular carcinoma by suppression subtractive hybridization combined cDNA microarray.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 18(4):943-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genetic background of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has yet to be completely understood. Here, we describe the application of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) coupled with cDNA microarray analysis for the isolation and identification of differential expression of genes in HCC. Twenty-six known genes were validated as up-regulated and 19 known genes as down-regulated in HCC. The known genes identified were found to have diverse functions. In addition to the overexpression of AFP, these genes (increased in the presence of HCC) are involved in many processes, such as transcription and protein biosynthesis (HNRPDL, PABPC1, POLR2K, SRP9, SNRPA, and six ribosomal protein genes including RPL8, RPL14, RPL41, RPS5, RPS17, RPS24), the metabolism of lipids and proteins (FADS1, ApoA-II, ApoM, FTL), cell proliferation (Syndecan-2, and Annexin A2), and signal transduction (LRRC28 and FMR1). Additionally, a glutathione-binding protein involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal known as GLO1 and an enzyme which increases the formation of prostaglandin E(2) known as PLA2G10 were up-regulated in HCC. Among the underexpressed genes discovered in HCC, most were responsible for liver-synthesized proteins (fibrinogen, complement species, amyloid, albumin, haptoglobin, hemopexin and orosomucoid). The enzyme implicated in the biotransformation of CYP family members (LOC644587) was decreased. The genes coding enzymes ADH1C, ALDH6A1, ALDOB, Arginase and CES1 were also found. Additionally, we isolated a zinc transporter (Zip14) and a function-unknown gene named ZBTB11 (Zinc finger and BTB domain containing 11) which were underexpressed, and seven expression sequence tags deregulated in HCC without significant homology reported in the public database. Essentially, by using SSH combined with a cDNA microarray we have identified a number of genes associated with HCC, most of which have not been previously reported. Further characterization of these differentially expressed genes will provide information useful in understanding the genes responsible for the development of HCC.

Fellenberg J, Bernd L, Delling G, et al.
Prognostic significance of drug-regulated genes in high-grade osteosarcoma.
Mod Pathol. 2007; 20(10):1085-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
About 25-45% of patients with high-grade osteosarcoma poorly respond to chemotherapy with an increased risk of relapse and the development of metastasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation of the prognostic value of eight previously identified drug-regulated candidate genes on osteosarcoma therapy outcome. Gene expression of 8 candidate genes was analyzed in 35 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, laser-microdissected osteosarcoma biopsies. The prognostic value of these genes was evaluated by the correlation of gene expression with therapy outcome, overall survival and event-free survival in univariate and multivariate analysis. Upon univariate analysis, the expression of MALAT-1, IMPDH2, FTL and RHOA significantly correlated with response to chemotherapy. Expression of all four genes was increased in the poor responder group. Upon multivariate analysis, IMPDH2 maintained its independent prognostic value (P=0.025). Concerning the overall survival of the patients, we observed a significant association with the expression of FTL, PHB, ATAD2, ACTN1 and RRM2 as well as lactate dehydrogenase serum levels. In the subgroups of patients with high expression of these genes and those with elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels, the mean overall survival was decreased 1.7-, 1.9-, 2.2-, 2.4-, 1.5- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Except RRM2, all genes and lactate dehydrogenase serum levels remained significant in the multivariate analysis. In addition, the event-free survival was significantly decreased in the subgroups of patients with high FTL, ATAD2 and IMPDH2 expression (1.8-, 6.3- and 2.4-fold, respectively). These data demonstrate that among the identified genes are valuable markers for the prediction of osteosarcoma therapy outcome. Especially IMPDH2 and FTL are promising candidates for the stratification of osteosarcoma patients into low- and high-risk groups. Owing to their involvement in drug action these genes may further be potential targets for the modulation of drug sensitivity.

Yoon SY, Kim JM, Oh JH, et al.
Gene expression profiling of human HBV- and/or HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma cells using expressed sequence tags.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 29(2):315-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. To identify novel target genes that are related to liver carcinogenesis, we examined new genes that are differentially expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tissues based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) frequency. Eleven libraries were constructed from seven HCC cell lines and three normal liver tissue samples obtained from Korean patients. An analysis of gene expression profiles for HCC was performed using the frequency of ESTs obtained from these cDNA libraries. Genes were identified (n=120) as being either up- or down-regulated in human liver cancer cells. Among these, 14 genes (FTL, K-ALPHA1, LDHA, RPL4, ENO1, ANXA2, RPL9, RPL10, RPL13A, GNB2L1, AMBP, GC, A1BG, and SERPINC1), in addition to previously well-known liver cancer related genes, were confirmed to be differentially expressed in seven liver cancer cell lines and 17 HCC tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, 73 genes, in which there was a significant difference (P>0.99) between HBV- and HCV-associated HCC cells, were selected. Of these, expression patterns of 14 (RPLP0, AKR1C, KRT8, GPX4, RPS15, ID1, RPS21, VIM, EEF1G, EIF4A1, HLA-C, FN1, CD44, and RPS10) were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in four of HBV- and three of HCV-associated HCC cell lines. Among those genes, an immunohistochemical analysis for ANXA2 showed that it is expressed at high levels in HCC. Using an analysis of EST frequency, the newly identified genes, especially ANXA2, represent potential biomarkers for HCC and useful targets for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with HCC involving virological etiology.

Tews B, Felsberg J, Hartmann C, et al.
Identification of novel oligodendroglioma-associated candidate tumor suppressor genes in 1p36 and 19q13 using microarray-based expression profiling.
Int J Cancer. 2006; 119(4):792-800 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q is the most common genetic alteration in oligodendroglial tumors and associated with response to radio- and chemotherapy as well as favorable prognosis. Using microsatellite analysis, we previously identified the chromosomal regions 1p36.22-p36.31 and 19q13.3, as candidate tumor suppressor gene regions being commonly deleted in these tumors. To identify genes within these regions that are downregulated in oligodendroglial tumors with LOH 1p/19q, we performed cDNA microarray-based RNA expression profiling of 35 gliomas with known allelic status on 1p and 19q, including 7 oligodendrogliomas and 8 diffuse astrocytomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, as well as 14 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and 6 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas of WHO grade III. The microarrays used for expression profiling carried approximately 7,000 gene-specific cDNAs, with complete coverage of the genes located in 1p36.13-p36.31 and 19q13.2-q13.33. Microarray analysis identified 8 genes from these regions (MGC4399, SRM, ICMT, RPL18, FTL, ZIN, FLJ10781 and DBP), which all showed significantly lower expression in 1p/19q-deleted gliomas when compared to gliomas without 1p/19q losses. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses were performed for the MGC4399, ICMT and RPL18 genes and confirmed the microarray findings. In addition, we found that the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4C) gene at 19q13.3 demonstrated significantly lower expression in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade III) when compared to well-differentiated oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II). Taken together, our study provides a set of interesting novel candidate genes that may play important roles in the pathogenesis of oligodendroglial tumors.

Yang XY, Ren CP, Wang L, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed genes in metastatic and non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by suppression subtractive hybridization.
Cell Oncol. 2005; 27(4):215-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial neoplasm with high occurrence rates in southern China. The disease often metastasizes to regional lymphnodes at a very early stage. Local recurrences and metastasis occur frequently in patients with NPC and are a leading cause of death, despite improvements on treatment modalities. The molecular mechanism underlying the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains poorly understood, however, and requires additional elucidation. The aim of this study was to explore possible NPC gene candidates that may play key roles in NPC metastasis.
METHODS: Subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) was performed to isolate differentially expressed clones between the metastatic 5-8F and non-metastatic 6-10B nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. Differentially expressed clones were screened and confirmed by reverse Northern blotting. The sequences of cDNA fragments were subsequently analyzed and compared to known sequences in Genbank.
RESULTS & DISCUSSION: The SSH library contained thousands of positive clones. Random analysis of 300 clones by PCR demonstrated that 269 clones contained inserted fragments. Reverse Northern blot confirmed that 20 out of 192 clones examined were significantly up-regulated in the 5-8F cell line. Among these 20 clones, 16 were previously identified genes (flotilin-2, ezrin, pim-3, fli-1, mel, neugrin, znf216, ASB1, raly, UBE2A, keratin6A, TMED7, EIF3S9, FTL, two ribosomal proteins RPL21 and RPL16), two were predicted genes (c9orf74 and MDS006), and two sequences shared no homology with known genes listed in GenBank and may represent novel genes. The proposed functions of the genes identified in this study include cell signal transduction, cell survival, transcription regulation, cell mobility, protein synthesis, and DNA damage repair. Flotillin-2, fli-1, pim-3 and ezrin have previously been reported to be associated with tumor metastasis and progression. The remaining up-regulated genes identified in this study have not been reported to be markers of metastasis and may represent new candidates of NPC metastasis-related genes. The results of this study may provide novel points of therapeutic intervention for NPC.

Feng HC, Tsao SW, Ngan HY, et al.
Differential expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 and ferritin light polypeptide in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: combined cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray study.
Cancer. 2005; 104(11):2409-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hydatidiform mole (HM), the most common type of gestational trophoblastic diseases, can be considered as placenta with abnormal chromosome composition with potential of malignant transformation. Few biologic markers can predict subsequent development of persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) requiring chemotherapy.
METHODS: Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with cDNA microarray was used to compare the differential expression pattern of HM that spontaneously regressed and that subsequently developed metastatic GTN. Tissue-specific chips were constructed from the subtracted cDNA libraries, followed by cDNA microarray analysis. Verification by quantitative RNA analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis was performed in 23 genotyped complete HM.
RESULTS: Sixteen differentially expressed transcripts were identified. Quantitative RNA analysis confirmed down-regulation of ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) (P = 0.037) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) (P = 0.037) in HM that subsequently developed GTN when compared with those HM that regressed. Immunohistochemical analysis further confirmed reduced IGFBP1 protein (P = 0.03) expression in HM that developed GTN.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings showed that reduced expression of genes related to cell invasion and immunosuppression, especially FTL and IGFBP1, were associated with development of GTN, and this finding may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of GTN. The potential application of FTL and IGFBP1 in management of patients with HM should be explored.

Mohr S, Bottin MC, Lannes B, et al.
Microdissection, mRNA amplification and microarray: a study of pleural mesothelial and malignant mesothelioma cells.
Biochimie. 2004; 86(1):13-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The studies of molecular alterations in tumor cells with microarrays are often hampered by inherent tissue heterogeneity. The emergence of Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) allowed us to overcome this challenge since it gives selective access to cancer cells that are isolated from their native tissue environment. In this report, we microdissected mesothelial cells and malignant mesothelioma cells of ex vivo resected specimens using LCM. Amplified RNA from mesothelial and mesothelioma microdissected cells allowed us to measure global gene expression with 10 K-microarrays in four independent experiments. We screened 9850 annotated human genes, 1275 of which have satisfied our data analysis requirements. They included 302 overexpressed genes and 160 downregulated genes in mesothelioma microdissected cells as compared to mesothelial microdissected cells. Among them, the expression levels of eight genes, namely BF, FTL, IGFBP7, RARRES1, RARRES2, RBP1, SAT, and TXN according to HUGO nomenclature, were increased, whereas six: ALOX5AP, CLNS1A, EIF4A2, ELK3, REQ and SYPL, were found to be underexpressed in mesothelioma microdissected cells. The ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene overexpression was confirmed by real time quantitative PCR. Our approach allowed a comprehensive in situ examination of mesothelioma and provided an accurate way to find new marker genes that may be useful for diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

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