MBD4; methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 (3q21.3)

Gene Summary

Gene:MBD4; methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4
Aliases: MED1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of nuclear proteins related by the presence of a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). These proteins are capable of binding specifically to methylated DNA, and some members can also repress transcription from methylated gene promoters. This protein contains an MBD domain at the N-terminus that functions both in binding to methylated DNA and in protein interactions and a C-terminal mismatch-specific glycosylase domain that is involved in DNA repair. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 4
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Epigenetics
  • p53 Protein
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Base Pair Mismatch
  • DNA Methylation
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Microsatellite Instability
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Phenotype
  • DNA Glycosylases
  • Messenger RNA
  • Frameshift Mutation
  • Cancer DNA
  • Endodeoxyribonucleases
  • MutS Homolog 2 Protein
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Chromosome 3
  • DNA Repair
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Base Sequence
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Transcription
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Promoter Regions
  • CpG Islands
  • Histones
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (3)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Colorectal CancerMBD4 and Colorectal Cancer View Publications17
Prostate CancerMBD4 and Prostate Cancer View Publications4
Lung CancerMBD4 and Lung Cancer View Publications5

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: MBD4 (cancer-related)

Jia Y, Viswakarma N, Reddy JK
Med1 subunit of the mediator complex in nuclear receptor-regulated energy metabolism, liver regeneration, and hepatocarcinogenesis.
Gene Expr. 2014; 16(2):63-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several nuclear receptors regulate diverse metabolic functions that impact on critical biological processes, such as development, differentiation, cellular regeneration, and neoplastic conversion. In the liver, some members of the nuclear receptor family, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptor (LXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and others, regulate energy homeostasis, the formation and excretion of bile acids, and detoxification of xenobiotics. Excess energy burning resulting from increases in fatty acid oxidation systems in liver generates reactive oxygen species, and the resulting oxidative damage influences liver regeneration and liver tumor development. These nuclear receptors are important sensors of exogenous activators as well as receptor-specific endogenous ligands. In this regard, gene knockout mouse models revealed that some lipid-metabolizing enzymes generate PPARα-activating ligands, while others such as ACOX1 (fatty acyl-CoA oxidase1) inactivate these endogenous PPARα activators. In the absence of ACOX1, the unmetabolized ACOX1 substrates cause sustained activation of PPARα, and the resulting increase in energy burning leads to hepatocarcinogenesis. Ligand-activated nuclear receptors recruit the multisubunit Mediator complex for RNA polymerase II-dependent gene transcription. Evidence indicates that the Med1 subunit of the Mediator is essential for PPARα, PPARγ, CAR, and GR signaling in liver. Med1 null hepatocytes fail to respond to PPARα activators in that these cells do not show induction of peroxisome proliferation and increases in fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Med1-deficient hepatocytes show no increase in cell proliferation and do not give rise to liver tumors. Identification of nuclear receptor-specific coactivators and Mediator subunits should further our understanding of the complexities of metabolic diseases associated with increased energy combustion in liver.

Hsieh CL, Fei T, Chen Y, et al.
Enhancer RNAs participate in androgen receptor-driven looping that selectively enhances gene activation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(20):7319-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) is a key factor that regulates the behavior and fate of prostate cancer cells. The AR-regulated network is activated when AR binds enhancer elements and modulates specific enhancer-promoter looping. Kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3), which codes for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), is a well-known AR-regulated gene and its upstream enhancers produce bidirectional enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), termed KLK3e. Here, we demonstrate that KLK3e facilitates the spatial interaction of the KLK3 enhancer and the KLK2 promoter and enhances long-distance KLK2 transcriptional activation. KLK3e carries the core enhancer element derived from the androgen response element III (ARE III), which is required for the interaction of AR and Mediator 1 (Med1). Furthermore, we show that KLK3e processes RNA-dependent enhancer activity depending on the integrity of core enhancer elements. The transcription of KLK3e was detectable and its expression is significantly correlated with KLK3 (R(2) = 0.6213, P < 5 × 10(-11)) and KLK2 (R(2) = 0.5893, P < 5 × 10(-10)) in human prostate tissues. Interestingly, RNAi silencing of KLK3e resulted in a modest negative effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation. Accordingly, we report that an androgen-induced eRNA scaffolds the AR-associated protein complex that modulates chromosomal architecture and selectively enhances AR-dependent gene expression.

Related: Prostate Cancer AR: androgen receptor KLK3

Wu D, Sunkel B, Chen Z, et al.
Three-tiered role of the pioneer factor GATA2 in promoting androgen-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(6):3607-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In prostate cancer, androgen receptor (AR) binding and androgen-responsive gene expression are defined by hormone-independent binding patterns of the pioneer factors FoxA1 and GATA2. Insufficient evidence of the mechanisms by which GATA2 contributes to this process precludes complete understanding of a key determinant of tissue-specific AR activity. Our observations suggest that GATA2 facilitates androgen-responsive gene expression by three distinct modes of action. By occupying novel binding sites within the AR gene locus, GATA2 positively regulates AR expression before and after androgen stimulation. Additionally, GATA2 engages AR target gene enhancers prior to hormone stimulation, producing an active and accessible chromatin environment via recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase p300. Finally, GATA2 functions in establishing and/or sustaining basal locus looping by recruiting the Mediator subunit MED1 in the absence of androgen. These mechanisms may contribute to the generally positive role of GATA2 in defining AR genome-wide binding patterns that determine androgen-responsive gene expression profiles. We also find that GATA2 and FoxA1 exhibit both independent and codependent co-occupancy of AR target gene enhancers. Identifying these determinants of AR transcriptional activity may provide a foundation for the development of future prostate cancer therapeutics that target pioneer factor function.

Related: GATA2 gene Prostate Cancer

Cunha S, Lin YC, Goossen EA, et al.
The RON receptor tyrosine kinase promotes metastasis by triggering MBD4-dependent DNA methylation reprogramming.
Cell Rep. 2014; 6(1):141-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is the major cause of death in cancer patients, yet the genetic and epigenetic programs that drive metastasis are poorly understood. Here, we report an epigenetic reprogramming pathway that is required for breast cancer metastasis. Concerted differential DNA methylation is initiated by the activation of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase by its ligand, macrophage stimulating protein (MSP). Through PI3K signaling, RON/MSP promotes expression of the G:T mismatch-specific thymine glycosylase MBD4. RON/MSP and MBD4-dependent aberrant DNA methylation results in the misregulation of a specific set of genes. Knockdown of MBD4 reverses methylation at these specific loci and blocks metastasis. We also show that the MBD4 glycosylase catalytic residue is required for RON/MSP-driven metastasis. Analysis of human breast cancers revealed that this epigenetic program is significantly associated with poor clinical outcome. Furthermore, inhibition of Ron kinase activity with a pharmacological agent blocks metastasis of patient-derived breast tumor grafts in vivo.

Related: Breast Cancer

Xie C, Powell C, Yao M, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C: a potential cancer biomarker.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 47:113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes 2C (UBE2C) is an integral component of the ubiquitin proteasome system. UBE2C consists of a conserved core domain containing the catalytic Cys residue and an N-terminal extension. The core domain is required for ubiquitin adduct formation by interacting with the ubiquitin-fold domain in the E1 enzyme, and contributes to the E3 enzyme binding. UBE2C N-terminal extension regulates E3 enzyme activity as a part of an intrinsic inhibitory mechanism. UBE2C is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and securin, which are essential for spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic exit. The UBE2C mRNA and/or protein levels are aberrantly increased in many cancer types with poor clinical outcomes. Accumulation of UBE2C stimulates cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. UBE2C transgenic mice are prone to develop spontaneous tumors and carcinogen-induced tumor with evidence of chromosome aneuploidy.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Schiano C, Casamassimi A, Rienzo M, et al.
Involvement of Mediator complex in malignancy.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1845(1):66-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mediator complex (MED) is an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein, fundamental for growth and survival of all cells. In eukaryotes, the mRNA transcription is dependent on RNA polymerase II that is associated to various molecules like general transcription factors, MED subunits and chromatin regulators. To date, transcriptional machinery dysfunction has been shown to elicit broad effects on cell proliferation, development, differentiation, and pathologic disease induction, including cancer. Indeed, in malignant cells, the improper activation of specific genes is usually ascribed to aberrant transcription machinery. Here, we focus our attention on the correlation of MED subunits with carcinogenesis. To date, many subunits are mutated or display altered expression in human cancers. Particularly, the role of MED1, MED28, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C in cancer is well documented, although several studies have recently reported a possible association of other subunits with malignancy. Definitely, a major comprehension of the involvement of the whole complex in cancer may lead to the identification of MED subunits as novel diagnostic/prognostic tumour markers to be used in combination with imaging technique in clinical oncology, and to develop novel anti-cancer targets for molecular-targeted therapy.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Moelans CB, van der Groep P, Hoefnagel LD, et al.
Genomic evolution from primary breast carcinoma to distant metastasis: Few copy number changes of breast cancer related genes.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 344(1):138-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer initiation and progression is characterized by (epi)genetic aberrations. However, little is known about the changes that occur during breast cancer metastasis. In the present study, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to compare copy numbers of 21 established oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes between 55 primary breast cancer samples and corresponding distant metastases. Distant breast cancer metastases generally showed similar gene copy number aberrations compared to their corresponding primary tumors. The few genes that showed differences between primary tumor and metastasis (PRDM14, MED1, CCNE1, TRAF4, MTDH, CDH1) have been implicated in the development of therapy resistance.

Related: Breast Cancer

Ishino R, Minami K, Tanaka S, et al.
FGF7 supports hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and niche-dependent myeloblastoma cells via autocrine action on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 440(1):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
FGF1 and FGF2 support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under stress conditions. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF7) may be a novel niche factor for HSPC support and leukemic growth. FGF7 expression was attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex. When normal mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were cocultured with Med1(+/+) MEFs or BM stromal cells in the presence of anti-FGF7 antibody, the growth of BM cells and the number of long-time culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) decreased significantly. Anti-FGF7 antibody also attenuated the proliferation and cobblestone formation of MB1 stromal cell-dependent myeloblastoma cells. The addition of recombinant FGF7 to the coculture of BM cells and Med1(-/-) MEFs increased BM cells and LTC-ICs. FGF7 and its cognate receptor, FGFR2IIIb, were undetectable in BM cells, but MEFs and BM stromal cells expressed both. FGF7 activated downstream targets of FGFR2IIIb in Med1(+/+) and Med1(-/-) MEFs and BM stromal cells. Taken together, we propose that FGF7 supports HSPCs and leukemia-initiating cells indirectly via FGFR2IIIb expressed on stromal cells.

Related: Leukemia FGFR2 gene Signal Transduction

Hayden Gephart MG, Su YS, Bandara S, et al.
Neuropilin-2 contributes to tumorigenicity in a mouse model of Hedgehog pathway medulloblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2013; 115(2):161-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in the most common childhood brain tumor, medulloblastoma (MB). Given the toxicity of post-surgical treatments for MB, continued need exists for new, targeted therapies. Based upon our finding that Neuropilin (Nrp) transmembrane proteins are required for Hh signal transduction, we investigated the role of Nrp in MB cells. Cultured cells derived from a mouse Ptch (+/-) ;LacZ MB (Med1-MB), effectively modeled the Hh pathway-related subcategory of human MBs in vitro. Med1-MB cells maintained constitutively active Hh target gene transcription, and consistently formed tumors within one month after injection into mouse cerebella. The proliferation rate of Med1-MBs in culture was dependent upon Nrp2, while reducing Nrp1 function had little effect. Knockdown of Nrp2 prior to cell implantation significantly increased mouse survival, compared to transfection with a non-targeting siRNA. Knocking down Nrp2 specifically in MB cells avoided any direct effect on tumor vascularization. Nrp2 should be further investigated as a potential target for adjuvant therapy in patients with MB.

Related: Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET Signal Transduction

Zhang L, Cui J, Leonard M, et al.
Silencing MED1 sensitizes breast cancer cells to pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant in vitro and in vivo.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70641 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant has been shown to be a promising ER antagonist for locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients developed resistance to this type of endocrine therapy but the molecular mechanisms governing cellular responsiveness to this agent remain poorly understood. Here, we've reported that knockdown of estrogen receptor coactivator MED1 sensitized fulvestrant resistance breast cancer cells to fulvestrant treatment. We found that MED1 knockdown further promoted cell cycle arrest induced by fulvestrant. Using an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, we found that knockdown of MED1 significantly reduced tumor growth in mice. Importantly, knockdown of MED1 further potentiated tumor growth inhibition by fulvestrant. Mechanistic studies indicated that combination of fulvestrant treatment and MED1 knockdown is able to cooperatively inhibit the expression of ER target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments further supported a role for MED1 in regulating the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and transcriptional corepressor HDAC1 on endogenous ER target gene promoter in the presence of fulvestrant. These results demonstrate a role for MED1 in mediating resistance to the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant both in vitro and in vivo.

Related: Breast Cancer TFF1

Seo WY, Jeong BC, Yu EJ, et al.
CCAR1 promotes chromatin loading of androgen receptor (AR) transcription complex by stabilizing the association between AR and GATA2.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2013; 41(18):8526-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, plays a critical role in prostate cancer onset and progression, and its transcriptional function is mediated largely by distinct nuclear receptor co-regulators. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) functions as an AR co-activator. CCAR1 interacted with and enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR. Depletion of CCAR1 caused reduction in androgen-dependent expression of a subset of AR target genes. We further showed that CCAR1 is required for recruitment of AR, MED1 and RNA polymerase II to the enhancers of AR target genes and for androgen-induced long-range prostate specific antigen enhancer-promoter interaction. The molecular mechanism underlying CCAR1 function in AR-mediated transcription involves CCAR1-mediated enhanced recruitment of GATA2, a pioneer factor for AR, to AR-binding sites. CCAR1 stabilized the interaction between AR and GATA2 by interacting directly with both proteins, thereby facilitating AR and GATA2 occupancy on the enhancers. Furthermore, CCAR1 depletion inhibited the growth, migration, invasion of prostate cancer cells and reduced the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells in vivo. Our results firmly established CCAR1 as an AR co-activator that plays a key role in AR transcription complex assembly and has an important physiological role in androgen signaling and prostate tumorigenesis.

Related: GATA2 gene Prostate Cancer

Misra P, Viswakarma N, Reddy JK
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling in hepatocarcinogenesis.
Subcell Biochem. 2013; 69:77-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of most animal cells. They perform diverse metabolic functions, including H2O2-derived respiration, β-oxidation of fatty acids, and cholesterol metabolism. Peroxisome proliferators are a large class of structurally dissimilar industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals that were originally identified as inducers of both the size and the number of peroxisomes in rat and mouse livers or hepatocytes in vitro. Exposure to peroxisome proliferators leads to a stereotypical orchestration of adaptations consisting of hepatocellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and transcriptional induction of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes regulated in parallel with peroxisome proliferation. Chronic exposure to peroxisome proliferators causes liver tumors in both male and female mice and rats. Evidence indicates a pivotal role for a subset of nuclear receptor superfamily members, called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), in mediating energy metabolism. Upon activation, PPARs regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and peroxisome proliferation, as well as genes involved in cell growth. In this review, we describe the molecular mode of action of PPAR transcription factors, including ligand binding, interaction with specific DNA response elements, transcriptional activation, and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We discuss the evidence that suggests that PPARα and transcriptional coactivator Med1/PBP, a key subunit of the Mediator complex play a central role in mediating hepatic steatosis to hepatocarcinogenesis. Disproportionate increases in H2O2-generating enzymes generates excess reactive oxygen species resulting in sustained oxidative stress and progressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with activation of unfolded protein response signaling. Thus, these major contributors coupled with hepatocellular proliferation are the key players of peroxisome proliferators-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

Related: Liver Cancer Signal Transduction

Jacot W, Fiche M, Zaman K, et al.
The HER2 amplicon in breast cancer: Topoisomerase IIA and beyond.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1836(1):146-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
HER2 gene amplification is observed in about 15% of breast cancers. The subgroup of HER2-positive breast cancers appears to be heterogeneous and presents complex patterns of gene amplification at the locus on chromosome 17q12-21. The molecular variations within the chromosome 17q amplicon and their clinical implications remain largely unknown. Besides the well-known TOP2A gene encoding Topoisomerase IIA, other genes might also be amplified and could play functional roles in breast cancer development and progression. This review will focus on the current knowledge concerning the HER2 amplicon heterogeneity, its clinical and biological impact and the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of gene amplifications at this locus, with particular attention to TOP2A and the link between TOP2A and anthracycline benefit. In addition it will discuss the clinical and biological implications of the amplification of ten other genes at this locus (MED1, STARD3, GRB7, THRA, RARA, IGFPB4, CCR7, KRT20, KRT19 and GAST) in breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer

Murtaza M, Dawson SJ, Tsui DW, et al.
Non-invasive analysis of acquired resistance to cancer therapy by sequencing of plasma DNA.
Nature. 2013; 497(7447):108-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancers acquire resistance to systemic treatment as a result of clonal evolution and selection. Repeat biopsies to study genomic evolution as a result of therapy are difficult, invasive and may be confounded by intra-tumour heterogeneity. Recent studies have shown that genomic alterations in solid cancers can be characterized by massively parallel sequencing of circulating cell-free tumour DNA released from cancer cells into plasma, representing a non-invasive liquid biopsy. Here we report sequencing of cancer exomes in serial plasma samples to track genomic evolution of metastatic cancers in response to therapy. Six patients with advanced breast, ovarian and lung cancers were followed over 1-2 years. For each case, exome sequencing was performed on 2-5 plasma samples (19 in total) spanning multiple courses of treatment, at selected time points when the allele fraction of tumour mutations in plasma was high, allowing improved sensitivity. For two cases, synchronous biopsies were also analysed, confirming genome-wide representation of the tumour genome in plasma. Quantification of allele fractions in plasma identified increased representation of mutant alleles in association with emergence of therapy resistance. These included an activating mutation in PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha) following treatment with paclitaxel; a truncating mutation in RB1 (retinoblastoma 1) following treatment with cisplatin; a truncating mutation in MED1 (mediator complex subunit 1) following treatment with tamoxifen and trastuzumab, and following subsequent treatment with lapatinib, a splicing mutation in GAS6 (growth arrest-specific 6) in the same patient; and a resistance-conferring mutation in EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor; T790M) following treatment with gefitinib. These results establish proof of principle that exome-wide analysis of circulating tumour DNA could complement current invasive biopsy approaches to identify mutations associated with acquired drug resistance in advanced cancers. Serial analysis of cancer genomes in plasma constitutes a new paradigm for the study of clonal evolution in human cancers.

Related: Breast Cancer Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Ovarian Cancer RB1 GAS6

Jin F, Irshad S, Yu W, et al.
ERK and AKT signaling drive MED1 overexpression in prostate cancer in association with elevated proliferation and tumorigenicity.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(7):736-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
MED1 is a key coactivator of the androgen receptor (AR) and other signal-activated transcription factors. Whereas MED1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer cell lines and is thought to coactivate distinct target genes involved in cell-cycle progression and castration-resistant growth, the underlying mechanisms by which MED1 becomes overexpressed and its oncogenic role in clinical prostate cancer have remained unclear. Here, we report that MED1 is overexpressed in the epithelium of clinically localized human prostate cancer patients, which correlated with elevated cellular proliferation. In a Nkx3.1:Pten mutant mouse model of prostate cancer that recapitulates the human disease, MED1 protein levels were markedly elevated in the epithelium of both invasive and castration-resistant adenocarcinoma prostate tissues. Mechanistic evidence showed that hyperactivated ERK and/or AKT signaling pathways promoted MED1 overexpression in prostate cancer cells. Notably, ectopic MED1 overexpression in prostate cancer xenografts significantly promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, MED1 expression in prostate cancer cells promoted the expression of a number of novel genes involved in inflammation, cell proliferation, and survival. Together, these findings suggest that elevated MED1 is a critical molecular event associated with prostate oncogenesis.

Related: PTEN Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction

Xiong XD, Luo XP, Liu X, et al.
The MBD4 Glu346Lys polymorphism is associated with the risk of cervical cancer in a Chinese population.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2012; 22(9):1552-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Methyl-CpG binding domain 4 (MBD4) protein functions as a DNA repair enzyme and plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity and carcinogenesis. The polymorphisms in the MBD4 gene may be associated with differences in DNA repair capacity and thereby influence an individual's susceptibility to cervical cancer. To verify this hypothesis, we examined the potential association between the MBD4 Glu346Lys polymorphism (rs140693, G>A) and the risk of cervical cancer in a Chinese population.
METHODS: We genotyped the MBD4 Glu346Lys polymorphism in 146 cervical cancer cases and 320 healthy female subjects using polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the genotypes and the risk of cervical cancer.
RESULTS: We observed a significantly decreased risk of cervical cancer associated with the heterozygous Lys/Glu genotype (odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.99; P = 0.046) and the homozygous Glu/Glu genotype (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.89; P = 0.018), compared with the Lys/Lys homozygotes. Moreover, the reduced cervical cancer risk was more predominant among younger subjects or human papillomavirus-positive individuals carrying Glu/Glu genotypes (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14-0.78, P = 0.011; and OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.75, P = 0.013, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The MBD4 codon 346 polymorphism may play a role in cervical cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population. Further larger case-control and functional studies are needed to validate these findings.

Related: Cervical Cancer

Cui J, Germer K, Wu T, et al.
Cross-talk between HER2 and MED1 regulates tamoxifen resistance of human breast cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(21):5625-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the fact that most breast cancer patients have estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive tumors, up to 50% of the patients are or soon develop resistance to endocrine therapy. It is recognized that HER2 activation is one of the major mechanisms contributing to endocrine resistance. In this study, we report that the ER coactivator MED1 is a novel cross-talk point for the HER2 and ERα pathways. Tissue microarray analysis of human breast cancers revealed that MED1 expression positively correlates most strongly with HER2 status of the tumors. MED1 was highly phosphorylated, in a HER2-dependent manner, at the site known to be critical for its activation. Importantly, RNAi-mediated attenuation of MED1 sensitized HER2-overexpressing cells to tamoxifen treatment. MED1 and its phosphorylated form, but not the corepressors N-CoR and SMRT, were recruited to the ERα target gene promoter by tamoxifen in HER2-overexpressing cells. Significantly, MED1 attenuation or mutation of MED1 phosphorylation sites was sufficient to restore the promoter recruitment of N-CoR and SMRT. Notably, we found that MED1 is required for the expression of not only traditional E2-ERα target genes but also the newly described EGF-ERα target genes. Our results additionally indicated that MED1 is recruited to the HER2 gene and required for its expression. Taken together, these findings support a key role for MED1 in HER2-mediated tamoxifen resistance and suggest its potential usage as a therapeutic target to simultaneously block both ERα and HER2 pathways for the treatment of this type of endocrine resistant breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer

Höbaus J, Fetahu ISh, Khorchide M, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) in colon cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013; 136:296-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Calcitriol is the hormonally active form of vitamin D and has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Calcitriol and its precursor calcidiol (25(OH)D3) are degraded by the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1). This enzyme is overexpressed in colorectal tumors, however, the mechanisms of this overexpression remain to be elucidated. CYP24A1 mRNA level differs among colorectal cancer cell lines and range from almost undetectable to high. Since DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate CYP24A1 gene expression in prostate cancer cell lines, we investigated whether epigenetic mechanisms could explain the differences in basal expression of CYP24A1 in colon cancer cells. Methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) treatment resulted in an over 50-fold induction of CYP24A1 mRNA expression in Coga1A and HT-29 cells but in no response in Caco2/AQ and Coga13 cells. This finding is supported by a strong increase in CYP24A1 activity after DAC treatment in Coga1A (35%). In addition, calcitriol and DAC had synergistic effects on CYP24A1 gene transcription. Interestingly, the CYP24A1 promoter was not methylated in Coga1A and HT-29 (<5%), while in Caco2/AQ it was 62% methylated. This suggests that DNA demethylation must activate genes upstream of CYP24A1 rather than act on the gene itself. However, transcriptional regulators of CYP24A1 such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoid X receptor (RXR), specificity protein 1 (SP1), or mediator complex subunit 1 (MED1) were not upregulated. We conclude that in colon cancer cells, CYP24A1 gene expression is inducible by methyltransferase and some histone deacetylase inhibitors in a cell line-dependent manner. This effect does not correlate with the methylation state of the promoter and therefore must affect genes upstream of CYP24A1. This article is part of a Special Issue 'Vitamin D Workshop'.

Related: Azacitidine

Hulf T, Sibbritt T, Wiklund ED, et al.
Epigenetic-induced repression of microRNA-205 is associated with MED1 activation and a poorer prognosis in localized prostate cancer.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(23):2891-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression can have a critical role in carcinogenesis. Here we show in prostate cancer that miRNA-205 (miR-205) transcription is commonly repressed and the MIR-205 locus is hypermethylated. LOC642587, the MIR-205 host gene of unknown function, is also concordantly inactivated. We show that miR-205 targets mediator 1 (MED1, also called TRAP220 and PPARBP) for transcriptional silencing in normal prostate cells, leading to reduction in MED1 mRNA levels, and in total and active phospho-MED1 protein. Overexpression of miR-205 in prostate cancer cells negatively affects cell viability, consistent with a tumor suppressor function. We found that hypermethylation of the MIR-205 locus was strongly related with a decrease in miR-205 expression and an increase in MED1 expression in primary tumor samples (n=14), when compared with matched normal prostate (n=7). An expanded patient cohort (tumor n=149, matched normal n=30) also showed significant MIR-205 DNA methylation in tumors compared with normal, and MIR-205 hypermethylation is significantly associated with biochemical recurrence (hazard ratio=2.005, 95% confidence interval (1.109, 3.625), P=0.02), in patients with low preoperative prostate specific antigen. In summary, these results suggest that miR-205 is an epigenetically regulated tumor suppressor that targets MED1 and may provide a potential biomarker in prostate cancer management.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Vasovcak P, Krepelova A, Menigatti M, et al.
Unique mutational profile associated with a loss of TDG expression in the rectal cancer of a patient with a constitutional PMS2 deficiency.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2012; 11(7):616-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cells with DNA repair defects have increased genomic instability and are more likely to acquire secondary mutations that bring about cellular transformation. We describe the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutations involving several tumor suppressor genes in the rectal carcinoma of a 13-year-old girl harboring biallelic, germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair gene PMS2. Apart from microsatellite instability, the tumor DNA contained a number of C:G→T:A or G:C→A:T transitions in CpG dinucleotides, which often result through spontaneous deamination of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine. Four DNA glycosylases, UNG2, SMUG1, MBD4 and TDG, are involved in the repair of these deamination events. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation in TDG, which was associated with TDG protein loss in the tumor. The CpGs mutated in this patient's tumor are generally methylated in normal colonic mucosa. Thus, it is highly likely that loss of TDG contributed to the supermutator phenotype and that most of the point mutations were caused by deamination of 5-methylcytosine to thymine, which remained uncorrected owing to the TDG deficiency. This case provides the first in vivo evidence of the key role of TDG in protecting the human genome against the deleterious effects of 5-methylcytosine deamination.

Dinis J, Silva V, Gromicho M, et al.
DNA damage response in imatinib resistant chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2012; 53(10):2004-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia can lead to advanced disease and blast crisis. Conventional chemotherapy with DNA damaging agents is then used, alone or in combination with other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Our aim was to assess whether imatinib resistant K562 cells were also resistant to DNA damaging agents. After treatment with H(2)O(2) and doxorubicin, but not camptothecin, cell survival was higher in imatinib resistant cells compared to parental cells. DNA damage, measured by comet and γ-H2AX assays, was lower in imatinib resistant cells. mRNA expression levels of 50 genes of the DNA damage response pathway showed increased expression of the base excision repair (BER) genes MBD4 and NTHL1. Knockdown of MBD4 and NTHL1 expression in resistant cells using siRNA decreased cell survival after treatment with H(2)O(2) and doxorubicin. Our results indicate that imatinib resistant cells display cross-resistance to oxidative agents, partly through up-regulation of BER genes. Expression of these genes in imatinib resistant patients was not significantly different compared to sensitive patients. However, the strategy followed in this study could help identify chemotherapeutic agents that are more effective as alternative agents in cases of resistance to TKIs.

Related: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) CML - Molecular Biology Imatinib (Glivec)

Kim HJ, Roh MS, Son CH, et al.
Loss of Med1/TRAP220 promotes the invasion and metastasis of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells by modulating the expression of metastasis-related genes.
Cancer Lett. 2012; 321(2):195-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Med1/TRAP220 is an essential component of the TRAP/Mediator complex. In this study, we present a novel function of Med1 in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression. We found that the loss of Med1 expression was strongly associated with increased rates of invasion and metastasis in NSCLC patients. Consistent with lung cancer patient data, the knockdown of Med1 in NSCLC cell lines led to an increase in cell migration and invasion. Med1-depleted cells displayed an increase in metastasis in a xenograft tumor model and in an in vivo metastasis assay. Moreover, a microarray analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of the metastasis-related genes uPAR, ID2, ID4, PTP4A1, PKP3, TGM2, PLD1, TIMP2, RGS2, and HOXA4 were altered upon Med1 knockdown. Collectively, these results suggest that the loss of Med1 increases the invasive potential of human NSCLC cells by modulating the expression of metastasis-related genes.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Hasegawa N, Sumitomo A, Fujita A, et al.
Mediator subunits MED1 and MED24 cooperatively contribute to pubertal mammary gland development and growth of breast carcinoma cells.
Mol Cell Biol. 2012; 32(8):1483-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Mediator subunit MED1 is essential for mammary gland development and lactation, whose contribution through direct interaction with estrogen receptors (ERs) is restricted to involvement in pubertal mammary gland development and luminal cell differentiation. Here, we provide evidence that the MED24-containing submodule of Mediator functionally communicates specifically with MED1 in pubertal mammary gland development. Mammary glands from MED1/MED24 double heterozygous knockout mice showed profound retardation in ductal branching during puberty, while single haploinsufficient glands developed normally. DNA synthesis of both luminal and basal cells were impaired in double mutant mice, and the expression of ER-targeted genes encoding E2F1 and cyclin D1, which promote progression through the G(1)/S phase of the cell cycle, was attenuated. Luciferase reporter assays employing double mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed selective impairment in ER functions. Various breast carcinoma cell lines expressed abundant amounts of MED1, MED24, and MED30, and attenuated expression of MED1 and MED24 in breast carcinoma cells led to attenuated DNA synthesis and growth. These results indicate functional communications between the MED1 subunit and the MED24-containing submodule that mediate estrogen receptor functions and growth of both normal mammary epithelial cells and breast carcinoma cells.

Related: Breast Cancer

Dong J, Hu Z, Shu Y, et al.
Potentially functional polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and non-small-cell lung cancer survival: a pathway-based analysis.
Mol Carcinog. 2012; 51(7):546-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
To assess systematically whether potentially functional polymorphisms in DNA repair genes influence the clinical behavior of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we examined the impact of a comprehensive panel of 218 signal nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 50 candidate DNA repair genes on overall survival of NSCLC in a case-cohort of 568 lung cancer patients. SNPs associated with lung cancer prognosis primarily mapped to 14 genes in different repair pathways, and 6 SNPs were remained in the final model after multivariate stepwise Cox regression analysis: ATM rs189037; MRE11A rs11020802; ERCC2 rs1799793; MBD4 rs140693; XRCC1 rs25487, and PMS1 rs5742933. In the combined analysis of these 6 SNPs, an increasing number of unfavorable loci was associated with a poorer prognosis (P for trend: <0.0001) and patients having 2-4 unfavorable loci had a 1.99-fold elevated risk of death 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.58-2.50, compared with those carrying 0-1 unfavorable loci, and this elevated risk was more evident among stages I-II patients (hazard ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 1.86-4.98, P for heterogeneity: 0.07). Furthermore, a significant effect of SNPs in nucleotide excision repair pathway on lung cancer survival was observed among 185 stages III-IV patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy without surgical operation: XPC rs2228000 (Ala499Val; P = 0.002) and ERCC1 rs11615 (Asn118Asn; P = 0.012). Our data indicate that potentially functional polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may serve as candidate prognostic markers of clinical outcome of NSCLC.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Loughery JE, Dunne PD, O'Neill KM, et al.
DNMT1 deficiency triggers mismatch repair defects in human cells through depletion of repair protein levels in a process involving the DNA damage response.
Hum Mol Genet. 2011; 20(16):3241-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) maintains methylation at CpG dinucleotides, important for transcriptional silencing at many loci. It is also implicated in stabilizing repeat sequences: DNMT1 deficiency causes microsatellite instability in mouse embryonic stem cells, but it is unclear how this occurs, how repeats lacking CpG become unstable and whether the effect is confined to stem cells. To address these questions, we transfected hTERT-immortalized normal human fibroblasts (hTERT-1604) with a short hairpin RNA construct targeting DNMT1 and isolated stable integrants with different levels of protein. DNMT1 expression levels agreed well with methylation levels at imprinted genes. Knockdown cells showed two key characteristics of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, namely resistance to the drug 6-thioguanine and up to 10-fold elevated mutation rates at a CA(17) microsatellite reporter, but had limited viability. The likely cause of MMR defects is a matching drop in steady-state protein levels for key repair components in DNMT1 knockdown cells, affecting both the MutLα and MutSα complexes. This indirect effect on MMR proteins was also seen using a different targeting method in HT29 colon cancer cells and did not involve transcriptional silencing of the respective genes. Decreased levels of MMR components follow activation of the DNA damage response and blocking this response, and in particular poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) overactivation, rescues cell viability in DNMT1-depleted cells. These results offer an explanation for how and why unmethylated microsatellite repeats can be destabilized in cells with decreased DNMT1 levels and uncover a novel and important role for PARP in this process.

Related: Signal Transduction MLH1

Wang H, Zhang C, Rorick A, et al.
CCI-779 inhibits cell-cycle G2-M progression and invasion of castration-resistant prostate cancer via attenuation of UBE2C transcription and mRNA stability.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(14):4866-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cell-cycle G(2)-M phase gene UBE2C is overexpressed in various solid tumors including castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Our recent studies found UBE2C to be a CRPC-specific androgen receptor (AR) target gene that is necessary for CRPC growth, providing a potential novel target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we showed that the G(1)-S cell-cycle inhibitor-779 (CCI-779), an mTOR inhibitor, inhibited UBE2C mRNA and protein expression in AR-positive CRPC cell models abl and C4-2B. Treatment with CCI-779 significantly decreased abl cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of cell-cycle progression of both G(2)-M and G(1)-S phases. In addition, exposure of abl and C4-2B cells to CCI-779 also decreased UBE2C-dependent cell invasion. The molecular mechanisms for CCI-779 inhibition of UBE2C gene expression involved a decreased binding of AR coactivators SRC1, SRC3, p300, and MED1 to the UBE2C enhancers, leading to a reduction in RNA polymerase II loading to the UBE2C promoter, and attenuation of UBE2C mRNA stability. Our data suggest that, in addition to its ability to block cell-cycle G(1) to S-phase transition, CCI-779 causes a cell-cycle G(2)-M accumulation and an inhibition of cell invasion through a novel UBE2C-dependent mechanism, which contributes to antitumor activities of CCI-779 in UBE2C overexpressed AR-positive CRPC.

Related: Prostate Cancer BCL1 Gene (CCND1) Temsirolimus (Torisel)

Chen Z, Zhang C, Wu D, et al.
Phospho-MED1-enhanced UBE2C locus looping drives castration-resistant prostate cancer growth.
EMBO J. 2011; 30(12):2405-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The UBE2C oncogene is overexpressed in many types of solid tumours including the lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The underlying mechanisms causing UBE2C gene overexpression in CRPC are not fully understood. Here, we show that CRPC-specific enhancers drive UBE2C overexpression in both AR-negative and -positive CRPC cells. We further show that co-activator MED1 recruitment to the UBE2C enhancers is required for long-range UBE2C enhancer/promoter interactions. Importantly, we find that the molecular mechanism underlying MED1-mediated chromatin looping involves PI3K/AKT phosphorylated MED1-mediated recruitment of FoxA1, RNA polymerase II and TATA binding protein and their subsequent interactions at the UBE2C locus. MED1 phosphorylation leads to UBE2C locus looping, UBE2C gene expression and cell growth. Our results not only define a causal role of a post-translational modification (phosphorylation) of a co-activator (MED1) in forming or sustaining an active chromatin structure, but also suggest that development of specific therapies for CRPC should take account of targeting phosphorylated MED1.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Zhang D, Jiang P, Xu Q, Zhang X
Arginine and glutamate-rich 1 (ARGLU1) interacts with mediator subunit 1 (MED1) and is required for estrogen receptor-mediated gene transcription and breast cancer cell growth.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(20):17746-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen receptor is a nuclear receptor superfamily member of transcriptional activators that regulate gene expression by recruiting diverese transcriptional coregulators. The Mediator complex is a central transcriptional coactivator complex that acts as a bridge between transcriptional activators and RNA polymerase II. MED1 (Mediator subunit 1) is the key Mediator subunit that directly interacts with estrogen receptor to mediate its functions both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, our previous biochemical analyses indicated that MED1 exists only in a subpopulation of the Mediator complex that is enriched with a number of distinct Mediator subunits and RNA polymerase II. Here, we report ARGLU1 as a MED1/Mediator-associated protein. We found that ARGLU1 (arginine and glutamate rich 1) not only colocalizes with MED1 in the nucleus, but also directly interacts with a far C-terminal region of MED1. Reporter assays indicate that ARGLU1 is able to cooperate with MED1 to regulate estrogen receptor-mediated gene transcription. Importantly, ARGLU1 is recruited, in a ligand-dependent manner, to endogenous estrogen receptor target gene promoters and is required for their expression. Furthermore, by ChIP-reChIP assay, we confirm that ARGLU1 and MED1 colocalize on the same estrogen receptor target gene promoter upon estrogen induction. Moreover, we found that depletion of ARGLU1 significantly impairs the growth, as well as anchorage-dependent and -independent colony formation of breast cancer cells. Taken together, these results establish ARGLU1 as a new MED1-interacting protein required for estrogen-dependent gene transcription and breast cancer cell growth.

Related: Breast Cancer

Lamy PJ, Fina F, Bascoul-Mollevi C, et al.
Quantification and clinical relevance of gene amplification at chromosome 17q12-q21 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-amplified breast cancers.
Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(1):R15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified breast cancers represent a tumor subtype with chromosome 17q rearrangements that lead to frequent gene amplifications. The aim of this study was to quantify the amplification of genes located on chromosome 17q and to analyze the relations between the pattern of gene amplifications and the patients' characteristics and survival.
METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive breast tumors (HER2 score of 3+ by immunohistochemistry or positive for HER2 amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)) (n = 86) and with HER2-negative breast tumors (n = 40) (negative controls) were included in this study. Using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method and DNA extracted from frozen tumor specimens, 11 genes (MED1, STARD3, HER2, GRB7, THRA, RARA, TOP2A, IGFBP4, CCR7, KRT20, KRT19 and GAS), which are localized within Chr17q12-q21 and have a putative role in breast cancer development, were quantified. Relapse-free and overall survival rates were estimated from the date of surgery to the date of the event of interest (recurrence or death) using the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: Gene amplification was observed only in HER2-positive tumors, and the frequency of amplification decreased with the distance of the gene from HER2. HER2 presented the highest level of amplification. TOP2A was not included in the smallest region of amplification involving HER2. Amplification of RARA, KRT20 and KRT19 was significantly associated with node-positive breast cancer (P = 0.030, P = 0.002 and P = 0.033, respectively). During a median follow-up period of 55 months (range, 6 to 81 months), the subgroup of patients with hormone receptor-negative cancer and without TOP2A amplification showed the worst survival (relapse-free survival: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.13 to 0.65, P = 0.001; and overall survival: HR = 0.28, 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.76, P = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: HER2 amplification seems to drive genomic instability along chromosome 17q, leading to different patterns of gene amplification. This study confirms the clinical importance of identifying, among patients with HER2-positive breast tumors, the subgroup of patients with hormone receptor-negative and nonamplified TOP2A cancers as they have the worst prognosis.

Related: Breast Cancer Chromosome 17

Moelans CB, de Weger RA, Monsuur HN, et al.
Molecular differences between ductal carcinoma in situ and adjacent invasive breast carcinoma: a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification study.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2010; 33(3):165-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for approximately 20% of mammographically detected breast cancers. Although DCIS is generally highly curable, some women with DCIS will develop life-threatening invasive breast cancer, but the determinants of progression to infiltrating ductal cancer (IDC) are largely unknown. In the current study, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a multiplex PCR-based test, to compare copy numbers of 21 breast cancer related genes between laser-microdissected DCIS and adjacent IDC lesions in 39 patients. Genes included in this study were ESR1, EGFR, FGFR1, ADAM9, IKBKB, PRDM14, MTDH, MYC, CCND1, EMSY, CDH1, TRAF4, CPD, MED1, HER2, CDC6, TOP2A, MAPT, BIRC5, CCNE1 and AURKA.There were no significant differences in copy number for the 21 genes between DCIS and adjacent IDC. Low/intermediate-grade DCIS showed on average 6 gains/amplifications versus 8 in high-grade DCIS (p=0.158). Furthermore, alterations of AURKA and CCNE1 were exclusively found in high-grade DCIS, and HER2, PRDM14 and EMSY amplification was more frequent in high-grade DCIS than in low/intermediate-grade DCIS. In contrast, the average number of alterations in low/intermediate and high-grade IDC was similar, and although EGFR alterations were exclusively found in high-grade IDC compared to low/intermediate-grade IDC, there were generally fewer differences between low/intermediate-grade and high-grade IDC than between low/intermediate-grade and high-grade DCIS.In conclusion, there were no significant differences in copy number for 21 breast cancer related genes between DCIS and adjacent IDC, indicating that DCIS is genetically as advanced as its invasive counterpart. However, high-grade DCIS showed more copy number changes than low/intermediate-grade DCIS with specifically involved genes, supporting a model in which different histological grades of DCIS are associated with distinct genomic changes that progress to IDC in different routes. These high-grade DCIS specific genes may be potential targets for treatment and/or predict progression.

Related: Breast Cancer


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