Gene Summary

Gene:MUC16; mucin 16, cell surface associated
Aliases: CA125
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Carcinoma
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms
  • United Kingdom
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • Vimentin
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • ROC Curve
  • Staging
  • Drug Resistance
  • Mucins
  • Smoking
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Western Blotting
  • Breast Cancer
  • AKT1
  • Messenger RNA
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Glandular and Epithelial Cancers
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Protein Binding
  • Mutation
  • CA-125 Antigen
  • Cell Movement
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • MicroRNAs
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Chromosome 19
  • Risk Factors
  • Transcription
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Cancer Screening
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MUC16 (cancer-related)

Chudecka-Głaz A, Cymbaluk-Płoska A, Strojna A, Menkiszak J
HE4 Serum Levels in Patients with BRCA1 Gene Mutation Undergoing Prophylactic Surgery as well as in Other Benign and Malignant Gynecological Diseases.
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:9792756 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective. We assess the behavior of serum concentrations of HE4 marker in female carriers of BRCA1 and assess the diagnostic usefulness of HE4 in ovarian and endometrial cancer. Methods. A total of 619 women with BRCA1 gene mutation, ovarian, endometrial, metastatic, other gynecological cancers, or benign gynecological diseases were included. Intergroup comparative analyses were carried out, the BRCA1 gene carriers subgroup was subjected to detailed analysis, and ROC curves were determined for the assessment of diagnostic usefulness of HE4 in ovarian and endometrial cancer. Results. Statistically lower serum HE4 and CA 125 levels were observed in BRCA1 gene mutation premenopausal carriers. Occult ovarian/fallopian tube cancer was found 3.6%. Each of those patients was characterized by slightly elevated levels of either CA 125 (63.9 and 39.4 U/mL) or HE4 (79 pmol/L). The ROC-AUC curves were 0.892 and 0.894 for diagnostic usefulness of ovarian cancer and 0.865 for differentiation of endometrial cancer from endometrial polyps. Conclusions. Patients with BRCA1 gene mutations have relatively low serum HE4 levels. Even the slightest elevation in HE4 or CA 125 levels in female BRCA1 carriers undergoing prophylactic surgery should significantly increase oncological alertness. The HE4 marker is valuable in ovarian and uterine cancer diagnosis.

Lee J, Lee J, Yun JH, et al.
DUSP28 links regulation of Mucin 5B and Mucin 16 to migration and survival of AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12193-12202 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis of pancreatic cancer has not improved despite considerable and continuous effort. Dual-specificity phosphatase 28 (DUSP28) is highly expressed in human pancreatic cancers and exerts critical effects. However, knowledge of its function in pancreatic cancers is extremely limited. Here, we demonstrate the peculiar role of DUSP28 in pancreatic cancers. Analysis using the Gene Expression Omnibus public microarray database indicated higher DUSP28, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC16 and MUC20 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in pancreatic cancers compared with normal pancreas tissues. DUSP28 expression in human pancreatic cancer correlated positively with those of MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC16 and MUC20. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between DUSP28 and mucins in normal pancreas tissues. Decreased DUSP28 expression resulted in down-regulation of MUC5B and MUC16 at both the mRNA and protein levels; furthermore, transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for MUC5B and MUC16 inhibited the migration and survival of AsPC-1 cells. In addition, transfection of siRNA for MUC5B and MUC16 resulted in a significant decrease in phosphorylation of FAK and ERK1/2 compared with transfection with scrambled-siRNA. These results collectively indicate unique links between DUSP28 and MUC5B/MUC16 and their roles in pancreatic cancer; moreover, they strongly support a rationale for targeting DUSP28 to inhibit development of malignant pancreatic cancer.

Shin K, Kim KH, Yoon MS, et al.
Expression of Interactive Genes Associated with Apoptosis and Their Prognostic Value for Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2016 May-Jun; 25(3):513-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant ovarian tumor is one of the leading causes of worldwide cancer death. It is usually characterized by insidious onset and late diagnosis because of the absence of symptoms, allowing ovarian cancer cases to progress rapidly and become unresectable. The tumor suppressor, p53, plays an important role in regulating cell cycles and apoptosis. p53 is regulated by several molecules, and it interacts with other apoptotic proteins.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prognosis of ovarian serous carcinoma and evaluate the expression of DNA-PKcs, Akt3, GSK-3β, and p53 in cancerous cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: DNA-PKcs, Akt3, GSK-3β, and p53 expression levels were scored using immunohistochemistry staining of tissue samples from 132 women with ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. Expression was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Analyses were stratified by age, tumor grades, cancer stages and serum CA 125 levels.
RESULTS: Significant differences in DNA-PKcs, Akt3, and p53 expression were observed between participants with different stages and tumor grades of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. DNA-PKcs and p53 expression increased along with increasing tumor grade. Meanwhile, DNA-PKcs, Akt3, and p53 expression increased along with increasing cancer stage, and with a decrease in 5-year overall survival rate.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that elevated expression of DNA-PKcs, Akt3, and p53 in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tissues are an indication of more advanced disease and worse prognosis.

Yamada T, Hattori K, Satomi H, et al.
Establishment and characterization of a cell line (HCH-1) originating from a human clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.
J Ovarian Res. 2016; 9(1):32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cell lines are very useful for both clinical and basic research. The establishment of ovarian, malignant tumor cell lines with aggressive histology is especially important. We describe the establishment and characterization of a new human clear cell carcinoma cell line of the ovary.
RESULTS: The cell line HCH-1 was established from an ovarian tumor from a 67-year-old woman. This cell line has grown well for 230 months and has been subcultured more than 50 times. Monolayer cultured cells are polygonal in shape, showing a pavement-like arrangement and a tendency to pile up without contact inhibition. It exhibits a human karyotype with a modal chromosomal number in the hypodiploid range. The cells could be transplanted into the subcutis of SCID mice and produced tumors resembling the original tumor. HCH-1 cells produced CA125 and CA19-9, also identified immunohistochemically in both the original tumor and the heterotransplanted tumors. The cells were sensitive to actinomycin D, carboplatin, cisplatin and mitomycin C, drugs commonly used in the treatment of gynecological cancers. Variant was not found in hotspot of the 50 most commonly reported oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Only 12 ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell lines and their characteristics have thus far been reported in the literature. HCH-1 is the first ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell line reported in which the chromosome number is in the hypodiploid range and only the second cell line in which CA125 and CA19-9 are expressed.
CONCLUSIONS: Since it is impossible to establish a cell line from the malignant tumor of each patient, the cell line that we established, characterized and report in this paper may be very useful in basic research on ovarian cancer. We have much to learn about the pathogenesis of clear cell carcinoma and this extra line of enquiry may lead us to a better understanding of how to treat and cure this serious disease.

Tamir A, Gangadharan A, Balwani S, et al.
The serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is a potential biomarker for early detection of ovarian cancer.
J Ovarian Res. 2016; 9:20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OVC) is the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers, primarily as a consequence of asymptomatic progression. The complex nature of OVC creates challenges for early detection, and there is a lack of specific and sensitive biomarkers suitable for screening and detecting early stage OVC.
METHODS: Potential OVC biomarkers were identified by bioinformatic analysis. Candidates were further screened for differential expression in a library of OVC cell lines. OVC-specific overexpression of a candidate gene, PRSS8, which encodes prostasin, was confirmed against 18 major human cancer types from 390 cancer samples by qRT-PCR. PRSS8 expression profiles stratified by OVC tumor stage-, grade- and subtype were generated using cDNA samples from 159 OVC samples. Cell-specific expression and localization of prostasin was determined by immunohistological tissue array analysis of more than 500 normal, benign, and cancerous ovarian tissues. The presence of prostasin in normal, benign, and OVC serum samples was also determined.
RESULTS: Gene expression analysis indicated that PRSS8 was expressed in OVC at levels more than 100 fold greater than found in normal or benign ovarian lesions. This overexpression signature was found in early stages of OVC and was maintained in higher stages and grades of OVC. The PRSS8 overexpression signature was specific for OVC and urinary bladder cancer among 18 human cancer types. The majority of ovarian cell lines overexpressed PRSS8. In situ hybridization and histopathology studies of OVC tissues indicated that overexpression of prostasin was largely localized to tumor epithelium and was absent in neighboring stroma. Significantly higher levels of prostasin were found in early stage OVC serum samples compared to benign ovarian and normal donor samples.
CONCLUSIONS: The abundant amounts of secreted prostasin found in sera of early stage OVC can potentially be used as a minimally invasive screening biomarker for early stage OVC. Overexpression of PRSS8 mRNA and high levels of prostasin in multiple subtypes of early stage ovarian tumors may provide clinical biomarkers for early detection of OVC, which can potentially be used with CA125 and HE4.

Zhang Q, Wang CR, Yu JP, et al.
The Establishment of an HE4-CLIA Method and the Combined Analysis of HE4 and CA125 in Ovarian Cancer.
J Clin Lab Anal. 2016; 30(5):709-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The human epididymal secretory protein 4 (HE4) is a novel, verified biomarker for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Magnetic beads were coated with capture antibodies and were used with acridinium ester labeled detection antibodies in a sandwich-type immunoassay. The patient's HE4 serum levels were measured simultaneously with the chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) kit we developed and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) kit from Roche (Mannheim, Germany). CA125 was also detected by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. The diagnostic value was analyzed.
RESULTS: The assay demonstrated a linear range from 2.5 to 2,000 pmol/l, with an analytical sensitivity of 2.5 pmol/l. The reproducibility, recovery, and specificity of the immunoassay were demonstrated to be acceptable. Compared with the ECLIA kit from Roche in 124 serum samples (40 patients with ovarian cancer, 35 patients with benign gynecological diseases, and 49 health controls), there is a satisfied correlation coefficient of 0.875. The area under the receiver-operating curve (ROC-AUC) was 0.903 (95% CI was 0.839-0.966, P < 0.001) for HE4, 0.787 (95% CI was 0.694-0.879, P < 0.001) for CA125, and 0.914 (95% CI was 0.866-0.962, P < 0.001) for combined analysis of HE4 and CA125.
CONCLUSIONS: A quantitative method (HE4-CLIA) for detecting HE4 in serum was successfully established. Preliminary clinical sample analysis showed HE4-CLIA has a certain clinical value in the screening and diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Moreover, in distinguishing benign from malignant ovarian lesions, HE4 has higher demonstrated accuracy than CA125.

Lehtinen L, Vesterkvist P, Roering P, et al.
REG4 Is Highly Expressed in Mucinous Ovarian Cancer: A Potential Novel Serum Biomarker.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151590 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Preoperative diagnostics of ovarian neoplasms rely on ultrasound imaging and the serum biomarkers CA125 and HE4. However, these markers may be elevated in non-neoplastic conditions and may fail to identify most non-serous epithelial cancer subtypes. The objective of this study was to identify histotype-specific serum biomarkers for mucinous ovarian cancer. The candidate genes with mucinous histotype specific expression profile were identified from publicly available gene-expression databases and further in silico data mining was performed utilizing the MediSapiens database. Candidate biomarker validation was done using qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue microarrays. The expression level of the candidate gene in serum was compared to the serum CA125 and HE4 levels in a patient cohort of prospectively collected advanced ovarian cancer. Database searches identified REG4 as a potential biomarker with specificity for the mucinous ovarian cancer subtype. The specific expression within epithelial ovarian tumors was further confirmed by mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed distinctive cytoplasmic expression pattern only in mucinous carcinomas and suggested differential expression between benign and malignant mucinous neoplasms. Finally, an ELISA based serum biomarker assay demonstrated increased expression only in patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. This study identifies REG4 as a potential serum biomarker for histotype-specific detection of mucinous ovarian cancer and suggests serum REG4 measurement as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for postoperative follow-up of patients with mucinous ovarian cancer.

Ji S, Zhang B, Liu J, et al.
ALDOA functions as an oncogene in the highly metastatic pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 374(1):127-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive and devastating disease that is characterized by uncontrolled progression, invasiveness and resistance to conventional treatment. In the past decades, much effort has been given to cancer genetics and pathological classification of this disease. Our previous study has uncovered a subgroup of patients with poor outcome, which is characterized by serum signature of CEA(+)/CA125(+)/CA19-9 ≥ 1000 U/mL; however, the underlying biology mechanism remains poorly understood. By using high-throughput screening analysis, we analyzed gene expression signature in highly malignant patients with serum markers of CEA(+)/CA125(+)/CA19-9 ≥ 1000 U/mL. Multiple differentially expressed genes were identified, many of which were closely related with cancer metabolic changes. Treatment of pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which was commonly used to induce metastasis, has uncovered that the glycolytic process and antioxidant response was up-regulated upon TGF-β stimulation. These results were consistent with the high-throughput screening analysis. Subsequent analysis indicated that among glycolytic genes, aldolase A (ALDOA) increased the most significantly upon TGF-β treatment. Further in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that ALDOA was associated with proliferation and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, ALDOA predicted poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, partially due to its role in E-cadherin expression regulation, and the results were further validated by analysis of the correlation between ALDOA and E-cadherin expression in pancreatic cancer tissue samples. Mechanistically, the role of ALDOA in pancreatic cancer might attribute to its regulation of c-Myc, HIF1α and NRF2 (Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2-Like 2), which were key regulators of glycolysis and antioxidant response control.

Fawzy A, Mohamed MR, Ali MA, et al.
Tissue CA125 and HE4 Gene Expression Levels Offer Superior Accuracy in Discriminating Benign from Malignant Pelvic Masses.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(1):323-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer remains a major worldwide health care issue due to the lack of satisfactory diagnostic methods for early detection of the disease. Prior studies on the role of serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in detecting ovarian cancer presented conflicting results. New tools to improve the accuracy of identifying malignancy are urgently needed. We here aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of tissue CA125 and HE4 gene expression in comparison to serum CA125 and HE4 in discriminating benign from malignant pelvic masses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred Egyptian women were enrolled in this study, including 60 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients and 20 benign ovarian tumor patients, as well as 20 apparently healthy women. Preoperative serum levels of CA125 and HE4 were measured by immunoassays. Tissue expression levels of genes encoding CA125 and HE4 were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The diagnostic performance of CA125 and HE4, measured either as mRNA or protein levels, was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
RESULTS: The serum CA125+HE4 combination and serum HE4, with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.935 and 0.932, respectively, performed significantly better than serum CA125 (AUC=0.592; P<0.001). Tissue CA125 and HE4 (AUC=1) performed significantly better than serum CA125 (P<0.001), serum HE4 (P=0.016) and the serum CA125+HE4 combination (P=0.018).
CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of tissue CA125 and HE4 gene expression not only improves discriminatory performance, but also broadens the range of differential diagnostic possibilities in distinguishing EOC from benign ovarian tumors.

Liu L, Xu HX, Wang WQ, et al.
Serum CA125 is a novel predictive marker for pancreatic cancer metastasis and correlates with the metastasis-associated burden.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(5):5943-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study evaluated potential of serum tumor markers to predict the incidence and intensity of pancreatic cancer metastasis as well as patient survival. Retrospective records from 905 patients and prospective data from 142 patients were collected from two high-volume institutions. The levels of eight serum tumor markers (CA19-9, CEA, CA242, CA72-4, CA50, CA125, CA153, and AFP) commonly used in gastroenterological cancer were analyzed in all stages of pancreatic cancer. Serum CA125 levels were the most strongly associated with pancreatic cancer metastasis and were higher in patients with metastatic disease than those without. CA125 levels increased with increasing metastasis to lymph nodes and distant organs, especially the liver. High baseline CA125 levels predicted early distant metastasis after pancreatectomy and were associated with the presence of occult metastasis before surgery. An optimal CA125 cut-off value of 18.4 U/mL was identified; patients with baseline CA125 levels of 18.4 U/mL or higher had poor surgical outcomes. In addition, high serum CA125 levels coincided with the expression of a metastasis-associated gene signature and with alterations in "driver" gene expression involved in pancreatic cancer metastasis. CA125 may therefore be a promising, noninvasive, metastasis-associated biomarker for monitoring pancreatic cancer prognosis.

Chen Y, Chen Q, Liu Q, Gao F
Human epididymis protein 4 expression positively correlated with miR-21 and served as a prognostic indicator in ovarian cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8359-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological malignancy-related mortality. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a useful biomarker for ovarian cancer when either used alone or in combination with carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125). What is more, aberrant expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been shown to be involved in oncogenesis, but the relationship between miR-21 and HE4 in ovarian cancer is not clear. Tumor and adjacent tumor tissues from 43 patients with ovarian cancer were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of HE4 in the carcinoma and adjacent tissues. The associations between HE4 and tumor biological characters were discussed. TaqMan(®) MicroRNA (miRNA) assays were employed to detect the expression of miR-21 in the ovarian carcinoma. In ovarian cancer, the expression of HE4 messenger RNA (mRNA) in cancer tissues was higher than adjacent tumor tissues (P < 0.0001), which was 1.299-fold of adjacent tumor tissues. And, the expression of miR-21 was also up-regulated which was significantly different in the ovarian cancer (the positive rate was 76.74 %). There was a significantly positive correlation between miR-21 and HE4 expression (r = 0.283 and P = 0.066 for HE4 mRNA, r = 0.663 and P < 0.0001 for serum HE4). There was also a significant correlation between miR-21 and tumor grade (r = 0.608, P < 0.0001). Significantly, patients with recent recurrence (less than 6 months, n = 17) have a higher miR-21 expression than those with no recent recurrence. Therefore, HE4 and miR-21 may play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian cancer and they may serve as prognostic indicators in ovarian cancer.

Liu L, Xiang J, Chen R, et al.
The clinical utility of CA125/MUC16 in pancreatic cancer: A consensus of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive updates by the Chinese Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (CSPAC).
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(3):900-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis for pancreatic cancer (PC) is poor; however, the timely and accurate treatment of this disease will significantly improve prognosis. Serum biomarkers involve non-invasive tests that facilitate the early detection of tumors, predict outcomes and assess responses to therapy, so that the patient can be continuously monitored and receive the most appropriate therapy. Studies have reported that cancer antigen (CA)125 [also known as mucin 16 (MUC16)] has functional significance in the tumorigenic, metastatic and drug resistant properties of PC. Our aim was to use this biomarker in the diagnosis, detection of metastasis, prognosis and in the monitoring of the treatment effects of PC. Members of the Chinese Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (CSPAC) reviewed the literature on CA125/MUC16 and developed an objective consensus on the clinical utility of CA125/MUC16 for PC. They confirmed the role of CA125/MUC16 in tumorigenesis and the progression of PC, and recommended monitoring CA125/MUC16 levels in all aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of PC, particularly those that involve the monitoring of treatments. In addition, they suggested that the combination of other biomarkers and imaging techniques, together with CA125/MUC16, would improve the accuracy of the clinical decision-making process, thereby facilitating the optimization of treatment strategies. Periodic clinical updates of the use of CA125/MUC16 have been established, which are important for further analyses and comparisons of clinical results from affiliates and countries, particularly as regards the in-depth biological function and clinical translational research of this biomarker.

Pereira E, Camacho-Vanegas O, Anand S, et al.
Personalized Circulating Tumor DNA Biomarkers Dynamically Predict Treatment Response and Survival In Gynecologic Cancers.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0145754 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-grade serous ovarian and endometrial cancers are the most lethal female reproductive tract malignancies worldwide. In part, failure to treat these two aggressive cancers successfully centers on the fact that while the majority of patients are diagnosed based on current surveillance strategies as having a complete clinical response to their primary therapy, nearly half will develop disease recurrence within 18 months and the majority will die from disease recurrence within 5 years. Moreover, no currently used biomarkers or imaging studies can predict outcome following initial treatment. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) represents a theoretically powerful biomarker for detecting otherwise occult disease. We therefore explored the use of personalized ctDNA markers as both a surveillance and prognostic biomarker in gynecologic cancers and compared this to current FDA-approved surveillance tools.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Tumor and serum samples were collected at time of surgery and then throughout treatment course for 44 patients with gynecologic cancers, representing 22 ovarian cancer cases, 17 uterine cancer cases, one peritoneal, three fallopian tube, and one patient with synchronous fallopian tube and uterine cancer. Patient/tumor-specific mutations were identified using whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing and ctDNA levels quantified using droplet digital PCR. CtDNA was detected in 93.8% of patients for whom probes were designed and levels were highly correlated with CA-125 serum and computed tomography (CT) scanning results. In six patients, ctDNA detected the presence of cancer even when CT scanning was negative and, on average, had a predictive lead time of seven months over CT imaging. Most notably, undetectable levels of ctDNA at six months following initial treatment was associated with markedly improved progression free and overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Detection of residual disease in gynecologic, and indeed all cancers, represents a diagnostic dilemma and a potential critical inflection point in precision medicine. This study suggests that the use of personalized ctDNA biomarkers in gynecologic cancers can identify the presence of residual tumor while also more dynamically predicting response to treatment relative to currently used serum and imaging studies. Of particular interest, ctDNA was an independent predictor of survival in patients with ovarian and endometrial cancers. Earlier recognition of disease persistence and/or recurrence and the ability to stratify into better and worse outcome groups through ctDNA surveillance may open the window for improved survival and quality and life in these cancers.

Langhe R
microRNA and Ovarian Cancer.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015; 889:119-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women and the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy in the Western world. The majority of ovarian cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage and this is due to lack of a reliable screening test and the vagueness of symptoms. Early diagnosis is key as the 5-year survival rate for women diagnosed with late-stage disease is less than 20% compared to up to 90% for women diagnosed at early-stage disease. Early-stage disease that has a good prognosis cannot be detected easily. Currently, no standardized reliable screening test exists. Lack of a reliable screening test is due to the fact that the underlying molecular biology of oncogenesis in ovarian cancer is a complex pathway. Once the molecular biology of the ovarian cancer is known, more reliable and sensitive screening tests can be established and a better and effective treatment can be found. Current diagnostic tools include imaging and CA125 have their limitations in terms of accuracy. There is a strong need for prognostic and predictive markers to diagnose it early and to help optimize and personalize treatment. microRNAs were recently found to be involved in the pathophysiology of all types of analyzed human cancers mainly by aberrant gene expression. microRNA profiling has allowed the identification of signatures associated with diagnosis, prognosis, and response to treatment of human tumors. Several studies showed that microRNAs are deregulated in ovarian cancer. This chapter reviews the role of microRNAs in ovarian cancer and their utility of microRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers for ovarian cancer.

Zhang W, Niu C, He W, et al.
Upregulation of centrosomal protein 55 is associated with unfavorable prognosis and tumor invasion in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6239-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) is a cell cycle regulator implicated in development of certain cancers. However, characteristics of CEP55 expression and its clinical/prognostic significance are unclear in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). Therefore, we investigated the expression and clinicopathological significance of CEP55 in patients with EOC and its role in regulating invasion and metastasis of ovarian cell lines. CEP55 mRNA and protein expression levels were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Potential associations of CEP55 expression scores with clinical parameters and patient survival were evaluated. CEP55 function was investigated further using RNA interference, wound healing assay, transwell assay, immunofluorescence analysis, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. CEP55 was significantly upregulated in ovarian cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous ovarian tissues. In the 213 EOC samples, CEP55 protein levels were positively correlated with clinical stage (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), intraperitoneal metastasis (P < 0.001), tumor recurrence (P < 0.001), differentiation grade (P < 0.001), residual tumor size (P < 0.001), ascites see tumor cells (P = 0.020), and serum CA153 level (P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with aberrant CEP55 protein expression showed tendencies to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P < 0.001) and cytoreductive surgery (P = 0.020). By contrast, no significant correlation was detected between the protein levels and patient age, histological type, or serum CA125, CA199, CA724, NSE, CEA, and β-HCG levels. Patients with high CEP55 protein expression had shorter overall survival and disease-free survival compared with those with low CEP55 expression. Multivariate analysis implicated CEP55 as an independent prognostic indicator for EOC patients. Additionally, downregulation of CEP55 in ovarian cancer cells remarkably inhibited cellular motility and invasion. Aberrant CEP55 expression may predict unfavorable clinical outcomes in EOC patients and play an important role in regulating invasion in ovarian cancer cells. Thus, CEP55 may serve as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for EOC.

Coppin L, Benomar K, Corfiotti F, et al.
CA-125, but not galectin-3, complements CA 19-9 for discriminating ductal adenocarcinoma versus non-malignant pancreatic diseases.
Pancreatology. 2016 Jan-Feb; 16(1):115-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: CA 19-9 is the gold standard biomarker of pancreatic adenocarcinoma despite several weaknesses in particular a high rate of false positives or negatives. CA-125 corresponding to MUC16 and galectin-3, a lectin able to interact with mucin-associated carbohydrates, are tumor-associated proteins. We investigated whether combined measurement of CA 19-9, galectin-3 and CA-125 may help to better discriminate pancreatic adenocarcinoma versus non-malignant pancreatic diseases.
METHODS: We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the expression of MUC4, MUC16 (CA-125) and galectin-3 in 31 pancreatic adenocarcinomas. We measured CA 19-9, CA-125 and Gal-3 in the serum from patients with pancreatic benign diseases (n = 58) or adenocarcinoma (n = 44). Clinical performance of the 3 biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis was analyzed.
RESULTS: By immunohistochemistry, MUC16 and Gal-3 were expressed in 74% and 84% of adenocarcinomas versus 0% and 3.2% in peri-tumoral regions, respectively. At the serum level, CA 19-9 and CA125 were significantly higher in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma whereas Gal-3 levels did not differ. The performance of CA 19-9 for cancer detection was higher than those of CA-125 or Gal-3 by ROC analysis. However, CA-125 offers the highest specificity for malignancy (81%) because of an absence of false positives among type 2 diabetic patients. Cancer deaths assessed 6 or 12 months after diagnosis varied according to the initial CA-125 level (p < 0.006).
CONCLUSION: Gal-3 is not an interesting biomarker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma detection. CA 19-9 alone exhibits the best performance but measuring CA-125 provides complementary information in terms of diagnosis and prognosis.

Kurosaki A, Hasegawa K, Kato T, et al.
Serum folate receptor alpha as a biomarker for ovarian cancer: Implications for diagnosis, prognosis and predicting its local tumor expression.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(8):1994-2002 [PubMed] Related Publications
Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is a GPI-anchored glycoprotein and encoded by the FOLR1 gene. High expression of FRA is observed in specific malignant tumors of epithelial origin, including ovarian cancer, but exhibits very limited normal tissue expression, making it as an attractive target for the ovarian cancer therapy. FRA is known to shed from the cell surface into the circulation which allows for its measurement in the serum of patients. Recently, methods to detect the soluble form of FRA have been developed and serum FRA (sFRA) is considered a highly promising biomarker for ovarian cancer. We prospectively investigated the levels of sFRA in patients clinically suspected of having malignant ovarian tumors. A total of 231 patients were enrolled in this study and analyzed for sFRA as well as tumor expression of FRA by immunohistochemistry. High sFRA was predominantly observed in epithelial ovarian cancer patients, but not in patients with benign or borderline gynecological disease or metastatic ovarian tumors from advanced colorectal cancers. Levels of sFRA were highly correlated to clinical stage, tumor grade and histological type and demonstrated superior accuracy for the detection of ovarian cancer than did serum CA125. High sFRA was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival in both early and advanced ovarian cancer patients. Finally, tumor FRA expression status was strongly correlated with sFRA levels. Taken together, these data suggest that sFRA might be a useful noninvasive serum biomarkers for future clinical trials assessing FRA-targeted therapy.

Kuznia AL, Roett MA
Genital Cancers in Women: Ovarian Cancer.
FP Essent. 2015; 438:24-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
More than 20,000 US women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year. The average lifetime risk is 1.3%, but risk increases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations (40% and 18% risk, respectively, by age 70 years) or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (12% lifetime risk). Other risk factors include smoking, possibly past clomiphene use, and more years of ovulation. Symptoms are nonspecific. Abdominal pain is most common; others include pelvic pain, bloating, and early satiety. When ovarian cancer is suspected, evaluation should begin with transvaginal ultrasonography with Doppler studies. Cancer antigen 125 testing can be obtained, but levels are not elevated in all patients. Other biomarkers (eg, OVA1) and scoring systems can be used to help determine if cancer is present. When diagnosed early (stage I), the 5-year survival rate is 90% for epithelial ovarian cancer. However, most patients with epithelial ovarian cancer are diagnosed in stage III or later, with a 5-year survival rate of 17% to 39%. Treatment involves total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with or without chemotherapy. Fertility-preserving options can be considered in some early-stage cancers, followed by more definitive surgical procedures. There is no evidence that routine screening is beneficial and it is associated with significant harms from unnecessary procedures. Women with genetic syndromes that increase risk should be considered for prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.

Angioli R, Capriglione S, Scaletta G, et al.
The role of HE4 in endometrial cancer recurrence: how to choose the optimal follow-up program.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):4973-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time in the literature the role of HE4, at primary diagnosis, compared to CA125 as an indicator of endometrial cancer (EC) recurrence. Our study is a retrospective analysis of 252 EC patients treated, between January 2009 and July 2013, at the Division of Gynaecologic Oncology of Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome. Thirty-seven patients experienced recurrence. Median follow-up was 38 months. HE4 and CA125 levels were analyzed at primary diagnosis, during follow-up and either after histological or radiological confirmation of recurrent disease or at last registered visit, when patients returned to our Department with no evidence of recurrent disease. A statistically significant difference was observed between HE4 values at primary diagnosis and at recurrence, respectively, comparing recurrent and non-recurrent patients (p < 0.05), while CA125 values resulted not statistically significant (p = 0.08) at each time point. Considering the poor specificity of HE4 at threshold of 70 pmol/L at primary diagnosis, in our cohort of patients, we found out that HE4 cut-off of 201.3 pmol/L is able to correctly classify patients at high or low risk of EC recurrence, with a sensitivity of 80 % and a specificity of 91 % (PPV = 90.3 % and NPV = 90.8 %). In particular, HE4 performance improves in cases of endometrioid histotype. HE4 levels at primary diagnosis correlate with an increased risk of EC recurrence, particularly in cases of endometrioid histotype, and they may help to recognize patients who may need a more intensive follow-up.

Bottoni P, Scatena R
The Role of CA 125 as Tumor Marker: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015; 867:229-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
CA 125 also known as mucin 16 or MUC16 is a large membrane glycoprotein belonging to the wide mucin family, encoded by the homonymous MUC16 gene. Following its discovery in the blood of some patients with specific types of cancers or other benign conditions, CA125 has found application as a tumor marker of ovarian cancer. Thirty years after its discovery, use of CA 125 is still FDA-recommended to monitor response to therapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and to detect residual or recurrent disease in patients who have undergone first-line therapy and would be considered for second-look procedures. However, due to its limited specificity and sensitivity, CA 125 alone cannot still be an ideal biomarker. Increased clinical performance, in terms of better sensitivity and specificity in identifying epithelial ovarian cancer relapse, has been obtained by combined use of CA 125 with HE4, another ovarian cancer marker recently introduced in clinical use. Significant advancements have been achieved more recently, due to the introduction of FDA-approved ROMA and OVA1 algorithms to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer for patients with a pelvic mass.

Skancke MD, Auzenne TD, Tabbara SO, Mortman KD
Thoracoscopic Resection of Multiple Müllerian Cysts.
Ann Thorac Surg. 2015; 100(5):1898-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
Müllerian cysts in the mediastinum were first described by Hattori in 2005 [1]. We report the first known case of multiple müllerian cysts in the thorax in a 35-year-old woman with cough and an abnormal chest roentgenogram. Multiple bilateral cysts were resected thoracoscopically. Histologic examination showed benign ciliated tubal epithelium that stained positive with immunohistochemical stains for estrogen receptor (ER), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), Wilms' tumor protein 1 (WT-1), and paired box gene 8 (PAX8), confirming müllerian origin. We also review the embryogenesis and pathologic characteristics of müllerian cysts and the rare occurrence of their migration to the thorax.

Katagiri H, Nakayama K, Razia S, et al.
Loss of autophagy-related protein Beclin 1 may define poor prognosis in ovarian clear cell carcinomas.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(6):2037-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of autophagy in cisplatin (CDDP) sensitivity in OCCCs and the role of Beclin 1 in OCCC progression. Autophagy was measured using: i) western blot analysis of LC3 and p62 and ii) microscopic observation of GFP-LC3 puncta. Autophagy was suppressed using chloroquine and Beclin 1 siRNA. Surgical specimens were examined for Beclin 1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between the loss of Beclin 1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis and chemosensitivity were investigated. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or Beclin 1 siRNA did not enhance the sensitivity of the ES2 and TOV-21G OCCC cell lines to CDDP. Loss of Beclin 1 expression was observed in 38.3% (23/60) of the analyzed tumors. There was no significant correlation between loss of Beclin 1 expression and FIGO stage, CA125 levels, patient age, status of endometriosis, Ki-67 labeling index, chemotherapy regimen or status of residual tumor. However, negative expression of Beclin 1 was associated with a shorter progression-free survival in comparison to positive Beclin 1 expression in OCCC who received cytoreductive surgery, followed by a standard platinum-based chemotherapy regimen (P=0.027, log-rank test). Beclin 1-negative tumors were no more resistant to primary adjuvant chemotherapy than were Beclin 1-positive tumors (50.0 vs. 66.7%, P=0.937). Beclin 1 knockdown using siRNA increased cell growth but not cell migration and invasion in ES2 and TOV-21G OCCC cell lines. Autophagy defects caused by loss of Beclin 1 are not related to chemoresistance and metastasis, but may be associated with malignant phenotype and poor prognosis of OCCC.

Yuan C, Liu X, Liu X, et al.
The GADD45A (1506T>C) Polymorphism Is Associated with Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility and Prognosis.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0138692 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
GADD45A (growth arrest and DNA damage 45 A) is the first stress-inducible gene identified to be a target of p53. However, no studies to date have assessed variants of the GADD45 gene and their potential relationship to tumor susceptibility. We investigated the association of the GADD45A (1506T>C) polymorphism with ovarian cancer development in 258 ovarian cancer patients and 332 age-matched healthy women as controls using sequence analysis. We found a statistically significant difference in the GADD45A (1506T>C) genotype distributions between the case and control groups (TT vs. TC vs. CC, P = 0.0021) and found that variant 1506T>C was significantly associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer (P<0.001, OR = 1.71, 95% CI [1.28-2.29]). We observed a statistically significant effect between tumor histology (P = 0.032) and CA125 status (P = 0.021). Carrying the C allele (TC+CC) was associated with an increased risk of positive CA125 (OR = 3.20, 95% CI [1.15-8.71). Carrying the T allele (TT+TC) showed a significant correlation with both higher GADD45A mRNA expression and longer ovarian cancer RFS (relapse-free survival) and OS (overall survival). We are the first group to demonstrate that the GADD45A (1506T>C) polymorphism is associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility and prognosis. These data suggest that GADD45A (1506T>C) is a new tumor susceptibility gene and could be a useful molecular marker for assessing ovarian cancer risk and for predicting ovarian cancer patient prognosis.

Meng X, Joosse SA, Müller V, et al.
Diagnostic and prognostic potential of serum miR-7, miR-16, miR-25, miR-93, miR-182, miR-376a and miR-429 in ovarian cancer patients.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 113(9):1358-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Owing to late diagnosis in advanced disease stages, prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is poor. The quantification of deregulated levels of microRNAs could facilitate earlier diagnosis and improve prognosis of EOC.
METHODS: Seven microRNAs (miR-7, miR-16, miR-25, miR-93, miR-182, miR-376a and miR-429) were quantified in the serum of 180 EOC patients and 66 healthy women by TaqMan PCR microRNA assays. Median follow-up time was 21 months. The effects of miR-7 and miR-429 on apoptosis, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in two (EOC) cell lines.
RESULTS: Serum levels of miR-25 (P=0.0001) and miR-93 (P=0.0001) were downregulated, whereas those of miR-7 (P=0.001) and miR-429 (P=0.0001) were upregulated in EOC patients compared with healthy women. The four microRNAs discriminated EOC patients from healthy women with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 92%. The levels of miR-429 positively correlated with CA125 values (P=0.0001) and differed between FIGO I-II and III-IV stages (P=0.001). MiR-429 was an independent predictor of overall survival (P=0.011). Overexpressed miR-429 in SKOV3 cells led to suppression of cell migration (P=0.037) and invasion (P=0.011). Increased levels of miR-7 were associated with lymph node metastases (P=0.0001) and FIGO stages III-IV (P=0.0001). Overexpressed miR-7 in SKOV3 cells resulted in increased cell migration (P=0.001) and invasion (P=0.011). Additionally, the increased levels of miR-376a correlated with FIGO stages III-IV (P=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate the diagnostic potential of miR-7, miR-25, miR-93 and miR-429 in EOC and the prognostic potential of miR-429. This microRNA panel may be promising molecules to be targeted in the treatment of EOC.

Ling S, Ruiqin M, Guohong Z, Ying W
Expression and prognostic significance of microRNA-451 in human epithelial ovarian cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(4):463-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNA-451 has been proved to be downregulated in many human malignancies and correlated with tumor progression. However, its expression and clinical significance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of miR-451 in EOC tumorigenesis and development.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of miR-451 were quantified by qRT-PCR in 115 EOC and 34 normal ovarian tissues, and correlated with clinicopathological factors and prognosis. MTT, flow cytometric assay, and transwell invasion assay were used to test the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of SKOV-3 EOC cells transfected with miR-451 mimics or negative control (NC) RNA-oligonucleotides.
RESULTS: MiR-451 expression was significantly downregulated in EOC compared with normal ovarian tissues. Low level of miR-451 was associated with advanced FIGO stage (p = 0.005), higher serum CA125 expression level (p = 0.005), and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified decreased miR-451 expression as an independent factor predicting poor prognosis for EOC patients. In addition, transfection of miR-451 mimics in SKOV-3 was able to reduce cell proliferation, promote cell apoptosis, and inhibit cell invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-451 may act not only as a novel diagnostic and prognostic marker, but also as a potential target for molecular therapy of EOC.

Xu Y, Yang J, Zhang Z, Zhang G
MRI for discriminating metastatic ovarian tumors from primary epithelial ovarian cancers.
J Ovarian Res. 2015; 8:61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: To find specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features to differentiate metastatic ovarian tumors from primary epithelial ovarian cancers.
METHODS: Eleven cases with metastatic ovarian tumors and 26 cases with primary malignant epithelial ovarian cancers were retrospectively studied. All features such as patient characteristics, MRI findings and biomarkers were evaluated. The differences including laterality, configuration, uniformity of locules, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) signal of solid components and enhancement of solid portions between metastatic ovarian tumors and primary epithelial ovarian cancers were compared by Fisher's exact test. Median age of patients, the maximum diameter of lesions and biomarkers were compared by the Mann-Whitney test.
RESULTS: Patients with metastatic ovarian tumors were younger than patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancers in the median age (P = 0.015). Patients with bilateral tumors in metastatic ovarian tumors were more than those of primary epithelial ovarian cancers (P = 0.032). The maximum diameter of lesions in metastatic ovarian tumors was smaller than that of primary epithelial ovarian cancers (P = 0.005). The locules in metastatic ovarian tumors were more uniform than those of primary epithelial ovarian cancers (P = 0.024). The enhancement of solid portions in metastatic ovarian tumors showed more moderate than that of primary epithelial ovarian cancers (P = 0.037). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in configuration, DWI signal of solid components and ascites. Biomarkers such as CA125 and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in metastatic ovarian tumors showed less elevated than that of primary epithelial ovarian cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences between metastatic ovarian tumors and primary epithelial ovarian cancers were found in the median age of patients, laterality, the maximum diameter of lesions, uniformity of locules, enhancement patterns of solid portions and biomarkers. Metastatic ovarian tumors usually presented in the younger patients, smaller-sized, more bilateral lesions, more uniform of locules, more moderate enhancement of solid portions, and less elevated levels of CA125 and HE4 than those of primary epithelial ovarian cancers.

Xu Y, Zhong R, He J, et al.
Modification of cut-off values for HE4, CA125 and the ROMA algorithm for early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer detection: Results from 1021 cases in South China.
Clin Biochem. 2016; 49(1-2):32-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) detection in patients in southern China. Additionally, this study proposes a possible ideal cut-off value for each marker to its own population in South China.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum HE4 and CA125 were measured in 756 patients with pelvic masses (275 malignancies, 53 borderline tumors and 428 benign diseases), and their ROMA values were calculated. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) were assessed for HE4, CA125, ROMA and combinations of these biomarkers.
RESULTS: Both HE4 and ROMA performed better diagnostically than CA125 alone for early stage EOC, with AUCs ranging from 0.714 for HE4, 0.699 for ROMA, and 0.463 for CA125 in premenopausal subjects, and 0.902 for ROMA, 0.880 for HE4, and 0.256 for CA125 in postmenopausal subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: HE4 and ROMA alone were found to be better than CA125 for detecting borderline tumors and early-stage EOC. The optimal cut-off values (HE4: 70pmol/l for all; CA125: 60U/ml for pre- and 35U/ml for postmenopausal women) could notably improve diagnostic performance in EOC detection in patients in southern China.

Janzen DM, Tiourin E, Salehi JA, et al.
An apoptosis-enhancing drug overcomes platinum resistance in a tumour-initiating subpopulation of ovarian cancer.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7956 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs) are deadly malignancies that relapse despite carboplatin chemotherapy. Here we show that 16 independent primary HGSC samples contain a CA125-negative population enriched for carboplatin-resistant cancer initiating cells. Transcriptome analysis reveals upregulation of homologous recombination DNA repair and anti-apoptotic signals in this population. While treatment with carboplatin enriches for CA125-negative cells, co-treatment with carboplatin and birinapant eliminates these cells in HGSCs expressing high levels of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein cIAP in the CA125-negative population. Birinapant sensitizes CA125-negative cells to carboplatin by mediating degradation of cIAP causing cleavage of caspase 8 and restoration of apoptosis. This co-therapy significantly improves disease-free survival in vivo compared with either therapy alone in tumour-bearing mice. These findings suggest that therapeutic strategies that target CA125-negative cells may be useful in the treatment of HGSC.

Hui L, Rixv L, Xiuying Z
A system for tumor heterogeneity evaluation and diagnosis based on tumor markers measured routinely in the laboratory.
Clin Biochem. 2015; 48(18):1241-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To develop an efficient and reliable approach to estimate tumor heterogeneity and improve tumor diagnosis using multiple tumor markers measured routinely in the clinical laboratory.
METHODS: A total of 161 patients with different cancers were recruited as the cancer group, and 91 patients with non-oncological conditions were required as the non-oncological disease group. The control group comprised 90 randomly selected healthy subjects. AFP, CEA, CYFRA, CA125, CA153, CA199, CA724, and NSE levels were measured in all these subjects with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The tumor marker with the maximum S/CO value (sample test value:cutoff value for discriminating individuals with and without tumors) was considered as a specific tumor marker (STM) for an individual. Tumor heterogeneity index (THI)=N/P (N: number of STMs; P: percentage of individuals with STMs in a certain tumor population) was used to quantify tumor heterogeneity: high THI indicated high tumor heterogeneity. The tumor marker index (TMI), TMI = STM×(number of positive tumor markers+1), was used for diagnosis.
RESULTS: The THIs of lung, gastric, and liver cancers were 8.33, 9.63, and 5.2, respectively, while the ROC-areas under the curve for TMI were 0.862, 0.809, and 0.966.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we developed a novel index for tumor heterogeneity based on the expression of various routinely evaluated serum tumor markers. Development of an evaluation system for tumor heterogeneity on the basis of this index could provide an effective diagnostic tool for some cancers.

Janardhan B, Vaderhobli S, Bhagat R, et al.
Investigating impact of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Polymorphisms in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers: A Study in the Indian Population.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131190 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the increasingly incident malignancies that is notorious because of its evasiveness for early diagnosis and high mortality rates. Epithelial ovarian cancers are highly dependent on pathologic vasculature and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is known to be one of the most efficient angiogenic factors. Polymorphisms of the VEGF gene, in this study, were assessed for association with the malignancy and other clinico-pathological factors. 300 case samples and 320 age and mensus status matched controls were inculcated into the study. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were the six single nucleotide polymorphisms that were scrutinized. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. rs 3025039 showed immense promise as a marker for disease aggression and recurrence and a factor for poor prognosis. rs699947 showed least association with the disease and clinico-pathologic factors studied. rs833061, rs 1570360 showed significant association with some clinico-pathological factors such as bilateral affliction of ovaries and post operative CA-125 levels. rs2010963 associated with presence of ascites in higher volumes. The SNPs under consideration showed no formidable linkage in our study samples. A haplotype analysis (excluding rs699947 and rs1413711) revealed 5 frontrunners being present in >85% of the population with TGGC and CGCC associating significantly as protective and risk factors respectively. These haplotypes showed a dose dependent additive effect of their seeming functionality. This study is unique and a first of its kind carried out in the Indian population of South-east Asia.

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