Gene Summary

Gene:PTMS; parathymosin
Aliases: ParaT
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
PTMS is implicated in:
- cytosol
- DNA replication
- nucleus
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Proteomics
  • RNA, Untranslated
  • Methylation
  • Epigenetics
  • Histones
  • Sequence Analysis, Protein
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Phenotype
  • Long Noncoding RNA
  • Acetylation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • DNA Methylation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Young Adult
  • HEK293 Cells
  • DNA Damage
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Models, Molecular
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Liver Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Phosphorylation
  • Chromosome 12
  • Disease Progression
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Protein Binding
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Amino Acid Sequence
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTMS (cancer-related)

Natarajan SK, Venneti S
Poly Combs the Immune System: PRC2 Loss in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors Can Dampen Immune Responses.
Cancer Res. 2019; 79(13):3172-3173 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic modifications including altered DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) are central to the biology of several cancers. These modifications can regulate DNA accessibility and consequently, gene expression. In this issue, Wojcik and colleagues explore epigenetic drivers of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) harboring loss-of-function polycomb-repressive complex 2 mutations. They demonstrate alterations in specific histone PTMs and a global increase in DNA methylation. Notably, epigenetic alterations related with aberrant upregulation of proteins involved in immune evasion, which informed identification of potential therapeutic vulnerabilities. This study helps understand the complex biology of MPNSTs and may enable future therapeutic development.

Cocchiola R, Rubini E, Altieri F, et al.
STAT3 Post-Translational Modifications Drive Cellular Signaling Pathways in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
STAT3 is an oncoprotein overexpressed in different types of tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa), and its activity is modulated by a variety of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Prostate cancer represents the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and each phase of tumor progression displays specific cellular conditions: inflammation is predominant in tumor's early stage, whereas oxidative stress is typical of clinically advanced PCa. The aim of this research is to assess the correspondence between the stimulus-specificity of STAT3 PTMs and definite STAT3-mediated transcriptional programs, in order to identify new suitable pharmacological targets for PCa treatment. Experiments were performed on less-aggressive LNCaP and more aggressive DU-145 cell lines, simulating inflammatory and oxidative-stress conditions. Cellular studies confirmed pY705-STAT3 as common denominator of all STAT3-mediated signaling. In addition, acK685-STAT3 was found in response to IL-6, whereas glutC328/542-STAT3 and pS727-STAT3 occurred upon tert-butyl hydroperoxyde (tBHP) treatment. Obtained results also provided evidence of an interplay between STAT3 PTMs and specific protein interactors such as P300 and APE1/Ref-1. In accordance with these outcomes, mRNA levels of STAT3-target genes seemed to follow the differing STAT3 PTMs. These results highlighted the role of STAT3 and its PTMs as drivers in the progression of PCa.

Garlapati C, Joshi S, Sahoo B, et al.
The persisting puzzle of racial disparity in triple negative breast cancer: looking through a new lens.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2019; 11:75-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors and absence of amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2). This disease has no approved treatment with a poor prognosis particularly in African-American (AA) as compared to European-American (EA) patients. Gene ontology analysis showed specific gene pathways that are differentially regulated and gene signatures that are differentially expressed in AA as compared to EA. Such differences might underlie the basis for the aggressive nature and poor prognosis of TNBC in AA patients. In-depth studies of these pathways and differential genetic signature might give significant clues to improve our understanding of tumor biology associated with AA TNBC to advance the prognosis and survival rates. Along with gene ontology analysis, we suggest that post-translational modifications (PTM) could also play a crucial role in the dismal survival rate of AA TNBC patients. Further investigations are necessary to explore this terrain of PTMs to identify the racially disparate burden in TNBC.

Nie M, Wang Y, Guo C, et al.
CARM1-mediated methylation of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 represses human γ-globin gene expression in erythroleukemia cells.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(45):17454-17463 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/11/2019 Related Publications
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a member of the arginine methyltransferase protein family that critically mediates the symmetric dimethylation of Arg-3 at histone H4 (H4R3me2s) and is involved in many key cellular processes, including hematopoiesis. However, the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of PRMT5 that may affect its biological functions remain less well-understood. In this study, using MS analyses, we found that PRMT5 itself is methylated in human erythroleukemia Lys-562 cells. Biochemical assays revealed that coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) interacts directly with and methylates PRMT5 at Arg-505 both

Liu Y, Ao X, Ding W, et al.
Critical role of FOXO3a in carcinogenesis.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):104 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 09/11/2019 Related Publications
FOXO3a is a member of the FOXO subfamily of forkhead transcription factors that mediate a variety of cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycle progression, DNA damage and tumorigenesis. It also responds to several cellular stresses such as UV irradiation and oxidative stress. The function of FOXO3a is regulated by a complex network of processes, including post-transcriptional suppression by microRNAs (miRNAs), post-translational modifications (PTMs) and protein-protein interactions. FOXO3a is widely implicated in a variety of diseases, particularly in malignancy of breast, liver, colon, prostate, bladder, and nasopharyngeal cancers. Emerging evidences indicate that FOXO3a acts as a tumor suppressor in cancer. FOXO3a is frequently inactivated in cancer cell lines by mutation of the FOXO3a gene or cytoplasmic sequestration of FOXO3a protein. And its inactivation is associated with the initiation and progression of cancer. In experimental studies, overexpression of FOXO3a inhibits the proliferation, tumorigenic potential, and invasiveness of cancer cells, while silencing of FOXO3a results in marked attenuation in protection against tumorigenesis. The role of FOXO3a in both normal physiology as well as in cancer development have presented a great challenge to formulating an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent findings and overview of the current understanding of the influence of FOXO3a in cancer development and progression.

Ge Y, Zhu J, Wang X, et al.
Mapping dynamic histone modification patterns during arsenic-induced malignant transformation of human bladder cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018; 355:164-173 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Arsenic is a known potent risk factor for bladder cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations, e.g., DNA methylation and histones posttranslational modifications (PTMs), contribute to arsenic carcinogenesis. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure of human urothelial cells (UROtsa cells) to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA

Shastrula PK, Lund PJ, Garcia BA, Janicki SM
Rpp29 regulates histone H3.3 chromatin assembly through transcriptional mechanisms.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(32):12360-12377 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
The histone H3 variant H3.3 is a highly conserved and dynamic regulator of chromatin organization. Therefore, fully elucidating its nucleosome incorporation mechanisms is essential to understanding its functions in epigenetic inheritance. We previously identified the RNase P protein subunit, Rpp29, as a repressor of H3.3 chromatin assembly. Here, we use a biochemical assay to show that Rpp29 interacts with H3.3 through a sequence element in its own N terminus, and we identify a novel interaction with histone H2B at an adjacent site. The fact that archaeal Rpp29 does not include this N-terminal region suggests that it evolved to regulate eukaryote-specific functions. Oncogenic H3.3 mutations alter the H3.3-Rpp29 interaction, which suggests that they could dysregulate Rpp29 function in chromatin assembly. We also used KNS42 cells, an H3.3(G34V) pediatric high-grade glioma cell line, to show that Rpp29 1) represses H3.3 incorporation into transcriptionally active protein-coding, rRNA, and tRNA genes; 2) represses mRNA, protein expression, and antisense RNA; and 3) represses euchromatic post-translational modifications (PTMs) and promotes heterochromatic PTM deposition (

Liang L, Wang H, Shi H, et al.
A Designed Peptide Targets Two Types of Modifications of p53 with Anti-cancer Activity.
Cell Chem Biol. 2018; 25(6):761-774.e5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many cancer-related proteins are controlled by composite post-translational modifications (PTMs), but prevalent strategies only target one type of modification. Here we describe a designed peptide that controls two types of modifications of the p53 tumor suppressor, based on the discovery of a protein complex that suppresses p53 (suppresome). We found that Morn3, a cancer-testis antigen, recruits different PTM enzymes, such as sirtuin deacetylase and ubiquitin ligase, to confer composite modifications on p53. The molecular functions of Morn3 were validated through in vivo assays and chemico-biological intervention. A rationally designed Morn3-targeting peptide (Morncide) successfully activated p53 and suppressed tumor growth. These findings shed light on the regulation of protein PTMs and present a strategy for targeting two modifications with one molecule.

Noberini R, Osti D, Miccolo C, et al.
Extensive and systematic rewiring of histone post-translational modifications in cancer model systems.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(8):3817-3832 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) generate a complex combinatorial code that regulates gene expression and nuclear functions, and whose deregulation has been documented in different types of cancers. Therefore, the availability of relevant culture models that can be manipulated and that retain the epigenetic features of the tissue of origin is absolutely crucial for studying the epigenetic mechanisms underlying cancer and testing epigenetic drugs. In this study, we took advantage of quantitative mass spectrometry to comprehensively profile histone PTMs in patient tumor tissues, primary cultures and cell lines from three representative tumor models, breast cancer, glioblastoma and ovarian cancer, revealing an extensive and systematic rewiring of histone marks in cell culture conditions, which includes a decrease of H3K27me2/me3, H3K79me1/me2 and H3K9ac/K14ac, and an increase of H3K36me1/me2. While some changes occur in short-term primary cultures, most of them are instead time-dependent and appear only in long-term cultures. Remarkably, such changes mostly revert in cell line- and primary cell-derived in vivo xenograft models. Taken together, these results support the use of xenografts as the most representative models of in vivo epigenetic processes, suggesting caution when using cultured cells, in particular cell lines and long-term primary cultures, for epigenetic investigations.

Ntai I, Fornelli L, DeHart CJ, et al.
Precise characterization of KRAS4b proteoforms in human colorectal cells and tumors reveals mutation/modification cross-talk.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(16):4140-4145 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Mutations of the

Yuan H, Zhou W, Yang Y, et al.
ISG15 promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tumorigenesis via c-MET/Fyn/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 367(1):47-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most malignant tumors in China with a poor prognosis. Most ESCC patients were diagnosed at advanced stages, losing the opportunity for surgical excision. Hence, it remains a pressing work to identify biomarkers for early detection, prognosis prediction and targeting therapies in ESCC. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes a 15-kDa protein, and is involved in the post-translational modification (PTMs) of multiple proteins. However, the molecular functions of ISG15 in ESCC remain unclear. In this work, we found that ISG15 was aberrantly expressed in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Enhanced protein level of ISG15 promoted cellular malignant phenotypes including proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor formation in vivo. Consistently, reduction of ISG15 attenuated the cellular malignant phenotype in ESCC cell lines. Furthermore, gene-expression profiles suggested that the differentially expressed ISG15 affected the expression of a panel of genes enriched in the cell adherens junction, such as c-MET. Notably, as a secreted protein, the concentration of ISG15 was elevated in ESCC plasma than healthy individuals, acting as a potential diagnostic marker. Taken together, our results suggested a tumor promotion role of ISG15 in ESCC via c-MET/Fyn/β-catenin pathway.

Kashyap MK, Abdel-Rahman O
Expression, regulation and targeting of receptor tyrosine kinases in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, which is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Based on histological behavior, it is mainly of two types (i) Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and (ii) esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAD or EAC). In astronomically immense majority of malignancies, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been kenned to play a consequential role in cellular proliferation, migration, and metastasis of the cells. The post-translational modifications (PTMs) including phosphorylation of tyrosine (pY) residue of the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain have been exploited for treatment in different malignancies. Lung cancer where pY residues of EGFR have been exploited for treatment purpose in lung adenocarcinoma patients, but we do not have such kind of felicitously studied and catalogued data in ESCC patients. Thus, the goal of this review is to summarize the studies carried out on ESCC to explore the role of RTKs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and their pertinence and consequentiality for the treatment of ESCC patients.

Vilas CK, Emery LE, Denchi EL, Miller KM
Caught with One's Zinc Fingers in the Genome Integrity Cookie Jar.
Trends Genet. 2018; 34(4):313-325 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Zinc finger (ZnF) domains are present in at least 5% of human proteins. First characterized as binding to DNA, ZnFs display extraordinary binding plasticity and can bind to RNA, lipids, proteins, and protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). The diverse binding properties of ZnFs have made their functional characterization challenging. While once confined to large and poorly characterized protein families, proteomic, cellular, and molecular studies have begun to shed light on their involvement as protectors of the genome. We focus here on the emergent roles of ZnF domain-containing proteins in promoting genome integrity, including their involvement in telomere maintenance and DNA repair. These findings have highlighted the need for further characterization of ZnF proteins, which can reveal the functions of this large gene class in normal cell function and human diseases, including those involving genome instability such as aging and cancer.

Mustachio LM, Lu Y, Kawakami M, et al.
Evidence for the ISG15-Specific Deubiquitinase USP18 as an Antineoplastic Target.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(3):587-592 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Ubiquitination and ubiquitin-like posttranslational modifications (PTM) regulate activity and stability of oncoproteins and tumor suppressors. This implicates PTMs as antineoplastic targets. One way to alter PTMs is to inhibit activity of deubiquitinases (DUB) that remove ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like proteins from substrate proteins. Roles of DUBs in carcinogenesis have been intensively studied, yet few inhibitors exist. Prior work provides a basis for the ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18) as an antineoplastic target. USP18 is the major DUB that removes IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) from conjugated proteins. Prior work discovered that engineered loss of USP18 increases ISGylation and in contrast to its gain decreases cancer growth by destabilizing growth-regulatory proteins. Loss of USP18 reduced cancer cell growth by triggering apoptosis. Genetic loss of USP18 repressed cancer formation in engineered murine lung cancer models. The translational relevance of USP18 was confirmed by finding its expression was deregulated in malignant versus normal tissues. Notably, the recent elucidation of the USP18 crystal structure offers a framework for developing an inhibitor to this DUB. This review summarizes strong evidence for USP18 as a previously unrecognized pharmacologic target in oncology.

Bauden M, Kristl T, Sasor A, et al.
Histone profiling reveals the H1.3 histone variant as a prognostic biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):810 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations have been recognized as important contributors to the pathogenesis of PDAC. However, the role of histone variants in pancreatic tumor progression is still not completely understood. The aim of this study was to explore the expression and prognostic significance of histone protein variants in PDAC patients.
METHODS: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for qualitative analysis of histone variants and histone related post-translational modifications (PTMs) in PDAC and normal pancreatic tissues. Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression.
RESULTS: Histone variant H1.3 was found to be differentially expressed (p = 0.005) and was selected as a PDAC specific histone variant candidate. The prognostic role of H1.3 was evaluated in an external cohort of patients with resected PDAC using immunohistochemistry. Intratumor expression of H1.3 was found to be an important risk factor for overall survival in PDAC, with an adjusted HR value of 2.6 (95% CI 1.1-6.1), p = 0.029.
CONCLUSION: We suggest that the intratumor histone H1.3 expression as reported herein, may serve as a new epigenetic biomarker for PDAC.

Piao L, Fujioka K, Nakakido M, Hamamoto R
Regulation of poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase 1 functions by post-translational modifications.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2018; 23:13-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, a post-translational modification of proteins. This  consists of the attachment of mono- or poly-

Du L, Zhou J, Meng L, et al.
The pH-Triggered Triblock Nanocarrier Enabled Highly Efficient siRNA Delivery for Cancer Therapy.
Theranostics. 2017; 7(14):3432-3445 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapies have been hampered by lack of delivery systems in the past decades. Nowadays, a few promising vehicles for siRNA delivery have been developed and it is gradually revealed that enhancing siRNA release from endosomes into cytosol is a very important factor for successful delivery. Here, we designed a novel pH-sensitive nanomicelle, PEG-PTTMA-P(GMA-S-DMA) (PTMS), for siRNA delivery. Owing to rapid hydrolysis in acidic environment, PTMS NPs underwent hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition in endosomes that enabled combination of proton sponge effect and raised osmotic pressure in endosomes, resulting in vigorous release of siRNAs from endosomes into cytosol.

Herrera-Solorio AM, Armas-López L, Arrieta O, et al.
Histone code and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) aberrations in lung cancer: implications in the therapy response.
Clin Epigenetics. 2017; 9:98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Respiratory diseases hold several genome, epigenome, and transcriptional aberrations as a cause of the accumulated damage promoted by, among others, environmental risk factors. Such aberrations can also come about as an adaptive response when faced with therapeutic oncological drugs. In epigenetic terms, aberrations in DNA methylation patterns, histone code marks balance, and/or chromatin-remodeling complexes recruitment, among Polycomb Repressive Complex-2 (PRC2) versus Trithorax (TRX) Activator Complex, have been proposed to be affected by several previously characterized functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Such molecules are involved in modulating and/or controlling lung cancer epigenome and genome expression, as well as in malignancy and clinical progression in lung cancer. Several recent reports have described diverse epigenetic modifications in lung cancer cells and solid tumors, among others genomic DNA methylation and post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone tails, as well as lncRNAs patterns and levels of expression. However, few systematic approaches have attempted to demonstrate a biological function and clinical association, aiming to improve therapeutic decisions in basic research and lung clinical oncology. A widely used example is the lncRNA HOTAIR and its functional histone mark H3K27me3, which is directly associated to the PRC2; however, few systematic pieces of solid evidence have been experimentally performed, conducted and/or validated to predict lung oncological therapeutic efficacy. Recent evidence suggests that chromatin-remodeling complexes accompanied by lncRNAs profiles are involved in several comprehensive lung carcinoma clinical parameters, including histopathology progression, prognosis, and/or responsiveness to unique or combined oncological therapies. The present manuscript offers a systematic revision of the current knowledge about the major epigenetic aberrations represented by changes in histone PTMs and lncRNAs expression levels and patterns in human lung carcinomas in cancer drug-based treatments, as an important comprehensive knowledge focusing on better oncological therapies. In addition, a new future direction must be refocusing on several gene target therapies, mainly on pharmaceutical EGFR-TKIs compounds, widely applied in lung cancer, currently the leading cause of death by malignant diseases.

Grindheim AK, Saraste J, Vedeler A
Protein phosphorylation and its role in the regulation of Annexin A2 function.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017; 1861(11 Pt A):2515-2529 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multifunctional protein involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, membrane domain organisation, actin remodelling, signal transduction, protein assembly, transcription and mRNA transport, as well as DNA replication and repair.
SCOPE OF REVIEW: The current knowledge of the role of phosphorylation in the functional regulation of AnxA2 is reviewed. To provide a more comprehensive treatment of this topic, we also address in depth the phosphorylation process in general and discuss its possible conformational effects. Furthermore, we discuss the apparent limitations of the methods used to investigate phosphoproteins, as exemplified by the study of AnxA2.
MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: AnxA2 is subjected to complex regulation by post-translational modifications affecting its cellular functions, with Ser11, Ser25 and Tyr23 representing important phosphorylation sites. Thus, Ser phosphorylation of AnxA2 is involved in the recruitment and docking of secretory granules, the regulation of its association with S100A10, and sequestration of perinuclear, translationally inactive mRNP complexes. By contrast, Tyr phosphorylation of AnxA2 regulates its role in actin dynamics and increases its association with endosomal compartments. Modification of its three main phosphorylation sites is not sufficient to discriminate between its numerous functions. Thus, fine-tuning of AnxA2 function is mediated by the joint action of several post-translational modifications.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: AnxA2 participates in malignant cell transformation, and its overexpression and/or phosphorylation is associated with cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, tight regulation of AnxA2 function is an integral aspect of cellular homeostasis. The presence of AnxA2 in cancer cell-derived exosomes, as well as the potential regulation of exosomal AnxA2 by phosphorylation or other PTMs, are topics of great interest.

Peng X, Xu F, Liu S, et al.
Identification of Missing Proteins in the Phosphoproteome of Kidney Cancer.
J Proteome Res. 2017; 16(12):4364-4373 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identifying missing proteins (MPs) has been one of the critical missions of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP). Since 2012, over 30 research teams from 17 countries have been trying to search adequate and accurate evidence of MPs through various biochemical strategies. MPs mainly fall into the following classes: (1) low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins, (2) membrane proteins, (3) proteins that contained various post-translational modifications (PTMs), (4) nucleic acid-associated proteins, (5) low abundance, and (6) unexpressed genes. In this study, kidney cancer and adjacent tissues were used for phosphoproteomics research, and 8962 proteins were identified, including 6415 phosphoproteins, and 44 728 phosphosites, of which 10 266 were unreported previously. In total, 75 candidate detections were found, including 45 phoshoproteins. GO analysis for these 75 candidate detections revealed that these proteins mainly clustered as membrane proteins and took part in nephron and kidney development. After rigorous screening and manual check, 9 of them were verified with the synthesized peptides. Finally, only one missing protein was confirmed. All mass spectrometry data from this study have been deposited in the PRIDE with identifier PXD006482.

Wortel IMN, van der Meer LT, Kilberg MS, van Leeuwen FN
Surviving Stress: Modulation of ATF4-Mediated Stress Responses in Normal and Malignant Cells.
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2017; 28(11):794-806 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress-induced transcription factor that is frequently upregulated in cancer cells. ATF4 controls the expression of a wide range of adaptive genes that allow cells to endure periods of stress, such as hypoxia or amino acid limitation. However, under persistent stress conditions, ATF4 promotes the induction of apoptosis. Recent advances point to a role for post-translational modifications (PTMs) and epigenetic mechanisms in balancing these pro- and anti-survival effects of ATF4. We review here how PTMs and epigenetic modifiers associated with ATF4 may be exploited by cancer cells to cope with cellular stress conditions that are intrinsically associated with tumor growth. Identification of mechanisms that modulate ATF4-mediated transcription and its effects on cellular metabolism may uncover new targets for cancer treatment.

Wang Z, Zhu WG, Xu X
Ubiquitin-like modifications in the DNA damage response.
Mutat Res. 2017; 803-805:56-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic DNA is damaged at an extremely high frequency by both endogenous and environmental factors. An improper response to DNA damage can lead to genome instability, accelerate the aging process and ultimately cause various human diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) are complex and are regulated at many levels, including at the level of post-translational modification (PTM). Since the discovery of ubiquitin in 1975 and ubiquitylation as a form of PTM in the early 1980s, a number of ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) have been identified, including small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8), interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10), ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFRM1), URM1 ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (URM1), autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12), autophagy-related protein 8 (ATG8), fan ubiquitin-like protein 1 (FUB1) and histone mono-ubiquitylation 1 (HUB1). All of these modifiers have known roles in the cellular response to various forms of stress, and delineating their underlying molecular mechanisms and functions is fundamental in enhancing our understanding of human disease and longevity. To date, however, the molecular mechanisms and functions of these UBLs in the DDR remain largely unknown. This review summarizes the current status of PTMs by UBLs in the DDR and their implication in cancer diagnosis, therapy and drug discovery.

Li Y, Wang L, Liu J, et al.
O-GlcNAcylation modulates Bmi-1 protein stability and potential oncogenic function in prostate cancer.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(45):6293-6305 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Polycomb group transcriptional repressor Bmi-1 often overexpressed and participated in stem cells self-renewal and tumorigenesis initiating of prostate cancer. In this progression, Bmi-1 protein was regulated by transcription and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Nobly, the underlying PTMs regulation of Bmi-1 is poorly known. Here we use co-immunoprecipitation show that in C4-2 cell line, Bmi-1 directly interacted with OGT which is the only known enzyme catalyzed the O-GlcNAcylation in human. Furthermore, we identified that Ser255 is the site for Bmi-1 O-GlcNAcylation, and O-GlcNAcylation promoted Bmi-1 protein stability and its oncogenic activity. Finally, microarray analysis has characterized potential oncogenes associated pathway subject to repression via the OGT-Bmi-1 axis. Taken together, these results indicate that OGT-mediated O-GlcNAcylation at Ser255 stabilizes Bmi-1 and hence inhibits the TP53, PTEN and CDKN1A/CDKN2A pathway. The study not only uncovers a novel functional PTMs of Bmi-1 but also reveals a unique oncogenic role of O-GlcNAcylation in prostate cancer.

Zaware N, Zhou MM
Chemical modulators for epigenome reader domains as emerging epigenetic therapies for cancer and inflammation.
Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2017; 39:116-125 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Site-specific lysine acetylation and methylation on histones are critical post-translational modifications (PTMs) that govern ordered gene transcription in chromatin. Mis-regulation of these histone PTM-mediated processes has been shown to be associated with human diseases. Since the 2010 landmark reports of small molecules (+)-JQ1 and I-BET762 that target the acetyl-lysine 'reader' Bromodomain and Extra Terminal domain (BET) proteins, there have been relentless efforts to develop epigenetic therapy with small molecules to modulate molecular interactions of epigenome reader domain proteins with PTMs. In addition to BET, the other emerging targets include non-BET acetyl-lysine and methyl-lysine reader domains. This review covers the key chemical modulators of the aforementioned epigenome reader proteins.

Kumar R, Deivendran S, Santhoshkumar TR, Pillai MR
Signaling coupled epigenomic regulation of gene expression.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(43):5917-5926 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inheritance of genomic information independent of the DNA sequence, the epigenetics, as well as gene transcription are profoundly shaped by serine/threonine and tyrosine signaling kinases and components of the chromatin remodeling complexes. To precisely respond to a changing external milieu, human cells efficiently translate upstream signals into post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones and coregulators such as corepressors, coactivators, DNA-binding factors and PTM modifying enzymes. Because a protein with multiple residues for putative PTMs is expected to undergo more than one PTM in cells stimulated with growth factors, the outcome of combinational PTM codes on histones and coregulators is profoundly shaped by regulatory interplays between PTMs. The genomic functions of signaling kinases in cancer cells are manifested by the downstream effectors of cytoplasmic signaling cascades as well as translocation of the cytoplasmic signaling kinases to the nucleus. Signaling-mediated phosphorylation of histones serves as a regulatory switch for other PTMs, and connects chromatin remodeling complexes into gene transcription and gene activity. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in signaling-dependent epigenomic regulation of gene transcription using a few representative cancer-relevant serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases and their interplay with chromatin remodeling factors in cancer cells.

O'Rourke CJ, Munoz-Garrido P, Aguayo EL, Andersen JB
Epigenome dysregulation in cholangiocarcinoma.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018; 1864(4 Pt B):1423-1434 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenomics is a fast-evolving field of research that has lately attracted considerable interest, mainly due to the reversibility of epigenetic marks. Clinically, among solid tumors, the field is still limited. In cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) it is well known that the epigenetic landscape is deregulated both during carcinogenesis and disease progression as a consequence of aberrant mechanisms leading to genome instability. In this article, we will briefly review the molecular alterations that have been described in the transformation of normal cholangiocytes into malignant derivatives, focusing on the role of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) interactions, DNA methylation, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones and chromatin remodeling complexes.

Cocchiola R, Romaniello D, Grillo C, et al.
Analysis of STAT3 post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human prostate cancer with different Gleason Score.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):42560-42570 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
Prostate Cancer (PCa) is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The androgen receptor (AR) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) could be effective targets for PCa therapy. STAT3, a cytoplasmatic latent transcription factor, is a hub protein for several oncogenic signalling pathways and up-regulates the expression of numerous genes involved in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis and cell survival. STAT3 activity can be modulated by several Post-Translational Modifications (PTMs) which reflect particular cell conditions and may be implicated in PCa development and progression. The aim of this work was to analyze STAT3 PTMs at different tumor stages and their relationship with STAT3 cellular functions. For this purpose, sixty-five prostatectomy, Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, classified with different Gleason Scores, were subjected to immunoblotting, immunofluorescence staining and RT-PCR analysis. All experiments were carried out in matched non-neoplastic and neoplastic tissues. Data obtained showed different STAT3 PTMs profiles among the analyzed tumor grades which correlate with differences in the amount and distribution of specific STAT3 interactors as well as the expression of STAT3 target genes. These results highlight the importance of PTMs as an additional biomarker for the exactly evaluation of the PCa stage and the optimal treatment of this disease.

Reddy D, Khade B, Pandya R, Gupta S
A novel method for isolation of histones from serum and its implications in therapeutics and prognosis of solid tumours.
Clin Epigenetics. 2017; 9:30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation in post-translational modifications of histones and their modifiers are now well-recognized as a hallmark of cancer and can be used as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for disease progression and prognosis. In most solid tumours, a biopsy is challenging, costly, painful or potentially risky for the patient. Therefore, non-invasive methods like 'liquid biopsy' for analysis of histone modifications and their modifiers if possible will be helpful in the better clinical management of cancer patients.
METHODS: Here, we have developed a cost-effective and time-efficient protocol for isolation of circulating histones from serum of solid tumor, HCC, called Dual Acid Extraction (DAE) protocol and have confirmed by mass spectrometry. Also, we measured the activity of HDACs and HATs in serum samples.
RESULTS: The serum purified histones were profiled for changes in histone PTMs and have shown a comparable pattern of modifications like acetylation (H4K16Ac), methylation (H4K20Me3, H3K27Me3, H3K9Me3) and phosphorylation (γ-H2AX and H3S10P) to paired cancer tissues. Profiling for the histone PTM changes in various other organs of normal and tumor bearing animal suggests that the changes in the histone PTMs observed in the tumor serum is indeed due to changes in the tumor tissue only. Further, we demonstrate that the observed hypo-acetylation of histone H4 in tissue and serum samples of tumor bearing animals corroborated with the elevated HDAC activity in both samples compared to normal. Interestingly, human normal and tumor serum samples also showed elevated HDAC activity with no significant changes in HAT activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first evidence in the context of histone PTMs and modifiers that liquid biopsy is a valuable predictive tool for monitoring disease progression. Importantly, with the advent of drugs that target specific enzymes involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, liquid biopsy-based 'real time' monitoring will be useful for subgrouping of the patients for epi-drug treatment, predicting response to therapy, early relapse and prognosis.

Wang Y, Chen Y, Fang J
Post-Transcriptional and Post-translational Regulation of Central Carbon Metabolic Enzymes in Cancer.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2017; 17(11):1456-1465 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. Alterations in cancer central carbon metabolism including aerobic glycolysis, elevated glutaminolysis, dysregulated tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway, facilitate cancer development by maintaining viability and building new biomass. Although a variety of oncogenes or tumor suppressors contribute to these rewiring, accumulating evidence suggests that both post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs) also orchestrate the tightly controlled regulation of cancer metabolic adaptations, broadening the biological mechanisms of cancer metabolic reprogramming. Micro RNA, one kind of posttranscriptional modification, mediates transcriptional silencing of various metabolic enzymes. Additional, different kinds of PTMs play important roles in cancer metabolic rewiring by affecting the function, interaction or stability of target proteins. We survey recent studies demonstrating PTMs at lysine residues and microRNAs that are involved in reprogramming of cancer central carbon metabolism, and summarize the effect of these modifications according to different parts of central carbon metabolic pathway. Moreover, we provide an updated overview of the compounds or agents targeting central carbon metabolism in cancer. Given that the heterogeneity of cancer biology, a combination of these novel therapeutics and standard chemotherapeutic agents may obtain better benefit and overcome drug resistance. Finally, this review discusses the challenges and some new steps that may further advance this field.

Zhao D, Li Y, Xiong X, et al.
YEATS Domain-A Histone Acylation Reader in Health and Disease.
J Mol Biol. 2017; 429(13):1994-2002 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) carry an epigenetic layer of message to regulate diverse cellular processes at the chromatin level. Many of these PTMs are selectively recognized by dedicated effector proteins for normal cell growth and development, while dysregulation of these recognition events is often implicated in human diseases, notably cancer. Thus, it is fundamentally important to elucidate the regulatory mechanism(s) underlying the readout of PTMs on histones. The Yaf9, ENL, AF9, Taf14, Sas5 (YEATS) domain is an emerging reader module that selectively recognizes histone lysine acylation with a preference for crotonylation over acetylation. In the review, we discuss the recognition of histone acylations by the YEATS domain and the biological significance of this readout from multiple perspectives.

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