Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: REG4 (cancer-related)
Sun S, Hu Z, Huang S, et al.REG4 is an indicator for KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma with TTF-1 low expression.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(9):2273-2283 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: Recent research has classified lung adenocarcinoma patients with KRAS mutation into three subtypes by co-occurring genetic events in TP53 (KP subgroup), STK11/LKB1 (KL subgroup) and CDKN2A/B inactivation plus TTF-1 low expression (KC subgroup). The aim of this study was to identify valuable biomarkers by searching the candidate molecules that contribute to lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis, especially KC subtype.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the publicly available database and identified the candidate REG4 using the E-GEOD-31210 dataset, and then confirmed by TCGA dataset. In addition, an independent cohort of 55 clinical samples was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Functional studies and RNA sequencing were performed after silencing the REG4 expression.
RESULTS: REG4, an important regulator of gastro-intestinal carcinogenesis, was highly expressed in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma with low expression of TTF-1 (KC subtype). The results were validated both by gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry study in an independent 55 clinical samples from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Further in vitro and in vivo functional assays revealed silencing REG4 expression significantly reduces cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Moreover, RNA sequencing and GSEA analysis displayed that REG4 knockdown might induce cell cycle arrest by regulating G2/M checkpoint and E2F targets.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that REG4 plays an important role in KRAS-driven lung cancer pathogenesis and is a novel biomarker of lung adenocarcinoma subtype. Future studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms of REG4 in the division and proliferation of KC tumors and its potential therapeutic value.
BACKGROUND: Reg IV is a member of the regenerating gene family and has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in gastric cancer. However, the functional mechanism of Reg IV in gastric cancer is still unclear.
METHODS: Expression of Reg IV and SOX9 were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time PCR, and the correlation between the expression of Reg IV and SOX9 was analyzed in gastric cancer tissues. Reg IV expression vectors and a siRNA of Reg IV and SOX9 were transfected into human gastric cancer cells and the protein and mRNA levels of Reg IV and SOX9 were investigated by western blot and real-time PCR. The invasion and migration ability of gastric cancer cells with overexpressed Reg IV and with gene silence of Reg IV and SOX9 were examined by transwell chambers and wound healing assay.
RESULTS: The Reg IV and SOX9 protein expression levels were both significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent tissues (p = 0.022, p = 0.003). Reg IV protein expression significantly correlated with tumor invasion depth (p < 0.001), but had no significant correlations with age, clinical stage or lymph node metastasis. SOX9 protein expression also had no significant correlations with age, clinical stage, tumor invasion depth or lymph node metastasis. Reg IV transcript expression demonstrated a significant correlation with invasion depth and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.005, p < 0.001) and no significant correlations with age, clinical stage, tumor tissue differentiation or tumor size. SOX9 transcript expression demonstrated a significant correlation with invasion depth and tumor tissue differentiation (p = 0.044, p = 0.007) and no significant correlations with age, clinical stage or tumor size. The Reg IV expression showed a positive correlation with the SOX9 expression (p < 0.000, p = 0.008). Overexpression of Reg IV could upregulate SOX9 expression and promote invasiveness and migration of tumor cells, and silencing of Reg IV could downregulate SOX9 and inhibit invasiveness and migration of tumor cells in MKN-45 and AGS cells. On the other hand, silencing of SOX9 could upregulate Reg IV protein expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that Reg IV positively regulates the expression of SOX9 and is involved in tumor cell invasion and migration in gastric cancer.
BACKGROUND Reg4, a member of the Reg multigene family, is highly upregulated in many gastrointestinal cancers including gastric cancer (GC). The enhanced expression of Reg4 is associated with the resistance of GC to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), while the underlying mechanism is not clear. The aim of the present study was to explore the resistant mechanism underlying 5-FU resistance. MATERIAL AND METHODS Reg4 expression was assessed by Western blot analysis for SGC-7901, BGC-823, AGS, MKN28, and MKN45. Synthetic short single strand RNA oligonucleotides and Flag-Reg4 plasmid were used to investigate the biological function of Reg4 in vitro. The cell viability assay was performed by MTT. Flow cytometry was carried out to measure the apoptosis caused by 5-FU. Reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to examine the expression of 5-FU metabolism related enzymes. The effect of Reg4 on intracellular signaling was evaluated by Western blot. RESULTS Western blot analysis of 5 GC cells showed that Reg4 was low or null in SGC-7901 and BGC-823, while high in AGS, MKN28, and MKN45. Over-expression of flag-Reg4 in SGC-7901 led to an increase in cell viability and lower apoptosis with 5-FU treatment. In contrast, siRNA knockdown of Reg4 enhanced 5-FU induced apoptosis. However, over-expression or knockdown of Reg4 had no significant influence on the expression of 5-FU metabolic enzymes. Further investigation revealed that Reg4 could activate Erk1/2-Bim-caspase3 cascade. CONCLUSIONS Reg4 inhibited apoptosis through regulating MAPK/Erk/Bim signaling pathway and thereby enhanced the resistance of GC to 5-FU.
Targeted proteomic methods can accelerate the verification of multiple tumor marker candidates in large series of patient samples. We utilized the targeted approach known as selected/multiple reaction monitoring (S/MRM) to verify potential protein markers of colorectal adenoma identified by our group in previous transcriptomic and quantitative shotgun proteomic studies of a large cohort of precancerous colorectal lesions. We developed SRM assays to reproducibly detect and quantify 25 (62.5%) of the 40 selected proteins in an independent series of precancerous and cancerous tissue samples (19 adenoma/normal mucosa pairs; 17 adenocarcinoma/normal mucosa pairs). Twenty-three proteins were significantly up-regulated (
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignant tumor. Acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) are both precursor lesions that lead to the development of PDAC. Reg family proteins (Reg1A, 1B, 3A/G, 4) are a group of calcium-dependent lectins that promote islet growth in response to inflammation and/or injuries. The aim of this study was to establish a role for Reg proteins in the development of PDAC and their clinical value as biomarkers. We found that Reg1A and Reg3A/G were highly expressed in the ADM tissues by immunohistochemistry. In the 3-dimensional culture of mouse acinar cells, Reg3A promoted ADM formation with concurrent activation of mitogen-acitvated protein kinase. Upregulation of Reg1A and Reg1B levels was observed as benign ductal epithelium progresses from PanIN to invasive PDAC. Patients with PDAC showed significantly higher serum levels of Reg1A and Reg1B than matching healthy subjects. These results were further validated by the quantification of Reg 1A and 1B mRNA levels in the microdissected tissues (22- and 6-fold increases vs. non-tumor tissues). Interestingly, patients with higher levels of Reg1A and 1B exhibited improved survival rate than those with lower levels. Furthermore, tissue expressions of Reg1A, Reg1B, and Reg4 could differentiate metastatic PDAC in the liver from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with 92% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Overall, our results demonstrate the upregulation of Reg proteins during PDAC development. If validated in larger scale, Reg1A and Reg1B could become clinical markers for detecting early stages of PDAC, monitoring therapeutic response, and/or predicting patient's prognosis.
Being the major reason of recurrence and death after surgery, peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer dooms the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer patients. Regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (REG4) is believed to promote peritoneal metastasis, however, its mechanism is still a moot point at present. In the present study, we show that high expression of REG4 correlates with advanced stage and poor survival prognosis for gastric cancer patients. REG4 overexpression significantly enhances peritoneal metastasis by increasing adhesion ability. Moreover, SP1 is proved to be a transcription factor of REG4 and induce REG4 expression upon TGF-alpha stimulation. Also, G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) is identified to be in the same complex of REG4, which mediates REG4's signal transduction and promotes peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer cell. Interestingly, we also discover a positive feedback loop triggered by REG4, amplifying itself through EGFR transactivation, consisting of GPR37, ADAM17, TGF-alpha, EGFR, SP1 and REG4. In conclusion, REG4 promotes peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through GPR37 and triggers a positive feedback loop.
Preoperative diagnostics of ovarian neoplasms rely on ultrasound imaging and the serum biomarkers CA125 and HE4. However, these markers may be elevated in non-neoplastic conditions and may fail to identify most non-serous epithelial cancer subtypes. The objective of this study was to identify histotype-specific serum biomarkers for mucinous ovarian cancer. The candidate genes with mucinous histotype specific expression profile were identified from publicly available gene-expression databases and further in silico data mining was performed utilizing the MediSapiens database. Candidate biomarker validation was done using qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue microarrays. The expression level of the candidate gene in serum was compared to the serum CA125 and HE4 levels in a patient cohort of prospectively collected advanced ovarian cancer. Database searches identified REG4 as a potential biomarker with specificity for the mucinous ovarian cancer subtype. The specific expression within epithelial ovarian tumors was further confirmed by mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed distinctive cytoplasmic expression pattern only in mucinous carcinomas and suggested differential expression between benign and malignant mucinous neoplasms. Finally, an ELISA based serum biomarker assay demonstrated increased expression only in patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. This study identifies REG4 as a potential serum biomarker for histotype-specific detection of mucinous ovarian cancer and suggests serum REG4 measurement as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for postoperative follow-up of patients with mucinous ovarian cancer.
Ma X, Wu D, Zhou S, et al.The pancreatic cancer secreted REG4 promotes macrophage polarization to M2 through EGFR/AKT/CREB pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(1):189-96 [PubMed
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In the periphery of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), high accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which exhibit M2 phenotype, has been shown to be correlated with extra-pancreatic invasion, lymph vessel invasion, lymph node involvement and shortened survival time. However, mechanisms by which tumor cells educate and reprogram TAMs remain largely unclear. The phenotype of TAMs in PDAC tissues was confirmed by immunofluoresence and confocal microscopy. Human CD14+ monocytes were incubated with recombinant human REG4 (rREG4) before being stimulated with LPS and IL-10 and IL-6 were measured with ELISA. A panel of M1 and M2 genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Panc1, AsPC1 and BxPC3 cells were cultured in the conditioned medium (CM) and treated with REG4. The macrophages were infected with CREB shRNA or cultured by the CM of Panc1 cells infected with REG4 shRNA. The expression of CD163, CD206 and REG4 and the phosphorylation levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), AKT and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in cells were assessed with western blotting. Cell proliferation and invasiveness were also assessed. The rREG4 or the conditioned medium of Panc1 cells which secreted REG4 induced the polarization macrophages to M2 phenotype. Treatment of human macrophages with REG4 resulted in phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT and CREB. The latter was responsible for REG4-mediated macrophage polarization to M2. The conditioned medium of macrophages treated with rREG4 promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cell lines. REG4, overexpressed in PDAC and secreted by cancer cells, promoted macrophage polarization to M2, through at least in part, activation of ERK1/2 and CREB and changed the microenvironment to facilitate cancer growth and metastasis.
The transcription factor GATA6 is a critical regulator of cell proliferation and development in the gastrointestinal tract. We have recently reported that GATA6 induces the expression of the intestinal stem cell marker LGR5 and enhances the clonogenicity and tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells, but not the growth of these cells cultured under adherent conditions. Here we show that REG4, a member of the regenerating islet-derived (REG) family, is also a target of GATA6. We further demonstrate that REG4 is downregulated by overexpression of miR-363, which suppresses GATA6 expression. Moreover, we show that GATA6-mediated activation of REG4 enhances the growth of colon cancer cells under adherent conditions and is required for their tumorigenicity. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GATA6 simultaneously induces the expression of genes essential for the growth of colon cancer cells under adherent conditions (REG4) and genes required for their clonogenicity (LGR5), and that the miR-363-GATA6-REG4/LGR5 signaling cascade promotes the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells.
BACKGROUND: Although its biological function remains poorly understood, REG4 is reported to be a potent activator of the EGFR/Akt/AP-1 signaling pathway in colon cancer cells and closely linked with the inhibition of apoptosis.
METHODS: SKOV3 cells were transfected with a REG4-expressing plasmid or treated with recombinant REG4. We then analyzed proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis or expression of related molecules. REG4 expression was examined in normal ovarian tissue, benign and borderline tumors, and cancers by immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR.
RESULTS: REG4 overexpression and the recombinant protein inhibited cell apoptosis, enhanced G2/S progression, proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, expression of Wnt5a, p70s6k, survivin and VEGF expression was increased, while Bax expression was decreased at both the mRNA and protein levels compared to control or mock cells (P<0.05). REG4 mRNA levels were higher in benign tumors and primary cancer compared to those in normal ovarian tissue (P<0.05) while, REG4 protein expression was higher in all three tumor types than that in normal ovarian tissue (P<0.05). Higher REG4 mRNA expression was observed in mucinous carcinomas than serous carcinomas (P<0.05), and in well- and moderately-differentiated carcinomas than poorly-differentiated carcinomas (P<0.05). Survival analysis revealed an inverse relationship between REG4 expression and cumulative or relapse-free survival rates of the patients with ovarian cancer as an independent factor (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that aberrant REG4 expression plays an essential role in early ovarian carcinogenesis and is closely linked to mucinous ovarian tumors, differentiation and adverse prognosis of ovarian cancer by modulating proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion.
Gastric cancer (GC), one of the most common human cancers, can be classified into gastric or intestinal phenotype according to mucin expression. TP53 mutation, allelic deletion of the APC gene and nuclear staining of β-catenin are frequently detected in the intestinal phenotype of GC, whereas CDH1 gene mutation, microsatellite instability and DNA hypermethylation of MLH1 are common events in the gastric phenotype of GC. Our Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) and Escherichia coli ampicillin secretion trap (CAST) analyses revealed that CDH17, REG4, OLFM4, HOXA10, DSC2, TSPAN8 and TM9SF3 are upregulated in GC and that CLDN18 is downregulated in GC. Expression of CDH17, REG4, HOXA10 and DSC2 and downregulation of CLDN18 are observed in the intestinal phenotype of GC. In contrast, OLFM4 is expressed in the gastric phenotype of GC. Expression of TSPAN8, TM9SF3 and HER2 are not associated with either gastric or intestinal phenotypes. Ectopic CDX2 expression plays a key function in the GC intestinal phenotype. MUC2, CDH17, REG4, DSC2 and ABCB1 are direct targets of CDX2. Importantly, these genes encode transmembrane/secretory proteins, indicating that the microenvironment as well as cancer cells are also different between gastric and intestinal phenotypes of GC.
Speck O, Tang W, Morgan DR, et al.Three Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Adenocarcinoma Have Distinct Histochemical Features Reflecting Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Status and Neuroendocrine Differentiation.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2015; 23(9):633-45 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current histopathologic classification schemes for gastric adenocarcinoma have limited clinical utility and are difficult to apply due to tumor heterogeneity. Elucidation of molecular subtypes of gastric cancer may contribute to our understanding of gastric cancer biology and to the development of new molecular markers that may lead to improved diagnosis, therapy, or prognosis. We previously demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected gastric cancers have a distinct human gene expression profile compared with uninfected cancers. We now examine the histopathologic features characterizing infected (n=14) and uninfected (n=89) cancers; the latter of which are now further divided into 2 major molecular subtypes based on expression patterns of 93 RNAs. One uninfected gastric cancer subtype was distinguished by upregulation of 3 genes with neuroendocrine (NE) function (CHGA, GAST, and REG4 encoding chromogranin, gastrin, and the secreted peptide REG4 involved in epithelial cell regeneration), implicating hormonal factors in the pathogenesis of a major class of gastric adenocarcinomas. Evidence of NE differentiation (molecular, immunohistochemical, or morphologic) was mutually exclusive of EBV infection. EBV-infected tumors tended to have solid-type morphology with lymphoid stroma. This study reveals novel molecular subtypes of gastric cancer and their associated morphologies that demonstrate divergent NE features.
Zhu X, Han Y, Yuan C, et al.Overexpression of Reg4, alone or combined with MMP-7 overexpression, is predictive of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(1):320-8 [PubMed
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Regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (Reg4) is a secreted protein that plays a critical role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we examined the relationship between Reg4 and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) expression in CRC, particularly with regard to metastasis. RT-qPCR, western blotting, tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemical staining were performed to detect Reg4 and MMP-7 expression in CRC tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues. As compared with normal tissues, most paired colon cancers showed a ≥2-fold increase in the Reg4 and MMP-7 mRNA levels, which was subsequently validated by the post-transcriptional levels. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that Reg4 was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis, advanced American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and histologic grade. Further studies showed the correlation between Reg4 and MMP-7 expression was significant in CRC with distant metastasis (r=0.555, P=0.021) and in the lymph‑node metastasis samples (r=0.557, P<0.001). Patients with tumor positivity for the two molecules showed a worse prognosis even after radical surgery (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with Reg4- and MMP-7-positive tumors had extremely poor OS (HR 4.63; 95% CI 2.43-8.81; P<0.001) and DFS (HR 3.88; 95% CI 2.08-7.22; P<0.001). Reg4 expression may be useful in the prediction of colon cancer prognosis when combined with MMP-7.
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the world's three most common cancers and its incidence is rising. To identify patients who benefit from adjuvant therapy requires novel biomarkers. The regenerating islet-derived gene (REG) 4 belongs to a group of small secretory proteins involved in cell proliferation and regeneration. Its up-regulated expression occurs in inflammatory bowel diseases also in gastrointestinal cancers. Reports on the association of REG4 expression with CRC prognosis have been mixed. Our aim was to investigate tumor REG4 expression in CRC patients and its coexpression with other intestinal markers.
METHODS: Tumor expression of REG4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 840 consecutive surgically treated CRC patients at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, synapthophysin, and chromogranin was evaluated in a subgroup of 220 consecutively operated CRC patients. REG4 expression with clinicopathological parameters, other intestinal markers, and the impact of REG4 expression on survival were assessed.
RESULTS: REG4 expression associated with favorable clinicopathological parameters and with higher overall survival from non-mucinous CRC (p = 0.019). For such patients under 65, its expression was an independent marker of lower risk of death within 5 years that cancer; univariable hazard ratio (HR) = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.34-0.94); multivariable HR = 0.55; 95% CI (0.33-0.92). In non-mucinous CRC, REG4 associated with positive MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC expression.
CONCLUSION: We show, to our knowledge for the first time, that REG4 IHC expression to be an independent marker of favorable prognosis in non-mucinous CRC. Our results contradict those from studies based on quantification of REG4 mRNA levels, a discrepancy warranting further studies.
He HL, Lee YE, Shiue YL, et al.Overexpression of REG4 confers an independent negative prognosticator in rectal cancers receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
J Surg Oncol. 2014; 110(8):1002-10 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery is the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Through data mining from published transcriptomic database, we identified Regenerating Gene Type IV (REG4) as the most significantly associated gene with resistance to CCRT. This study examined the prognostic impact of REG4 expression in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant CCRT.
METHODS: REG4 immunohistochemistry was retrospectively assessed for pre-treatment biopsy specimens from 172 rectal cancer patients who received neoadjuvant CCRT followed by surgery without initial distant metastasis. The results were correlated with the clinicopathological variables, disease-specific survival (DSS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), as well as γ-H2AX expression in post-treatment tumor samples.
RESULTS: High expression of REG4 was associated with advanced pre-treatment nodal status (P = 0.026), advanced post-treatment tumor status (P = 0.006), advanced post-treatment nodal status (P = 0.001), advanced post-treatment tumor stage (P < 0.001), and inferior tumor regression grade (P = 0.001). Of note, high expression of REG4 emerged as an adverse prognosticator for DSS (P = 0.0004), LRFS (P = 0.0009), and MeFS (P = 0.0254). After multivariate comparisons, it remained independently prognostic for worse DSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.731; P = 0.025) and LRFS (HR = 2.676; P = 0.029). High expression of REG4 was also negatively associated with γ-H2AX expression (P < 0.0001, r = -0.708).
CONCLUSIONS: High expression of REG4 is associated with poor therapeutic response, adverse outcome and an aggressive phenotype in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CCRT, justifying REG4 is a surrogate marker to predict CCRT resistance.
BACKGROUND: microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating multiple targets, which can promote or inhibit the development of malignant behaviors. Accumulating evidence suggests miR-24 plays important roles in human carcinogenesis. However, its precise biological role remains largely elusive. This study examined the role of miR-24 in gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: The expression of miR-24 in GC tissues compared with matched non-tumor tissues and GC cells was detected by qRT-PCR. Synthetic short single or double stranded RNA oligonucleotides and lentiviral vectors were used to regulate miR-24 expression in GC cells to investigate its function in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: miR-24 was significantly downregulated in GC tissues compared with matched non-tumor tissues and was associated with tumor differentiation. Ectopic expression of miR-24 in SGC-7901 GC cells suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro as well as tumorigenicity in vivo by inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and promoting cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we identified RegIV as a target of miR-24 and demonstrated that miR-24 regulated RegIV expression via binding its 3' untranslated region.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-24 functions as a novel tumor suppressor in GC and the anti-oncogenic activity may involve its inhibition of the target gene RegIV. These findings suggest the possibility for miR-24 as a therapeutic target in GC.
Jiang Y, Liu M, Li Z, Jiang YDiscovery of novel candidate oncogenes in pancreatic carcinoma using high-throughput microarrays.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2013 Nov-Dec; 60(128):1825-32 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive tumors in mankind. Its aggressiveness is only due to the biological progressive characteristics but also the difficulty for clinical early detection which urges us to find diagnostic tools for early diagnosis. Biomarkers are a developing tool used to measure molecules such as proteins, DNA, or RNAs in blood samples or suspected tumor tissues. The molecular dysregulation is believed to play major roles in tumorigenesis or a result after the tumor formation and can be used as a biomarker for tumor detection.
METHODOLOGY: In this paper, we studied the gene expression profiles using tissues from pancreatic cancer patients.
RESULTS: We observed dysregulation of gene expression profiles using high-throughput sequencing technique and verified three-gene upregulation, REG4, CDH3 and S100P both in pancreatic cell lines and carcinoma tissues by RT-PCR and Northern Blot. A detailed description of the genes involved is listed within this article.
CONCLUSIONS: We believe that by unraveling the gene dysregulation profiles in pancreatic tumor tissues can we achieve an early and precise diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Moreover, these newly found genes, due to their functions involved in cell migration and mitosis, may play major roles in tumorigensis.
BACKGROUND: Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) may account for 20-30% of colon cancers. Although large SSA/Ps are generally recognized phenotypically, small (<1 cm) or dysplastic SSA/Ps are difficult to differentiate from hyperplastic or small adenomatous polyps by endoscopy and histopathology. Our aim was to define the comprehensive gene expression phenotype of SSA/Ps to better define this cancer precursor.
RESULTS: RNA sequencing was performed on 5' capped RNA from seven SSA/Ps collected from patients with the serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) versus eight controls. Highly expressed genes were analyzed by qPCR in additional SSA/Ps, adenomas and controls. The cellular localization and level of gene products were examined by immunohistochemistry in syndromic and sporadic SSA/Ps, adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and controls. We identified 1,294 differentially expressed annotated genes, with 106 increased ≥10-fold, in SSA/Ps compared to controls. Comparing these genes with an array dataset for adenomatous polyps identified 30 protein coding genes uniquely expressed ≥10-fold in SSA/Ps. Biological pathways altered in SSA/Ps included mucosal integrity, cell adhesion, and cell development. Marked increased expression of MUC17, the cell junction protein genes VSIG1 and GJB5, and the antiapoptotic gene REG4 were found in SSA/Ps, relative to controls and adenomas, were verified by qPCR analysis of additional SSA/Ps (n = 21) and adenomas (n = 10). Immunohistochemical staining of syndromic (n≥11) and sporadic SSA/Ps (n≥17), adenomatous (n≥13) and hyperplastic (n≥10) polyps plus controls (n≥16) identified unique expression patterns for VSIG1 and MUC17 in SSA/Ps.
CONCLUSION: A subset of genes and pathways are uniquely increased in SSA/Ps, compared to adenomatous polyps, thus supporting the concept that cancer develops by different pathways in these phenotypically distinct polyps with markedly different gene expression profiles. Immunostaining for a subset of these genes differentiates both syndromic and sporadic SSA/Ps from adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps.
Upregulation of regenerating gene 4 (Reg4) is observed in many human gastrointestinal malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously reported a Reg4-mediated induction of epidermal growth factor receptor-Akt-AP1 signaling regulating CRC cell apoptosis. However, the role of Reg4 in the regulation of CRC cell division is poorly understood. This study tests the hypothesis that Reg4 induces Akt-GSK3β-β-Catenin-TCF-4 signaling to regulate CRC cell division. In vitro models of human CRC were used to determine the role of Reg4 in regulation of CRC cell division. Cell cycle studies demonstrated that Reg4 treatment significantly decreased CRC cell number in G1 phase and increased in G2 phase. Subsequently Reg4 significantly increased the mitotic index of CRC cells. As assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, Reg4 significantly increased the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes Cyclin D1 and D3, and associated Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6). Reg4-mediated increase in these genes involved a pathway that included an induced Akt activity by increasing phosphorylation of Thr308 and Ser473, a reduced glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) activity by increasing phosphorylation of Ser9, an induced nuclear translocation of β-Catenin by decreasing phosphorylation of Ser33/37/Thr41, and an increased TCF-4 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, antagonism of Reg4-signaling using Reg4-specific mAbs (2H6 and 3E5) and Akt inhibitor significantly decreased, whereas agonism using GSK-3β antagonist (SB216763) significantly increased mitotic index and proliferation of CRC cells. These results identify Reg4 as a key regulator of the CRC cell division and proliferation, hence a potential target of human CRC treatment.
Staging classification of colorectal cancers is performed by the UICC/TNM classification system, which is the global gold standard. However, we often experience in clinical practice that there are considerable differences in prognoses between patients who have the same classification particularly in stage II and III cancers. The aim of this study was to propose a new TNM-G classification to predict prognosis and recurrence by supplementing the conventional TNM classification. A total of 220 cases of colorectal cancer, including 77 at stage II and 143 at stage III, were registered from four independent facilities. Immunohistochemical staining for 7 molecules, such as p53, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (Reg IV), olfactomedin 4, Claudin-18 and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP‑7), was performed to investigate the correlation between clinicopathological factors and expression of each molecule. Based on the results, no significant correlation was observed between the immunostaining expression of these 7 factors and recurrence in total colorectal cancer. Recurrence in stage II (77 cases) was significantly higher in cases positive for Reg IV expression (P=0.042). On analysis of overall survival (OS) and disease‑free survival (DFS), VEGF-C and Reg IV expression had a correlation with poor prognosis, therefore, these factors were selected and applied to G-factor classifications so that cases negative for both could be classified as G0, cases positive for either of the factors could be classified as G1, and cases positive for both factors could be classified as G2. While no significant correlation was observed in the recurrence rates between G0 and G2, OS and DFS in stage II cases were significantly poorer for G2 cases in comparison with G0 or G1 cases. The survival curves of OS and DFS in stage II G2 were similar to that of stage III cases. According to these results, prognosis of VEGF-C/Reg IV both positive G2 cases in stage II colorectal cancer was found to be almost equal to the poor survival in stage III cases, and the advancement of one stage up migration based on G-factors may be supposed to be highly feasible for clinical application. In conclusion, the combination of VEGF-C and Reg IV may be a promising factor for clinical staging to supplement the classical TNM classification system, and it may suggest a good indication of adjuvant chemotherapy for G2 cases in stage II colorectal cancers.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the REG Iα and REG Iβ genes on lung cancer cell lines, and thereafter, the expression of REG family genes (REG Iα, REG Iβ, REG III, HIP/PAP and REG IV) in lung cancer in relation to patient prognosis was evaluated. Lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines expressing REG Iα or REG Iβ (HLC-1 REG Iα/Iβ and EBC-1 REG Iα/Iβ) were established, and cell number, cell invasive activity, and anchorage-independent cell growth were compared with these variables in the control cells. The expression levels of REG family genes were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR in surgically resected lung cancers, and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves were generated. The HLC-1 REG Iα/Iβ cell line showed significant increases in cell number and anchorage-independent cell growth compared with the control cells. EBC-1 REG Iα/Iβ cells showed significant increases in cell invasive activity and anchorage-independent cell growth as compared with the control cells. Except for the REG Iβ gene, expression of other REG family genes was observed in the surgically resected samples; however, DSS was significantly worse only in stage I patients who were positive for REG Iα expression than in patients who were negative for REG Iα expression. The effects of REG Iα on AD and SCC cells were different in the in vitro study, and a correlation between REG Iα expression and patient prognosis was noted in the in vivo study. Therefore, overexpression of REG Iα is a risk factor for poor prognosis caused by discrete mechanisms in AD and SCC patients.
Zhou W, Sun M, Wang DL, et al.Silencing of RegIV by shRNA causes the loss of stemness properties of cancer stem cells in MKN45 gastric cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2685-90 [PubMed
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Regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (RegIV) is overexpressed in several types of tumours, including pancreatic and gastric cancer (GC). However, the role it plays in gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) remains unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that the silencing of RegIV by shRNA in GC cells may cause the loss of their stemness properties, indicating the inhibition of growth, proliferation and increased sensitivity to chemoradiation-induced cell death. MKN45 poorly differentiated human GC cells were propagated as mammospheres in stem cell culture conditions. Mammospheres were identified as CSCs using generally acknowledged CSC markers such as CD44. A panel of 21-nucleotide shRNAs were designed to target RegIV gene expression. Several shRNA constructs were identified that led to significant reduction in RegIV mRNA expression. Furthermore, the stemness properties of control mammospheres and RegIV knockdown mammospheres were compared by tumourigenicity assay in vivo and plate colony formation assay in vitro. Finally, we evaluated the treatment response in both mammospheres which underwent chemoradiation. The knockdown expression of RegIV by shRNA deprived CSCs of their stemness properties and increased the effectiveness of cell killing following chemoradiation. Inhibition of endogenous RegIV expression may be a new therapeutic strategy for human GC.
Huang Q, Chen X, Lu W, et al.Expression of REG4 in ovarian mucinous tumors.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(4):295-301 [PubMed
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Regenerating islet-deprived gene family, number 4 (REG4), is a novel marker for intestinal differentiation. We performed immunohistochemical studies on REG4, cytokeratin (CK)7, CK20, and caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) in 291 ovarian mucinous tumors. There were 226 primary tumors and 65 metastatic tumors. The primary tumors comprised 69/226 mucinous cystadenomas, 79/226 mucinous borderline tumors (64/79 intestinal-type and 15/79 endocervical-like tumors), and 78/226 mucinous carcinomas. We found that REG4 expression was significantly higher in mucinous borderline tumors (30/79, 38.0%) and primary mucinous carcinomas (26/78, 33.3%) than in mucinous cystadenomas (4/69, 5.8%; P<0.05). However, REG4 expression was more commonly associated with intestinal-type, borderline, mucinous tumors rather than the endocervical-like type (30/64 vs. 0/15, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between the REG4 and CDX2 expression profiles in primary ovarian mucinous tumors (r=0.772, P<0.001). REG4, CDX2, and diffuse CK20 had higher expression frequencies in metastatic lower gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma than in primary mucinous tumors (P<0.01). The CK7/REG4 coordinate expression profile was comparable in diagnostic value to CK7/CK20 or CK7/CDX2 profile. We conclude that REG4 expression is common in mucinous borderline tumors of the intestinal type as it is absent in the endocervical-like form in this series. Expression of CK7/REG4 may contribute to the differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic ovarian mucinous tumors.
Lu S, Bevier M, Huhn S, et al.Genetic variants in C-type lectin genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and clinical outcome.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(10):2325-33 [PubMed
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Inflammatory responses play a vital role at different stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. C-type lectins mediate inflammatory/immune responses and participate in immune escape of pathogens and tumors. Our study aimed to evaluate the correlation between polymorphisms in three C-type lectin genes, CD209, MBL2 and REG4, and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. We genotyped 15 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and assessed their associations with CRC risk in a case-control study of 1353 CRC cases and 767 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall and event-free survival in 414 patients. Two CD209 SNPs were associated with CRC risk after adjustment for multiple comparison. Minor allele carriers of the promoter SNP rs2287886 had an increased risk of CRC (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.08-1.56), while minor allele carriers of the 3'UTR SNP, rs7248637, had a decreased risk (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60-0.91). Multivariate survival analyses, including age, gender, TNM stage and grade, showed that patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis and carrying the rs2994809 T allele had a decreased overall and event-free survival (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.20-3.72 and HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.18-3.39, respectively). We show that SNPs in CD209 may affect CRC risk, while a SNP in REG4 may be a useful marker for CRC progression.
Liu CM, Hsieh CL, He YC, et al.In vivo targeting of ADAM9 gene expression using lentivirus-delivered shRNA suppresses prostate cancer growth by regulating REG4 dependent cell cycle progression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53795 [PubMed
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Cancer cells respond to stress by activating a variety of survival signaling pathways. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 9 is upregulated during cancer progression and hormone therapy, functioning in part through an increase in reactive oxygen species. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that therapeutic targeting of ADAM9 gene expression by lentivirus-delivered small hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly inhibited proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines and blocked tumor growth in a murine model of prostate cancer bone metastasis. Cell cycle studies confirmed an increase in the G1-phase and decrease in the S-phase population of cancer cells under starvation stress conditions, which correlated with elevated intracellular superoxide levels. Microarray data showed significantly decreased levels of regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (REG4) expression in prostate cancer cells with knockdown of ADAM9 gene expression. This REG4 downregulation also resulted in induction of expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1), which negatively regulates cyclin D1 and blocks the G1/S transition. Our data reveal a novel molecular mechanism of ADAM9 in the regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation, and suggests a combined modality of ADAM9 shRNA gene therapy and cytotoxic agents for hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancer.
REG4, which encodes Reg IV protein, is a member of the calcium-dependent lectin superfamily and potent activator of the epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt/activator protein-1 signaling pathway. Several human cancers overexpress Reg IV, and Reg IV expression is associated with intestinal phenotype differentiation. However, regulation of REG4 transcription remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether CDX2 regulates Reg IV expression in gastric cancer (GC) cells. Expression of Reg IV and CDX2 was analyzed by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 9 GC cell lines and 2 colon cancer cell lines. The function of the 5'-flanking region of the REG4 gene was characterized by luciferase assay. In 9 GC cell lines, endogenous Reg IV and CDX2 expression were well correlated. Using an estrogen receptor-regulated form of CDX2, rapid induction of Reg IV expression was observed in HT-29 cells. Reporter gene assays revealed an important role in transcription for consensus CDX2 DNA binding elements in the 5'-flanking region of the REG4 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that CDX2 binds directly to the 5'-flanking region of REG4. These results indicate that CDX2 protein directly regulates Reg IV expression.
Ying LS, Yu JL, Lu XX, Ling ZQEnhanced RegIV expression predicts the intrinsic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance in advanced gastric cancer.
Dig Dis Sci. 2013; 58(2):414-22 [PubMed
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AIM: RegIV, a member of the Regenerating (REG) gene family, may be a marker for the prediction of resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. However, the relationship between the intrinsic drug resistance of gastric cancer (GC) cells to 5-FU used alone (single FU) or in multidrug therapeutic regimens (5-FU combinations) and RegIV expression has not been investigated.
METHODS: The patient cohort comprised 45 patients with primary GC. The chemoresistance of GC cells to therapeutic regimens consisting of single 5-FU or FU combinations was investigated using the ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay. The level of RegIV mRNA transcripts was determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. RegIV expression was evaluated as a novel predictive biomarker for the intrinsic drug resistance of primary GC cells to single 5-FU or 5-FU combinations.
RESULTS: Upregulation of RegIV mRNA transcripts was observed in 36 of the 45 tumor specimens and was positively correlated with the invasive depth of the tumor cells (p = 0.000), the clinical stages (p = 0.000) and the in vitro intrinsic drug resistance of primary GC cells to 5-FU (p = 0.000) or 5-FU combinations.
CONCLUSION: RegIV mRNA transcript level was strongly associated with the intrinsic resistance of GC cells to single 5-FU or 5-FU combinations, suggesting that RegIV may play an important role in the intrinsic resistance of GC cells to 5-FU and that targeted therapy against the RegIV gene could be applied to overcome 5-FU resistance in the treatment of GC.
He XJ, Jiang XT, Ma YY, et al.REG4 contributes to the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer by upregulating MMP-7 and MMP-9.
Cancer Sci. 2012; 103(12):2082-91 [PubMed
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Recent studies have shown that overexpression of regenerating gene family member 4 (REG4) is associated with the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. In our study, we explored the role of REG4 in the invasion of pancreatic cancer. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine REG4 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines. An MTT assay was carried out to test the effect of REG4 on the growth of pancreatic cancer cells. The involvement of REG4 in cancer cell invasion was examined by Transwell invasion assay. Two MMPs, MMP-7 and MMP-9, were identified from a pool of candidate genes as being related to REG4-induced cell invasion by PCR and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the correlation between REG4 and the two MMPs. High expression of REG4 was found in BXPC-3 cells and its culture media. But in PANC-1 and ASPC-1 cell lines, REG4 expression levels were very low, and no detectable protein was found in the culture medium. The MTT and Transwell invasion assays showed that recombinant REG4 protein and BXPC-3 conditioned media significantly promoted the proliferation and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. It was also shown that MMP-7 and MMP-9 are upregulated by REG4 induction using real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Immunohistochemical study further verified this result. In conclusion, REG4 promotes not only growth but also in vitro invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells by upregulating MMP-7 and MMP-9.
The regenerating islet-derived members (Reg), a group of small secretory proteins, which are involved in cell proliferation or differentiation in digestive organs, are upregulated in several gastrointestinal cancers, functioning as trophic or antiapoptotic factors. Regenerating islet-derived type IV (RegIV), a member of the Reg gene family, has been reported to be overexpressed in gastroenterological cancers. RegIV overexpression in tumor cells has been associated with carcinogenesis, cell growth, survival and resistance to apoptosis. Cancer tissue expressing RegIV is generally associated with more malignant characteristics than that without such expression, and RegIV is considered a novel prognostic factor as well as diagnostic marker in some gastroenterological cancers. We previously investigated the expression levels of RegIV mRNA of 202 surgical colorectal cancer specimens with quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and reported that a higher level of RegIV gene expression was a significant independent predictor of colorectal cancer. The biologic functions of RegIV protein in cancer tissue, associated with carcinogenesis, anti-apoptosis and invasiveness, are being elucidated by molecular investigations using transfection techniques or neutralizing antibodies of RegIV, and the feasibility of antibody therapy targeting RegIV is being assessed. These studies may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for gastroenterological cancers expressing RegIV. This review article summarizes the current information related to biological functions as well as clinical importance of RegIV gene to clarify the significance of RegIV expression in gastroenterological cancers.
AIM: The aberrant expression of regenerating islet-derived family member, 4 (Reg IV) has been found in various human cancers. However, the roles of Reg IV gene and its encoding product in human glioma have not been clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of Reg IV expression in glioma.
METHODS: Reg IV mRNA and protein expression in human gliomas and non-neoplastic brain tissues were respectively detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The association of Reg IV immunostaining with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of glioma patients was also statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: Reg IV mRNA and protein expression levels in glioma tissues were both significantly higher than those in the corresponding non-neoplastic brain tissues (both P < 0.001). Additionally, the increased Reg IV immunostaining in glioma tissues was significantly associated with advanced pathological grade (P = 0.008). Reg IV protein up-regulation was also significantly correlated with low Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (P = 0.02). Moreover, the overall survival of patients with high Reg IV protein expression was dramatically shorter than those with low Reg IV protein expression (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis further confirmed that Reg IV expression was an independent prognostic factor for patients with gliomas (P = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: These convinced evidences suggest for the first time that Reg IV might accelerate disease progression and act as a candidate prognostic marker for gliomas.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2145344361720706.