Research IndicatorsGraph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: REG4 (cancer-related)
He HL, Lee YE, Shiue YL, et al.Overexpression of REG4 confers an independent negative prognosticator in rectal cancers receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
J Surg Oncol. 2014; 110(8):1002-10 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery is the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Through data mining from published transcriptomic database, we identified Regenerating Gene Type IV (REG4) as the most significantly associated gene with resistance to CCRT. This study examined the prognostic impact of REG4 expression in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant CCRT.
METHODS: REG4 immunohistochemistry was retrospectively assessed for pre-treatment biopsy specimens from 172 rectal cancer patients who received neoadjuvant CCRT followed by surgery without initial distant metastasis. The results were correlated with the clinicopathological variables, disease-specific survival (DSS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), as well as γ-H2AX expression in post-treatment tumor samples.
RESULTS: High expression of REG4 was associated with advanced pre-treatment nodal status (P = 0.026), advanced post-treatment tumor status (P = 0.006), advanced post-treatment nodal status (P = 0.001), advanced post-treatment tumor stage (P < 0.001), and inferior tumor regression grade (P = 0.001). Of note, high expression of REG4 emerged as an adverse prognosticator for DSS (P = 0.0004), LRFS (P = 0.0009), and MeFS (P = 0.0254). After multivariate comparisons, it remained independently prognostic for worse DSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.731; P = 0.025) and LRFS (HR = 2.676; P = 0.029). High expression of REG4 was also negatively associated with γ-H2AX expression (P < 0.0001, r = -0.708).
CONCLUSIONS: High expression of REG4 is associated with poor therapeutic response, adverse outcome and an aggressive phenotype in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CCRT, justifying REG4 is a surrogate marker to predict CCRT resistance.
BACKGROUND: microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating multiple targets, which can promote or inhibit the development of malignant behaviors. Accumulating evidence suggests miR-24 plays important roles in human carcinogenesis. However, its precise biological role remains largely elusive. This study examined the role of miR-24 in gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: The expression of miR-24 in GC tissues compared with matched non-tumor tissues and GC cells was detected by qRT-PCR. Synthetic short single or double stranded RNA oligonucleotides and lentiviral vectors were used to regulate miR-24 expression in GC cells to investigate its function in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: miR-24 was significantly downregulated in GC tissues compared with matched non-tumor tissues and was associated with tumor differentiation. Ectopic expression of miR-24 in SGC-7901 GC cells suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro as well as tumorigenicity in vivo by inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and promoting cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we identified RegIV as a target of miR-24 and demonstrated that miR-24 regulated RegIV expression via binding its 3' untranslated region.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-24 functions as a novel tumor suppressor in GC and the anti-oncogenic activity may involve its inhibition of the target gene RegIV. These findings suggest the possibility for miR-24 as a therapeutic target in GC.
Jiang Y, Liu M, Li Z, Jiang YDiscovery of novel candidate oncogenes in pancreatic carcinoma using high-throughput microarrays.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2013 Nov-Dec; 60(128):1825-32 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive tumors in mankind. Its aggressiveness is only due to the biological progressive characteristics but also the difficulty for clinical early detection which urges us to find diagnostic tools for early diagnosis. Biomarkers are a developing tool used to measure molecules such as proteins, DNA, or RNAs in blood samples or suspected tumor tissues. The molecular dysregulation is believed to play major roles in tumorigenesis or a result after the tumor formation and can be used as a biomarker for tumor detection.
METHODOLOGY: In this paper, we studied the gene expression profiles using tissues from pancreatic cancer patients.
RESULTS: We observed dysregulation of gene expression profiles using high-throughput sequencing technique and verified three-gene upregulation, REG4, CDH3 and S100P both in pancreatic cell lines and carcinoma tissues by RT-PCR and Northern Blot. A detailed description of the genes involved is listed within this article.
CONCLUSIONS: We believe that by unraveling the gene dysregulation profiles in pancreatic tumor tissues can we achieve an early and precise diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Moreover, these newly found genes, due to their functions involved in cell migration and mitosis, may play major roles in tumorigensis.
BACKGROUND: Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) may account for 20-30% of colon cancers. Although large SSA/Ps are generally recognized phenotypically, small (<1 cm) or dysplastic SSA/Ps are difficult to differentiate from hyperplastic or small adenomatous polyps by endoscopy and histopathology. Our aim was to define the comprehensive gene expression phenotype of SSA/Ps to better define this cancer precursor.
RESULTS: RNA sequencing was performed on 5' capped RNA from seven SSA/Ps collected from patients with the serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) versus eight controls. Highly expressed genes were analyzed by qPCR in additional SSA/Ps, adenomas and controls. The cellular localization and level of gene products were examined by immunohistochemistry in syndromic and sporadic SSA/Ps, adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and controls. We identified 1,294 differentially expressed annotated genes, with 106 increased ≥10-fold, in SSA/Ps compared to controls. Comparing these genes with an array dataset for adenomatous polyps identified 30 protein coding genes uniquely expressed ≥10-fold in SSA/Ps. Biological pathways altered in SSA/Ps included mucosal integrity, cell adhesion, and cell development. Marked increased expression of MUC17, the cell junction protein genes VSIG1 and GJB5, and the antiapoptotic gene REG4 were found in SSA/Ps, relative to controls and adenomas, were verified by qPCR analysis of additional SSA/Ps (n = 21) and adenomas (n = 10). Immunohistochemical staining of syndromic (n≥11) and sporadic SSA/Ps (n≥17), adenomatous (n≥13) and hyperplastic (n≥10) polyps plus controls (n≥16) identified unique expression patterns for VSIG1 and MUC17 in SSA/Ps.
CONCLUSION: A subset of genes and pathways are uniquely increased in SSA/Ps, compared to adenomatous polyps, thus supporting the concept that cancer develops by different pathways in these phenotypically distinct polyps with markedly different gene expression profiles. Immunostaining for a subset of these genes differentiates both syndromic and sporadic SSA/Ps from adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps.
Bishnupuri KS, Sainathan SK, Bishnupuri K, et al.Reg4-induced mitogenesis involves Akt-GSK3β-β-Catenin-TCF-4 signaling in human colorectal cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53 Suppl 1:E169-80 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Upregulation of regenerating gene 4 (Reg4) is observed in many human gastrointestinal malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously reported a Reg4-mediated induction of epidermal growth factor receptor-Akt-AP1 signaling regulating CRC cell apoptosis. However, the role of Reg4 in the regulation of CRC cell division is poorly understood. This study tests the hypothesis that Reg4 induces Akt-GSK3β-β-Catenin-TCF-4 signaling to regulate CRC cell division. In vitro models of human CRC were used to determine the role of Reg4 in regulation of CRC cell division. Cell cycle studies demonstrated that Reg4 treatment significantly decreased CRC cell number in G1 phase and increased in G2 phase. Subsequently Reg4 significantly increased the mitotic index of CRC cells. As assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, Reg4 significantly increased the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes Cyclin D1 and D3, and associated Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6). Reg4-mediated increase in these genes involved a pathway that included an induced Akt activity by increasing phosphorylation of Thr308 and Ser473, a reduced glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) activity by increasing phosphorylation of Ser9, an induced nuclear translocation of β-Catenin by decreasing phosphorylation of Ser33/37/Thr41, and an increased TCF-4 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, antagonism of Reg4-signaling using Reg4-specific mAbs (2H6 and 3E5) and Akt inhibitor significantly decreased, whereas agonism using GSK-3β antagonist (SB216763) significantly increased mitotic index and proliferation of CRC cells. These results identify Reg4 as a key regulator of the CRC cell division and proliferation, hence a potential target of human CRC treatment.
Staging classification of colorectal cancers is performed by the UICC/TNM classification system, which is the global gold standard. However, we often experience in clinical practice that there are considerable differences in prognoses between patients who have the same classification particularly in stage II and III cancers. The aim of this study was to propose a new TNM-G classification to predict prognosis and recurrence by supplementing the conventional TNM classification. A total of 220 cases of colorectal cancer, including 77 at stage II and 143 at stage III, were registered from four independent facilities. Immunohistochemical staining for 7 molecules, such as p53, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (Reg IV), olfactomedin 4, Claudin-18 and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP‑7), was performed to investigate the correlation between clinicopathological factors and expression of each molecule. Based on the results, no significant correlation was observed between the immunostaining expression of these 7 factors and recurrence in total colorectal cancer. Recurrence in stage II (77 cases) was significantly higher in cases positive for Reg IV expression (P=0.042). On analysis of overall survival (OS) and disease‑free survival (DFS), VEGF-C and Reg IV expression had a correlation with poor prognosis, therefore, these factors were selected and applied to G-factor classifications so that cases negative for both could be classified as G0, cases positive for either of the factors could be classified as G1, and cases positive for both factors could be classified as G2. While no significant correlation was observed in the recurrence rates between G0 and G2, OS and DFS in stage II cases were significantly poorer for G2 cases in comparison with G0 or G1 cases. The survival curves of OS and DFS in stage II G2 were similar to that of stage III cases. According to these results, prognosis of VEGF-C/Reg IV both positive G2 cases in stage II colorectal cancer was found to be almost equal to the poor survival in stage III cases, and the advancement of one stage up migration based on G-factors may be supposed to be highly feasible for clinical application. In conclusion, the combination of VEGF-C and Reg IV may be a promising factor for clinical staging to supplement the classical TNM classification system, and it may suggest a good indication of adjuvant chemotherapy for G2 cases in stage II colorectal cancers.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the REG Iα and REG Iβ genes on lung cancer cell lines, and thereafter, the expression of REG family genes (REG Iα, REG Iβ, REG III, HIP/PAP and REG IV) in lung cancer in relation to patient prognosis was evaluated. Lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines expressing REG Iα or REG Iβ (HLC-1 REG Iα/Iβ and EBC-1 REG Iα/Iβ) were established, and cell number, cell invasive activity, and anchorage-independent cell growth were compared with these variables in the control cells. The expression levels of REG family genes were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR in surgically resected lung cancers, and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves were generated. The HLC-1 REG Iα/Iβ cell line showed significant increases in cell number and anchorage-independent cell growth compared with the control cells. EBC-1 REG Iα/Iβ cells showed significant increases in cell invasive activity and anchorage-independent cell growth as compared with the control cells. Except for the REG Iβ gene, expression of other REG family genes was observed in the surgically resected samples; however, DSS was significantly worse only in stage I patients who were positive for REG Iα expression than in patients who were negative for REG Iα expression. The effects of REG Iα on AD and SCC cells were different in the in vitro study, and a correlation between REG Iα expression and patient prognosis was noted in the in vivo study. Therefore, overexpression of REG Iα is a risk factor for poor prognosis caused by discrete mechanisms in AD and SCC patients.
Zhou W, Sun M, Wang DL, et al.Silencing of RegIV by shRNA causes the loss of stemness properties of cancer stem cells in MKN45 gastric cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2685-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (RegIV) is overexpressed in several types of tumours, including pancreatic and gastric cancer (GC). However, the role it plays in gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) remains unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that the silencing of RegIV by shRNA in GC cells may cause the loss of their stemness properties, indicating the inhibition of growth, proliferation and increased sensitivity to chemoradiation-induced cell death. MKN45 poorly differentiated human GC cells were propagated as mammospheres in stem cell culture conditions. Mammospheres were identified as CSCs using generally acknowledged CSC markers such as CD44. A panel of 21-nucleotide shRNAs were designed to target RegIV gene expression. Several shRNA constructs were identified that led to significant reduction in RegIV mRNA expression. Furthermore, the stemness properties of control mammospheres and RegIV knockdown mammospheres were compared by tumourigenicity assay in vivo and plate colony formation assay in vitro. Finally, we evaluated the treatment response in both mammospheres which underwent chemoradiation. The knockdown expression of RegIV by shRNA deprived CSCs of their stemness properties and increased the effectiveness of cell killing following chemoradiation. Inhibition of endogenous RegIV expression may be a new therapeutic strategy for human GC.
Huang Q, Chen X, Lu W, et al.Expression of REG4 in ovarian mucinous tumors.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(4):295-301 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Regenerating islet-deprived gene family, number 4 (REG4), is a novel marker for intestinal differentiation. We performed immunohistochemical studies on REG4, cytokeratin (CK)7, CK20, and caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) in 291 ovarian mucinous tumors. There were 226 primary tumors and 65 metastatic tumors. The primary tumors comprised 69/226 mucinous cystadenomas, 79/226 mucinous borderline tumors (64/79 intestinal-type and 15/79 endocervical-like tumors), and 78/226 mucinous carcinomas. We found that REG4 expression was significantly higher in mucinous borderline tumors (30/79, 38.0%) and primary mucinous carcinomas (26/78, 33.3%) than in mucinous cystadenomas (4/69, 5.8%; P<0.05). However, REG4 expression was more commonly associated with intestinal-type, borderline, mucinous tumors rather than the endocervical-like type (30/64 vs. 0/15, P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between the REG4 and CDX2 expression profiles in primary ovarian mucinous tumors (r=0.772, P<0.001). REG4, CDX2, and diffuse CK20 had higher expression frequencies in metastatic lower gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma than in primary mucinous tumors (P<0.01). The CK7/REG4 coordinate expression profile was comparable in diagnostic value to CK7/CK20 or CK7/CDX2 profile. We conclude that REG4 expression is common in mucinous borderline tumors of the intestinal type as it is absent in the endocervical-like form in this series. Expression of CK7/REG4 may contribute to the differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic ovarian mucinous tumors.
Lu S, Bevier M, Huhn S, et al.Genetic variants in C-type lectin genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and clinical outcome.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(10):2325-33 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Inflammatory responses play a vital role at different stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. C-type lectins mediate inflammatory/immune responses and participate in immune escape of pathogens and tumors. Our study aimed to evaluate the correlation between polymorphisms in three C-type lectin genes, CD209, MBL2 and REG4, and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. We genotyped 15 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and assessed their associations with CRC risk in a case-control study of 1353 CRC cases and 767 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall and event-free survival in 414 patients. Two CD209 SNPs were associated with CRC risk after adjustment for multiple comparison. Minor allele carriers of the promoter SNP rs2287886 had an increased risk of CRC (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.08-1.56), while minor allele carriers of the 3'UTR SNP, rs7248637, had a decreased risk (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60-0.91). Multivariate survival analyses, including age, gender, TNM stage and grade, showed that patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis and carrying the rs2994809 T allele had a decreased overall and event-free survival (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.20-3.72 and HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.18-3.39, respectively). We show that SNPs in CD209 may affect CRC risk, while a SNP in REG4 may be a useful marker for CRC progression.
Liu CM, Hsieh CL, He YC, et al.In vivo targeting of ADAM9 gene expression using lentivirus-delivered shRNA suppresses prostate cancer growth by regulating REG4 dependent cell cycle progression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53795 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells respond to stress by activating a variety of survival signaling pathways. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 9 is upregulated during cancer progression and hormone therapy, functioning in part through an increase in reactive oxygen species. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that therapeutic targeting of ADAM9 gene expression by lentivirus-delivered small hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly inhibited proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines and blocked tumor growth in a murine model of prostate cancer bone metastasis. Cell cycle studies confirmed an increase in the G1-phase and decrease in the S-phase population of cancer cells under starvation stress conditions, which correlated with elevated intracellular superoxide levels. Microarray data showed significantly decreased levels of regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (REG4) expression in prostate cancer cells with knockdown of ADAM9 gene expression. This REG4 downregulation also resulted in induction of expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1), which negatively regulates cyclin D1 and blocks the G1/S transition. Our data reveal a novel molecular mechanism of ADAM9 in the regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation, and suggests a combined modality of ADAM9 shRNA gene therapy and cytotoxic agents for hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancer.
REG4, which encodes Reg IV protein, is a member of the calcium-dependent lectin superfamily and potent activator of the epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt/activator protein-1 signaling pathway. Several human cancers overexpress Reg IV, and Reg IV expression is associated with intestinal phenotype differentiation. However, regulation of REG4 transcription remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether CDX2 regulates Reg IV expression in gastric cancer (GC) cells. Expression of Reg IV and CDX2 was analyzed by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 9 GC cell lines and 2 colon cancer cell lines. The function of the 5'-flanking region of the REG4 gene was characterized by luciferase assay. In 9 GC cell lines, endogenous Reg IV and CDX2 expression were well correlated. Using an estrogen receptor-regulated form of CDX2, rapid induction of Reg IV expression was observed in HT-29 cells. Reporter gene assays revealed an important role in transcription for consensus CDX2 DNA binding elements in the 5'-flanking region of the REG4 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that CDX2 binds directly to the 5'-flanking region of REG4. These results indicate that CDX2 protein directly regulates Reg IV expression.
Ying LS, Yu JL, Lu XX, Ling ZQEnhanced RegIV expression predicts the intrinsic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance in advanced gastric cancer.
Dig Dis Sci. 2013; 58(2):414-22 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: RegIV, a member of the Regenerating (REG) gene family, may be a marker for the prediction of resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. However, the relationship between the intrinsic drug resistance of gastric cancer (GC) cells to 5-FU used alone (single FU) or in multidrug therapeutic regimens (5-FU combinations) and RegIV expression has not been investigated.
METHODS: The patient cohort comprised 45 patients with primary GC. The chemoresistance of GC cells to therapeutic regimens consisting of single 5-FU or FU combinations was investigated using the ATP-tumor chemosensitivity assay. The level of RegIV mRNA transcripts was determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. RegIV expression was evaluated as a novel predictive biomarker for the intrinsic drug resistance of primary GC cells to single 5-FU or 5-FU combinations.
RESULTS: Upregulation of RegIV mRNA transcripts was observed in 36 of the 45 tumor specimens and was positively correlated with the invasive depth of the tumor cells (p = 0.000), the clinical stages (p = 0.000) and the in vitro intrinsic drug resistance of primary GC cells to 5-FU (p = 0.000) or 5-FU combinations.
CONCLUSION: RegIV mRNA transcript level was strongly associated with the intrinsic resistance of GC cells to single 5-FU or 5-FU combinations, suggesting that RegIV may play an important role in the intrinsic resistance of GC cells to 5-FU and that targeted therapy against the RegIV gene could be applied to overcome 5-FU resistance in the treatment of GC.
He XJ, Jiang XT, Ma YY, et al.REG4 contributes to the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer by upregulating MMP-7 and MMP-9.
Cancer Sci. 2012; 103(12):2082-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Recent studies have shown that overexpression of regenerating gene family member 4 (REG4) is associated with the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. In our study, we explored the role of REG4 in the invasion of pancreatic cancer. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine REG4 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines. An MTT assay was carried out to test the effect of REG4 on the growth of pancreatic cancer cells. The involvement of REG4 in cancer cell invasion was examined by Transwell invasion assay. Two MMPs, MMP-7 and MMP-9, were identified from a pool of candidate genes as being related to REG4-induced cell invasion by PCR and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the correlation between REG4 and the two MMPs. High expression of REG4 was found in BXPC-3 cells and its culture media. But in PANC-1 and ASPC-1 cell lines, REG4 expression levels were very low, and no detectable protein was found in the culture medium. The MTT and Transwell invasion assays showed that recombinant REG4 protein and BXPC-3 conditioned media significantly promoted the proliferation and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. It was also shown that MMP-7 and MMP-9 are upregulated by REG4 induction using real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Immunohistochemical study further verified this result. In conclusion, REG4 promotes not only growth but also in vitro invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells by upregulating MMP-7 and MMP-9.
The regenerating islet-derived members (Reg), a group of small secretory proteins, which are involved in cell proliferation or differentiation in digestive organs, are upregulated in several gastrointestinal cancers, functioning as trophic or antiapoptotic factors. Regenerating islet-derived type IV (RegIV), a member of the Reg gene family, has been reported to be overexpressed in gastroenterological cancers. RegIV overexpression in tumor cells has been associated with carcinogenesis, cell growth, survival and resistance to apoptosis. Cancer tissue expressing RegIV is generally associated with more malignant characteristics than that without such expression, and RegIV is considered a novel prognostic factor as well as diagnostic marker in some gastroenterological cancers. We previously investigated the expression levels of RegIV mRNA of 202 surgical colorectal cancer specimens with quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and reported that a higher level of RegIV gene expression was a significant independent predictor of colorectal cancer. The biologic functions of RegIV protein in cancer tissue, associated with carcinogenesis, anti-apoptosis and invasiveness, are being elucidated by molecular investigations using transfection techniques or neutralizing antibodies of RegIV, and the feasibility of antibody therapy targeting RegIV is being assessed. These studies may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for gastroenterological cancers expressing RegIV. This review article summarizes the current information related to biological functions as well as clinical importance of RegIV gene to clarify the significance of RegIV expression in gastroenterological cancers.
AIM: The aberrant expression of regenerating islet-derived family member, 4 (Reg IV) has been found in various human cancers. However, the roles of Reg IV gene and its encoding product in human glioma have not been clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of Reg IV expression in glioma.
METHODS: Reg IV mRNA and protein expression in human gliomas and non-neoplastic brain tissues were respectively detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The association of Reg IV immunostaining with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of glioma patients was also statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: Reg IV mRNA and protein expression levels in glioma tissues were both significantly higher than those in the corresponding non-neoplastic brain tissues (both P < 0.001). Additionally, the increased Reg IV immunostaining in glioma tissues was significantly associated with advanced pathological grade (P = 0.008). Reg IV protein up-regulation was also significantly correlated with low Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (P = 0.02). Moreover, the overall survival of patients with high Reg IV protein expression was dramatically shorter than those with low Reg IV protein expression (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis further confirmed that Reg IV expression was an independent prognostic factor for patients with gliomas (P = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: These convinced evidences suggest for the first time that Reg IV might accelerate disease progression and act as a candidate prognostic marker for gliomas.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2145344361720706.
Katsuno Y, Ehata S, Yashiro M, et al.Coordinated expression of REG4 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 regulating tumourigenic capacity of diffuse-type gastric carcinoma-initiating cells is inhibited by TGF-β.
J Pathol. 2012; 228(3):391-404 [PubMed
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Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been shown to serve as a marker for cancer-initiating cells (CICs), but little is known about the regulation of the CIC functions of ALDH1+ cancer cells. We isolated ALDH1+ cells from human diffuse-type gastric carcinoma cells and characterized these cells using an Aldefluor assay. ALDH1+ cells constituted 5-8% of the human diffuse-type gastric carcinoma cells, OCUM-2MLN and HSC-39; were more tumourigenic than ALDH1- cells; and were able to self-renew and generate heterogeneous cell populations. Using gene expression microarray analyses, we identified REG4 (regenerating islet-derived family, member 4) as one of the genes up-regulated in ALDH1+ cells, and thus as a novel marker for ALDH1+ tumour cells. Induced expression of REG4 enhanced the colony-forming ability of OCUM-2MLN cells, while knockdown of REG4 inhibited the tumourigenic potential of ALDH1+ cells. We further found that TGF-β signalling reduces the expression of ALDH1 and REG4, and the size of the ALDH1+ cell population. In human diffuse-type gastric carcinoma tissues, the expression of ALDH1 and REG4 correlated with each other, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, and ALDH1 expression correlated inversely with Smad3 phosphorylation as a measure of TGF-β signalling. These findings illustrate that, in diffuse-type gastric carcinoma, REG4 is up-regulated in ALDH1+ CICs, and that the increased tumourigenic ability of ALDH1+ cells depends on REG4. Moreover, TGF-β down-regulates ALDH1 and REG4 expression, which correlates with a reduction in CIC population size and tumourigenicity. Targeting REG4 in ALDH1+ CICs may provide a novel strategy in the treatment of diffuse-type gastric carcinoma.
Kobunai T, Watanabe T, Fukusato TREG4, NEIL2, and BIRC5 gene expression correlates with gamma-radiation sensitivity in patients with rectal cancer receiving radiotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2011; 31(12):4147-53 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: The present study aimed to identify genes that influence the susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sensitivities of eight colorectal cancer cell lines to gamma radiation were tested. Microarray data and cells with stable overexpression were used to identify candidate genes. Candidate genes correlating with radioresistance were validated with the use of 22 clinical specimens obtained before preoperative radiotherapy from patients with rectal cancer.
RESULTS: Regenerating islet-derived protein 4 (REG4) gene expression was 12-fold higher in radioresistant cells. REG4-overexpressing cells had higher survival rates and fewer DNA strand breaks after gamma irradiation. Expression of the antiapoptotic gene baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) and base excision-repair pathway gene nei endonuclease VIII-like 2 (NEIL2) in REG4-overexpressing cells, was also three to four times higher than that of the parental cell lines. REG4, BIRC5 and NEIL2 expression levels were significantly higher in non-responding patients (n=14) than in responders (n=8).
CONCLUSION: The REG4, BIRC5 and NEIL2 genes might be useful predictors of the sensitivity of cancer patients to radiotherapy.
BACKGROUND: Our previous study indicated that gene expression profiling of intestinal metaplasia (IM) or spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) can identify useful prognostic markers of early-stage gastric cancer, and seven metaplasia biomarkers (MUC13, CDH17, OLFM4, KRT20, LGALS4, MUC5AC, and REG4) were selectively expressed in 17-50% of gastric cancer tissues. We investigated whether the combined expression of these metaplasia biomarkers could predict the prognosis of advanced stage gastric cancer.
METHODS: The expression of seven metaplasia biomarkers was evaluated immunohistochemically using tissue microarrays comprised of 450 gastric cancer patients. The clinicopathologic correlations and the prognostic impact were analyzed according to the expression of multiple biomarkers.
RESULTS: MUC13, CDH17, LGALS4, and REG4 were significant prognostic biomarkers in univariate analysis. No expression of four markers was found in 56 cases (14.2%); 1 marker was seen in 67 cases (17%), 2 in 106 cases (27%), 3 in 101 cases (25.7%), and 4 in 63 cases (16%). Patients in which two or fewer proteins were expressed (group B) showed younger age, undifferentiated or diffuse type cancer, larger tumor size, larger number of metastatic lymph nodes, and more advanced stage than those in which three or more proteins were expressed (group A). In undifferentiated or stage II/III gastric cancer, the prognosis of group B was significantly poorer than that of group A by multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The combined loss of expression of multiple metaplasia biomarkers is considered an independent prognostic indicator in undifferentiated or stage II/III gastric cancer.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: GLI1 is the key transcriptional factor in the Hedgehog signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer. RegIV is associated with regeneration, and cell growth, survival, adhesion and resistance to apoptosis. We aimed to study RegIV expression in pancreatic cancer and its relationship to GLI1.
METHODS: GLI1 and RegIV expression were evaluated in tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissues of pancreatic cancer patients and 5 pancreatic cancer cell lines by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the correlation between them. The GLI1-shRNA lentiviral vector was constructed and transfected into PANC-1, and lentiviral vector containing the GLI1 expression sequence was constructed and transfected into BxPC-3. GLI1 and RegIV expression were evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Finally we demonstrated RegIV to be the target of GLI1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA).
RESULTS: The results of IHC and qRT-PCR showed that RegIV and GLI1 expression was higher in pancreatic cancer tissues versus adjacent normal tissues (p<0.001). RegIV expression correlated with GLI1 expression in these tissues (R = 0.795, p<0.0001). These results were verified for protein (R = 0.939, p = 0.018) and mRNA expression (R = 0.959, p = 0.011) in 5 pancreatic cancer cell lines. RegIV mRNA and protein expression was decreased (94.7±0.3%, 84.1±0.5%; respectively) when GLI1 was knocked down (82.1±3.2%, 76.7±2.2%; respectively) by the RNAi technique. GLI1 overexpression in mRNA and protein level (924.5±5.3%, 362.1±3.5%; respectively) induced RegIV overexpression (729.1±4.3%, 339.0±3.7%; respectively). Moreover, CHIP and EMSA assays showed GLI1 protein bound to RegIV promotor regions (GATCATCCA) in pancreatic cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: GLI1 promotes RegIV transcription by binding to the RegIV gene promoter in pancreatic cancer.
Vanderlaag K, Wang W, Fayadat-Dilman L, et al.Regenerating islet-derived family member, 4 modulates multiple receptor tyrosine kinases and mediators of drug resistance in cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 130(6):1251-63 [PubMed
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Regenerating islet-derived family member, 4 (Reg IV) is a secreted protein and member of the C-type lectin superfamily. Expression analyses have characterized Reg IV as a prognostic marker for certain cancers; however, the functional role of Reg IV in cancer, including downstream signaling, has only begun to be elucidated. To investigate the biological role of Reg IV in cancer, phosphorylation events were studied in cancer cell lines in the context of either Reg IV stimulation (HCT116 cells) or knockdown of endogenous Reg IV (PC3 and KM12 cells). In addition to the previously observed impact on epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt phosphorylation, we observed modulation in the phosphorylation of multiple additional receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor as well as their downstream effectors, mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathways. Furthermore, knockdown of Reg IV impacted the ability of insulin and EGF to stimulate downstream tyrosine phosphorylation. Knockdown of Reg IV in cancer cell lines inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent (both soft-agar and spheroid assays) cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest. This was accompanied by upregulation of p21 and p27. Transiently silencing Reg IV in cancer cells induced apoptosis and downregulated Bcl-2. Conversely, stimulation of HCT116 cells with recombinant Reg IV induced Bcl-2. Hsp27, a molecule implicated in drug resistance, was similarly modulated by Reg IV. Consistent with our observations with Reg IV siRNA-mediated knockdown, monoclonal antibodies directed against Reg IV inhibited PC3 and KM12 cell growth. Collectively, Reg IV plays an important role in cancer by modulation of key signaling molecules including Hsp27, Bcl-2 and multiple RTKs.
Numata M, Oshima T, Yoshihara K, et al.Relationship between RegIV gene expression to outcomes in colorectal cancer.
J Surg Oncol. 2011; 104(2):205-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Regenerating islet-derived family members (Reg) are superfamily of calcium-dependant lectins that are expressed in the proximal gastrointestinal tract and ectopically at other sites in the setting of tissue injury. The regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (RegIV) gene has been reported in various cancers, associating with diverse functions. This study examined the relation of the relative expression of RegIV gene to clinicopathological factors and outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: We studied surgical specimens of cancer tissue and adjacent normal mucosa obtained from 202 patients with untreated CRC. The relative expression levels of RegIV mRNA in cancer and in normal adjacent mucosa were measured by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: RegIV gene expression was higher in cancer tissue than in adjacent normal mucosa. The multivariate analysis of clinicopathological factors for 5-year overall survival showed a higher level of RegIV gene expression was a significant independent predictor. Overall survival at 5 years differed significantly between patients with high RegIV gene expression and those with low expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of the RegIV gene is considered a useful independent predictor of outcomes in patients with CRC.
Regenerating (REG) gene family belongs to the calcium-dependent lectin gene superfamily and encodes small multifunctional secretory proteins, which might be involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and carcinogenesis. To clarify REG expression profile in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), the authors examined the expression of REG Iα, Iβ, III, HIP/PAP, and REG IV by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray. The expression of REG Iα, III, and HIP/PAP was more frequently observed in the CRCs than adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa (p < 0.001), whereas it was the converse for REG Iβ and IV (p < 0.001). The expression of REG Iα, Iβ, III, and HIP/PAP was negatively correlated with the depth of invasion of CRCs (p < 0.05). The REG Iβ and HIP/PAP were less expressed in CRCs with than without venous invasion (p < 0.05). The positive rates of REG Iα and HIP/PAP were significantly higher in CRCs without than with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). Mucinous carcinoma more frequently expressed REG IV protein than well- and moderately differentiated ones (p < 0.05). There was a positive relationship between REG Iα, Iβ, III, and HIP/PAP expression (p < 0.05). Survival analysis indicated the REG Iβ or HIP/PAP expression was positively linked to favorable prognosis of carcinoma patients (p < 0.05). This study indicated that aberrant REG expression might be closely linked to the pathogenesis, invasion, or lymph node metastasis of CRCs. REG Iβ and HIP/PAP could be considered reliable markers of favorable prognosis of CRC patients.
Guo Y, Xu J, Li N, et al.RegIV potentiates colorectal carcinoma cell migration and invasion via its CRD domain.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 199(1):38-44 [PubMed
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The RegIV gene is differentially expressed in cancer and noncancerous cells. In this study, we investigated the role of RegIV and its CRD domain in the invasion and migration of human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells. Recombinant plasmids, pcDNA3.1-RegIV and pcDNA3.1-RegIV CRD, were constructed and transfected into LoVo cells. The in vivo RegIV and RegIV CRD mRNA and protein levels were then analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and flat plate colony-forming assays, and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Cell migration and invasion were assessed with a Transwell chamber. A high level of RegIV and RegIV carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) expression was demonstrated in RegIV and RegIV CRD-transfected cells. There were no differences in cell proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis between the LoVo/RegIV and untreated LoVo cells (P > 0.05). However, the LoVo/RegIV cells, but not LoVo/RegIV CRD cells, displayed greater migration and invasion abilities compared to the empty vector and untreated LoVo cells. The migrated cell numbers of the LoVo/RegIV, LoVo/RegIV CRD, LoVo/empty vector, and control LoVo groups were 247.00 +/- 10.61, 146.27 +/- 6.81, 151.16 +/- 7.18, and 149.65 +/- 6.53 cells per field, respectively (P < 0.05). The invasion cell numbers of the four groups were 57.00 +/- 3.00, 31.53 +/- 2.72, 30.3 +/- 2.07, and 32.16 +/- 2.30 cells per field, respectively. RegIV enhances LoVo cell migration and invasion, and its CRD domain is critical for these effects.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) are precursors to gastric carcinogenesis. We sought to identify molecular biomarkers of gastric metaplasias and gastric cancer by gene expression profiling of metaplastic lesions from patients.
METHODS: Complementary DNA microarray analysis was performed on IM and SPEM cells isolated from patient samples using laser capture microdissection. Up-regulated transcripts in metaplastic lesions were confirmed by immunostaining analysis in IM, SPEM, and gastric cancer tissues. Proteins that were highly expressed specifically in gastric cancer tissues were analyzed for their association with survival in a test set (n = 450) and a validation set (n = 502) of samples from gastric cancer patients.
RESULTS: Compared with normal chief cells, 858 genes were differentially expressed in IM or SPEM samples. Immunostaining was detected for 12 proteins, including 3 new markers of IM (ACE2, LGALS4, AKR1B10) and 3 of SPEM (OLFM4, LYZ, DPCR1). Of 13 proteins expressed in IM or SPEM, 8 were expressed by 17%-50% of human gastric cancer tissues (MUC13, OLFM4, CDH17, KRT20, MUC5AC, LGALS4, AKR1B10, REG4). Expression of CDH17 or MUC13 correlated with patient survival in the test and validation sets. Multivariate analysis showed that CDH17 was an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage I or node-negative disease.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified several novel biomarkers for IM, SPEM, and gastric cancer using gene expression profiling of human metaplastic lesions. Expression of CDH17 and MUC13 was up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. CDH17 is a promising prognostic marker for early stage gastric cancer.
Regenerating gene IV (RegIV), a member of the regenerating gene family discovered in 2001, has been found to be involved in malignancy in several different organs including the stomach, colorectum, pancreas and prostate, but the overall expression profile of RegIV has not been reported. To learn more about RegIV, we evaluated its distribution by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a total of 360 samples including 24 types of normal tissue, 40 benign and malignant lesions, and 18 neuroendocrine tumors. We found that in normal tissues, in addition to its relative specificity for the gastrointestinal tract, RegIV was detected in the adrenal gland and mammary gland. Among all the malignancies of various histological types under evaluation, RegIV was found mostly in adenocarcinomas. Studies on additional sets of colorectal tumor samples showed that RegIV expression was predominant in colorectal adenoma (87.5%) and peritumoral tissue (100%) but not in cancer tissue (30.8%). Among neuroendocrine tumors, RegIV had a relatively restricted expression to those of digestive system.
Li XH, Zheng Y, Zheng HC, et al.REG IV overexpression in an early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis: an immunohistochemical study.
Histol Histopathol. 2010; 25(4):473-84 [PubMed
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To clarify the role of REG IV, a new member of the regenerating gene (REG) family, in tumorigenesis and progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), 320 CRC specimens, 123 corresponding adjacent non-cancerous mucosa (ANCMs), 46 corresponding non-adjacent non-cancerous mucosa (NANCMs) and 86 adenomas were investigated immunohistochemically to compare REG IV expression with clinicopathological features. In addition, double immunofluorescence labeling was performed to analyze the localization of REG IV and the intestinal mucin, MUC2. The expression of REG IV in CRCs was significantly lower than in NANCMs, ANCMs or adenomas, and inversely correlated with poor differentiation and venous invasion. In cases of ANCM, REG IV expression was positively correlated with the depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and Duke's staging of corresponding cases. The expression of REG IV in CRC was significantly linked to that of MUC2 and the EGFR phosphorylated on Tyr1068, but not to that of MUC5AC, EGFR, Akt, or Akt phosphorylated on Ser473 or Thr308. The double immunofluorescence revealed coexpression, but independent localization, of REG IV and MUC2 in NANCMs, ANCMs, adenomas and CRCs, except for mucinous carcinomas. Univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method indicated no correlation between REG IV expression and the cumulative survival rate of CRC patients. In conclusion, REG IV expression was upregulated in ANCMs and adenomas, then decreased in CRCs. This indicated that REG IV overexpression may be an early event in CRC carcinogenesis. Its expression in CRCs was positively linked to MUC2 and phosphorylation of the EGFR on Tyr1068, suggesting that REG IV may be a useful marker for intestinal type mucinous carcinoma and a good candidate as a molecular therapeutic target for CRCs.
Rafa L, Dessein AF, Devisme L, et al.REG4 acts as a mitogenic, motility and pro-invasive factor for colon cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2010; 36(3):689-98 [PubMed
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REG4, the latest member of the regenerating gene family, is overexpressed in inflammatory bowel diseases and gastrointestinal carcinomas. To date, its pathophysiologic role has not been well established. Using HT-29 models, we previously identified REG4 as being overexpressed in colorectal tumor cells displaying a drug-resistance phenotype; some also displayed invasive properties. Thus, we investigated the potential functions of REG4 in biological processes involved in colorectal tumor progression such as cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Colon cancer cells secreting REG4 (HT29-5M21, HT29-5F7 and HT29/REG4-8) or not (HT-29, HT29/CT1 and Caco-2/TC7) were used to analyze the autocrine and paracrine effects of REG4. REG4 was continuously secreted into the culture medium of colon cancer cells. REG4 stimulated cell growth in a paracrine manner after 24 h of treatment. Notably, REG4 promoted migration and invasion of tumor cells in both an autocrine and paracrine manner, and these effects were significantly decreased by concomitant treatment with an anti-REG4 antibody. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we showed that PI3K/Akt, PKAs, PKCs and Rho-like GTPases, but not MAPK, are involved in REG4 invasion signals. In addition, REG4 expression was found to be increased in tissues harboring proliferation and migration properties such as the developing intestine and tissues from inflammatory bowel disease, hyperplastic polyps, adenoma and colorectal cancers. In various situations, REG4 expression was not confined to proliferating cells, regenerating cells or cells of the invasive front of metastatic tumors, suggesting that extracellular REG4 may act on epithelial cells in a paracrine manner. Altogether, our results indicate that REG4 is a multifunctional secreted protein which acts on colorectal cancer cells in an autocrine and paracrine manner. According to its biological functions and tissue expression, REG4 may play an important role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer, as well as in intestinal morphogenesis and epithelium restitution.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Regenerating (Reg) gene IV is predominantly expressed in gastrointestinal cells and highly up-regulated in many gastrointestinal malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Human CRC cells expressing higher levels of Reg IV gene and its protein product (Reg IV) are resistant to conventional therapies, including irradiation (IR). However, the underlying mechanism is not well defined.
METHODS: A murine model of IR-induced intestinal injury and in vitro and in vivo models of human CRC were used to determine the role of Reg IV in regulation of normal intestinal and colorectal cancer cell susceptibility to IR-induced apoptosis.
RESULTS: Treatments of recombinant human Reg IV (rhR4) protein protected normal intestinal crypt cells from IR-induced apoptosis by increasing the expression of antiapoptotic genes Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and survivin. However, overexpression of Reg IV in human CRC cells was associated with increased resistance to IR-induced apoptosis. Therefore, we used antagonism of Reg IV as a tool to increase CRC cell susceptibility to IR-induced cell death. Two complementary approaches using specific monoclonal antibodies and small interfering RNAs were tested in both in vitro and in vivo models of human CRC. Both approaches resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, leading to decreased tumor growth and increased animal survival. Furthermore, these approaches increased CRC cell susceptibility to IR-induced apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results implicate Reg IV as an important modulator of gastrointestinal cell susceptibility to IR; hence, it is a potential target for adjunctive treatments for human CRC and other gastrointestinal malignancies.
BACKGROUND: The aim of our work was to identify the genes specifically altered in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and especially those that are altered early in cancer development.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene copy number was systematically assessed with an ultra-high resolution CGH oligonucleotide microarray in DNA from samples of pancreatic cancer. Several new cancer-associated variations were observed. In this work we focused on one of them, involving the reg4 gene. Gene copy number gain of the reg4 gene was confirmed by qPCR in 14 cancer samples. It was also found with increased copy number in most PanIN3 samples. The relationship betweena gain in reg4 gene copy number and cancer development was investigated on the human pancreatic cancer cell line Mia-PaCa2 xenografted under the skin of nude mice. When cells were transfected with a vector allowing reg4 expression, they generated tumors almost twice larger in size. In addition, these tumors were more resistant to gemcitabine treatment than control tumors. Interestingly, weekly intraperitoneal administration of a monoclonal antibody to reg4 halved the size of tumors generated by Mia-PaCa2 cells, suggesting that the antibody interfered with a paracrine/autocrine mechanism involving reg4 and stimulating cancer progression. The addition of gemcitabine resulted in further reduction, tumors becoming 5 times smaller than control. Exposure to reg4 antibody resulted in a significant decrease in intra-tumor levels of pAkt, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, survivin and cyclin D1.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was concluded that adjuvant therapies targeting reg4 could improve the standard treatment of pancreatic cancer with gemcitabine.