Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (1)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: RPS6KB1 (cancer-related)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is one of the most promising pharmacological targets for all types of cancer, including ovarian cancer. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) has poor prognosis because of its insensitivity to chemotherapy. To elucidate the characteristics of this troublesome cancer, we examined HIF-1α expression under normoxia or hypoxia in various ovarian cancer cell lines. HIF-1α was highly expressed under normoxia only in RMG-1, an OCCC cell line. To examine whether HIF-1 is involved in the tumorigenesis of RMG-1 cells, we established HIF-1α-silenced cells, RMG-1HKD. The proliferation rate of RMG-1HKD cells was faster than that of RMG-1 cells. Furthermore, the activity of MEK/ERK in the Ras pathway increased in RMG-1HKD cells, whereas that of mTOR in the PI3K pathway did not change. Activation of the Ras pathway was attributable to the increase in phosphorylated MEK via PP2A inactivation. To confirm the crosstalk between the PI3K and Ras pathways in vivo, RMG-1 or RMG-1HKD cells were transplanted into the skin of nude mice with rapamycin (an inhibitor of mTOR), PD98059 (an inhibitor of MEK), or both. RMG-1HKD cells showed higher sensitivity to PD98059 than that observed in RMD-1 cells, whereas the combination therapy resulted in synergistic inhibition of both cells. These findings suggest that inhibition of HIF-1, a downstream target of mTOR in the PI3K pathway, activates the Ras pathway on account of the increase in MEK phosphorylation via PP2A inactivation, and the crosstalk between the 2 pathways could be applied in the combination therapy for HIF-1-overexpressing cancers such as OCCC.
Marhold M, Tomasich E, El-Gazzar A, et al.HIF1α Regulates mTOR Signaling and Viability of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(3):556-64 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: Tumor-initiating subpopulations of cancer cells, also known as cancer stem cells (CSC), were recently identified and characterized in prostate cancer. A well-characterized murine model of prostate cancer was used to investigate the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A/HIF1α) in CSCs and a basal stem cell subpopulation (Lin(-)/Sca-1(+)/CD49f(+)) was identified, in primary prostate tumors of mice, with elevated HIF1α expression. To further analyze the consequences of hypoxic upregulation on stem cell proliferation and HIF1α signaling, CSC subpopulations from murine TRAMP-C1 cells (Sca-1(+)/CD49f(+)) as well as from a human prostate cancer cell line (CD44(+)/CD49f(+)) were isolated and characterized. HIF1α levels and HIF target gene expression were elevated in hypoxic CSC-like cells, and upregulation of AKT occurred through a mechanism involving an mTOR/S6K/IRS-1 feedback loop. Interestingly, resistance of prostate CSCs to selective mTOR inhibitors was observed because of HIF1α upregulation. Thus, prostate CSCs show a hypoxic deactivation of a feedback inhibition of AKT signaling through IRS-1. In light of these results, we propose that deregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway through HIF1α is critical for CSC quiescence and maintenance by attenuating CSC metabolism and growth via mTOR and promoting survival by AKT signaling. We also propose that prostate CSCs can exhibit primary drug resistance to selective mTOR inhibitors.
IMPLICATIONS: This work contributes to a deeper understanding of hypoxic regulatory mechanisms in CSCs and will help devise novel therapies against prostate cancer.
Kim BR, Yoon K, Byun HJ, et al.The anti-tumor activator sMEK1 and paclitaxel additively decrease expression of HIF-1α and VEGF via mTORC1-S6K/4E-BP-dependent signaling pathways.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(15):6540-51 [PubMed
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Recently, we found that sMEK1 effectively regulates pro-apoptotic activity when combined with a traditional chemotherapeutic drug. Therefore, combinational therapeutic strategies targeting critical molecular and cellular mechanisms are urgently required. In this present work, we evaluated whether sMEK1 enhanced the pro-apoptotic activity of chemotherapeutic drugs in ovarian carcinoma cells. Combined with a chemotherapeutic drug, sMEK1 showed an additive effect on the suppression of ovarian cancer cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and regulating related gene expression levels or protein activities. In addition, the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was strongly inhibited by the combined treatment, showing de-repression of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and suppression of ras homolog enriched in the brain (Rheb) and mTOR and raptor in aggressive ovarian carcinoma cells and mouse xenograft models. Treatment with sMEK1 and paclitaxel reduced phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) and 4E-binding protein (4E-BP), two critical downstream targets of the mTOR-signaling pathway. Furthermore, both sMEK1 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited the expression of signaling components downstream of S6K/4E-BP, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our data suggest that the combination of sMEK1 and paclitaxel is a promising and effective targeted therapy for chemotherapy-resistant or recurrent ovarian cancers.
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas (PCCs)/paragangliomas (PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumours that may cause arrhythmia and death if untreated. Treatment for patients with metastatic tumours is lacking. As new PCC/PGL susceptibility genes are discovered that are associated with the mTOR pathway, treatment targets focusing on this pathway are being intensively explored.
DESIGN: Twenty-one human PCC/PGLs were analysed from two tertiary care centres. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was performed for phospho-mTOR (pmTOR), phospho-S6K (pS6K), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-4EBP1 (p4EBP1), HIF1α and MIB-1 in 6 metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs, 15 nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs, (including 1 TMEM127 PCC and 1 nonmetastatic SDHB PGL) and 6 normal adrenal medullas. The product of the intensity of stain and percentage of cells stained was calculated as an H score.
RESULTS: Using a two-sample t-test and paired t-test, pmTOR and pS6K had significantly higher H scores in nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs than in metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs. HIF1α had significantly higher H scores in metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs compared with nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs and normal adrenal medulla. No difference in H scores was seen with p4EBP1, PI3K and MIB-1 when comparing metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs and nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs. Significantly higher difference in pS6K was seen in normal adrenal medullas compared to nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs and metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs.
CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that the use of mTOR inhibitors alone for metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs may not achieve good therapeutic efficacy in patients.
BACKGROUND: The p53 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR) pathways frequently are altered in sarcoma with complex genomics, such as leiomyosarcoma (LMS) or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). The scale of genetic abnormalities in these pathways remains unknown in angiosarcoma (AS).
METHODS: The authors investigated the status of critical genes involved in the p53 and PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathways in a series of 62 AS.
RESULTS: The mutation and deletion rates of tumor protein 53 (TP53) were 4% and 0%, respectively. Overexpression of p53 was detected by immunohistochemistry in 49% of patients and was associated with inferior disease-free survival. Although p14 inactivation or overexpression of the human murine double minute homolog (HDM2) were frequent in LMS and UPS and could substitute for TP53 mutation or deletion, such alterations were rare in angiosarcomas. Phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p-S6K) and/or phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (p-4eBP1) overexpression was observed in 42% of patients, suggesting frequent activation of the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway in angiosarcomas. Activation was not related to intragenic deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), an aberration that is frequent in LMS and UPS but absent in angiosarcomas.
CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that angiosarcomas constitute a distinct subgroup among sarcomas with complex genomics. Although TP53 mutation and PTEN deletion are frequent in LMS and UPS, these aberrations are rarely involved in the pathogenesis of angiosarcoma.
Mauceri HJ, Sutton HG, Darga TE, et al.Everolimus exhibits efficacy as a radiosensitizer in a model of non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 27(5):1625-9 [PubMed
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Signaling pathways that activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) are altered in many human cancers and these alterations are associated with prognosis and treatment response. mTOR inhibition can restore sensitivity to DNA damaging agents such as cisplatin. The rapamycin derivative everolimus exhibits antitumor activity and is approved for patients with renal cell cancer. Clinically, everolimus has also been evaluated in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that were refractory to chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We tested the effects of combined treatment with everolimus (RAD001) and fractionated radiation using a xenograft model of human NSCLC (A549 cells). In growth studies, mean tumor volume was reduced in the everolimus plus 30 Gy cohort with significant tumor growth suppression compared to 30 Gy alone (p=0015), or everolimus alone (p<0.001, ANOVA). everolimus (20 nM) significantly reduced protein levels of the mTOR downstream effector p70-S6K compared with radiation and vehicle (p=0.05, ANOVA) and significantly suppressed phospho-p70-S6K levels compared with all other treatments (p<0.001, ANOVA). We also evaluated everolimus and radiation effects on gene expression in A549 cells. Everolimus ± 5 Gy suppressed endothelin 1 and lactate dehydrogenase expression and increased VEGFA, p21, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and SLC2A1 (facilitated glucose transporter 1). mTOR mRNA levels were unaffected while TNF-α levels were increased with everolimus + 5 Gy compared to either treatment alone. These findings suggest that everolimus increases the antitumor activity of radiation. Clinical trials combining everolimus with fractionated radiation in patients with NSCLC are warranted.
Gnoni GV, Rochira A, Leone A, et al.3,5,3'triiodo-L-thyronine induces SREBP-1 expression by non-genomic actions in human HEP G2 cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2012; 227(6):2388-97 [PubMed
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Liver is an important target for thyroid hormone actions. T(3) exerts its effects by two mechanisms: (i) Genomic actions consisting of T(3) link to nuclear receptors that bind responsive elements in the promoter of target genes, (ii) non-genomic actions including integrin αvb3 receptor-mediated MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR-C1 activation. SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c, and SREBP-2 are transcription factors involved in the regulation of lipogenic genes. We show in Hep G2 cells that T(3) determined a dose- and time-dependent increase in the level of the precursor form of SREBP-1 without affecting SREBP-1 mRNA abundance. T(3) also induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and of mTOR-C1 target S6K-P70, and the cytosol-to-membrane translocation of PKC-α. Modulation of SREBP-1 protein level by T(3) was dependent on MAPK/ERK, PI3K/Akt/mTOR-C1 pathway activation since the MEK inhibitor PD98059 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abolished the stimulatory effect of T(3) . Conversely, the effect of T(3) on SREBP-1 level was enhanced by using rapamycin, mTOR-C1 inhibitor. These data suggest a negative control of mTOR-C1 target S6K-P70 on PI3K/Akt pathway. The effect of T(3) on SREBP-1 content increased also by using PKC inhibitors. These inhibitors increased the action of T(3) on Akt phosphorylation suggesting that conventional PKCs may work as negative regulators of the T(3) -dependent SREBP-1 increase. T(3) effects were partially abrogated by tetrac, an inhibitor of the T(3) -αvβ3 receptor interaction and partially evoked by T(3) analog T(3) -agarose. These findings support a model in which T(3) activates intracellular signaling pathways which may be involved in the increment of SREBP-1 level through an IRES-mediated translation mechanism.
The 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) acts downstream of mTOR, which plays important roles in cell proliferation, protein translation, and cell survival and is a target for cancer therapy. mTOR inhibitors are, however, of limited success. Although Akt is believed to act upstream of mTOR, persistent inhibition of p70 S6 kinase or S6K1 can activate Akt via a negative feedback loop. S6K exists as two homologues, S6K1 and S6K2, but little is known about the function of S6K2. In the present study, we have examined the effects of S6K2 on Akt activation and cell survival. Silencing of S6K1 caused a modest decrease, whereas knockdown of S6K2 caused a substantial increase in TNF-α and TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-mediated apoptosis. In contrast to S6K1, depletion of S6K2 by siRNA decreased basal and TNF-induced Akt phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt in MCF-7 cells restored cell survival in S6K2-depleted cells. We have previously shown that activation of Akt induces downregulation of Bid via p53. Knockdown of S6K2 caused an increase in p53, and downregulation of p53 by siRNA decreased Bid level. Silencing of Bid blunted the ability of S6K2 deficiency to enhance TNF-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study shows that the two homologues of S6K have distinct effects on Akt activation and cell survival. Thus, targeting S6K2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy to treat cancers.
Misra UK, Payne S, Pizzo SVLigation of prostate cancer cell surface GRP78 activates a proproliferative and antiapoptotic feedback loop: a role for secreted prostate-specific antigen.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(2):1248-59 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
GRP78, a well characterized chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, is critical to the unfolded protein response. More recently, it has been identified on the cell surface, where it has many roles. On cancer cells, it functions as a signaling receptor coupled to proproliferative/antiapoptotic and promigratory mechanisms. In the current study, we demonstrate that ligation of prostate cancer cell surface GRP78 by its natural ligand, activated α(2)-macroglobulin (α(2)M*), results in a 2-3-fold up-regulation in the synthesis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The PSA is secreted into the medium as an active proteinase, where it binds to native α(2)M. The resultant α(2)M·PSA complexes bind to GRP78, causing a 1.5-2-fold increase in the activation of MEK1/2, ERK1/2, S6K, and Akt, which is coupled with a 2-3-fold increase in DNA and protein synthesis. PSA is a marker for the progression of prostate cancer, but its mechanistic role in the disease is unclear. The present studies suggest that PSA may be involved in a signal transduction-dependent feedback loop, whereby it promotes a more aggressive behavior by human prostate cancer cells.
Lesma E, Grande V, Carelli S, et al.Isolation and growth of smooth muscle-like cells derived from tuberous sclerosis complex-2 human renal angiomyolipoma: epidermal growth factor is the required growth factor.
Am J Pathol. 2005; 167(4):1093-103 [PubMed
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Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a tumor suppressor gene disorder characterized by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. These mutations lead to the development of benign tumors involving smooth muscle cells, causing life-threatening lymphangioleiomyomatosis. We isolated and characterized two types of cells bearing a mutation in TSC2 exon 18 from a renal angiomyolipoma of a TSC patient: one population of alpha-actin-positive smooth muscle-like cells with loss of heterozygosity for the TSC2 gene (A(+) cells) and another of nonloss of heterozygosity keratin 8/18-positive epithelial-like cells (R(+) cells). Unlike control aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, A(+) cells required epidermal growth factor (EGF) to grow and substituting EGF with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 failed to increase the cell number; however, omission of EGF did not cause cell loss. The A(+) cells constantly released IGF-1 into the culture medium and constitutively showed a high degree of S6K phosphorylation even when grown in serum-free medium. Exposure to antibodies against EGF and IGF-1 receptors caused a rapid loss of A(+) cells: 50% by 5 days and 100% by 12 days. Signal transduction mediated by EGF and IGF-I receptors is therefore involved in A(+) cell survival. These results may offer a novel therapeutic perspective for the treatment of TSC complications and lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Candelaria M, de la Garza J, Duenas-Gonzalez AA clinical and biological overview of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Med Oncol. 2005; 22(1):1-10 [PubMed
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In the last few years a body of knowledge has been generated on the molecular basis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). These mesenchymal tumors are characterized by the expression of KIT protein and because they have an activating mutation in a class III receptor tyrosine kinase gene (KIT or PDGFRA). Several KIT-activating mutations, which are largely responsible for the development of this tumor, promote cell survival, proliferation, and migration through different pathways such as MAPK p42/44, AKT, S6K, STAT1, and STAT3. Likewise, gene-activating mutations in the gene PDGFRalpha which codes for the receptor tyrosine kinase, Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha have been identified in GIST lacking KIT mutations. This means that KIT and PDGFRalpha mutations appear to be alternative and mutually exclusive oncogenic pathways for GIST development. These tumors may occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract (GI). The most frequently involved sites are stomach and small intestine. They are typically chemo- and radioresistant. The discovery of a specific inhibitor of this tyrosine kinase, imatinib mesylate, has radically changed the prognosis of patients with unresectable disease. Only 4 yr after the first patient was successfully treated with imatinib, multiple phase II and III trials have been published and, currently, imatinib mesylate is the only effective systemic treatment available of these tumors. Response rates are approximately 70-90% with acceptable toxicity. GIST are the first model of a solid tumor efficiently treated with a molecular-targeted agent. This review summarizes the clinical and biological aspects of this unique neoplasm.
Sawhney RS, Cookson MM, Sharma B, et al.Autocrine transforming growth factor alpha regulates cell adhesion by multiple signaling via specific phosphorylation sites of p70S6 kinase in colon cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2004; 279(45):47379-90 [PubMed
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Recently, we showed that autocrine transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) controls the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated basal expression of integrin alpha2, cell adhesion and motility in highly progressed HCT116 colon cancer cells. We also reported that the expression of basal integrin alpha2 and its biological effects are critically controlled by the constitutive activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway (Sawhney, R. S., Sharma, B., Humphrey, L. E., and Brattain, M. G. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 19861-19869). In the present report, we further examine the downstream signaling mechanisms underlying EGFR/ERK signaling and integrin alpha2 function in HCT116 cells. Selective MEK inhibitors attenuated TGFalpha-mediated basal activation of p70S6K (S6K) specifically at Thr-389, indicating that this S6K site is downstream of ERK/MAPK signaling. Cells were treated with the selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide to determine the role of PKC in S6K activation. The Thr-421 and Ser-424 phosphorylation sites of S6K were specifically inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide, which also blocked integrin alpha2 expression, cell adhesion, and motility. These data establish a novel cell motility function of S6K via PKC activation in a cancer cell. In addition, we examined whether mammalian target of rapamycin signaling controls S6K activation. Rapamycin inhibited constitutive S6K phosphorylation specifically at Thr-389, Thr-421, and Ser-424 sites. The assignment of these phosphorylation sites on S6K to biological functions was unequivocally confirmed by transfection of cells with specific single phosphorylation site dominant negative mutants. These experiments show for the first time that autocrine TGFalpha regulates cell adhesion function by multiple signaling pathways via specific phosphorylation sites of S6K in cancer cells.