Research IndicatorsGraph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: SCRIB (cancer-related)
SCRIB is a polarity regulator known to be abnormally expressed in cancer at the protein level. Here we report that, in breast cancer, an additional and hidden dimension of deregulations exists: an unexpected SCRIB exon usage pattern appears to mark a more malignant tumor phenotype and significantly correlates with survival. Conserved exons encoding the leucine-rich repeats tend to be overexpressed while others are underused. Mechanistic studies revealed that the underused exons encode part of the protein necessary for interaction with Vimentin and Numa1, a protein which is required for proper positioning of the mitotic spindle. Thus, the inclusion/exclusion of specific SCRIB exons is a mechanistic hallmark of breast cancer, which could potentially be exploited to develop more efficient diagnostics and therapies.
Drug resistance of cancer cells to various therapeutic agents and molecular targets is a major problem facing current cancer research. The tumor suppressor gene Scribble encodes a polarity protein that is conserved between Drosophila and mammals; loss of the locus disrupts cell polarity, inhibits apoptosis, and mediates cancer process. However, the role of Scribble in drug resistance remains unknown. We show here that knockdown of Scribble enhances drug resistance by permitting accumulation of Snail, which functions as a transcription factor during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Then, loss of Scribble activates the mRNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) by facilitating translocation of HuR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate HuR can recognize AU-rich elements of the Snail-encoding mRNA, thereby regulating Snail translation. Moreover, loss of Scribble-induced HuR translocation mediates the accumulation of Snail via activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Thus, this work clarifies the role of polarity protein Scribble, which is directly implicated in the regulation of developmental transcription factor Snail, and suggesting a mechanism for Scribble mediating cancer drug resistance.
BACKGROUND: The establishment and maintenance of polarity is vital for embryonic development and loss of polarity is a frequent characteristic of epithelial cancers, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we identify a novel role for the polarity protein Scrib as a mediator of epidermal permeability barrier acquisition, skeletal morphogenesis, and as a potent tumor suppressor in cutaneous carcinogenesis.
METHODS: To explore the role of Scrib during epidermal development, we compared the permeability of toluidine blue dye in wild-type, Scrib heterozygous and Scrib KO embryonic epidermis at E16.5, E17.5 and E18.5. Mouse embryos were stained with alcian blue and alizarin red for skeletal analysis. To establish whether Scrib plays a tumor suppressive role during skin tumorigenesis and/or progression, we evaluated an autochthonous mouse model of skin carcinogenesis in the context of Scrib loss. We utilised Cre-LoxP technology to conditionally deplete Scrib in adult epidermis, since Scrib KO embryos are neonatal lethal.
RESULTS: We establish that Scrib perturbs keratinocyte maturation during embryonic development, causing impaired epidermal barrier formation, and that Scrib is required for skeletal morphogenesis in mice. Analysis of conditional transgenic mice deficient for Scrib specifically within the epidermis revealed no skin pathologies, indicating that Scrib is dispensable for normal adult epidermal homeostasis. Nevertheless, bi-allelic loss of Scrib significantly enhanced tumor multiplicity and progression in an autochthonous model of epidermal carcinogenesis in vivo, demonstrating Scrib is an epidermal tumor suppressor. Mechanistically, we show that apoptosis is the critical effector of Scrib tumor suppressor activity during skin carcinogenesis and provide new insight into the function of polarity proteins during DNA damage repair.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we provide genetic evidence of a unique link between skin carcinogenesis and loss of the epithelial polarity regulator Scrib, emphasizing that Scrib exerts a wide-spread tumor suppressive function in epithelia.
Hawkins ED, Oliaro J, Ramsbottom KM, et al.Scribble acts as an oncogene in Eμ-myc-driven lymphoma.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(9):1193-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Scribble complex proteins maintain apicobasal polarity, regulate cell fate determination and function as tumour suppressors in epithelial tissue. Despite evidence that the function of Scribble is maintained in the lymphocyte lineage, we still understand little about its role as a tumour suppressor in haematological malignancies. Using the Eμ-myc model of Burkitt's lymphoma we investigated the role of Scribble in lymphomagenesis. We found that contrary to its well-documented tumour suppressor role in epithelial tissue, loss of Scribble expression delayed the expansion of peripheral B cells and delayed the onset of Eμ-myc-driven lymphoma. This was despite upregulated ERK phosphorylation levels in Scribble-deficient tumours, which are associated with loss of Scribble expression and the development of more aggressive Burkitt's lymphoma. Interestingly, the developmental stage of lymphoma was unaffected by Scribble expression challenging any role for Scribble in fate determination in the haematopoetic lineage. These data provide evidence for oncogenic properties of Scribble in Myc-driven B-cell lymphomagenesis, reinforcing recent findings that overexpression of a mutant form of Scribble can act as an oncogene in epithelial cells. Our results support the growing appreciation that the tumour regulatory functions of Scribble, and other polarity protein family members, are context dependent.
BACKGROUND: The high risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins play an essential role in the development of cervical malignancy. Important cellular targets of E6 include p53 and the PDZ domain containing substrates such as hScrib and Dlg. We recently showed that hScrib activity was mediated in part through recruitment of protein phosphatase 1γ (PP1γ).
METHODS: Expression patterns of hScrib and PP1γ were assessed by immunohistochemistry of HPV-16 positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN), classified as CIN1 (n = 4), CIN2 (n = 8), CIN3 (n = 8), cervical carcinoma tissues (n = 11), and HPV-negative cervical tissues (n = 8), as well as by subfractionation assay of the HPV-16 positive cervical cancer cell lines, CaSki and SiHa. To explore the effects of the HPV-16 oncoproteins, we have performed siRNA knockdown of E6/E7 expression, and monitored the effects on the expression patterns of hScrib and PP1γ.
RESULTS: We show that PP1γ levels in HPV-16 positive tumour cells are reduced in an E6/E7 dependent manner. Residual PP1γ in these cells is found mostly in the cytoplasm as opposed to the nucleus where it is predominantly found in normal cells. We have found a striking concordance with redistribution in the pattern of expression (9/11; 81.8%) and loss of PP1γ expression in HPV-16 positive cervical tumours (2/11; 18.2%). Furthermore, this loss of PP1γ expression and redistribution in the pattern of expression occurs progressively as the lesions develop (8/8; 100%).
CONCLUSION: Together, these results suggest that PP1γ may be a novel target of the HPV-16 oncoproteins and indicate that it might be a potential novel biomarker for HPV-16 induced malignancy.
Andersen DS, Colombani J, Palmerini V, et al.The Drosophila TNF receptor Grindelwald couples loss of cell polarity and neoplastic growth.
Nature. 2015; 522(7557):482-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Disruption of epithelial polarity is a key event in the acquisition of neoplastic growth. JNK signalling is known to play an important part in driving the malignant progression of many epithelial tumours, although the link between loss of polarity and JNK signalling remains elusive. In a Drosophila genome-wide genetic screen designed to identify molecules implicated in neoplastic growth, we identified grindelwald (grnd), a gene encoding a transmembrane protein with homology to members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. Here we show that Grnd mediates the pro-apoptotic functions of Eiger (Egr), the unique Drosophila TNF, and that overexpression of an active form of Grnd lacking the extracellular domain is sufficient to activate JNK signalling in vivo. Grnd also promotes the invasiveness of Ras(V12)/scrib(-/-) tumours through Egr-dependent Matrix metalloprotease-1 (Mmp1) expression. Grnd localizes to the subapical membrane domain with the cell polarity determinant Crumbs (Crb) and couples Crb-induced loss of polarity with JNK activation and neoplastic growth through physical interaction with Veli (also known as Lin-7). Therefore, Grnd represents the first example of a TNFR that integrates signals from both Egr and apical polarity determinants to induce JNK-dependent cell death or tumour growth.
Wang M, Meng JY, He SFXihuang Pill () induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition and inhibits loss of apical-basal polarity in colorectal cancer cell through regulating ZEB1-SCRIB loop.
Chin J Integr Med. 2014; 20(10):751-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antiproliferative and anti-metastasis effect of Xihuang Pill (, XP) on human colorectal cancer cell and to explore the molecular mechanism by which it produces the effects.
METHODS: Highly metastatic human colorectal cancer cell line LoVo was treated with low-, medium-, and highdose XP-containing serum (XP-L, XP-M, XP-H) groups for 48 h, cells intervened with no drug rat serum and PD98059 [extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor] as negative and positive controls (NC and PC) groups. Cell proliferation assay was made using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8). The 8 μm pore-size transwell chamber and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining were applied to examine the ability of invasion and migration of the cells. The protein expression of ERK1/2, zinc fifi nger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), Scrib and lethal giant larvae homolog 2 (Lgl2) was detected by Western blotting while the relative mRNA quantity of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Occludin and junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM1) was measured by realtime fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).
RESULTS: XP induced a dose-dependent suppression on the proliferation of LoVo cells (P <0.05 or P<0.01), with the inhibition rates varied from 27.30% to 31.08%. Transwell assay showed that when preprocessed with PD98059 and XP-containing serum, the number of cells that passed the filter decreased significantly compared with that of NC group (P <0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, XP inhibited the protein expression of ERK1/2 and ZEB1 (P <0.05); and up-regulated the protein expression of Scrib and Lgl2 (P <0.05). The mRNA levels of E-cadherin, Occludin and JAM1 of the XP intervened groups and PC group markedly ascended (P <0.05) while that of N-cadherin showed a descending tendency (P>0.05).
CONCLUSION: XP intervention suppressed the ability of proliferation, invasion and migration of the LoVo cells. Regulating ZEB1-SCRIB Loop so as to recover epithelial phenotype and apical junctional complex might be one of the mechanisms by which XP produces the anti-metastasis effect.
Scribble (SCRIB) localizes to cell-cell junctions and regulates establishment of epithelial cell polarity. Loss of expression of SCRIB functions as a tumor suppressor in Drosophila and mammals; conversely, overexpression of SCRIB promotes epithelial differentiation in mammals. Here, we report that SCRIB is frequently amplified, mRNA overexpressed, and protein is mislocalized from cell-cell junctions in human breast cancers. High levels of SCRIB mRNA are associated with poor clinical prognosis, identifying an unexpected role for SCRIB in breast cancer. We find that transgenic mice expressing a SCRIB mutant [Pro 305 to Leu (P305L)] that fails to localize to cell-cell junctions, under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat promoter, develop multifocal hyperplasia that progresses to highly pleomorphic and poorly differentiated tumors with basal characteristics. SCRIB interacts with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and the expression of P305L, but not wild-type SCRIB, promotes an increase in PTEN levels in the cytosol. Overexpression of P305L, but not wild-type SCRIB, activates the Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. Human breast tumors overexpressing SCRIB have high levels of S6K but do not harbor mutations in PTEN or PIK3CA, identifying SCRIB amplification as a mechanism of activating PI3K signaling in tumors without mutations in PIK3CA or PTEN. Thus, we demonstrate that high levels of mislocalized SCRIB functions as a neomorph to promote mammary tumorigenesis by affecting subcellular localization of PTEN and activating an Akt/mTOR/S6kinase signaling pathway.
Savi F, Forno I, Faversani A, et al.miR-296/Scribble axis is deregulated in human breast cancer and miR-296 restoration reduces tumour growth in vivo.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2014; 127(4):233-42 [PubMed
] Related Publications
miR-296-5p is a central regulator of signalling pathways affecting development, stem cell differentiation and cancer. We hypothesized that miR-296-5p is involved in breast cancer onset and progression possibly through regulation of its target SCRIB (Scribble), a polarity protein recently implicated in the acquisition of cancer stem cell traits and in cell motility. We found that miR-296-5p levels were consistently reduced in human breast cancer tissues compared with non-neoplastic mammary parenchyma, and low expression of this miRNA predicted shorter disease-free survival independently of classic clinicopathological parameters. Further, reduced miR-296-5p levels were significantly correlated with an earlier spread of cancer in the overall series and with distant metastases in the subset. In contrast with its regulator, SCRIB was overexpressed and mislocalized in primary breast cancers or locoregional or distant metastatic lesions compared with normal parenchyma. Notably, SCRIB mislocalization was associated with overall survival, metastatic spread and organ tropism in patients with breast cancer. Finally, direct injection of a precursor miR-296-5p into tumours of a breast cancer xenograft model significantly decreased tumour growth. Our results show that the miR-296-5p/SCRIB axis plays a role in breast carcinogenesis and an miR-296-5p-based therapeutic approach hampers breast cancer tumour growth in vivo. Modulation of miR-296-5p may represent a new therapeutic option for patients with breast cancer.
Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF beta, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.
Elsum IA, Yates LL, Pearson HB, et al.Scrib heterozygosity predisposes to lung cancer and cooperates with KRas hyperactivation to accelerate lung cancer progression in vivo.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(48):5523-33 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide with non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 80% of all lung cancers. Although activating mutations in genes of the RAS-MAPK pathway occur in up to 30% of all NSCLC, the cooperating genetic lesions that are required for lung cancer initiation and progression remain poorly understood. Here we identify a role for the cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib) in NSCLC. A survey of genomic databases reveals deregulation of SCRIB in human lung cancer and we show that Scrib(+/-) mutant mice develop lung cancer by 540 days with a penetrance of 43%. To model NSCLC development in vivo, we used the extensively characterized LSL-KRas(G12D) murine model of NSCLC. We show that loss of Scrib and activated oncogenic KRas cooperate in vivo, resulting in more aggressive lung tumors, likely due to a synergistic elevation in RAS-MAPK signaling. Finally, we provide data consistent with immune infiltration having an important role in the acceleration of tumorigenesis in KRas(G12D) lung tumors following Scrib loss.
With the intent of dissecting the molecular complexity of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), we designed a target enrichment panel to explore, using next-generation sequencing (NGS), the mutational status of an extensive list of 2000 cancer-associated genes and microRNAs. The genomic DNA of granulocytes and in vitro-expanded CD3+T-lymphocytes, as a germline control, was target-enriched and sequenced in a learning cohort of 20 MPN patients using Roche 454 technology. We identified 141 genuine somatic mutations, most of which were not previously described. To test the frequency of the identified variants, a larger validation cohort of 189 MPN patients was additionally screened for these mutations using Ion Torrent AmpliSeq NGS. Excluding the genes already described in MPN, for 8 genes (SCRIB, MIR662, BARD1, TCF12, FAT4, DAP3, POLG and NRAS), we demonstrated a mutation frequency between 3 and 8%. We also found that mutations at codon 12 of NRAS (NRASG12V and NRASG12D) were significantly associated, for primary myelofibrosis (PMF), with highest dynamic international prognostic scoring system (DIPSS)-plus score categories. This association was then confirmed in 66 additional PMF patients composing a final dataset of 168 PMF showing a NRAS mutation frequency of 4.7%, which was associated with a worse outcome, as defined by the DIPSS plus score.
Turkel N, Sahota VK, Bolden JE, et al.The BTB-zinc finger transcription factor abrupt acts as an epithelial oncogene in Drosophila melanogaster through maintaining a progenitor-like cell state.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(7):e1003627 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The capacity of tumour cells to maintain continual overgrowth potential has been linked to the commandeering of normal self-renewal pathways. Using an epithelial cancer model in Drosophila melanogaster, we carried out an overexpression screen for oncogenes capable of cooperating with the loss of the epithelial apico-basal cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib), and identified the cell fate regulator, Abrupt, a BTB-zinc finger protein. Abrupt overexpression alone is insufficient to transform cells, but in cooperation with scrib loss of function, Abrupt promotes the formation of massive tumours in the eye/antennal disc. The steroid hormone receptor coactivator, Taiman (a homologue of SRC3/AIB1), is known to associate with Abrupt, and Taiman overexpression also drives tumour formation in cooperation with the loss of Scrib. Expression arrays and ChIP-Seq indicates that Abrupt overexpression represses a large number of genes, including steroid hormone-response genes and multiple cell fate regulators, thereby maintaining cells within an epithelial progenitor-like state. The progenitor-like state is characterised by the failure to express the conserved Eyes absent/Dachshund regulatory complex in the eye disc, and in the antennal disc by the failure to express cell fate regulators that define the temporal elaboration of the appendage along the proximo-distal axis downstream of Distalless. Loss of scrib promotes cooperation with Abrupt through impaired Hippo signalling, which is required and sufficient for cooperative overgrowth with Abrupt, and JNK (Jun kinase) signalling, which is required for tumour cell migration/invasion but not overgrowth. These results thus identify a novel cooperating oncogene, identify mammalian family members of which are also known oncogenes, and demonstrate that epithelial tumours in Drosophila can be characterised by the maintenance of a progenitor-like state.
The γ subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II complex, CD74, is overexpressed in a significant proportion of metastatic breast tumors, but the mechanistic foundation and biologic significance of this phenomenon are not fully understood. Here, we show that when CD74 is overexpressed in human cancer and noncancerous epithelial cells, it interacts and interferes with the function of Scribble, a product of a well-known tumor suppressor gene. Furthermore, using epithelial cell lines expressing CD74 under the control of tetracycline-inducible promoter and quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that, as a result of CD74 overexpression, the phosphorylation pattern of the C-terminal part of Scribble undergoes specific changes. This is accompanied with a translocation of the protein from the sites of cell-to-cell contacts at the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm, which is likely to effectively enhance the motility and invasiveness of the cancer cells.
Previous studies have shown that the cell polarity regulator hScrib interacts with, and consequently controls, the ERK signaling pathway. This interaction occurs through two well-conserved Kinase Interacting Motifs, which allow hScrib to bind ERK1 directly, resulting in a reduction in the levels of phospho-ERK. This suggests that hScrib might recruit a phosphatase to regulate this signaling pathway. Using a proteomic approach we now show that Protein Phosphatase 1γ (PP1γ) is a major interacting partner of hScrib. This interaction is direct and occurs through a conserved PP1γ interaction motif on the hScrib protein, and this interaction appears to be required for hScrib's ability to downregulate ERK phosphorylation. In addition, hScrib also controls the pattern of PP1γ localization, where loss of hScrib enhances the nuclear translocation of PP1γ. Furthermore, we also show that the ability of hScrib to interact with PP1γ is important for the ability of hScrib to suppress oncogene-induced transformation of primary rodent cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that hScrib acts as a scaffold to integrate the control of the PP1γ and ERK signaling pathways and explains how disruption of hScrib localisation can contribute towards the development of human malignancy.
Anastas JN, Biechele TL, Robitaille M, et al.A protein complex of SCRIB, NOS1AP and VANGL1 regulates cell polarity and migration, and is associated with breast cancer progression.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(32):3696-708 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
By analyzing public data sets of gene expression in human breast cancers we observed that increased levels of transcripts encoding the planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins SCRIB and VANGL1 correlate with increased risk of patient relapse. Experimentally, we found that reducing expression of SCRIB by short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) reduces the growth of human breast cancer cells in xenograft assays. To investigate SCRIB-associated proteins that might participate in the responses of breast cancer cells to altered levels of SCRIB, we used mass spectrometry and confocal microscopy. These studies reveal that SCRIB is present in at least two unique protein complexes: (1) a complex of SCRIB, ARHGEF, GIT and PAK (p21-activated kinase), and (2) a complex of SCRIB, NOS1AP and VANGL. Focusing on NOS1AP, we observed that NOS1AP colocalizes with both SCRIB and VANGL1 along cellular protrusions in metastatic breast cancer cells, but does not colocalize with either SCRIB or VANGL1 at cell junctions in normal breast cells. We investigated the effects of shRNA-mediated knockdown of NOS1AP and SCRIB in vitro, and found that reducing NOS1AP and SCRIB slows breast cancer cell migration and prevents the establishment of leading-trailing polarity. We also find that reduction of NOS1AP enhances anchorage-independent growth. Collectively these data point to the relevance of NOS1AP and SCRIB protein complexes in breast cancer.
Enomoto M, Igaki TDeciphering tumor-suppressor signaling in flies: genetic link between Scribble/Dlg/Lgl and the Hippo pathways.
J Genet Genomics. 2011; 38(10):461-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Loss of apico-basal polarity is one of the crucial factors that drives epithelial tumor progression. scribble/discs large/lethal giant larvae (scrib/dlg/lgl), a group of apico-basal polarity genes, were initially identified as members of "neoplastic" tumor-suppressors in flies. The components of the Hippo signaling pathway, which is crucial for organ size control and cancer development, were also identified through Drosophila genetic screens as members of "hyperplastic" tumor-suppressors. Accumulating evidence in recent studies implies that these two tumor-suppressor signaling pathways are not mutually exclusive but rather cooperatively act to give rise to highly malignant tumors. The interaction of these tumor-suppressor pathways could include deregulations of actin cytoskeleton, cell-cell contact, and apical-domain size of the epithelial cell.
Loss of cellular polarity is a hallmark of epithelial cancers, raising the possibility that regulators of polarity have a role in suppressing tumorigenesis. The Scribble complex is one of at least three interacting protein complexes that have a critical role in establishing and maintaining epithelial polarity. In human colorectal, breast, and endometrial cancers, expression of the Scribble complex member SCRIB is often mislocalized and deregulated. Here, we report that Scrib is indispensable for prostate homeostasis in mice. Scrib heterozygosity initiated prostate hyperplasia, while targeted biallelic Scrib loss predisposed mice to prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Mechanistically, Scrib was shown to negatively regulate the MAPK cascade to suppress tumorigenesis. Further analysis revealed that prostate-specific loss of Scrib in mice combined with expression of an oncogenic Kras mutation promoted the progression of prostate cancer that recapitulated the human disease. The clinical significance of the work in mice was highlighted by our observation that SCRIB deregulation strongly correlated with poor survival in human prostate cancer. These data suggest that the polarity network could provide a new avenue for therapeutic intervention.
Tervonen TA, Partanen JI, Saarikoski ST, et al.Faulty epithelial polarity genes and cancer.
Adv Cancer Res. 2011; 111:97-161 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epithelial architecture is formed in tissues and organs when groups of epithelial cells are organized into polarized structures. The epithelial function and integrity as well as signaling across the epithelial layer is orchestrated by apical junctional complexes (AJCs), which are landmarks for PAR/CRUMBS and lateral SCRIB polarity modules and by dynamic interactions of the cells with underlying basement membrane (BM). These highly organized epithelial architectures are demolished in cancer. In all advanced epithelial cancers, malignant cells have lost polarity and connections to the basement membrane and they have become proliferative, motile, and invasive. Clearly, loss of epithelial integrity associates with tumor progression but does it contribute to tumor development? Evidence from studies in Drosophila and recently also in vertebrate models have suggested that even the oncogene-driven enforced cell proliferation can be conditional, dependant on the influence of cell-cell or cell-microenvironment contacts. Therefore, loss of epithelial integrity may not only be an obligate consequence of unscheduled proliferation of malignant cells but instead, malignant epithelial cells may need to acquire capacity to break free from the constraints of integrity to freely and autonomously proliferate. We discuss how epithelial polarity complexes form and regulate epithelial integrity, highlighting the roles of enzymes Rho GTPases, aPKCs, PI3K, and type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs). We also discuss relevance of these pathways to cancer in light of genetic alterations found in human cancers and review molecular pathways and potential pharmacological strategies to revert or selectively eradicate disorganized tumor epithelium.
The expression of small, non-coding RNA or microRNAs (miR), is frequently deregulated in human cancer, but how these pathways affect disease progression is still largely elusive. Here, we report on a miR, miR-296, which is progressively lost during tumor progression and correlates with metastatic disease in colorectal, breast, lung, gastric, parathyroid, liver and bile ducts cancers. Functionally, miR-296 controls a global cell motility gene signature in epithelial cells by transcriptionally repressing the cell polarity-cell plasticity module, Scribble (Scrib). In turn, loss of miR-296 causes aberrantly increased and mislocalized Scrib in human tumors, resulting in exaggerated random cell migration and tumor cell invasiveness. Re-expression of miR-296 in MDA-MB231 cells inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Finally, miR-296 or Scrib levels predict tumor relapse in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. These data identify miR-296 as a global repressor of tumorigenicity and uncover a previously unexplored exploitation of Scrib in tumor progression in humans.
Human Scribble (Scrib) is an evolutionary-conserved cell polarity protein, but its potential role in human cancer is controversial. Herein, we show that Scrib is nearly universally overexpressed in cultured tumor cell lines and genetically disparate cancer patient series compared with matched normal tissues in vivo. Instead of a membrane association seen in normal epithelia, tumor-associated Scrib is mislocalized and found predominantly in the cytosol. Small-interfering RNA silencing of Scrib in model lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells inhibited cell migration in wound-healing assays, suppressed tumor cell invasion across Matrigel-coated inserts, and down-regulated the expression of cell motility markers and mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These data uncover a previously unrecognized exploitation of Scrib for aberrant tumor cell motility and invasion, thus potentially contributing to disease progression in humans.
Loss of epithelial integrity often correlates with the progression of malignant tumors. Sds22, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), has recently been linked to regulation of epithelial polarity in Drosophila. However, its role in tumorigenesis remains obscure. In this study, using Drosophila imaginal tissue as an in vivo model system, we show that sds22 is a new potential tumor suppressor gene in Drosophila. Without sds22, cells lose epithelial architecture, and become invasive and tumorigenic when combined with Ras overexpression; conversely, sds22 overexpression can largely suppress tumorigenic growth of Ras(V12)scrib(-/-) mutant cells. Mechanistically, we show that sds22 prevents cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting myosin II and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity downstream of PP1. Loss of this inhibition causes cells to lose epithelial organization and promotes cell invasion. Finally, human Sds22 is focally deleted and downregulated in multiple carcinomas, and this downregulation correlates with tumor progression, suggesting that sds22 inactivation may contribute to tumorigenesis and metastatic potential in human cancers via a similar mechanism.
Dünnebier T, Schlaefer K, Gilbert M, et al.No association of polymorphisms in the cell polarity gene SCRIB with breast cancer risk.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 127(1):259-64 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The human homolog of the Drosophila Scribble (SCRIB) tumor suppressor gene encodes a protein that regulates apical-basolateral polarity in mammalian epithelia and controls cell proliferation. Due to the role of cell polarity proteins in human cancers, we investigated whether genetic variability in SCRIB impacts breast carcinogenesis and tumor pathology. Five genetic variants were analyzed for an association with breast cancer risk and histopathological tumor parameters using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) tagging approach. Genotyping of five tag SNPs was performed by TaqMan allelic discrimination and RFLP-based PCR using the GENICA population-based breast cancer case-control collection including 1,021 cases and 1,015 age-matched controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by ordinal logistic regression. None of the tag SNPs was associated with breast cancer risk or tumor characteristics. Our findings suggest that genetic variability in the SCRIB polarity gene does not contribute to breast cancer development.
WT1 encodes a tumor suppressor first identified by its inactivation in Wilms' Tumor. Although one WT1 splicing variant encodes a well-characterized zinc finger transcription factor, little is known about the function of the most prevalent WT1 isoform, whose DNA binding domain is disrupted by a three-amino acid (KTS) insertion. Using cells that conditionally express WT1(+KTS), we undertook a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and cloning analysis to identify candidate WT1(+KTS)-regulated promoters. We identified the planar cell polarity gene Scribble (SCRB) as the first WT1(+KTS) target gene in podocytes of the kidney. WT1 and SCRB expression patterns overlap precisely in developing renal glomeruli of mice, and WT1(+KTS) binds to a 33-nucleotide region within the Scribble promoter in mouse and human cell lines and kidneys. Together, our results support a role for the predominant WT1(+KTS) isoform in transcriptional regulation and suggest a link between the WT1-dependent tumor suppressor pathway and a key component of the planar cell polarity pathway.
The basoapical organization of monolayered epithelia is defined by the presence of hemidesmosomes at the basal cellular pole, where the cell makes contacts with the basement membrane, and tight junctions at the opposite apical pole. In the mammary gland, tight junctions seal cell-cell contacts against the lumen and separate the apical and basolateral cell membranes. This separation is critical to organize intracellular signaling pathways and the cytoskeleton. The study of the impact of the highly organized apical pole, and notably apical polarity regulators (Crb complex, Par complex, and Scrib, Dlg, Lgl proteins) and tight junction proteins on cell phenotype and gene expression has revealed an intricate relationship between apical polarity and the cell nucleus. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of the apical pole of the tissue polarity axis in the epigenetic control of tissue phenotype. The organization of the apical pole and its importance in mammary homeostasis and tumorigenesis will be emphasized before presenting how apical polarity proteins impact gene expression indirectly, by influencing signal transduction and the location of transcription regulators, and directly, by participating in chromatin-associated complexes. The relationship between apical polarity and cell nucleus organizations might explain how apical polarity proteins could switch from nuclear repressors to nuclear promoters of cancerous behavior following alterations in the apical pole. The impact of apical polarity proteins on epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression will be discussed in light of increased evidence supporting a role for apical polarity in the fate of breast neoplasms.
Genomic copy number aberrations and corresponding transcriptional deregulation in the cancer genome have been suggested to have regulatory roles in cancer development and progression. However, functional evaluation of individual genes from lengthy lists of candidate genes from genomic data sets presents a significant challenge. Here, we report effective gene selection strategies to identify potential driver genes based on systematic integration of genome scale data of DNA copy numbers and gene expression profiles. Using regional pattern recognition approaches, we discovered the most probable copy number-dependent regions and 50 potential driver genes. At each step of the gene selection process, the functional relevance of the selected genes was evaluated by estimating the prognostic significance of the selected genes. Further validation using small interference RNA-mediated knockdown experiments showed proof-of-principle evidence for the potential driver roles of the genes in hepatocellular carcinoma progression (i.e., NCSTN and SCRIB). In addition, systemic prediction of drug responses implicated the association of the 50 genes with specific signaling molecules (mTOR, AMPK, and EGFR). In conclusion, the application of an unbiased and integrative analysis of multidimensional genomic data sets can effectively screen for potential driver genes and provides novel mechanistic and clinical insights into the pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Thomas M, Narayan N, Pim D, et al.Human papillomaviruses, cervical cancer and cell polarity.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(55):7018-30 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of a number of human cancers, of which cervical cancer is the most important. This occurs following persistent infection with a limited number of viral subtypes and is characterized by continued expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins. A unique characteristic of the cancer-causing HPV types is the presence of a PDZ recognition motif on the carboxy terminus of the E6 oncoprotein. Through this motif, E6 directs the proteasome-mediated degradation of cellular proteins involved in the regulation of cell polarity and in cell proliferation control. These include components of the Scrib and Par polarity complexes, as well as a number of other PDZ domain-containing substrates. Thus, PVs are now providing novel insights into the functioning of many of these cellular proteins, and into which of these functions, in particular, are relevant for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the biological consequences of papillomaviral targeting of these cell polarity regulators, both with respect to the viral life cycle and, most importantly, to the development of HPV-induced malignancy.
Dow LE, Elsum IA, King CL, et al.Loss of human Scribble cooperates with H-Ras to promote cell invasion through deregulation of MAPK signalling.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(46):5988-6001 [PubMed
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Activating mutations in genes of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway occur in approximately 30% of all human cancers; however, mutation of Ras alone is rarely sufficient to induce tumour development. Scribble is a polarity regulator recently isolated from a Drosophila screen for events that cooperate with Ras mutation to promote tumour progression and cell invasion. In mammals, Scribble regulates directed cell migration and wound healing in vivo; however, no role has been identified for mammalian Scribble in oncogenic transformation. Here we show that in human epithelial cells expressing oncogenic Ras or Raf, loss of Scribble promotes invasion of cells through extracellular matrix in an organotypic culture system. Further, we show that the mechanism by which this occurs is in the regulation of MAPK signalling by Scribble. The suppression of MAPK signalling is a highly conserved function of Scribble as it also prevents Raf-mediated defects in Drosophila wing development. Our data identify Scribble as an important mediator of MAPK signalling and provide a molecular basis for the observation that Scribble expression is decreased in many invasive human cancers.
Kamei Y, Kito K, Takeuchi T, et al.Human scribble accumulates in colorectal neoplasia in association with an altered distribution of beta-catenin.
Hum Pathol. 2007; 38(8):1273-81 [PubMed
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The loss of epithelial polarity and tissue architecture is a diagnostic feature of malignant tumors. In Drosophila, genetic studies identified 3 neoplastic tumor suppressor genes (nTSGs), and a loss of nTSGs has been shown to result in a disruption of apical-basal polarity and neoplastic growth in epithelial cells. Scribble is one type of the Drosophila nTSGs, which encodes a membrane-associated cytoplasmic protein containing the multi-PDZ domain. In contrast to Drosophila scribble, the oncogenic roles of its mammalian homologues have not yet been established. We herein immunohistochemically examined the distributions of hScrib protein in human colorectal neoplasia using affinity-purified antibody. In 50 cases of colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas, the accumulation of hScrib protein was commonly observed in comparison with the adjacent normal epithelia. Furthermore, the overexpression and distribution of hScrib was observed to extensively overlap with the cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin. Like beta-catenin, the intense immunoreactivity of hScrib was often observed in small adenomas, thus, suggesting that hScrib could be involved in an early step of colon carcinogenesis. Five corresponding liver metastases showed a comparable immunoreactivity for anti-hScrib in comparison with their primary sites. In an immunofluorescence analysis on cultured cell lines, the loss of membranous staining of hScrib was observed according to the cytoplasmic translocation of beta-catenin. We herein demonstrate that the accumulation of hScrib protein might therefore be involved in colon carcinogenesis while also providing a possible link between hScrib and beta-catenin.
Navarro C, Nola S, Audebert S, et al.Junctional recruitment of mammalian Scribble relies on E-cadherin engagement.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(27):4330-9 [PubMed
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Members of the LAP protein family, LET-413 in Caenorhabditis elegans, Scribble in Drosophila melanogaster, and Erbin, Lano, Densin-180 and hScrib in mammals, have conserved structural features. LET-413 and Scribble are junctional proteins involved in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity. scribble also behaves as a neoplastic tumor suppressor gene. We show here that, in epithelial cells, hScrib is recruited at cell-cell junctions in an E-cadherin-dependent manner as shown by calcium switch assays in MDCK cells, re-expression of E-cadherin in MDA-231 cells treated by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza), and siRNA experiments. hScrib is restricted at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells by its LRR domain, and is enriched in Triton X-100-insoluble fractions. In breast cancers, most lobular tumors did not express hScrib and E-cadherin while ductal tumors had a less frequent downregulation of hScrib. Our data provide additional insights on the modalities of recruitment of hScrib at the cell-cell junctions, and establish a potential link between the E-cadherin and hScrib tumor suppressors.