Gene Summary

Gene:ELAVL1; ELAV like RNA binding protein 1
Aliases: HUR, Hua, MelG, ELAV1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ELAVL family of RNA-binding proteins that contain several RNA recognition motifs, and selectively bind AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs. AREs signal degradation of mRNAs as a means to regulate gene expression, thus by binding AREs, the ELAVL family of proteins play a role in stabilizing ARE-containing mRNAs. This gene has been implicated in a variety of biological processes and has been linked to a number of diseases, including cancer. It is highly expressed in many cancers, and could be potentially useful in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ELAV-like protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ELAVL1 (cancer-related)

Chen JR, Chien HP, Chen KS, et al.
Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A and deletion of TOP2A genes in a series of Taiwanese breast cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) copy number change remains not well established. This study is aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of TOP2A aberrations; to correlate TOP2A alterations with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and clinicopathological parameters, and further to explore prognostic value of TOP2A and HER2 status in breast cancer in Taiwan.
METHODS: We analyzed tissue samples from 311 invasive carcinomas in tissue microarrays for TOP2A and HER2 status by fluorescent in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: TOP2A copy number change is an infrequent genetic event (9.8% amplification and 2.7% deletion) and is present in both HER2-amplified and nonamplified tumors. TOP2A amplification is statistically associated with age >50 at diagnosis (P = 0.016) and HER2 amplification (P < 0.001). HER2 amplification, but not TOP2A amplification, is a predictor of unfavorable prognosis (P = 0.002). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that higher histologic grading, positive nodal involvement, and HER2 positivity were associated with poorer overall survival. Cytogenetically, double minutes-type amplification is the predominant pattern for both genes (HER2: 64% and TOP2A: 93.1%). Homogeneous staining region-type signals of both genes are resistant to RNase digestion, supporting that these were not nuclear accumulation of mRNA transcripts.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the prognostic value of tumor grading, nodal involvement, and HER2 status in Taiwanese breast cancer. TOP2A aberrations are an infrequent event independent of HER2 status, and TOP2A amplification carries no prognostic value. The predictive value of TOP2A aberrations in patients of breast cancer taking athracycline-containing treatment in Taiwan remains to be determined in prospectively well-designed clinical trials.

Hua Y, Ma X, Liu X, et al.
Identification of the potential biomarkers for the metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma.
APMIS. 2017; 125(2):93-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rectal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract, with a high incidence and high mortality. This study aimed to identify the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for rectal adenocarcinoma (RAC) metastasis. The expression profiling of RAC patients with metastasis and RAC patients without metastasis was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The datasets were used to identify the genes associated with RAC metastasis. Fifty up-regulated genes and seventeen down-regulated genes were identified in the primary tumor loci of RAC metastasis compared with non-metastasis. Sixty-seven dysregulated gens were conducted to construct the protein-protein network, and CCND3 was the hub protein. The dysregulated genes were significantly enriched in pancreatic secretion, cell adhesion molecules pathways, response to vitamin D of biological process, and retinoid binding of molecular function. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that CCND3, AQP3, PEG10, and RAB27B had the up-regulated tendency in RAC metastasis; ADCY1 had the down-regulated tendency in RAC metastasis. CCND3, AQP3, PEG10, RAB27B, and ADCY1 might play essential roles in the metastasis process of RAC through pancreatic secretion and cell adhesion molecules pathways. The five genes could be potential diagnosis biomarkers or therapeutic targets for RAC metastasis.

Xu CZ, Jiang C, Wu Q, et al.
A Feed-Forward Regulatory Loop between HuR and the Long Noncoding RNA HOTAIR Promotes Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression and Metastasis.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(5):1039-1051 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The lncRNA Homeobox (HOX) transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) is overexpressed in numerous cancers. HuR is also overexpressed during tumourigenesis and is abnormally present within the cytoplasm, where it binds to AU-rich elements in the 3'UTRs of target mRNA and post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of its target genes. However, whether HOTAIR is regulated and the mechanisms by which it affects head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are not well understood.
METHODS: MTT, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic assays were used to examine the effects of HOTAIR and HuR on cell viability in SCC25 and FaDu cells. Wound healing and transwell invasion analysis were performed to detect the effects of HOTAIR and HuR on cell migration and invasion. The interaction between HuR and HOTAIR was confirmed via qRT-PCR, western blots, luciferase reporter and RIP assays. Finally, qRT-PCR analysis was used to detect the levels of HuR and HOTAIR in HNSCC tumours and adjacent normal tissues.
RESULTS: Knockdown of HOTAIR and HuR decreased cell viability, cellular migration and invasion. Moreover, HuR interacted and stabilized HOTAIR stability and thus promoted HOTAIR expression. Notably, HOTAIR acted as a miRNA sponge for HuR. HuR also reinforced HOTAIR sponge activity through miRNA recruitment, thus enhancing HuR expression in turn. Finally, HuR and HOTAIR levels were positively correlated and significantly up-regulated in tumours samples.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the existence of a regulatory loop in which the expression of HOTAIR and HuR is reciprocally and temporally regulated during the metastasis and progression of HNSCC.

Jiang H, Hu H, Lin F, et al.
S100P is Overexpressed in Squamous Cell and Adenosquamous Carcinoma Subtypes of Endometrial Cancer and Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion.
Cancer Invest. 2016; 34(10):477-488 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100P is known to affect tumor development and metastasis of various cancers, but its role in endometrial cancer is unclear. We reported that S100P expression was dramatically elevated in both endometrial squamous cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma, but not in adenocarcinoma and normal endometrial samples. Moreover, we revealed an oncogenic role of S100P promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and migration while reducing apoptosis, possibly via its upregulation and/or activation of receptors of advanced glycation end products and consequently the oncogenic PI3K-AKT and MAPK pathways. Therefore, S100P might be a specific biomarker and a potential drug target for squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinoma subtypes of endometrial cancer.

Zhang JJ, Chen JT, Hua L, et al.
miR-98 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation via targeting EZH2 and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:472-478 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive solid malignancy in the word. Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is involved in human diseases including cancer. In the current study, we explore the function of miR-98 in HCC cell proliferation. We found that expression level of miR-98 was significantly decreased in HCC tissues and cells lines compared with adjacent non-tumor issues and human hepatic cell line LO2. Increased expression of miR-98 suppressed HCC cell proliferation and arrested HCC cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. While, suppressed expression of miR-98 showed the opposite effect. Bioinformatics analysis revealed EZH2, a putative tumor promoter as a potential target of miR-98. Additionally, luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-98 directly binds to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of EZH2 mRNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-98 could reduce the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway by suppressing EZH2 directly. Moreover, inhibition of EZH2 abrogated the effect of miR-98 inhibitor on HCC cell proliferation. Taken together, these results suggested that miR-98 functioned as a potential tumor suppressor by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway through direct suppression of EZH2 expression and might sever as a potential therapeutic target for HCC patients.

Ding WJ, Zhou M, Chen MM, Qu CY
HOXB8 promotes tumor metastasis and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via ZEB2 targets in gastric cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(3):385-397 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The homeobox B8 (HOXB8) functions as a sequence-specific transcription factor that is involved in development. Increased expression of this gene is associated with a wide variety of tumor; however, its function in gastric cancer has not been clarified. In the present study, the expression of HOXB8 in gastric cancer tissues and influence of HOXB8 on gastric cancer cellular were evaluated.
METHODS: The expression levels of HOXB8 mRNA in human gastric cancer tissues were analyzed through quantitative RT-PCR. To test the role of HOXB8 in gastric cancer metastasis, the cell transwell assay was performed. Microarray, ChIP-qPCR, and Western blot were used to explore the possible mechanism that HOXB8 promotes gastric cancer cells metastasis.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that HOXB8 showed higher expression in metastatic tissues than no-metastatic tissues. Overexpression of HOXB8 can promote gastric cancer cells migration and invasion, while silencing HOXB8 leads to the opposite results. Overexpression of HOXB8 also increases the rate of metastasis in NCI-N87 mice, while silencing HOXB8 has the opposite results. Furthermore, HOXB8 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transformation of AGS cells. We also found that ZEB2 can interact with HOXB8 and may be a downstream factor of HOXB8 by using microarray. Knockdown of ZEB2 can inhibit HOXB8-induced migration and invasion capacity, as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation in gastric cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that HOXB8 plays an important role in the development and metastasis of gastric carcinoma.

Zhu C, Zhou R, Zhou Q, et al.
microRNA-539 suppresses tumor growth and tumorigenesis and overcomes arsenic trioxide resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Life Sci. 2016; 166:34-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a critical role in tumor growth and progression. In this study, we sought to explore the expression and biological roles of miR-539 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
MAIN METHODS: The expression of miR-539 in human HCC tissues and cell lines was examined. The effects of miR-539 overexpression on cell growth, tumorigenicity, arsenic trioxide resistance of HCC cells were determined. The signaling pathways involved in the action of miR-539 in HCC were also investigated.
KEY FINDINGS: miR-539 was downregulated in HCC tissues and cells, relative to corresponding controls. Overexpression of miR-539 inhibited HCC cell viability and colony formation in vitro and impaired tumorigenesis of HCC cells in vivo. Transfection with miR-539 mimic significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which was coupled with reduced expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and decreased phosphorylation of Stat3. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of Stat3 partially blocked miR-539-mediated apoptosis. Enforced expression of miR-539 resensitized arsenic trioxide-resistant HCC cells to arsenic trioxide. Intratumoral delivery of miR-539 mimic significantly retarded the growth of xenograft tumors from arsenic trioxide-resistant HCC cells by about 35%, compared to delivery of control miRNA (P<0.05). In combination with arsenic trioxide, miR-539 mimic yielded about 80% decrease in tumor burden.
SIGNIFICANCE: miR-539 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC and reexpression of this miRNA offers a potential therapeutic strategy for this disease.

Hua L, Zheng WY, Xia H, Zhou P
Detecting the potential cancer association or metastasis by multi-omics data analysis.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
Comprehensive multi-omics data analyses have become an important means for understanding cancer incidence and progression largely driven by the availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies for genomes, proteomes, and transcriptomes. However, how tumor cells from the site of origin of the cancer begin to grow in other sites of the body is very poorly understood. In order to examine potential connections between different cancers and to gain an insight into the metastatic process, we conducted a multi-omics data analysis using data deposited in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. By combining somatic mutation data along with DNA methylation level and gene expression level data, we applied a Bayesian network analysis to detect the potential association among four distinct cancer types namely, Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (Hnsc), Lung adenocarcinoma (Luad), Lung squamous cell carcinoma (Lusc), and Skin cutaneous melanoma (Skcm). Further validation based on the 'identification of somatic signatures' and the 'association rules analysis' confirmed these associations. Previous investigations have suggested that common risk factors and molecular abnormalities in cell-cycle regulation and signal transduction predominate among these cancers. This evidence indicates that our study provides a rational analysis and hopefully will help shed light on the links between different cancers and metastasis as a whole.

Wang H, Ding N, Guo J, et al.
Dysregulation of TTP and HuR plays an important role in cancers.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14451-14461 [PubMed] Related Publications
Defects in the adenosine-uridine (AU)-rich elements (AREs), which mediate post-transcriptional regulation, play important roles in cancers. Both tristetraprolin (TTP, also known as TIS11 and ZFP36) and human antigen R (HuR, also known as ELAVL1) are two important and closely related AU-rich RNA-binding proteins (ARE-BPs). High-expression or aberrant nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of HuR and decreased TTP have been found in many types of cancers. TTP mediates the decay of target mRNAs, whereas HuR generally stabilizes target transcripts and promotes translation of certain mRNAs. Furthermore, thousands of overlapping binding sites of TTP and HuR were found in more than 1300 genes. RNA-IP experiments also indicated that TTP can bind directly to and destabilize HuR mRNA. The dysregulation of TTP and HuR has been found to play an important role in the progression of cancers, including inflammation-related cancer, as well as in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, invasion, and chemotherapy resistance. In this review, we provided an overview of the role of TTP and HuR, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the TTP-HuR axis in cancers.

Zhu G, Huang Q, Zheng W, et al.
LPS Upregulated VEGFR-3 Expression Promote Migration and Invasion in Colorectal Cancer via a Mechanism of Increased NF-κB Binding to the Promoter of VEGFR-3.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(5):1665-1678 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lipopolysaccharide(LPS) could promote the progression of colorectal cancer, but the specific regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. So, this study aim to clarify the mechanisms that LPS upregulated VEGFR-3, which promotes colorectal cancer cells migration and invasion with a mechanism of increased NF-κB bind to the promoter of VEGFR-3.
METHODS: The present study examined the VEGFR-3 expression in colorectal cancer tissues and analyzed the relationship between the VEGFR-3 expression with clinical parameters. PCR, Western blot, CCK-8, colone formation assay, and Transwell assay detected that LPS promoted the migration and invasion and the role of VEGFR-3 in the process of colorectal carcinoma in vitro. Used the methods of promoter analysis, EMSA assay and ChIP assay to explore the mechanisms LPS increased the expression of VEGFR-3.
RESULTS: VEGFR-3 was significantly high expression in the colorectal cancer tissues. And the high expression was associated with the TNM stage and lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer. LPS could promote the migration and invasion, which could be blocked by the neutralizing antibody IgG of VEGFR-3. And found that -159 nt to +65 nt was the crucial region of VEGFR-3 promoter. And detected that the NF-κB was important transcription factor for the VEGFR-3 promoter. And LPS could increase NF-κB binding to VEGFR-3 promoter and upregulated the expression of VEGFR-3 to exert biological functions.
CONCLUSION: We have elucidated the relationship between LPS and the VEGFR-3 expression and revealed that VEGFR-3 play very important role in the process of LPS promoting the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells. Further illuminated the mechanism that LPS upregulated VEGFR-3 expression via increased NF-κB bind to the promoter of VEGFR-3.

Chen IC, Lee KH, Hsu YH, et al.
Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer.
Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:8169724 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC.

Zhang Z, Kong Y, Yang W, et al.
Upregulation of microRNA-34a enhances the DDP sensitivity of gastric cancer cells by modulating proliferation and apoptosis via targeting MET.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2391-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cisplatin (DDP) based chemotherapy is still the main strategy of human gastric cancer (GC) treatment. However, drug resistance is a major obstacle for DDP chemotherapy. Recent studies indicated that the resistance could be modulated by the regulation of dysregulated microRNAs (miRs). Previous study also found miR-34a was associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis in human GC; however, the relationship between miR-34a and DDP resistance still remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether miR-34a is associated with DDP resistance in human GC cells. Our study found that the expression of miR-34a was significantly decreased in DDP resistance human GC tissues and DDP resistance human GC SGC7901/DDP cells compared with normal GC tissues and cells. Upregulation of miR-34a enhanced the DDP sensitivity of SGC7901/DDP cells to DDP through the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell apoptosis; on the other hand downregulation of miR-34a could weaken the DDP sensitivity of SGC7901 cells to DDP. Further study found that MET was a direct target of miR-34a and the regulation of MET could affect the DDP sensitivity of SGC7901/DDP cells. Moreover, our study also indicated that up-regulation of miR-34a could decrease the expression of MET in SGC7901/DDP cells. Therefore, our findings suggested miR-34a could modulate human gastric cancer cell DDP sensitivity by regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis via targeting MET, potentially benefiting human GC treatment in the future.

Jiang Z, Liu Z, Zou S, et al.
Transcription factor c-jun regulates β3Gn-T8 expression in gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1353-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant glycosylation, a common feature of malignant alteration, is partly due to changes in the expression of glycosyltransferases, including β1,3-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltrans-ferase 8 (β3Gn‑T8), which synthesizes poly-N-acetyllactosamine (poly-LacNAc) chains on β1,6 branched N‑glycans. Although the role of β3Gn‑T8 in tumors has been reported, the regulation of β3Gn‑T8 expression, however, is still poorly understood. In the present study, we used three online bioinformatic software tools to identify multiple c‑jun binding sites in the promoter of the β3Gn‑T8 gene. Using luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis, RT‑PCR and western blot analysis, we revealed that c‑jun could bind to and activate the β3Gn‑T8 promoter, thus upregulating β3Gn‑T8 expression. This was also confirmed by changes in β3Gn‑T8 activity as demonstrated by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and lectin blot analysis using LEA lectin. Moreover, expression of glycoprotein HG‑CD147, the substrate of β3Gn‑T8, was also regulated by c‑jun. In addition, c‑jun and β3Gn‑T8 were more highly expressed in the gastric cancer tissues when compared to these levels in the adjacent non‑tumor gastric tissues, and β3Gn‑T8 expression was positively correlated with c‑jun expression. These results suggest that c‑jun plays a significant role in regulating the expression of β3Gn‑T8 in the SGC‑7901 cell line and may be involved in the development of malignancy via the activity of β3Gn‑T8.

Li W, Li C, Zheng H, et al.
Therapeutic targets of Traditional Chinese Medicine for colorectal cancer.
J Tradit Chin Med. 2016; 36(2):243-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer and identify possible therapeutic targets of TCM to provide clues for the use of TCM for colorectal cancer prevention and treatment in the clinic and to find novel directions for new drug discovery for colorectal cancer.
METHODS: We used PubMed and Google to search for and collect scientific publications for a full evalu- ation of current evidence in the literature indicating the potential role of Chinese herbal medicines and their respective ingredients as effective candidates for colorectal cancer prevention and treatment.
RESULTS: We extracted a detailed description of potential therapeutic Chinese herbal medicines and their constituent ingredients that target different mechanisms in colorectal cancer such as gene mutation, dysregulation of signaling pathways, metabolism disorders, and the inflammatory microenvironment, including both conventional and non-conventional approaches.
CONCLUSION: TCM may be a promising complementary and alternative therapy for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Leijon H, Salmenkivi K, Heiskanen I, et al.
HuR in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas - overexpression in verified malignant tumors.
APMIS. 2016; 124(9):757-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare, neural crest-originating, neuroendocrine tumors. HuR is an mRNA-binding protein of the ELAV/Hu-protein family, which participates in posttranscriptional regulation of many cancer-associated genes. HuR expression has been connected with aggressive behavior of several malignancies. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is also expressed in several malignant tumors, and its expression is regulated by HuR. Tissue microarray of 153 primary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas was investigated for the expression of HuR and COX-2 proteins by immunohistochemistry using two different HuR antibodies (HuR19F12 and HuR3A). In these tumors, the expression of both intranuclear and cytoplasmic HuR was detectable. Increased cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with metastatic tumors. Increased COX-2 and MIB-1 expression also was associated with metastatic potential, and moreover, HuR and COX-2 expression correlated with each other. Our data suggest that increased expression of HuR protein is associated with metastatic potential of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas, and COX-2 seems to be a target of HuR.

Gong EY, Shin YJ, Hwang IY, et al.
Combined treatment with vitamin C and sulindac synergistically induces p53- and ROS-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2016; 258:126-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sulindac has anti-neoplastic properties against colorectal cancers; however, its use as a chemopreventive agent has been limited due to toxicity and efficacy concerns. Combinatorial treatment of colorectal cancers has been attempted to maximize anti-cancer efficacy with minimal side effects by administrating NSAIDs in combination with other inhibitory compounds or drugs such as l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is known to exhibit cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells at high concentrations. In this study, we evaluated a combinatorial strategy utilizing sulindac and vitamin C. The death of HCT116 cells upon combination therapy occurred via a p53-mediated mechanism. The combination therapeutic resistance developed in isogenic p53 null HCT116 cells and siRNA-mediated p53 knockdown HCT116 cells, but the exogenous expression of p53 in p53 null isogenic cells resulted in the induction of cell death. In addition, we investigated an increased level of intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species), which was preceded by p53 activation. The expression level of PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis), but not Bim, was significantly increased in HCT116 cells in response to the combination treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that combination therapy with sulindac and vitamin C could be a novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategy for p53 wild type colon cancers.

Liu Y, Lu R, Gu J, et al.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 up-regulates stem cell markers in benzo[a]pyrene-induced malignant transformation of BEAS-2B cells.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016; 45:241-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) has been proposed to be a common marker of cancer stem cells and can be induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure. However, the underlying mechanism of how ALDH1A1 contributes to B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells remains unclear. Here, we found that B[a]P up-regulated expression levels of stem cell markers (ABCG2, SOX2, c-Myc and Klf4), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated genes (SNAIL1, ZEB1, TWIST and β-CATENIN) and cancer-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs; HOTAIR and MALAT-1) in malignant B[a]P-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B-T cells), and these up-regulations were dependent on increased expression of ALDH1A1. The inhibition of endogenous ALDH1A1 expression down-regulated expression levels of stem cell markers and reversed the malignant phenotype as well as reduced the chemoresistance of BEAS-2B-T cells. In contrast, the overexpression of ALDH1A1 in BEAS-2B cells increased the expression of stem cell markers, facilitated cell transformation, promoted migratory ability and enhanced the drug resistance of BEAS-2B cells. Overall, our data indicates that ALDH1A1 promotes a stemness phenotype and plays a critical role in the BEAS-2B cell malignant transformation induced by B[a]P.

Choi B, Han TS, Min J, et al.
MAL and TMEM220 are novel DNA methylation markers in human gastric cancer.
Biomarkers. 2017; 22(1):35-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the mRNA-expression of the MAL, TMEM220, MMP28, IL-19 and HOPX genes and analyse the methylation statuses of MAL and TMEM220.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene-expression levels were analysed in 10 GC cell lines and 30 matched pairs of GC and normal mucosa (NM) gastric tissue specimens in real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. Gene methylation was evaluated by bisulphite sequencing. Detailed gene-methylation patterns were confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis.
RESULTS: MAL, TMEM220, MMP28 and IL-19 were significantly down-regulated in GC cell lines and GC tissues compared to NM tissues. MAL and TMEM220 were highly methylated in GC tissues, and methylation inversely correlated with expression. MAL and TMEM220 expression were restored by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. MAL and TMEM220 were specifically methylated and were down-regulated in human GC.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These loci may serve as novel methylation markers for patients with GC.

Muralidharan R, Babu A, Amreddy N, et al.
Folate receptor-targeted nanoparticle delivery of HuR-RNAi suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation and migration.
J Nanobiotechnology. 2016; 14(1):47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human antigen R (HuR) is an RNA binding protein that is overexpressed in many human cancers, including lung cancer, and has been shown to regulate the expression of several oncoproteins. Further, HuR overexpression in cancer cells has been associated with poor-prognosis and therapy resistance. Therefore, we hypothesized that targeted inhibition of HuR in cancer cells should suppress several HuR-regulated oncoproteins resulting in an effective anticancer efficacy. To test our hypothesis, in the present study we investigated the efficacy of folate receptor-α (FRA)-targeted DOTAP:Cholesterol lipid nanoparticles carrying HuR siRNA (HuR-FNP) against human lung cancer cells.
RESULTS: The therapeutic efficacy of HuR-FNP was tested in FRA overexpressing human H1299 lung cancer cell line and compared to normal lung fibroblast (CCD16) cells that had low to no FRA expression. Physico-chemical characterization studies showed HuR-FNP particle size was 303.3 nm in diameter and had a positive surface charge (+4.3 mV). Gel retardation and serum stability assays showed that the FNPs were efficiently protected siRNA from rapid degradation. FNP uptake was significantly higher in H1299 cells compared to CCD16 cells indicating a receptor-dose effect. The results of competitive inhibition studies in H1299 cells demonstrated that HuR-FNPs were efficiently internalized via FRA-mediated endocytosis. Biologic studies demonstrated HuR-FNP but not C-FNP (control siRNA) induced G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in H1299 cells resulting in significant growth inhibition. Further, HuR-FNP exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against H1299 cells than it did against CCD16 cells. The reduction in H1299 cell viability was correlated with a marked decrease in HuR mRNA and protein expression. Further, reduced expression of HuR-regulated oncoproteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Bcl-2) and increased p27 tumor suppressor protein were observed in HuR-FNP-treated H1299 cells but not in C-FNP-treated cells. Finally, cell migration was significantly inhibited in HuR-FNP-treated H1299 cells compared to C-FNP.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that HuR is a molecular target for lung cancer therapy and its suppression using HuR-FNP produced significant therapeutic efficacy in vitro.

Bose S, Tholanikunnel TE, Reuben A, et al.
Regulation of nucleolin expression by miR-194, miR-206, and HuR.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 417(1-2):141-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleolin is a proliferation-associated protein that is overexpressed in multiple types of cancer. The mechanisms leading to overexpression of nucleolin in specific cancers are not fully understood. This study found that nucleolin is notably elevated in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-231 compared to nonmalignant breast epithelial MCF-10A cells. In silico analyses revealed the presence of putative binding sites for microRNAs miR-194 and miR-206 in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Ncl mRNA. Transfection of the three cell lines with pre-miR-194 or pre-miR-206 specifically decreased the Ncl mRNA and protein expression. Treatments of the cells with antagomiR-194 or antagomiR-206 upregulated nucleolin expression ~2- to 3-fold. Co-transfection of cells with a reporter vector containing the Ncl 3'-UTR downstream from the Renilla luciferase gene and pre-miR-194 or pre-miR-206 led to a ~3-fold decrease in Renilla/firefly luciferase activity. Cytoplasmic levels of the RNA-binding protein HuR were higher in MCF-7 and MDA-231 cells than those in MCF-10A cells. RNA immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that HuR binds to Ncl mRNA in all the three cell types. ShRNA-mediated knock-down of HuR induced a decrease in nucleolin expression, while exogenous expression of HuR led to upregulation of nucleolin expression. Analysis of the polysome-monosome distribution of Ncl mRNA in HuR knock-down cells demonstrated that HuR enhances the translation efficiency of Ncl mRNA. These findings demonstrate that nucleolin expression is down-regulated by miR-194 and miR-206 and upregulated by HuR.

Xu H, Ma J, Zheng J, et al.
MiR-31 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Lung Adenocarcinoma Mainly by Targeting HuR.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(4):711-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene expression is widely regulated by miRNAs and RNA binding proteins. In this study, we mainly focused on miR-31 and a RNA binding protein, HuR (Hu antigen R).
METHODS: The levels of miR-31 and HuR in lung carcinoma cells and lung cancer tissues were explored using RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the target gene of miR-31. Cell apoptosis and migration were studied using flow cytometry and the transwell invasion assay. The down-stream genes of HuR were explored with western blot assay.
RESULTS: miR-31 was decreased in lung carcinoma cells and lung cancer tissues, while the protein level of HuR was increased. HuR was the target gene of miR-31. Inhibition of miR-31 and overexpression of HuR resulted in the upregulation of cyclins A2, B1, D1 and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). Furthermore, overexpression of miR-31 prompted lung cancer cell apoptosis and inhibited cell migration.
CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of miR-31 expression enhanced lung cancer proliferation and migration by repressing HuR expression.

Tao LY, Zhang LF, Xiu DR, et al.
Prognostic significance of K-ras mutations in pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.
World J Surg Oncol. 2016; 14:146 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: K-ras gene mutations are common in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC); however, their prognostic value for PC remains inconclusive. This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively evaluate the association between K-ras mutations and survival in patients with pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of electronic sources including MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. The search covered a publication period from inception to November 2015.
RESULTS: Seventeen studies with a total of 2249 patients with pancreatic cancer were included in the tissue detection of this study. The meta-analysis indicated a significant association between mutant K-ras genes and overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.32-1.72, P < 0.001). Moreover, further subgroup analyses by ethnicity, publication year, therapy method, cancer resectability, and gene detection method all revealed that pancreatic cancer patients with the K-ras mutation had significantly poorer OS (P < 0.05). And results from four studies with 225 patients focused on plasma K-ras mutations enhanced such association (HR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.69-2.95, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: As a prediction of poor prognosis, the detection of K-ras mutations may be a useful prognostic factor for pancreatic cancer patients.

Sun ZZ, Zhang T, Ning K, et al.
B7-H3 upregulates BRCC3 expression, antagonizing DNA damage caused by 5-Fu.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(1):231-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) is still recognized as the mainstay in colorectal cancer chemotherapy, but the response rate of 5-Fu in colorectal cancer is less than 50%. Our previous mRNA microarray data revealed that BRCC3, a component of the BRCA1-BRCA2-BRCC3 DNA repair complex, had a direct relationship with B7-H3, an immunoglobulin that is upregulated in tumor tissue and associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis confirmed that the expression of both BRCC3 mRNA and protein, respectively, were elevated following B7-H3 overexpression in SW480 cells; likewise, BRCC3 expression decreased after B7-H3 was knocked down in HCT-8 cells. DNA comet assay results indicate an inverse correlation between the extent of 5-Fu-induced DNA damage and the expression level of B7-H3 in both SW480- and HCT-8-based cell lines. In SW480 cells that overexpress B7-H3, knockdown of BRCC3 similarly permitted greater 5-Fu-induced DNA damage. Altogether, results suggest that BRCC3 may play a role in B7-H3-induced 5-Fu resistance, such that B7-H3 upregulates BRCC3 expression, enhancing DNA repair in colorectal cancer cells.

Guan Y, Wang ZJ, Wang LQ, et al.
Comparison of EGFR mutation rates in lung adenocarcinoma tissue and pleural effusion samples.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
The goal of the current study was to investigate the differences in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation rates in tumor tissue and pleural effusion specimens from patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PCR amplification and gene sequencing were used to detect EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 in tumor tissue and pleural effusion samples from 50 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. The EGFR mutation rate was 34.0% in tissue samples from patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. There were 11 cases with exon 19 mutations and 6 cases with exon 21 mutations. The EGFR mutation rate was 30.0% in pleural effusion specimens, including 10 cases with exon 19 mutation and 5 cases with exon 21 mutations. Although the tissue samples had a slightly higher mutation rate compared to the pleural effusion samples, the difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that the EGFR mutation rate detected in pleural effusion specimens from patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma is similar to that detected in tumor tissue samples. Therefore, pleural effusion specimens can potentially be used for EGFR mutation detection in advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

Wu W, Lin Y, Xiang L, et al.
Low-dose decitabine plus all-trans retinoic acid in patients with myeloid neoplasms ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(7):1051-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
In our previous in vitro trials, decitabine and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) demonstrated synergistic effects on growth inhibition, differentiation, and apoptosis in SHI-1 cells; in K562 cells, ATRA enhanced the effect of decitabine on p16 demethylation, and the combination of the two drugs was found to activate RAR-β expression (p16 and RAR-β are two tumor suppressor genes). On the rationale of our in vitro trials, we used low-dose decitabine and ATRA to treat 31 myeloid neoplasms deemed ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. The regimen consisted of decitabine at the dose of 15 mg/m(2) intravenously over 1 h daily for consecutive 5 days and ATRA at the dose of 20 mg/m(2) orally from day 1 to 28 except day 4 to 28 in the first cycle, and the regimen was repeated every 28 days. After 6 cycles, decitabine treatment was stopped, and ATRA treatment was continued for maintenance treatment. Treated with a median of 2 cycles (range 1-6), 7 patients (22.6 %) achieved complete remission (CR), 7 (22.6 %) marrow CR (mCR), and 4 (12.9 %) partial remission (PR). The overall remission (CR, mCR, and PR) rate was 58.1 %, and the best response (CR and mCR) rate was 45.2 %. The median overall survival (OS) was 11.0 months, the 1-year OS rate was 41.9 %, and the 2-year OS rate was 26.6 %. In univariate analyses, age, performance status, comorbidities, white blood cell counts and platelets at diagnosis, percentage of bone marrow blasts, karyotype, and treatment efficacy demonstrated no impacts on OS (P > 0.05, each). Main side effects were tolerable hematologic toxicities. In conclusion, low-dose decitabine plus ATRA is a promising treatment for patients with myeloid neoplasms judged ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.

Xie BH, He X, Hua RX, et al.
Mir-765 promotes cell proliferation by downregulating INPP4B expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(3):405-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation is widely involved in cancer progression and contributed to sustained cell proliferation by directly targeting multiple targets. Therefore, better understanding the underlying mechanism of miRNA in carcinogenesis may improve diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for malignancy. In our study, we found that mir-765 is upregulated in both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tissues, compared to human normal liver cell line and adjacent non-cancerous tissues, respectively. Overexpression of mir-765 increased HCC cells proliferation and tumorigenicity, whereas inhibition of mir-765 reverses this effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that INPP4B as a direct target of mir-765 and ectopic expression of mir-765 repressed INPP4B expression, resulting in upregulation of p-AKT, Cyclin D1, and downregulation of p-FOXO3a, p21 expression in HCC. Strikingly, we found that silencing the expression of INPP4B is the essential biological function of miR-765 during HCC cell proliferation. Collectively, our findings reveal that miR-765 is a potential onco-miR that participates in carcinogenesis of human HCC by suppressing INPP4B expression, and might represent a potential therapeutic target for HCC patients.

Li CW, Chen BS
Network Biomarkers of Bladder Cancer Based on a Genome-Wide Genetic and Epigenetic Network Derived from Next-Generation Sequencing Data.
Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:4149608 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic and microRNA (miRNA) regulation are associated with carcinogenesis and the development of cancer. By using the available omics data, including those from next-generation sequencing (NGS), genome-wide methylation profiling, candidate integrated genetic and epigenetic network (IGEN) analysis, and drug response genome-wide microarray analysis, we constructed an IGEN system based on three coupling regression models that characterize protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs), gene regulatory networks (GRNs), miRNA regulatory networks (MRNs), and epigenetic regulatory networks (ERNs). By applying system identification method and principal genome-wide network projection (PGNP) to IGEN analysis, we identified the core network biomarkers to investigate bladder carcinogenic mechanisms and design multiple drug combinations for treating bladder cancer with minimal side-effects. The progression of DNA repair and cell proliferation in stage 1 bladder cancer ultimately results not only in the derepression of miR-200a and miR-200b but also in the regulation of the TNF pathway to metastasis-related genes or proteins, cell proliferation, and DNA repair in stage 4 bladder cancer. We designed a multiple drug combination comprising gefitinib, estradiol, yohimbine, and fulvestrant for treating stage 1 bladder cancer with minimal side-effects, and another multiple drug combination comprising gefitinib, estradiol, chlorpromazine, and LY294002 for treating stage 4 bladder cancer with minimal side-effects.

Sun J, Wang X, Fu C, et al.
Long noncoding RNA FGFR3-AS1 promotes osteosarcoma growth through regulating its natural antisense transcript FGFR3.
Mol Biol Rep. 2016; 43(5):427-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new class of RNAs with no protein-coding potential, have been reported to have crucial roles in the regulation of a variety of tumors. However, the functions and molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs to osteosarcoma are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine the expression, functions and molecular mechanisms of a new lncRNA FGFR3 antisense transcript 1 (FGFR3-AS1) in osteosarcoma. The expression of FGFR3-AS1 was examined by real-time quantitative PCR. The regulation of FGFR3 by FGFR3-AS1 was examined by RNase protection assay, real-time quantitative PCR, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assay. The effects of FGFR3-AS1 on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and cell cycle were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8, Ethynyl deoxyuridine incorporation assay and flow cytometry. FGFR3-AS1 was upregulated in osteosarcoma. Increased FGFR3-AS1 expression correlates with large tumor size, advanced Enneking stage, metastasis and poor survival. Through antisense pairing with FGFR3 3'UTR, FGFR3-AS1 increases FGFR3 mRNA stability and upregulates FGFR3 expression. The expression of FGFR3-AS1 and FGFR3 is positively correlated in osteosarcoma tissues. Knockdown of FGFR3-AS1 inhibits the proliferation and cell cycle progression of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Moreover, knockdown of FGFR3-AS1 inhibits xenograft tumor growth of osteosarcoma cells in vivo. These data demonstrate the mechanisms of how antisense noncoding RNA regulate the expression of sense genes, and show the pivotal functions of FGFR3-AS1 in osteosarcoma.

Wang J, Pan Y, Wu J, et al.
The Association between Abnormal Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Expression and Cancer Lymph Node Metastasis: A Meta-Analysis.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:1823482 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies have investigated that the expression levels of MALAT-1 were higher in cancerous tissues than matched histologically normal tissues. And, to some extent, overexpression of MALAT-1 was inclined to lymph node metastasis. This meta-analysis collected all relevant articles and explored the association between MALAT-1 expression levels and lymph node metastasis. We searched PubMed, EmBase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and OVID to address the level of MALAT-1 expression in cancer cases and noncancerous controls (accessed February 2015). And 8 studies comprising 696 multiple cancer patients were included to assess this association. The odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association using Stata 12.0 version software. The results revealed there was a significant difference in the incidence of lymph node metastasis between high MALAT-1 expression group and low MALAT-1 expression group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.15-3.28, P = 0.013 random-effects model). Subgroup analysis indicated that MALAT-1 high expression had an unfavorable impact on lymph node metastasis in Chinese patients (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.01-2.46). This study demonstrated that the incidence of lymph node metastasis in patients detected with high MALAT-1 expression was higher than that in patients with low MALAT-1 expression in China.

Kim JH, Key EY, Song MJ, et al.
Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms in Korean women with human papillomavirus-related cervical neoplasia.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016; 95(7):829-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene polymorphisms and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical neoplasia in Korean women.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples collected from 127 patients with HPV-related cervical neoplasia and 175 healthy women were genotyped for the TLR2 -16934, +1350, intron1, and 3' untranslated region (UTR) polymorphisms using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method.
RESULTS: The TLR2 -16934 A/A, intron1 A/A, and +1350 T/C genotypes were more frequent in patients than in controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.302-3.475, p = 0.002; OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.168-3.169, p = 0.010; and OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.211-3.123, p = 0.006, respectively]. The frequencies of the TLR2 + 1350 C and 3'UTR G alleles were also higher in patients (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.236-3.121, p = 0.004 and OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.005-3.076, p = 0.046, respectively). The genotype frequencies of TLR2 -16934 A/A and intron1 A/A increased with increasing oncogenic risk of the HPV genotype, as follows. low-risk type < high-risk type < HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 type (p = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first evidence that TLR2 gene polymorphisms are associated with high-risk type HPV-related cervical neoplasia and may play an important role in susceptibility to HPV infection. Further large-scale and functional studies are needed to confirm the role of TLR2 gene polymorphisms in HPV-related cervical neoplasia.

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