SHBG

Gene Summary

Gene:SHBG; sex hormone binding globulin
Aliases: ABP, SBP, TEBG
Location:17p13.1
Summary:This gene encodes a steroid binding protein that was first described as a plasma protein secreted by the liver but is now thought to participate in the regulation of steroid responses. The encoded protein transports androgens and estrogens in the blood, binding each steroid molecule as a dimer formed from identical or nearly identical monomers. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:sex hormone-binding globulin
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Risk Factors
  • Messenger RNA
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Phenotype
  • Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
  • Estradiol
  • Haplotypes
  • Luteinizing Hormone
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Adolescents
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotype
  • Alleles
  • Polymorphism
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Utah
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Body Mass Index
  • Hyperandrogenism
  • Androgens
  • Chromosome 17
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Odds Ratio
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Estrogens
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Exons
  • Base Sequence
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Postmenopause
  • Siblings
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SHBG (cancer-related)

Kopp TI, Jensen DM, Ravn-Haren G, et al.
Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women - effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:283 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and interaction with aromatase (encoded by CYP19A1). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) may also affect circulating sex-hormone levels by modifying PPARγ activity.
METHODS: In the present study we assessed whether genetic variation in CYP19A1 is associated with risk of BC in a case-control study group nested within the Danish "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort (ncases = 687 and ncontrols = 687) and searched for gene-gene interaction between CYP19A1 and PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and PPARG, and gene-alcohol and gene-NSAID interactions. Association between the CYP19A1 polymorphisms and hormone levels was also examined among 339 non-HRT users. Incidence rate ratios were calculated based on Cox' proportional hazards model. Furthermore, we performed a pilot randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of the PPARG Pro(12)Ala polymorphism and the PPARγ stimulator Ibuprofen on sex-hormone levels following alcohol intake in postmenopausal women (n = 25) using linear regression.
RESULTS: Genetic variations in CYP19A1 were associated with hormone levels (estrone: P rs11070844 = 0.009, estrone sulphate: P rs11070844 = 0.01, P rs749292 = 0.004, P rs1062033 = 0.007 and P rs10519297 = 0.03, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG): P rs3751591 = 0.03) and interacted with alcohol intake in relation to hormone levels (estrone sulphate: P interaction/rs2008691 = 0.02 and P interaction/rs1062033= 0.03, and SHBG: P interaction/rs11070844 = 0.03). CYP19A1/rs3751591 was both associated with SHBG levels (P = 0.03) and with risk of BC (Incidence Rate Ratio = 2.12; 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.02-4.43) such that homozygous variant allele carriers had increased levels of serum SHBG and were at increased risk of BC. Acute intake of alcohol decreased blood estrone (P = <0.0001), estrone sulphate (P = <0.0001), and SHBG (P = 0.009) levels, whereas Ibuprofen intake and PPARG Pro(12)Ala genotype had no effect on hormone levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetically determined variation in CYP19A1 is associated with differences in sex hormone levels. However, the genetically determined differences in sex hormone levels were not convincingly associated with BC risk. The results therefore indicate that the genetically determined variation in CYP19A1 contributes little to BC risk and to alcohol-mediated BC risk.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02463383, June 3, 2015.

Graff RE, Meisner A, Ahearn TU, et al.
Pre-diagnostic circulating sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer by ERG tumour protein expression.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(8):939-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have shown androgen receptor stimulation to facilitate formation of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cell lines. No study has tested whether higher pre-diagnostic circulating sex hormone levels in men increase risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer specifically.
METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 200 prostate cancer cases and 1057 controls from the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We examined associations between pre-diagnostic circulating levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, DHT, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and SHBG and risk of prostate cancer by TMPRSS2:ERG status. TMPRSS2:ERG was estimated by ERG immunohistochemistry. We used multivariable unconditional polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of ERG-positive (n=94) and, separately, ERG-negative (n=106) disease.
RESULTS: Free testosterone was significantly associated with the risk of ERG-positive prostate cancer (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.05-1.77), but not ERG-negative prostate cancer (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.86-1.38) (Pdiff=0.17). None of the remaining hormones evaluated showed clear differential associations with ERG-positive vs ERG-negative disease.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide some suggestive evidence that higher pre-diagnostic free testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer.

Demark-Wahnefried W, Nix JW, Hunter GR, et al.
Feasibility outcomes of a presurgical randomized controlled trial exploring the impact of caloric restriction and increased physical activity versus a wait-list control on tumor characteristics and circulating biomarkers in men electing prostatectomy for prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with tumor aggressiveness and disease-specific mortality for more than 15 defined malignancies, including prostate cancer. Preclinical studies suggest that weight loss from caloric restriction and increased physical activity may suppress hormonal, energy-sensing, and inflammatory factors that drive neoplastic progression; however, exact mechanisms are yet to be determined, and experiments in humans are limited.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 40 overweight or obese, newly-diagnosed prostate cancer patients who elected prostatectomy to explore feasibility of a presurgical weight loss intervention that promoted a weight loss of roughly one kg. week(-1) via caloric restriction and physical activity, as well as to assess effects on tumor biology and circulating biomarkers. Measures of feasibility (accrual, retention, adherence, and safety) were primary endpoints. Exploratory aims were directed at the intervention's effect on tumor proliferation (Ki-67) and other tumor markers (activated caspase-3, insulin and androgen receptors, VEGF, TNFβ, NFκB, and 4E-BP1), circulating biomarkers (PSA, insulin, glucose, VEGF, TNFβ, leptin, SHBG, and testosterone), lymphocytic gene expression of corresponding factors and cellular bioenergetics in neutrophils, and effects on the gut microbiome. Consenting patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either: 1) weight loss via a healthful, guidelines-based diet and exercise regimen; or 2) a wait-list control. While biological testing is currently ongoing, this paper details our methods and feasibility outcomes.
RESULTS: The accrual target was met after screening 101 cases (enrollment rate: 39.6%). Other outcomes included a retention rate of 85%, excellent adherence (95%), and no serious reported adverse events. No significant differences by age, race, or weight status were noted between enrollees vs. non-enrollees. The most common reasons for non-participation were "too busy" (30%), medical exclusions (21%), and "distance" (16%).
CONCLUSIONS: Presurgical trials offer a means to study the impact of diet and exercise interventions directly on tumor tissue, and other host factors that are feasible and safe, though modifications are needed to conduct trials within an abbreviated period of time and via distance medicine-based approaches. Pre-surgical trials are critical to elucidate the impact of lifestyle interventions on specific mechanisms that mediate carcinogenesis and which can be used subsequently as therapeutic targets.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01886677.

Shaikh N, Dadachanji R, Meherji P, et al.
Polymorphisms and haplotypes of insulin-like factor 3 gene are associated with risk of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian women.
Gene. 2016; 577(2):180-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), secreted by the ovarian theca cells is involved in androgen production, follicular growth and oocyte maturation. Both androgens and INSL3 levels are reported to be elevated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), indicating that INSL3 could contribute to PCOS etiology. This case-control association study explored the impact of INSL3 polymorphisms on PCOS susceptibility and its related traits.
METHODS: Genotyping of exonic polymorphisms of INSL3 was performed in controls (n=333) and PCOS (n=405) women. Phenotyping (clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters) was carried out in 205 controls and 301 PCOS women. Genotype, haplotype and genotype-phenotype associations were determined using statistical tests.
RESULTS: Three polymorphisms in exon 1-rs2286663 (G/A), rs1047233 (A/G), and rs6523 (A/G), and one in exon 3-rs1003887 (G/A), were present in our study subjects. The frequencies of rs6523 and AGAG haplotype were significantly increased in PCOS women. The rs6523 polymorphism showed significant association with increased cholesterol and HDL-C levels in PCOS women while in controls with decreased FBS, Bio-T and FAI, and increased SHBG levels. Significant association of, rs1047233 polymorphism with improved androgen related parameters in controls, rs2286663 polymorphism with decreased QUICKI in PCOS and rs1003887 polymorphism with increased insulin levels and HOMA-IR in controls were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The rs6523 polymorphism and AGAG haplotype of INSL3 showed significant association with increased risk of PCOS. Additionally, INSL3 polymorphisms influenced metabolic and hyperandrogenemia related parameters in both controls and PCOS women. This is the first study to suggest that INSL3 may be a genetic predisposition factor in PCOS pathophysiology.

Abu-Hijleh TM, Gammoh E, Al-Busaidi AS, et al.
Common Variants in the Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) Gene Influence SHBG Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Ann Nutr Metab. 2016; 68(1):66-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). SHBG polymorphisms associated with reduced SHBG production were tested for their association with PCOS, but with inconclusive results. We tested whether altered SHBG levels and SHBG variants were associated with PCOS.
METHODS: The study subjects included 242 women with PCOS and 238 control women. SHBG genotyping was done by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: Higher minor allele frequency of rs13894, rs858521 and rs727428 was seen in PCOS cases, and significant differences in rs858521 and rs727428 genotypes distribution were seen between PCOS cases and controls. Multivariate regression analysis confirmed the association of only rs727428 with PCOS. Though it was not statistically significant, serum SHBG levels were reduced according to rs727428 genotypes in PCOS cases than in controls. Carriage of rs727428 minor allele was associated with significant increases in free/bioactive testosterone in PCOS cases. Seven-locus (rs9898876-rs13894-rs858521-rs1799941-rs6257-rs6259-rs727428) haploview analysis showed increased frequency of GCCGTGA, GTCGTGA and GTCATGG, and reduced frequency of GTCGTGG haplotypes in PCOS cases than in controls, thus conferring disease susceptibility and protective nature to these haplotypes, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Specific SHBG variants affecting serum SHBG levels and SHBG haplotypes are associated with PCOS, suggesting the role for SHBG as PCOS candidate gene.

Ojeda-Ojeda M, Martínez-García MÁ, Alpañés M, et al.
Association of TLR2 S450S and ICAM1 K469E polymorphisms with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity.
J Reprod Immunol. 2016; 113:9-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by inflammatory stimuli and influence endothelial functions, contributing to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigate the influence of polymorphisms in the genes encoding toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4) and endothelial adhesion molecules on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its interaction with obesity. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 305 women with PCOS and 166 non-hyperandrogenic control women. In obese women, TLR2 S450S and ICAM1 K469E polymorphisms differently influenced metabolic variables and PCOS, respectively. Irrespective of PCOS, variant alleles of TLR2 S450S increased triglycerides, fasting insulin levels, and insulin resistance in obese women. TLR2 S450S interacted with obesity and PCOS on androstenedione levels, mutant alleles were associated with increased androstenedione concentrations in all women, with the exception of obese patients with PCOS (P=0.034). Regarding ICAM1 K469E, homozygosis for K469 alleles was more frequent in PCOS, but only in obese women (P=0.014). K469 alleles were also related to increased body mass index (P=0.017) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.034). Moreover, ICAM1 K469E interacted with obesity and PCOS on serum triglyceride levels (P=0.019) and with PCOS on serum sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations (P=0.006). In conclusion, TLR2 S450S and ICAM1 K469E polymorphisms may be associated with PCOS and metabolic comorbidities in obese women.

Choi JW, Kim HA, Nam K, et al.
Hepatoma targeting peptide conjugated bio-reducible polymer complexed with oncolytic adenovirus for cancer gene therapy.
J Control Release. 2015; 220(Pt B):691-703 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
Despite adenovirus (Ad) vector's numerous advantages for cancer gene therapy, such as high ability of endosomal escape, efficient nuclear entry mechanism, and high transduction, and therapeutic efficacy, tumor specific targeting and antiviral immune response still remain as a critical challenge in clinical setting. To overcome these obstacles and achieve cancer-specific targeting, we constructed tumor targeting bioreducible polymer, an arginine grafted bio-reducible polymer (ABP)-PEG-HCBP1, by conjugating PEGylated ABP with HCBP1 peptides which has high affinity and selectivity towards hepatoma. The ABP-PEG-HCBP1-conjugated replication incompetent GFP-expressing ad, (Ad/GFP)-ABP-PEG-HCBP1, showed a hepatoma cancer specific uptake and transduction compared to either naked Ad/GFP or Ad/GFP-ABP. Competition assays demonstrated that Ad/GFP-ABP-PEG-HCBP1-mediated transduction was specifically inhibited by HCBP1 peptide rather than coxsackie and adenovirus receptor specific antibody. In addition, ABP-PEG-HCBP1 can protect biological activity of Ad against serum, and considerably reduced both innate and adaptive immune response against Ad. shMet-expressing oncolytic Ad (oAd; RdB/shMet) complexed with ABP-PEG-HCBP1 delivered oAd efficiently into hepatoma cancer cells. The oAd/ABP-PEG-HCBP1 demonstrated enhanced cancer cell killing efficacy in comparison to oAd/ABP complex. Furthermore, Huh7 and HT1080 cancer cells treated with oAd/shMet-ABP-PEG-HCBP1 complex had significantly decreased Met and VEGF expression in hepatoma cancer, but not in non-hepatoma cancer. In sum, these results suggest that HCBP1-conjugated bioreducible polymer could be used to deliver oncolytic Ad safely and efficiently to treat hepatoma.

Jedrzejuk D, Łaczmański Ł, Milewicz A, et al.
Classic PCOS phenotype is not associated with deficiency of endogenous vitamin D and VDR gene polymorphisms rs731236 (TaqI), rs7975232 (ApaI), rs1544410 (BsmI), rs10735810 (FokI): a case-control study of lower Silesian women.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2015; 31(12):976-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: The role of endogenous vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still controversial.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate for the first time in women with "classic" PCOS phenotype and healthy controls the role of the serum endogenous vitamin D level and VDR gene polymorphisms in PCOS etiology.
DESIGN: Ninety-two women with "classic" PCOS phenotype and 85 controls from lower Silesia with comparable body mass index (BMI) were studied. In all women the waist circumference, android/gynoid fat deposit, parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism, testosterone, free androgen index, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and vitamin D were evaluated. Also, VDR gene polymorphisms rs731236, rs7975232, rs1544410 and rs10735810 were assessed.
RESULTS: Serum vitamin D levels in both groups were comparable. Also high, comparable frequencies of hypovitaminosis and vitamin D deficiency in both groups were observed. Women with "classic" PCOS phenotype had statistically significantly higher values of all measured parameters, except serum SHBG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, which were lower. The frequency of VDR genotype polymorphism was also comparable in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we show that endogenous vitamin D deficiency and VDR polymorphisms are not associated with homogeneous "classic" PCOS phenotype.

Day FR, Hinds DA, Tung JY, et al.
Causal mechanisms and balancing selection inferred from genetic associations with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8464 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common reproductive disorder in women, yet there is little consensus regarding its aetiology. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of PCOS in up to 5,184 self-reported cases of White European ancestry and 82,759 controls, with follow-up in a further ∼2,000 clinically validated cases and ∼100,000 controls. We identify six signals for PCOS at genome-wide statistical significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), in/near genes ERBB4/HER4, YAP1, THADA, FSHB, RAD50 and KRR1. Variants in/near three of the four epidermal growth factor receptor genes (ERBB2/HER2, ERBB3/HER3 and ERBB4/HER4) are associated with PCOS at or near genome-wide significance. Mendelian randomization analyses indicate causal roles in PCOS aetiology for higher BMI (P=2.5 × 10(-9)), higher insulin resistance (P=6 × 10(-4)) and lower serum sex hormone binding globulin concentrations (P=5 × 10(-4)). Furthermore, genetic susceptibility to later menopause is associated with higher PCOS risk (P=1.6 × 10(-8)) and PCOS-susceptibility alleles are associated with higher serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations in girls (P=8.9 × 10(-5)). This large-scale study implicates an aetiological role of the epidermal growth factor receptors, infers causal mechanisms relevant to clinical management and prevention, and suggests balancing selection mechanisms involved in PCOS risk.

Horning AM, Awe JA, Wang CM, et al.
DNA methylation screening of primary prostate tumors identifies SRD5A2 and CYP11A1 as candidate markers for assessing risk of biochemical recurrence.
Prostate. 2015; 75(15):1790-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Altered DNA methylation in CpG islands of gene promoters has been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) progression and can be used to predict disease outcome. In this study, we determine whether methylation changes of androgen biosynthesis pathway (ABP)-related genes in patients' plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can serve as prognostic markers for biochemical recurrence (BCR).
METHODS: Methyl-binding domain capture sequencing (MBDCap-seq) was used to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in primary tumors of patients who subsequently developed BCR or not, respectively. Methylation pyrosequencing of candidate loci was validated in cfDNA samples of 86 PCa patients taken at and/or post-radical prostatectomy (RP) using univariate and multivariate prediction analyses.
RESULTS: Putative DMRs in 13 of 30 ABP-related genes were found between tumors of BCR (n = 12) versus no evidence of disease (NED) (n = 15). In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data confirmed increased DNA methylation of two loci-SRD5A2 and CYP11A1, which also correlated with their decreased expression, in tumors with subsequent BCR development. Their aberrant cfDNA methylation was also associated with detectable levels of PSA taken after patients' post-RP. Multivariate analysis of the change in cfDNA methylation at all of CpG sites measured along with patient's treatment history predicted if a patient will develop BCR with 77.5% overall accuracy.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, increased DNA methylation of SRD5A2 and CYP11A1 related to androgen biosynthesis functions may play a role in BCR after patients' RP. The correlation between aberrant cfDNA methylation and detectable PSA in post-RP further suggests their utility as predictive markers for PCa recurrence. .

Du T, Duan Y, Li K, et al.
Statistical Genomic Approach Identifies Association between FSHR Polymorphisms and Polycystic Ovary Morphology in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:483726 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene are associated with PCOS. However, their relationship to the polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether PCOS related SNPs in the FSHR gene are associated with PCO in women with PCOS.
METHODS: Patients were grouped into PCO (n = 384) and non-PCO (n = 63) groups. Genomic genotypes were profiled using Affymetrix human genome SNP chip 6. Two polymorphisms (rs2268361 and rs2349415) of FSHR were analyzed using a statistical approach.
RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the allele distributions of the GG genotype of rs2268361 between the PCO and non-PCO groups (27.6% GG, 53.4% GA, and 19.0% AA versus 33.3% GG, 36.5% GA, and 30.2% AA), while no significant differences were found in the allele distributions of the GG genotype of rs2349415. When rs2268361 was considered, there were statistically significant differences of serum follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin between genotypes in the PCO group. In case of the rs2349415 SNP, only serum sex hormone binding globulin was statistically different between genotypes in the PCO group.
CONCLUSIONS: Functional variants in FSHR gene may contribute to PCO susceptibility in women with PCOS.

Dadachanji R, Shaikh N, Khavale S, et al.
PON1 polymorphisms are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome susceptibility, related traits, and PON1 activity in Indian women with the syndrome.
Fertil Steril. 2015; 104(1):207-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) susceptibility and its related traits in Indian women.
DESIGN: Case-control study.
SETTING: Academic research institute, infertility, and endocrinology clinics.
PATIENT(S): Controls (n = 326), women with PCOS (n = 482).
INTERVENTION(S): None.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Genotypic and allelic frequency distribution, genotype-phenotype association, different PON1 activities (lactonase, arylesterase, and paraoxonase).
RESULT(S): The genotypic and allelic frequency distributions of the L55M polymorphism were significantly different between lean controls and lean women with PCOS, and this polymorphism reduced the risk of PCOS development in lean but not in obese Indian women. Furthermore, this polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased 2-hour glucose, apolipoprotein B, free and bioavailable T, and free androgen index concurrent with increased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and FSH levels only in lean women with PCOS. However, Q192R polymorphism showed comparable genotypic frequency distribution between controls and women with PCOS. PON1 lactonase and arylesterase activities were significantly decreased in women with PCOS compared with controls. PON1 polymorphisms were shown to influence its activities.
CONCLUSION(S): Our study showed that L55M, but not Q192R, polymorphism is significantly associated with reduced PCOS susceptibility only in lean women and also impacts glucose metabolism, lipid parameters, and hyperandrogenemia in them. Our study therefore suggests the possibility of differential genetic pathophysiology of PCOS between lean and obese women.

Subbannayya Y, Mir SA, Renuse S, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed serum proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma.
J Proteomics. 2015; 127(Pt A):80-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Gastric adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. Blood based biomarkers of gastric cancer have the potential to improve diagnosis and monitoring of these tumors. Proteins that show altered levels in the circulation of gastric cancer patients could prove useful as putative biomarkers. We used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that show altered levels in the sera of patients with gastric cancer. Our study resulted in identification of 643 proteins, of which 48 proteins showed increased levels and 11 proteins showed decreased levels in serum from gastric cancer patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Proteins that showed increased expression in gastric cancer included inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), Mannose-binding protein C (MBL2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), serum amyloid A protein (SAA1), Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) and extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SOD3). We used multiple reaction monitoring assays and validated elevated levels of ITIH4 and SAA1 proteins in serum from gastric cancer patients.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Gastric cancer is a highly aggressive cancer associated with high mortality. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable interest in diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases including cancers. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages resulting in poor prognosis and high mortality. Pathological diagnosis using biopsy specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable importance as they are minimally invasive. In this study, we carried out quantitative proteomic profiling of serum from gastric cancer patients to identify proteins that show altered levels in gastric cancer patients. We identified more than 50 proteins that showed altered levels in gastric cancer patient sera. Validation in a large cohort of well classified patient samples would prove useful in identifying novel blood based biomarkers for gastric cancers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

Nam JP, Nam K, Jung S, et al.
Evaluation of dendrimer type bio-reducible polymer as a siRNA delivery carrier for cancer therapy.
J Control Release. 2015; 209:179-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA), 20-25 base pairs in length, can interfere with the expression of specific genes. Recently, many groups reported the therapeutic intervention of siRNA in various cancer cells. In this study, dendrimer type bio-reducible polymer (PAM-ABP) which was synthesized using arginine grafted bio-reducible poly(cystaminebisacrylamide-diaminohexane) (ABP) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) was used to deliver anti-VEGF siRNA into cancer cell lines including human hepatocarcinoma (Huh-7), human lung adenocarcinoma (A549), and human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells and access their potential as a siRNA delivery carrier for cancer therapy. PAM-ABP and siRNA formed polyplexes with average diameter of 116 nm and charge of around +24.6 mV. The siRNA in the PAM-ABP/siRNA polyplex was released by 5mM DTT and heparin. VEGF gene silencing efficiency of PAM-ABP/siRNA polyplexes was shown to be more effective than PEI/siRNA polyplexes in three cell lines with the following order HT1080>A549>Huh-7.

Eitelhuber AC, Vosyka O, Nagel D, et al.
Activity-based probes for detection of active MALT1 paracaspase in immune cells and lymphomas.
Chem Biol. 2015; 22(1):129-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
MALT1 paracaspase is activated upon antigen receptor stimulation to promote lymphocyte activation. In addition, deregulated MALT1 protease activity drives survival of distinct lymphomas such as the activated B cell type of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Here, we designed fluorophore or biotin-coupled activity based-probes (ABP) that covalently modify the active center of MALT1. MALT1-ABPs are exclusively labeling an active modified full length form of MALT1 upon T cell stimulation. Further, despite the CARMA1 requirement for initial MALT1 activation, the MALT1-ABPs show that protease activity is not confined to the high-molecular CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complex. Using biotin-coupled ABPs, we developed a robust assay for sensitive and selective detection of active MALT1 in cell lines, primary lymphocytes, and DLBCL tumor biopsies. Taken together, MALT1-ABPs represent powerful chemical tools to measure cellular MALT1 activation, determine efficacy of small molecule inhibitors, and classify lymphomas based on MALT1 activity status.

Bohdanowicz-Pawlak A, Lenarcik-Kabza A, Brona A, et al.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome - clinical and metabolic aspects and lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism.
Endokrynol Pol. 2014; 65(6):416-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to assess associations among PCOS and NAFLD, the lipoprotein lipase polymorphism gene, and metabolic disorders in PCOS.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 184 women with PCOS and 125 healthy, premenopausal volunteers, sex steroids, lipids, glucose, insulin, aminotransferases, free androgen index (FAI), HOMA-IR and E2/T were calculated. Hepatic steatosis was determined by ultrasound. Whole genomic DNA was isolated from blood leucocytes. Lipoprotein lipase polymorphisms rs268 and rs328 were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and minisequencing.
RESULTS: 57.6% of PCOS women had NAFLD, while women without PCOS had NAFLD in 49.6%. PCOS-NAFLD women had higher BMI, WHR and waist circumference compared to women with PCOS without NAFLD and women without PCOS. PCOS-NAFLD women had lower SHBG, E2/T ratio, and higher FAI compared to other groups. ALT levels were higher in PCOS women with NAFLD compared to other groups. PCOS women with and without NAFLD had higher fasting glucose and insulin and HOMA compared to women without PCOS. Women with PCOS had higher triglycerides and lower HDL-C compared to women without PCOS. There was no evidence that evaluated polymorphisms influenced hepatic steatosis in women with and without PCOS.
CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is not an independent factor influencing NAFLD in women. The influences on NAFLD incidence in women are BMI > 25 kg/m², glucose level > 80 mg/dL, E2/T < 80 and ALT > 19 IU/L as independent factors. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS may increase the risk of NAFLD indirectly by obesity, insulin resistance, and directly by the hepatotoxic effect. Polymorphisms rs328 and rs268 of the lipoprotein lipase gene do not affect the occurrence of NAFLD in women with PCOS or without PCOS.

Baldani DP, Skrgatic L, Cerne JZ, et al.
Association between serum levels and pentanucleotide polymorphism in the sex hormone binding globulin gene and cardiovascular risk factors in females with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(5):3941-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of TAAAA repeat allele length on the levels of serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study included 91 females with PCOS and 99 healthy controls. Phenotypic hyperandrogenism, body mass index and waist‑to‑hip ratio (WHR) were recorded. Hormonal profiles, fasting insulin and glucose levels, lipid profiles and C‑reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. Genotyping of TAAAA repeat polymorphisms in the SHBG gene was performed. No significant difference was found in the frequency and distribution of TAAAA repeat alleles between PCOS patients and controls (P=0.739). In PCOS patients, SHBG levels were inversely correlated with serum C‑reactive protein (CRP) levels (R=-0.489, P<0.001). PCOS patients with long TAAAA repeat alleles had significantly lower serum SHBG and free testosterone levels, yet higher CRP levels than patients with short allele repeats. A multiple linear regression model using the number of TAAAA repeats, waist‑to‑hip ratio, a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and age as independent predictors explained 44.8% of the variability in serum SHBG levels. In this model, TAAAA repeat polymorphism was found to be the only reliable predictor of serum SHBG levels (P<0.001). In conclusion, the TAAAA repeat polymorphism was shown to not be a major determinant of the PCOS status, although it influenced serum SHBG levels in females with PCOS. A strong independent association existed between serum SHBG and CRP levels. CRP is an established risk factor of cardiovascular disease and a marker of low‑grade inflammation, typical of atherogenesis. This may be one of the pathways by which low SHBG levels affect cardiovascular risk.

van Kruchten M, de Vries EF, Arts HJ, et al.
Assessment of estrogen receptor expression in epithelial ovarian cancer patients using 16α-18F-fluoro-17β-estradiol PET/CT.
J Nucl Med. 2015; 56(1):50-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The estrogen receptor α (ERα) is expressed in approximately 70% of ovarian cancer tumors. PET of tumor ERα expression with the tracer 16α-(18)F-fluoro-17β-estradiol ((18)F-FES) may be valuable to select ovarian cancer patients for endocrine therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of (18)F-FES PET to determine tumor ERα expression noninvasively in epithelial ovarian cancer patients.
METHODS: (18)F-FES PET/CT was performed shortly before cytoreductive surgery. Tumor (18)F-FES uptake was quantified for all lesions 10 mm or greater on CT and expressed as maximum standardized uptake value. (18)F-FES PET/CT findings were compared with histology and immunohistochemistry for ERα, ERβ, and progesterone receptor. Receptor expression was scored semiquantitatively using H-scores (percentage of positive tumor cells × staining intensity). The optimum threshold to discriminate ER-positive and -negative lesions was determined by receiver-operating-characteristic analysis.
RESULTS: In the 15 included patients with suspected ovarian cancer, 32 measurable lesions greater than 10 mm were present on CT. Tumor (18)F-FES uptake could be quantified for 28 lesions (88%), and 4 lesions were visible but nonquantifiable because of high uptake in adjacent tissue. During surgery, histology was obtained of 23 of 28 quantified lesions (82%). Quantitative (18)F-FES uptake correlated with the semiquantitative immunoscore for ERα (ρ = 0.65, P < 0.01) and weakly with progesterone receptor expression (ρ = 0.46, P = 0.03) and was not associated with ERβ expression (ρ = 0.21, P = 0.33). The optimum threshold to discriminate ERα-positive and ERα-negative lesions was a maximum standardized uptake value greater than 1.8, which provided a 79% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and area under the curve of 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.00). In 2 of 7 patients with cytology/histology available at primary diagnosis and at debulking surgery, immunohistochemical ERα expression had changed over time. (18)F-FES PET was in accordance with histology at debulking surgery but not at primary diagnosis, indicating that (18)F-FES PET could provide reliable information about current tumor ERα status.
CONCLUSION: (18)F-FES PET/CT can reliably assess ERα status in epithelial ovarian cancer tumors and metastases noninvasively. Evaluation of the predictive value of (18)F-FES PET/CT for endocrine therapy in epithelial ovarian cancer patients is warranted.

Nyante SJ, Gammon MD, Kaufman JS, et al.
Genetic variation in estrogen and progesterone pathway genes and breast cancer risk: an exploration of tumor subtype-specific effects.
Cancer Causes Control. 2015; 26(1):121-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine whether associations between estrogen pathway-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer risk differ by molecular subtype, we evaluated associations between SNPs in cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP19A1), estrogen receptor (ESR1), 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (HSD3B1), 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD17B2), progesterone receptor (PGR), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and breast cancer risk in a case-control study in North Carolina.
METHODS: Cases (n = 1,972) were women 20-74 years old and diagnosed with breast cancer between 1993 and 2001. Population-based controls (n = 1,776) were frequency matched to cases by age and race. A total of 195 SNPs were genotyped, and linkage disequilibrium was evaluated using the r (2) statistic. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with breast cancer overall and by molecular subtype were estimated using logistic regression. Monte Carlo methods were used to control for multiple comparisons; two-sided p values <3.3 × 10(-4) were statistically significant. Heterogeneity tests comparing the two most common subtypes, luminal A (n = 679) and basal-like (n = 200), were based on the Wald statistic.
RESULTS: ESR1 rs6914211 (AA vs. AT+TT, OR 2.24, 95 % CI 1.51-3.33), ESR1 rs985191 (CC vs. AA, OR 2.11, 95 % CI 1.43-3.13), and PGR rs1824128 (TT+GT vs. GG, OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.14-1.55) were associated with risk after accounting for multiple comparisons. Rs6914211 and rs985191 were in strong linkage disequilibrium among controls (African-Americans r (2) = 0.70; whites r (2) = 0.95). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between luminal A and basal-like subtypes, and the three SNPs were also associated with elevated risk of the less common luminal B, HER2+/ER-, and unclassified subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS: ESR1 and PGR SNPs were associated with risk, but lack of heterogeneity between subtypes suggests variants in hormone-related genes may play similar roles in the etiology of breast cancer molecular subtypes.

Schmidt S, Liu G, Liu G, et al.
Enhanced Orai1 and STIM1 expression as well as store operated Ca2+ entry in therapy resistant ovary carcinoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):4799-810 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
Mechanisms underlying therapy resistance of tumor cells include protein kinase Akt. Putative Akt targets include store-operated Ca(2+)-entry (SOCE) accomplished by pore forming ion channel unit Orai1 and its regulator STIM1. We explored whether therapy resistant (A2780cis) differ from therapy sensitive (A2780) ovary carcinoma cells in Akt, Orai1, and STIM1 expression, Ca(2+)-signaling and cell survival following cisplatin (100 µM) treatment. Transcript levels were quantified with RT-PCR, protein abundance with Western blotting, cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity ([Ca(2+)]i) with Fura-2-fluorescence, SOCE from increase of [Ca(2+)]i following Ca(2+)-readdition after Ca(2+)-store depletion, and apoptosis utilizing flow cytometry. Transcript levels of Orai1 and STIM1, protein expression of Orai1, STIM1, and phosphorylated Akt, as well as SOCE were significantly higher in A2780cis than A2780 cells. SOCE was decreased by Akt inhibitor III (SH-6, 10 µM) in A2780cis but not A2780 cells and decreased in both cell lines by Orai1 inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-ABP, 50 µM). Phosphatidylserine exposure and late apoptosis following cisplatin treatment were significantly lower in A2780cis than A2780 cells, a difference virtually abolished by SH-6 or 2-ABP. In conclusion, Orai1/STIM1 expression and function are increased in therapy resistant ovary carcinoma cells, a property at least in part due to enhanced Akt activity and contributing to therapy resistance in those cells.

Singer CF, Bennink HJ, Natter C, et al.
Antiestrogenic effects of the fetal estrogen estetrol in women with estrogen-receptor positive early breast cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(11):2447-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estetrol (E4) is a fetal estrogen with estrogenic effects on reproductive organs and bone in preclinical models and in postmenopausal women. However, E4 exerts antiestrogenic effects on breast cancer (BC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We have investigated the effect of 14 days preoperative treatment with 20mg E4 per day on tumor proliferation markers, sex steroid receptor expression and endocrine parameters in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, preoperative window trial in 30 pre- and post-menopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive early BC. E4 had a significant pro-apoptotic effect on tumor tissue, whereas Ki67 expression remained unchanged in both pre- and post-menopausal women. E4 increased sex-hormone-binding globulin significantly thereby reducing the concentrations of bioavailable estradiol. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in postmenopausal women only and luteinizing hormone levels remained unchanged. Systemic insulin growth factor-1 levels decreased significantly. Intratumoral epithelial ERα expression decreased significantly and a trend was found towards an increased expression of ERβ. This clinical data support the preclinical findings that E4 has antiestrogenic effects on BC cells, whereas earlier studies have shown that E4 has estrogenic effects on reproductive tissues and bone. Further clinical studies seem acceptable and are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of E4 for the breast in hormone replacement therapy, including hormone replacement therapy in women who have or have had BC, especially in those BC patients treated with aromatase inhibitors and suffering from serious complaints due to estrogen deficiency.

Lim VW, Lim WY, Zhang Z, et al.
Serum estrogen receptor beta mediated bioactivity correlates with poor outcome in lung cancer patients.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 85(2):293-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The role of estrogen signaling in lung cancer remains unresolved. We investigate the influence of serum estrogenic compounds and estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) mediated bioactivity on lung cancer outcomes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 222 postmenopausal Chinese patients diagnosed with lung cancer in five Singapore hospitals. Levels of the estrogenic compounds estradiol and estrone were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Free estradiol levels were calculated based on sex hormone binding globulin levels. ERα- and ERβ-mediated bioactivity in serum samples were analyzed using reporter gene bioassays in human cells.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: High ERβ-mediated bioactivity predicted poorer lung cancer survival (p=0.001) on multivariable Cox regression analysis with adjustment for age, stage of tumor, smoking status, body mass index and histology. In comparison, levels of estrogens and ERα-mediated bioactivity were not associated with prognosis. Compared to the lowest tertile of ERβ-mediated bioactivity, patients in the middle and highest tertiles had HR (95%CI) 1.60 (1.10-2.33) and 1.93 (1.32-2.82) (p for trend=0.001) higher risk of death from lung cancer. Using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, patients with high ERβ-mediated bioactivity correlated with poorer overall survival (p=0.033). ERβ-mediated bioactivity did not differ in terms of age, use of hormone replacement therapy, smoking, stage of tumor or histological subtype. High ERβ-mediated bioactivity levels in patients' serum were associated with poorer prognosis in lung cancer patients. Our findings suggest that that compound(s) other than endogenous estrogens may be exerting this ERβ bioactivity and studies to identify these compounds or groups of compounds need to be performed. Furthermore, the measurement of ERβ activity in sera could potentially serve as a prognostic marker to predict lung cancer survival, and selective blockage of ERβ signaling may have a role in lung cancer therapy.

Kim HA, Nam K, Kim SW
Tumor targeting RGD conjugated bio-reducible polymer for VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid delivery.
Biomaterials. 2014; 35(26):7543-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
Targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to the tumor site is critical for successful and safe cancer gene therapy. The arginine grafted bio-reducible poly (cystamine bisacrylamide-diaminohexane, CBA-DAH) polymer (ABP) conjugated poly (amido amine) (PAMAM), PAM-ABP (PA) was designed previously as an efficient gene delivery carrier. To achieve high efficacy in cancer selective delivery, we developed the tumor targeting bio-reducible polymer, PA-PEG1k-RGD, by conjugating cyclic RGDfC (RGD) peptides, which bind αvβ3/5 integrins, to the PAM-ABP using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1 kDa) as a spacer. Physical characterization showed nanocomplex formation with bio-reducible properties between PA-PEG1k-RGD and plasmid DNA (pDNA). In transfection assays, PA-PEG1k-RGD showed significantly higher transfection efficiency in comparison with PAM-ABP or PA-PEG1k-RAD in αvβ3/5 positive MCF7 breast cancer and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. The targeting ability of PA-PEG1k-RGD was further established using a competition assay. To confirm the therapeutic effect, the VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid was constructed and then delivered into cancer cells using PA-PEG1k-RGD. PA-PEG1k-RGD showed 20-59% higher cellular uptake rate into MCF7 and PANC-1 than that of non-targeted polymers. In addition, MCF7 and PANC-1 cancer cells transfected with PA-PEG1k-RGD/pshVEGF complexes had significantly decreased VEGF gene expression (51-71%) and cancer cell viability (35-43%) compared with control. These results demonstrate that a tumor targeting bio-reducible polymer with an anti-angiogenic therapeutic gene could be used for efficient and safe cancer gene therapy.

Suguro M, Yoshida N, Umino A, et al.
Clonal heterogeneity of lymphoid malignancies correlates with poor prognosis.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(7):897-904 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
Clonal heterogeneity in lymphoid malignancies has been recently reported in adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, and mantle cell lymphoma. Our analysis was extended to other types of lymphoma including marginal zone lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To determine the presence of clonal heterogeneity, 332 cases were examined using array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Results showed that incidence of clonal heterogeneity varied from 25% to 69% among different types of lymphoma. Survival analysis revealed that mantle cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with clonal heterogeneity showed significantly poorer prognosis, and that clonal heterogeneity was confirmed as an independent predictor of poor prognosis for both types of lymphoma. Interestingly, 8q24.1 (MYC) gain, 9p21.3 (CDKN2A/2B) loss and 17p13 (TP53, ATP1B2, SAT2, SHBG) loss were recurrent genomic lesions among various types of lymphoma with clonal heterogeneity, suggesting at least in part that alterations of these genes may play a role in clonal heterogeneity.

Florinas S, Kim J, Nam K, et al.
Ultrasound-assisted siRNA delivery via arginine-grafted bioreducible polymer and microbubbles targeting VEGF for ovarian cancer treatment.
J Control Release. 2014; 183:1-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
The major drawback hampering siRNA therapies from being more widely accepted in clinical practice is its insufficient accumulation at the target site mainly due to poor cellular uptake and rapid degradation in serum. Therefore, we designed a novel polymeric siRNA carrier system, which would withstand serum-containing environments and tested its performance in vitro as well as in vivo. Delivering siRNA with a system combining an arginine-grafted bioreducible polymer (ABP), microbubbles (MBs), and ultrasound technology (US) we were able to synergize the advantages each delivery system owns individually, and created our innovative siRNA-ABP-MB (SAM) complexes. SAM complexes show significantly higher siRNA uptake and VEGF protein knockdown in vitro with serum-containing media when compared to naked siRNA, and 25k-branched-polyethylenimine (bPEI) representing the current standard in nonviral gene therapy. SAM complexes activated by US are also able to improve siRNA uptake in tumor tissue resulting in decelerating tumor growth in vivo.

Maciel GA, Moreira RP, Bugano DD, et al.
Association of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms with clinical and metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2014; 69(3):179-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with clinical and metabolic profiles in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex endocrine disease that affects 5-8% of women and may be associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cortisol action and dysregulation account for metabolic syndrome development in the general population. As glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) polymorphisms regulate cortisol sensitivity, we hypothesized that variants of this gene may be involved in the adverse metabolic profiles of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
METHOD: Clinical, metabolic and hormonal profiles were evaluated in 97 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who were diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. The alleles of the glucocorticoid gene were genotyped. Association analyses were performed using the appropriate statistical tests.
RESULTS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome were observed in 42.3% and 26.8% of patients, respectively. Body mass index was positively correlated with blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL-c, total cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels as well as HOMA-IR values and inversely correlated with HDL-c and SHBG levels. The BclI and A3669G variants were found in 24.7% and 13.4% of alleles, respectively. BclI carriers presented a lower frequency of insulin resistance compared with wild-type subjects.
CONCLUSION: The BclI variant is associated with a lower frequency of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Glucocorticoid gene polymorphism screening during treatment of the syndrome may be useful for identifying subgroups of at-risk patients who would benefit the most from personalized treatment.

Zhang LS, Yuan F, Guan X, et al.
Association of genetic polymorphisms in HSD17B1, HSD17B2 and SHBG genes with hepatocellular carcinoma risk.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(3):661-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in estrogen synthesizing/transporting can influence the risk of hormone-dependent diseases. The incidence rate and relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are higher in men than in women. This study was conducted to explore the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD17B1 and HSD17B2) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) genes with the risk of HCC within Chinese Han population. Polymorphisms of HSD17B1 rs676387, HSD17B2 rs8191246 and SHBG rs6259 were genotyped in 253 HCC patients and 438 healthy control subjects using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Significantly increased HCC risk was found to be associated with T allele of rs676387 and G allele of rs8191246. Increased HCC risks were found in different genetic model (TT genotype in a recessive model, T allele carriers in a dominant model, TT genotype and TG genotype in a codominant model for HSD17B1 rs676387, G allele carriers in a dominant model and AG genotype in a codominant model for HSD17B2 rs8191246, respectively). No association between SHBG rs6259 and HCC risk was observed. The present study provided evidence that HSD17B1 rs676387 and HSD17B2 rs8191246 were association with HCC development. Further studies in diverse ethnic population with larger sample size were recommended to confirm the findings.

Lam UD, Lerchbaum E, Schweighofer N, et al.
Association of MEP1A gene variants with insulin metabolism in central European women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Gene. 2014; 537(2):245-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) shows not only hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism and fertility problems, but also metabolic disturbances including obesity, cardiovascular events and type-2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence suggests some degree of inflammation associated with prominent aspects of PCOS. We aimed to investigate the association of genetic variants 3'UTR rs17468190 (G/T) of the inflammation-associated gene MEP1A (GenBank ID: NM_005588.2) with metabolic disturbances in PCOS and healthy control women. Genetic variants rs17468190 (G/T) of MEP1A gene were analyzed in 576 PCOS women and 206 controls by using the Taqman fluorogenic 5'-exonuclease assay. This polymorphism was tested for association with anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, and functional parameters of PCOS. There was a borderline significant difference in genotype distribution between PCOS and control women (p=0.046). In overweight/obese PCOS patients, the variants rs17468190 (G/T) in the MEP1A gene are associated with glucose and insulin metabolism. In a dominant model, the GG genotype of the MEP1A gene was more strongly associated with insulin metabolism in overweight/obese PCOS women (body mass index, BMI>25 kg/m(2)), than in GT+TT genotypes. The MEP1A GG-carriers showed a significantly increased homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.003), elevation of fasting insulin (p=0.004) and stimulated insulin (30 min, p<0.001; 60 min, p=0.009; 120 min, p=0.009) as well as triglyceride (p=0.032) levels. MEP1A is a possible target gene for disease modification in PCOS. It might contribute to the abnormalities of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity and serve as a diagnostic or therapeutic target gene for PCOS.

Huang R, Ma Y, Holm R, et al.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) expression in ovarian carcinomas and its clinicopathological associations.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83238 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/04/2017 Related Publications
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is known as a carrier protein. It is classically thought to be mainly synthesized in the liver and then secreted into the circulating system, where it binds to sex steroids with a high affinity and modulates the bio-availability of the hormones. Other organs known to produce SHBG include brain, uterus, testis, prostate, breast and ovary, and the local expressed SHBG may play an important role in tumor development. However, SHBG expression status and its clinicopathological significance in ovarian cancer cells are not reported yet. In our present study, we examined and found the variable SHBG expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines (OV-90, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. We then extended our study to 248 ovarian carcinoma samples, which were collected at The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital with complete clinical information, and discovered that SHBG was variably expressed in these ovarian carcinomas. Higher level of SHBG expression was significantly associated with more aggressive histological subtype (p = 0.022), higher FIGO stage (p = 0.018) and higher histological grade (grade of differentiation, p = 0.020), although association between SHBG expression and OS/PFS was not observed. Our results demonstrate that ovarian cancer cells produce SHBG and higher SHBG expression in ovarian carcinoma is associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features.

Svartberg J, Schirmer H, Wilsgaard T, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs1799941 in the Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) gene, related to both serum testosterone and SHBG levels and the risk of myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes, cancer and mortality in men: the Tromsø Study.
Andrology. 2014; 2(2):212-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low testosterone levels are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factor, and have been shown to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), myocardial infarction (MI) and all-cause mortality. It is not known if these associations are causal or not. Recently, it has been shown that the serum testosterone levels are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and we therefore studied the associations between one of these SNPs, rs1799941 on the Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) gene, and MI, T2DM, cancer and death. DNA was prepared from men who participated in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995 and who were registered with the endpoints MI, T2DM, cancer or death and a randomly selected control group. For mortality, the observation time was set from 1994, and for the other endpoints from birth. The endpoint data were completed up to 2010-2013. Genetic analyses were successfully performed in 5309 men, of whom 1454 were registered with MI, 638 with T2DM, 1534 with cancer and in 2226 who had died. Men with the minor homozygote genotype had significantly higher levels of total testosterone (14.7%) and SHBG (24.7%) compared with men with the major homozygote genotype, whereas free testosterone levels did not differ significantly between the genotypes. The SNP rs1799941 was not significantly associated with MI, T2DM, cancer or mortality. Thus, our result does not support a causal relationship between total testosterone and SHBG and MI, T2DM, cancer or mortality, suggesting that low testosterone more likely is a marker of poor health.

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