Gene Summary

Gene:SLC29A1; solute carrier family 29 member 1 (Augustine blood group)
Aliases: ENT1
Summary:This gene is a member of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter family. The gene encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein that localizes to the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and mediates the cellular uptake of nucleosides from the surrounding medium. The protein is categorized as an equilibrative (as opposed to concentrative) transporter that is sensitive to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR). Nucleoside transporters are required for nucleotide synthesis in cells that lack de novo nucleoside synthesis pathways, and are also necessary for the uptake of cytotoxic nucleosides used for cancer and viral chemotherapies. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Proliferation
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Young Adult
  • 5'-Nucleotidase
  • Nucleoside Transport Proteins
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • Biliary Tract Neoplasms
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • RT-PCR
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Adolescents
  • Cytarabine
  • Lung Cancer
  • Genotype
  • Xenograft Models
  • Survival Rate
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Deoxycytidine Kinase
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • siRNA
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Cytidine Deaminase
  • Drug Resistance
  • Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1
  • Cell Survival
  • Cancer RNA
  • Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase
  • Equilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Chromosome 6
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Fluorouracil
  • Deoxycytidine
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SLC29A1 (cancer-related)

Liu Y, Zuo T, Zhu X, et al.
Differential expression of hENT1 and hENT2 in colon cancer cell lines.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENT) 1 and 2, encoded by SLC29A1 and SLC29A2, permit the bidirectional passage of nucleoside analogues into cells and may correlate with clinical responses to chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression profiles of SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 in human cancer cell lines. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we comprehensively profiled the transcription levels of SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 in 16 colon cancer cell lines. We validated the ubiquitous and heterogeneous distribution of SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 in human colon cancer cell lines and demonstrated that SLC29A1 was highly expressed in 25% of metastatic cell lines (Colo201 and Colo205) and 62.5% of primary cell lines (Caco2, Colo320, HCT116, RKO, and SW48). For the first time, we showed that both SLC29A1 and SLC29A2 were expressed at lower levels in colon cancer cell lines originating from metastatic sites than from primary sites. These findings indicate that most patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) may have low hENT1 expression, and treatment with nucleoside analogues may be inefficient. However, some patients still show high hENT1 expression and have a high probability of benefiting from these drugs. Therefore, evaluating transporter expression profiles and different drug responses between primary and metastatic tumors in patients with mCRC is important. Further assessment of the association between hENTs and drug-based treatment of mCRC is required to elucidate the mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance.

Boswell-Casteel RC, Hays FA
Equilibrative nucleoside transporters-A review.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2017; 36(1):7-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are polytopic integral membrane proteins that mediate the transport of nucleosides, nucleobases, and therapeutic analogs. The best-characterized ENTs are the human transporters hENT1 and hENT2. However, non-mammalian eukaryotic ENTs have also been studied (e.g., yeast, parasitic protozoa). ENTs are major pharmaceutical targets responsible for modulating the efficacy of more than 30 approved drugs. However, the molecular mechanisms and chemical determinants of ENT-mediated substrate recognition, binding, inhibition, and transport are poorly understood. This review highlights findings on the characterization of ENTs by surveying studies on genetics, permeant and inhibitor interactions, mutagenesis, and structural models of ENT function.

Zhao HB, Zhang XF, Shi F, et al.
Comparison of the expression of human equilibrative nucleotide transporter 1 (hENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) genes in seven non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the variability in the expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. hENT1 and RRM1 mRNA expression levels in natural killer (NK) cells and seven non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines (YTS, SNK-6, Jeko-1, ly-1, Raji, Karpas, and Jurket) were studied using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and the results were compared using the Student t-test. mRNA expression of hENT1 was detectable in YTS, SNK-6, Jeko-1, ly-1, Raji, Karpas, Jurket, and NK cells, which revealed variability in gene expression. There were significant differences in the mRNA expression values of hENT1 (P = 0.021) and RRM1 (P = 0.002) compared to those in NK cells. mRNA expression of both hENT1 and RRM1 was closely associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell proliferation. Differential expression analysis of hENT1 and RRM1 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines may provide novel drug leads for precision medicine.

Senyavina NV, Tonevitskaya SA
Effect of Hypoxanthine on Functional Activity of Nucleoside Transporters ENT1 and ENT2 in Caco-2 Polar Epithelial Intestinal Cells.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2015; 160(1):160-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied regulation of hypoxanthine transport depending on its concentration in the culture medium. Caco-2 cells were differentiated on membrane filters to create a model of the intestine. Different hypoxanthine uptake on the apical and basolateral cell membranes was observed. The expression of SLC29 family genes encoding passive nucleoside transporters increased upon changes in hypoxanthine concentration in the medium Localization of the transporters and their influence on the effect of pharmacological preparations are discussed.

Yoon KA, Woo SM, Hong EK, et al.
Cytidine Deaminase as a Molecular Predictor of Gemcitabine Response in Patients with Biliary Tract Cancer.
Oncology. 2015; 89(6):345-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gemcitabine-based chemotherapy is regarded as the standard treatment for biliary tract cancer (BTC). Potential biomarkers for gemcitabine response include the activities of cytidine deaminase (CDA), human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), and ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1). Here, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in their encoding genes were associated with the efficacy of gemcitabine chemotherapy in treating BTC.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 11 SNPs in the CDA, hENT1, DCK, human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (hCNT3), and RRM1 genes in 80 patients with unresectable, metastatic, or recurrent BTC who were treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin.
RESULTS: After the results were adjusted for clinical predictors, the variant allele of rs1048977 in the CDA gene was associated with tumor response in a dominant model (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.93; p = 0.039). No significant association was detected between the 11 SNPs and grade 3/4 toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the polymorphism of CDA may be a potential predictive marker for the efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in patients with BTC.

Hareedy MS, El Desoky ES, Woillard JB, et al.
Genetic variants in 6-mercaptopurine pathway as potential factors of hematological toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.
Pharmacogenomics. 2015; 16(10):1119-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We investigated the associations between variants in genes coding for enzymes and transporters related to the 6-mercaptopurine pathway and clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Statistical association between gender, age and genotypes of selected SNPs, and the risks of hematological toxicity and relapse were investigated using a Cox proportional hazard model in 70 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients from upper Egypt.
RESULTS: We found significant associations between ITPA, IMPDH1, SLC29A1, SLC28A2, SLC28A3 and ABCC4 SNPs and one or more of the hematological toxicity manifestations (neutropenia, agranulocytosis and leukopenia); age was significantly related to relapse.
CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes and transporters involved in the 6-mercaptopurine pathway should be considered during its use to avoid hematological toxicity.

Ueda K, Hosokawa M, Iwakawa S
Cellular Uptake of Decitabine by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporters in HCT116 Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2015; 38(8):1113-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA hypermethylation, an epigenetic change that silences gene expression without altering nucleotide sequences, plays a critical role in the formation and progression of colorectal cancers as well as in the acquisition of drug resistance. Decitabine (DAC), a DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor of nucleoside analogues, has been shown to restore gene expression silenced by hypermethylation. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying both uridine and DAC uptake were examined in the human colon cancer cell line HCT116. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that ENT1 mRNA was the most abundant among the nucleoside transporters examined in HCT116 cells. The ENT1 protein was detected in the membrane fraction, as determined by Western blotting. The uptake of uridine or DAC was time- and concentration-dependent, but also Na(+)-independent. The uptake of these agents was inhibited by S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBMPR), an inhibitor of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs), and was also decreased in cells treated with ENT1 small interfering RNA. The uptake of both uridine and DAC was inhibited by uridine, cytidine, adenosine, or inosine, while that of DAC was also inhibited by thymidine. The expression of MAGEA1 mRNA, the DNA of which was methylated in HCT116 cells, was increased by DAC treatment, and this increment was attenuated by concomitant treatment with NBMPR. The IC50 value of DAC was also increased in the presence of NBMPR. These results suggest that DAC is mainly taken up by ENT1 and that this uptake is one of the key determinants of the activity of DAC in HCT116 cells.

D'Aronzo M, Vinciguerra M, Mazza T, et al.
Fasting cycles potentiate the efficacy of gemcitabine treatment in in vitro and in vivo pancreatic cancer models.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(21):18545-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. Short-term fasting cycles have been shown to potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapy against glioma. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting cycles on the efficacy of gemcitabine, a standard treatment for PC patients, in vitro and in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: BxPC-3, MiaPaca-2 and Panc-1 cells were cultured in standard and fasting mimicking culturing condition to evaluate the effects of gemcitabine. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to 24h starvation prior to gemcitabine injection to assess the tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed ad libitum.
RESULTS: Fasted pancreatic cancer cells showed increased levels of equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1), the transporter of gemcitabine across the cell membrane, and decreased ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) levels as compared to those cultured in standard medium. Gemcitabine was more effective in inducing cell death on fasted cells as compared to controls. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to fasting cycles prior to gemcitabine injection displayed a decrease of more than 40% in tumor growth.
CONCLUSIONS: Fasting cycles enhance gemcitabine effect in vitro and in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that restrictive dietary interventions could enhance the efficacy of existing cancer treatments in pancreatic cancer patients.

Abraham A, Varatharajan S, Karathedath S, et al.
RNA expression of genes involved in cytarabine metabolism and transport predicts cytarabine response in acute myeloid leukemia.
Pharmacogenomics. 2015; 16(8):877-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Variation in terms of outcome and toxic side effects of treatment exists among acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients on chemotherapy with cytarabine (Ara-C) and daunorubicin (Dnr). Candidate Ara-C metabolizing gene expression in primary AML cells is proposed to account for this variation.
METHODS: Ex vivo Ara-C sensitivity was determined in primary AML samples using MTT assay. mRNA expression of candidate Ara-C metabolizing genes were evaluated by RQPCR analysis. Global gene expression profiling was carried out for identifying differentially expressed genes between exvivo Ara-C sensitive and resistant samples.
RESULTS: Wide interindividual variations in ex vivo Ara-C cytotoxicity were observed among samples from patients with AML and were stratified into sensitive, intermediately sensitive and resistant, based on IC50 values obtained by MTT assay. RNA expression of deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) were significantly higher and cytidine deaminase (CDA) was significantly lower in ex vivo Ara-C sensitive samples. Higher DCK and RRM1 expression in AML patient's blast correlated with better DFS. Ara-C resistance index (RI), a mathematically derived quotient was proposed based on candidate gene expression pattern. Ara-C ex vivo sensitive samples were found to have significantly lower RI compared with resistant as well as samples from patients presenting with relapse. Patients with low RI supposedly highly sensitive to Ara-C were found to have higher incidence of induction death (p = 0.002; RR: 4.35 [95% CI: 1.69-11.22]). Global gene expression profiling undertaken to find out additional contributors of Ara-C resistance identified many apoptosis as well as metabolic pathway genes to be differentially expressed between Ara-C resistant and sensitive samples.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of evaluating expression of candidate Ara-C metabolizing genes in predicting ex vivo drug response as well as treatment outcome. RI could be a predictor of ex vivo Ara-C response irrespective of cytogenetic and molecular risk groups and a potential biomarker for AML treatment outcome and toxicity. Original submitted 22 December 2014; Revision submitted 9 April 2015.

Kawabata Y, Nishi T, Kidani A, Tajima Y
Prognostic Value of Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Gene 1, Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase, and Human Equilibrative Nucleotide Transporter 1 Expression and Their Implications for Adjuvant Treatment in Patients With Ampullary Carcinoma.
Pancreas. 2015; 44(6):937-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize the intratumoral expression profiles of excision repair cross-complementing gene 1 (ERCC1), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), and human equilibrative nucleotide transporter 1 (hENT1) in ampullary carcinomas (ACs) to evaluate their prognostic values and better tailor adjuvant chemotherapy for individual patients with AC after surgery.
METHODS: This study included 49 patients with AC who underwent a curative pancreaticoduodenectomy. Various clinicopathological factors, including ERCC1, DPD, and hENT1, were analyzed in relation to postoperative disease recurrence and the patients' survival.
RESULTS: The median recurrence-free survival and overall survival were 24.5 months and 32.4 months, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis of recurrence-free survival identified a DPD expression (hazard ratio [HR], 8.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.00-34.8; P = 0.003) and combined ERCC1/DPD expression (HR, 134.8; 95% CI, 11.8-1920; P < 0.001) as independent predictors of disease recurrence. Multivariate Cox regression analysis of overall survival also identified a DPD expression (HR, 8.48; 95% CI, 1.71-46.3; P = 0.008) and combined ERCC1/ DPD expression (HR, 135.6; 95% CI, 11.8-1940; P < 0.001) as independent predictors of survival.
CONCLUSIONS: The DPD and ERCC1 expression profile could potentially serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for surgically resected patients with AC.

Amaki J, Onizuka M, Ohmachi K, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytarabine metabolic genes influence clinical outcome in acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving high-dose cytarabine therapy.
Int J Hematol. 2015; 101(6):543-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytarabine arabinoside (Ara-C) is the most important agent for treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we genotyped 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of seven Ara-C metabolism-related genes in 39 AML patients who had received high-dose Ara-C as a single-agent treatment. Univariate analysis identified three SNPs that were significantly associated with shorter time-to-relapse (TTR): CTPS rs12144160 GG compared to AA/AG, DCTD rs9990999 AG/GG compared to AA, and SLC29A1 rs693955 CC compared to AA/AC. Multivariate analysis of TTR revealed the SLC29A1 rs693955 CC genotype and first induction failure to be significantly associated with a shorter TTR. The DCTD rs9990999 AG/GG and SLC29A1 rs693955 CC genotypes were also significantly associated with shorter duration of neutropenia. The results of our study suggest that SNP analysis can be an important tool in improving drug responsiveness and enabling a better understanding of this condition and the development of tailor-made treatments for AML patients who benefit from consolidated high-dose Ara-C therapy.

Choi JS, Maity A, Gray T, Berdis AJ
A metal-containing nucleoside that possesses both therapeutic and diagnostic activity against cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(15):9714-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nucleoside transport is an essential process that helps maintain the hyperproliferative state of most cancer cells. As such, it represents an important target for developing diagnostic and therapeutic agents that can effectively detect and treat cancer, respectively. This report describes the development of a metal-containing nucleoside designated Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside that displays both therapeutic and diagnostic properties against the human epidermal carcinoma cell line KB3-1. The cytotoxic effects of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside are both time- and dose-dependent. Flow cytometry analyses validate that the nucleoside analog causes apoptosis by blocking cell cycle progression at G2/M. Fluorescent microscopy studies show rapid accumulation in the cytoplasm within 4 h. However, more significant accumulation is observed in the nucleus and mitochondria after 24 h. This localization is consistent with the ability of the metal-containing nucleoside to influence cell cycle progression at G2/M. Mitochondrial depletion is also observed after longer incubations (Δt ∼48 h), and this effect may produce additional cytotoxic effects. siRNA knockdown experiments demonstrate that the nucleoside transporter, hENT1, plays a key role in the cellular entry of Ir(III)-PPY nucleoside. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the development of a metal-containing nucleoside that functions as a combined therapeutic and diagnostic agent against cancer.

Kohan HG, Boroujerdi M
Time and concentration dependency of P-gp, MRP1 and MRP5 induction in response to gemcitabine uptake in Capan-2 pancreatic cancer cells.
Xenobiotica. 2015; 45(7):642-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
1. Influx and efflux proteins play a major role in the overall uptake and efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents and cellular chemo-resistance. 2. The present study investigated the time course and dose dependency of the induction of three efflux proteins, P-gp, MRP1 and MRP5, in response to gemcitabine exposure in Capan-2 pancreatic cancer cell line at transcriptional and translational levels. The influence of exposure on the influx protein (ENT1), the net cellular uptake of the gemcitabine, the overall ATPase activity and the cell death rate were also measured. 3. The time course of the expression exhibited an initial rise, toward a plateau level. The estimated Km and Vmax confirmed that MRP5 and to a lesser extent MRP1 are the prominent proteins for efflux of gemcitabine. Both mRNA and protein expression demonstrated the time and concentration dependency of the induction; and the elevated ATPase activity validated that the induced efflux proteins are functionally active. 4. The results of the study revealed that the efficacy window of gemcitabine as it relates to the function of the efflux proteins is concentration and temporal dependent and is well correlated to the first 60 min of exposure.

Gabor KM, Schermann G, Lautner-Csorba O, et al.
Impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytarabine metabolic genes on drug toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015; 62(4):622-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside, ara-C) is a chemotherapeutical agent used in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Adverse drug reactions, such as interpatient variability in sensitivity to ara-C, are considerable and may cause difficulties during chemotherapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can play a significant role in modifying nucleoside-drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and thus the development of adverse effects. Our aim was to determine whether polymorphisms in genes encoding transporters and enzymes responsible for the metabolism of ara-C are associated with toxicity and clinical outcome in a patient population with childhood ALL.
PROCEDURE: We studied 8 SNPs in the CDA, DCK, DCTD, SLC28A3, and SLC29A1 genes in 144 patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to ALLIC BFM 1990, 1995 and 2002 protocols.
RESULTS: DCK rs12648166 and DCK rs4694362 SNPs were associated with hematologic toxicity (OR = 2.63, CI 95% = 1.37-5.04, P = 0.0036 and OR = 2.53, CI 95% = 1.34-4.80, P = 0.0044, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that DCK polymorphisms might be important genetic risk factors for hematologic toxicity during ALL treatment with ara-C. Individualized chemotherapy based on genetic profiling may help to optimize ara-C dosing, leading to improvements in clinical outcome and reduced toxicity.

Wan H, Zhu J, Chen F, et al.
SLC29A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms as independent prognostic predictors for survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia: an in vitro study.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mechanism behind poor survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with 1-barabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C) based treatment remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the pharmacogenomic effects of Ara-C metabolic pathway in patients with AML.
METHODS: The genotypes of 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DCK, CDA and SLC29A1from 100 AML patients treated with Ara-C were examined. All the SNPs were screened with ligase detection reaction assay. The transcription analysis of genes was examined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The association between clinical outcome and gene variants was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: Genotypes of rs9394992 and rs324148 for SLC29A1 in remission patients were significantly different from those in relapsed ones. Post-induction overall survival (OS) significantly decreased in patients with the CC genotype of rs324148 compared with CT and TT genotypes (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.997 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-5.27]). As compared with CT and TT genotype, patients with the CC genotype of rs9394992 had longer survival time (HR = 0.25 [95% CI: 0.075-0.81]; HR = 0.43 [95% CI: 0.24-0.78]) and longer disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 0.52 [95% CI: 0.29-0.93]; HR = 0.15 [95% CI: 0.05-0.47]) as well As compared with CT and TT genotype, patients with the CC genotype of rs324148 had shorter DFS (HR = 3.18 [95% CI: 1.76-5.76]). Additionally, patients with adverse karyotypes had shorter DFS (HR = 0.17 [95% CI: 0.05-0.54]) and OS (HR = 0.18 [95% CI: 0.05-0.68]).
CONCLUSIONS: AML patients with low activity of SLC29A1 genotype have shorter DFS and OS in Ara-C based therapy. Genotypes of rs9394992 and rs324148 may be independent prognostic predictors for the survival of AML patients.

Lee Y, Koay EJ, Zhang W, et al.
Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 knockdown tunes cellular mechanics through epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e107973 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We report cell mechanical changes in response to alteration of expression of the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1), a most abundant and widely distributed plasma membrane nucleoside transporter in human cells and/or tissues. Modulation of hENT1 expression level altered the stiffness of pancreatic cancer Capan-1 and Panc 03.27 cells, which was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and correlated to microfluidic platform. The hENT1 knockdown induced reduction of cellular stiffness in both of cells up to 70%. In addition, cellular phenotypic changes such as cell morphology, migration, and expression level of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were observed after hENT1 knockdown. Cells with suppressed hENT1 became elongated, migrated faster, and had reduced E-cadherin and elevated N-cadherin compared to parental cells which are consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Those cellular phenotypic changes closely correlated with changes in cellular stiffness. This study suggests that hENT1 expression level affects cellular phenotype and cell elastic behavior can be a physical biomarker for quantify hENT1 expression and detect phenotypic shift. Furthermore, cell mechanics can be a critical tool in detecting disease progression and response to therapy.

Tavano F, Fontana A, Pellegrini F, et al.
Modeling interactions between Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter-1 and other factors involved in the response to gemcitabine treatment to predict clinical outcomes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients.
J Transl Med. 2014; 12:248 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely aggressive malignancy, characterized by largely unsatisfactory responses to the currently available therapeutic strategies. In this study we evaluated the expression of genes involved in gemcitabine uptake in a selected cohort of patients with PDAC, with well-defined clinical-pathological features.
METHODS: mRNA levels of hENT1, CHOP, MRP1 and DCK were evaluated by means of qRT-PCR in matched pairs of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples collected from PDAC patients treated with gemcitabine after surgical tumor resection. To detect possible interaction between gene expression levels and to identify subgroups of patients at different mortality/progression risk, the RECursive Partitioning and Amalgamation (RECPAM) method was used.
RESULTS: RECPAM analysis showed that DCK and CHOP were most relevant variables for the identification of patients with different mortality risk, while hENT1 and CHOP were able to identify subgroups of patients with different disease progression risk.
CONCLUSION: hENT1, CHOP, MRP1 and DCK appear correlated to PDAC, and this interaction might influence disease behavior.

Tourkantonis IS, Peponi E, Syrigos KN, Saif MW
Pharmacogenetics in pancreatic cancer.
JOP. 2014; 15(4):335-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor overall survival rate. Given advances in pharmacogenomics, numerous gene mutations have been identified that could be potential targets for drug development. Therefore, future research strategies may identify prognostic and predictive markers aiming to improve outcome by maximizing efficacy whilst lowering toxicity. In this commentary, we summarize several interesting results regarding pancreatic cancer pharmacogenetics that have been presented in the 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting. In particular, we focus on Abstract #4124, which investigated the potential predictive role of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) in patients treated with adjuvant gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer, on Abstract #4125, which examined the tolerability of a modified FOLFORINOX study based on UGT1A1*28 genotype guided dosing of IRI in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, and on Abstract #4130, which confirmed the predictive role of circulating tumor and invasive cells (CTICs) from patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer in second-line chemotherapy treatment setting.

Monsma DJ, Cherba DM, Richardson PJ, et al.
Using a rhabdomyosarcoma patient-derived xenograft to examine precision medicine approaches and model acquired resistance.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014; 61(9):1570-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Precision (Personalized) medicine has the potential to revolutionize patient health care especially for many cancers where the fundamental disease etiology remains either elusive or has no available therapy. Here we outline a study in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, in which we use gene expression profiling and a series of drug prediction algorithms combined with a matched patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model to test bioinformatically predicted therapies.
PROCEDURE: A PDX model was developed from a patient biopsy and a number of drugs identified using gene expression analysis in combination with drug prediction algorithms. Drugs chosen from each of the predictive methodologies, along with the patient's standard-of-care therapy (ICE-T), were tested in vivo in the PDX tumor. A second study was initiated using the tumors that re-grew following the ICE-T treatment. Further expression analysis identified additional therapies with potential anti-tumor efficacy.
RESULTS: A number of the predicted therapies were found to be active against the tumors in particular BGJ398 (FGFR2) and ICE-T. Re-transplanted ICE-T treated tumorgrafts demonstrated a decreased response to ICE-T recapitulating the patient's refractory disease. Gene expression profiling of the ICE-T treated tumorgrafts identified cytarabine (SLC29A1) as a potential therapy, which was shown, along with BGJ398, to be highly active in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that PDX models are suitable surrogates for testing potential therapeutic strategies based on gene expression analysis, modeling clinical drug resistance and hold the potential to assist in guiding prospective patient care.

Lee SJ, Yeo JS, Lee HJ, et al.
Thymidine phosphorylase influences [(18)F]fluorothymidine uptake in cancer cells and patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2014; 41(7):1327-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleoside salvage pathway, catalyses the reversible phosphorylation of thymidine, thereby generating thymine and 2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate. By regulating the levels of endogenous thymidine, TP may influence [(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) uptake. We investigated the effect of TP activity on [(18)F]FLT uptake by tumours.
METHODS: Uptake of [(3)H]FLT and [(3)H]thymidine ([(3)H]Thd) and the activities of TP, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), and equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) were determined in exponentially growing A431, A549, HT29, HOP92, ACHN, and SKOV3 cells in the presence or absence of tipiracil hydrochloride, a TP inhibitor. Eighty-five non-small cell lung cancer tissues from a patient cohort that was previously studied with [(18)F]FLT positron emission tomography (PET) were retrieved and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of TP expression. Factors that affected the maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of [(18)F]FLT-PET were identified by multiple linear regression analysis.
RESULTS: A431 cells had the highest TP activity; A549 and HT29 cells had moderate TP activity; and ACHN, SKOV3, and HOP92 cells had little detectable TP activity. Cell lines with high TP activity took up more [(3)H]FLT than [(3)H]Thd, whereas cells with little TP activity took up more [(3)H]Thd than [(3)H]FLT. In cells with high TP activity, TP inhibition decreased [(3)H]FLT uptake and increased [(3)H]Thd uptake. However, TP inhibition had no effect on ACHN, SKOV3, and HOP92 cells. TP inhibition did not change TK1 or ENT1 activity, but did increase the intracellular level of thymidine. The SUVmax of [(18)F]FLT was affected by three independent factors: Ki-67 expression (P < 0.001), immunohistochemical TP score (P < 0.001), and tumour size (P = 0.015).
CONCLUSIONS: TP activity influences [(18)F]FLT uptake, and may explain preferential uptake of [(18)F]FLT over [(3)H]Thd. These results provide important insights into the biology of [(18)F]FLT as a proliferation marker.

Brim H, Abu-Asab MS, Nouraie M, et al.
An integrative CGH, MSI and candidate genes methylation analysis of colorectal tumors.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e82185 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Different DNA aberrations processes can cause colorectal cancer (CRC). Herein, we conducted a comprehensive molecular characterization of 27 CRCs from Iranian patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Array CGH was performed. The MSI phenotype and the methylation status of 15 genes was established using MSP. The CGH data was compared to two established lists of 41 and 68 cancer genes, respectively, and to CGH data from African Americans. A maximum parsimony cladogram based on global aberrations was established.
RESULTS: The number of aberrations seem to depend on the MSI status. MSI-H tumors displayed the lowest number of aberrations. MSP revealed that most markers were methylated, except RNF182 gene. P16 and MLH1 genes were primarily methylated in MSI-H tumors. Seven markers with moderate to high frequency of methylation (SYNE1, MMP2, CD109, EVL, RET, LGR and PTPRD) had very low levels of chromosomal aberrations. All chromosomes were targeted by aberrations with deletions more frequent than amplifications. The most amplified markers were CD248, ERCC6, ERGIC3, GNAS, MMP2, NF1, P2RX7, SFRS6, SLC29A1 and TBX22. Most deletions were noted for ADAM29, CHL1, CSMD3, FBXW7, GALNS, MMP2, NF1, PRKD1, SMAD4 and TP53. Aberrations targeting chromosome X were primarily amplifications in male patients and deletions in female patients. A finding similar to what we reported for African American CRC patients.
CONCLUSION: This first comprehensive analysis of CRC Iranian tumors reveals a high MSI rate. The MSI tumors displayed the lowest level of chromosomal aberrations but high frequency of methylation. The MSI-L were predominantly targeted with chromosomal instability in a way similar to the MSS tumors. The global chromosomal aberration profiles showed many similarities with other populations but also differences that might allow a better understanding of CRC's clinico-pathological specifics in this population.

Lee SY, Im SA, Park YH, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of SLC28A3, SLC29A1 and RRM1 predict clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving gemcitabine plus paclitaxel chemotherapy.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(4):698-705 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel and gemcitabine (PG) combination chemotherapy is effective as a maintenance chemotherapeutic regimen in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients because it increases progression-free survival (PFS), which increases overall survival (OS). The primary purpose of our study was to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms in the genes involved in PG pathways and clinical outcomes in MBC patients treated with PG chemotherapy.
METHODS: A total of 324 MBC patients were enrolled in this prospective multicenter trial of PG as the first-line chemotherapy. Eighty-five of the 324 patients from two institutes were available for analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Germline DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Thirty-eight SNPs in 15 candidate genes selected from pathways that may influence the metabolism and transport of, or sensitivity, to PG were analysed.
RESULTS: The median PFS and OS of all 324 patients were 8.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5-9.6 months) and 26.9 months (95% CI: 23.6-30.1 months), respectively. An SNP in SLC28A3 (rs7867504, C/T) was associated with OS (CC or CT versus TT: 37 versus 21 months, p = 0.027, hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.3). SLC29A1 GA haplotype had a significantly shorter OS (p = 0.030, HR 3.391, 95% CI: 1.13-10.19). RRM1 (ribonucleotide reductase large subunit M1) SNP (rs9937), and haplotypes ATAA and ATGA were significantly associated with neurotoxicity.
CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms in SLC28A3, SLC29A1 and RRM1 can influence the clinical outcome of MBC patients treated with PG chemotherapy. Further studies on the functional mechanisms relating to these germline polymorphisms in these genes are warranted.

Mohelnikova-Duchonova B, Melichar B
Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1): do we really have a new predictive biomarker of chemotherapy outcome in pancreatic cancer patients?
Pancreatology. 2013 Nov-Dec; 13(6):558-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although systemic chemotherapy significantly improves the overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients, the prognosis remains extremely poor. The development of a drug resistance, either de novo or induced resistance, significantly limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy. SLC29A1 gene encodes human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) protein that is mediating the transport of nucleotides, both purines and pyrimidines, into the tumor cells. The aim of this mini-review is to summarize the current information concerning the prognostic and predictive role of SLC29A1 transporter (hENT1) expression in pancreatic cancer. Increased expression of SLC29A1 in vitro has been described as a potential critical factor determining the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, the principal cytotoxic agents used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. The reports on the relationship between SLC29A1 expression and prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer are currently rather conflicting. However, majority of studies on patients with resected pancreatic cancer have suggested that high SLC29A1expression may be predictive of improved survival in patients treated with gemcitabine. SLC29A1 has not been shown to represent a predictive biomarker for patients treated by 5-fluorouracil. In conclusion, potential prognostic and predictive role of SLC29A1 has been demonstrated for selected subset of patients.

Wei CH, Gorgan TR, Elashoff DA, et al.
A meta-analysis of gemcitabine biomarkers in patients with pancreaticobiliary cancers.
Pancreas. 2013; 42(8):1303-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to summarize all clinical studies evaluating the prognostic role of gemcitabine (GEM) metabolic genes in pancreaticobiliary (PB) cancer patients receiving GEM therapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or palliative settings.
METHODS: Meta-analyses were performed to calculate the pooled hazard ratios for each gene by each clinical outcome (overall survival [OS], disease-free survival [DFS], and progression-free survival) using a random-effects approach.
RESULTS: The search strategy identified 16 eligible studies, composed of 632 PB patients total, with moderate quality. Compared with low expression, pooled hazard ratios for OS of hENT1, dCK, RRM1, RRM2, and DPD were 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.47), 0.40 (95% CI, 0.20-0.80), 2.21 (95% CI, 1.12-4.36), 2.13 (95% CI, 1.00-4.52), and 1.91 (95% CI, 1.16-3.17), respectively. A similar trend was observed for each of these biomarkers in DFS and progression-free survival prognostication. Subgroup analyses for hENT1 showed a comparable survival correlation in the adjuvant and palliative settings.
CONCLUSIONS: High expression of hENT1 in PB cancer patients receiving GEM-based adjuvant therapy is associated with improved OS and DFS and may be the best examined prognostic marker to date. Evidence for other biomarkers is limited by a small number of publications investigating these markers.

Mohelnikova-Duchonova B, Brynychova V, Hlavac V, et al.
The association between the expression of solute carrier transporters and the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013; 72(3):669-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of fourteen anticancer drug-relevant solute carrier transporters (SLCs) in pancreatic cancer in the context of clinical-pathological characteristics and the KRAS mutation status of tumors.
METHODS: Tumors and non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues were obtained from 32 histologically verified patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The transcript profile of SLCs was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. KRAS mutations in exon 2 were assessed by high-resolution melting analysis and confirmed by sequencing.
RESULTS: SLC22A3 and SLC22A18 were upregulated and SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC22A11, SLC28A1, SLC28A3 and SLC29A1 were downregulated when compared with non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues. Moreover, significantly lower levels of SLC22A1, SLC22A11 and SLC29A1 were found in tumors with angioinvasion. There was also a significantly higher transcript level of SLC28A1 in tumors with regional lymph nodes affected by metastasis. The study found that a high expression of SLC28A1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival in unselected patients. In contrast, a high expression of SLC22A3 or SLC29A3 was significantly associated with longer overall survival in patients treated with nucleoside analogs. Protein expression of SLC22A1, SLC22A3 and SLC29A3 in tumor tissues of patients with pancreatic carcinoma was observed by immunoblotting for the first time. Finally, SLC levels were not found to be associated with KRAS mutation status in exon 2.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a number of associations of transcript levels of SLCs with prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients.

Murata A, Nakata B, Komoto M, et al.
In vitro effects of lapatinib with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer cells.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2013; 60(126):1484-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated whether lapatinib plus gemcitabine has synergistic or antagonistic effects on the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaca-2 and PANC-1. Furthermore, the changes of gemcitabine sensitivity-related genes by lapatinib treatment were examined.
METHODOLOGY: The effects of lapatinib, gemcitabine, and combined treatment with both agents on cell viability were examined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium analysis. Synergy between lapatinib and gemcitabine was assessed by median effect analysis. The mRNA amounts of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1), deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in cells exposed to lapatinib for 48 h, as compared with untreated cells.
RESULTS: No synergistic effects were observed with combined treatment in either cell line. In contrast, antagonistic effects occurred on MiaPaca-2 cells with the two agents. Specific changes in gemcitabine sensitivity-related genes induced by lapatinib were not detected in either MiaPaca-2 or PANC-1.
CONCLUSIONS: Lapatinib may not enhance the anti-tumor effects of gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer.

Jordheim LP, Dumontet C
Do hENT1 and RRM1 predict the clinical benefit of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer?
Biomark Med. 2013; 7(4):663-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog that is indicated in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. In order to provide a better use of this drug, the search for immunohistological markers is a hot topic in the field of pancreatic cancer. In particular, the use of nucleoside transporter hENT1 and the intracellular target of gemcitabine RRM1 are current subjects for discussion. We have analyzed the majority of studies of hENT1 and RRM1 on pancreatic cancer, and will discuss the further directions that might be followed in order to integrate these proteins in routine clinical practice. The data that is currently available would benefit from the completion of well-designed randomized trials in order to confirm the clinical value of hENT1 and RRM1 as biomarkers in pancreatic cancer patients.

Strimpakos AS, Syrigos KN, Saif MW
Pharmacogenomics in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: new data and their clinical implications.
JOP. 2013; 14(4):359-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite advances and investments in translation research, clinical trials and health service in general, there is no significant impact on the survival of most patients diagnosed with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. It is broadly recognized though that there is a small minority of patients who really benefit from particular treatments for reason usually not well understood. Light to this fact is gradually shed by developments in the field of pharmacogenomics, which plays pivotal role in what we call individualized medicine. In that perspective, it is of most importance to present the significant developments in pharmacogenomics announced in the recent 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting. First, the predictive role of hENT1, which codes for a gemcitabine transporter into cells, was highlighted and might help us decide whether we benefit from gemcitabine or 5-fluorouracil in the adjuvant setting (Abstract #4006). Second, authors presented the negative predictive role of SPARC stroma and cytoplasmic expression in patients treated with adjuvant gemcitabine (within the CONCO-001 study) as they reported poor outcome of those having high expression, not seen in patients on observation (Abstract #4016). Finally, a study which might be a basis for future strategies and as great food for scientific thought suggested that selection of cytotoxic treatment based on gene expression profiling is feasible in clinical practice and may help improve treatment efficacy as well as predict for drug resistance (Abstract #4017). Of course, there is a long way to go before implementation of these genomic findings, with the exception of hENT1 which seems to be close for clinical use.

Eto K, Kawakami H, Kuwatani M, et al.
Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and Notch3 can predict gemcitabine effects in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(7):1488-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) is one of the most lethal human carcinomas. Expression patterns of some genes may predict gemcitabine (GEM) treatment efficacy. We examined predictive indicators of survival in GEM-treated patients by quantifying the expression of several genes in pre-treatment endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) samples from patients with PDC.
METHODS: The expressions of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), deoxycitidine kinase, ribonucleoside reductase 1, ribonucleoside reductase 2 and Notch3 in EUS-FNA tissue samples from 71 patients with unresectable PDC were quantified using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and examined for correlations with GEM sensitivity.
RESULTS: The log-rank test detected no significant differences in overall survival between GEM-treated patients with low and high mRNA levels of all genes examined. However, low Notch3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with longer overall survival in a multivariate analysis for survival (P=0.0094). High hENT1 expression level was significantly associated with a longer time to progression (P=0.039). Interaction tests for GEM administration and hENT1 or Notch3 mRNA expression were statistically significant (P=0.0054 and 0.0047, respectively).
CONCLUSION: hENT1 and Notch3 mRNA expressions in EUS-FNA specimens were the key predictive biomarkers of GEM effect and GEM sensitivity in patients with unresectable PDC.

Pratt SE, Durland-Busbice S, Shepard RL, et al.
Efficacy of low-dose oral metronomic dosing of the prodrug of gemcitabine, LY2334737, in human tumor xenografts.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2013; 12(4):481-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
LY2334737, an oral prodrug of gemcitabine, is cleaved in vivo, releasing gemcitabine and valproic acid. Oral dosing of mice results in absorption of intact prodrug with slow systemic hydrolysis yielding higher plasma levels of LY2334737 than gemcitabine and prolonged gemcitabine exposure. Antitumor activity was evaluated in human colon and lung tumor xenograft models. The dose response for efficacy was examined using 3 metronomic schedules, once-a-day dosing for 14 doses, every other day for 7 doses, and once a day for 7 doses, 7 days rest, followed by an additional 7 days of once-a-day dosing. These schedules gave significant antitumor activity and were well tolerated. Oral gavage of 6 mg/kg LY2334737 daily for 21 days gave equivalent activity to i.v. 240 mg/kg gemcitabine. HCl administered once a week for 3 weeks to mice bearing a patient mesothelioma tumor PXF 1118 or a non-small cell lung cancer tumor LXFE 937. The LXFE 397 tumor possessed elevated expression of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT1) important for gemcitabine uptake but not prodrug uptake and responded significantly better to treatment with LY2334737 than gemcitabine (P ≤ 0.001). In 3 colon xenografts, antitumor activity of LY2334737 plus a maximally tolerated dose of capecitabine, an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil, was significantly greater than either monotherapy. During treatment, the expression of carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) and concentrative nucleoside transporter-3 was induced in HCT-116 tumors; both are needed for the activity of the prodrugs. Thus, metronomic oral low-dose LY2334737 is efficacious, well tolerated, and easily combined with capecitabine for improved efficacy. Elevated CES2 or ENT1 expression may enhance LY2334737 tumor response.

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