Gene Summary

Gene:LDHA; lactate dehydrogenase A
Aliases: LDHM, GSD11, PIG19, HEL-S-133P
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of L-lactate and NAD to pyruvate and NADH in the final step of anaerobic glycolysis. The protein is found predominantly in muscle tissue and belongs to the lactate dehydrogenase family. Mutations in this gene have been linked to exertional myoglobinuria. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The human genome contains several non-transcribed pseudogenes of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Most cancers exhibit a high expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) to ensure a high energy supply.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LDHA (cancer-related)

Gao S, Tu DN, Li H, et al.
Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of LDHA reverses tumor progression of pediatric osteosarcoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 81:388-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reprogrammed energy metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key enzyme involved in anaerobic glycolysis, is frequently deregulated in human malignancies. However, limited knowledge is known about its roles in the progression of osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, we found that LDHA is commonly upregulated in four OS cell lines compared with the normal osteoblast cells (hFOB1.19). Treatment with FX11, a specific inhibitor of LDHA, significantly reduced LDHA activity, and inhibited cell proliferation and invasive potential in a dose dependent manner. Genetic silencing of LDHA resulted in a decreased lactate level in the culture medium, reduced cell viability and decreased cell invasion ability. Meanwhile, silencing of LDHA also compromised tumorigenesis in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of LDHA remarkably reduced extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) as well as glucose consumption. In the presence of 2-DG, a glycolysis inhibitor, LDHA-mediated cell proliferation and invasion were completely blocked, indicating the oncogenic activities of LDHA may dependent on Warburg effect. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of c-Myc or HIF1α significantly attenuated LDHA expression. Taken together, upregulated LDHA facilitates tumor progression of OS and might be a potential target for OS treatment.

Lim S, Liu H, Madeira da Silva L, et al.
Immunoregulatory Protein B7-H3 Reprograms Glucose Metabolism in Cancer Cells by ROS-Mediated Stabilization of HIF1α.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(8):2231-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
B7-H3 is a member of B7 family of immunoregulatory transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by T cells. While B7-H3 overexpression is associated with poor outcomes in multiple cancers, it also has immune-independent roles outside T cells and its precise mechanistic contributions to cancer are unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of B7-H3 in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo We found that B7-H3 promoted the Warburg effect, evidenced by increased glucose uptake and lactate production in B7-H3-expressing cells. B7-H3 also increased the protein levels of HIF1α and its downstream targets, LDHA and PDK1, key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. Furthermore, B7-H3 promoted reactive oxygen species-dependent stabilization of HIF1α by suppressing the activity of the stress-activated transcription factor Nrf2 and its target genes, including the antioxidants SOD1, SOD2, and PRX3. Metabolic imaging of human breast cancer xenografts in mice confirmed that B7-H3 enhanced tumor glucose uptake and tumor growth. Together, our results illuminate the critical immune-independent contributions of B7-H3 to cancer metabolism, presenting a radically new perspective on B7 family immunoregulatory proteins in malignant progression. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2231-42. ©2016 AACR.

Mohammad GH, Olde Damink SW, Malago M, et al.
Pyruvate Kinase M2 and Lactate Dehydrogenase A Are Overexpressed in Pancreatic Cancer and Correlate with Poor Outcome.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151635 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer has a 5-year survival rate of less than 4%. Despite advances in diagnostic technology, pancreatic cancer continues to be diagnosed at a late and incurable stage. Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis and to predict treatment response are urgently needed. Since alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, we proposed that pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2PK) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) enzymes could represent novel diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer. In 266 tissue sections from normal pancreas, pancreatic cystic neoplasms, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and cancer, we evaluated the expression of PKM2, LDHA, Ki-67 and CD8+ by immunohistochemistry and correlated these markers with clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival. PKM2 and LDHA expression was also assessed by Western blot in 10 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. PKM2 expression increased progressively from cyst through PanIN to cancer, whereas LDHA was overexpressed throughout the carcinogenic process. All but one cell line showed high expression of both proteins. Patients with strong PKM2 and LDHA expression had significantly worse survival than those with weak PKM2 and/or LDHA expression (7.0 months vs. 27.9 months, respectively, p = 0.003, log rank test). The expression of both PKM2 and LDHA correlated directly with Ki-67 expression, and inversely with intratumoral CD8+ cell count. PKM2 was significantly overexpressed in poorly differentiated tumours and both PKM2 and LDHA were overexpressed in larger tumours. Multivariable analysis showed that combined expression of PKM2 and LDHA was an independent poor prognostic marker for survival. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a high expression pattern of two major glycolytic enzymes during pancreatic carcinogenesis, with increased expression in aggressive tumours and a significant adverse effect on survival.

Massari F, Ciccarese C, Santoni M, et al.
Metabolic phenotype of bladder cancer.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 45:46-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metabolism of bladder cancer represents a key issue for cancer research. Several metabolic altered pathways are involved in bladder tumorigenesis, representing therefore interesting targets for therapy. Tumor cells, including urothelial cancer cells, rely on a peculiar shift to aerobic glycolysis-dependent metabolism (the Warburg-effect) as the main energy source to sustain their uncontrolled growth and proliferation. Therefore, the high glycolytic flux depends on the overexpression of glycolysis-related genes (SRC-3, glucose transporter type 1 [GLUT1], GLUT3, lactic dehydrogenase A [LDHA], LDHB, hexokinase 1 [HK1], HK2, pyruvate kinase type M [PKM], and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha [HIF-1α]), resulting in an overproduction of pyruvate, alanine and lactate. Concurrently, bladder cancer metabolism displays an increased expression of genes favoring the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD]) and the fatty-acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase [FASN]), along with a decrease of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Krebs cycle activities. Moreover, the PTEN/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, hyper-activated in bladder cancer, acts as central regulator of aerobic glycolysis, hence contributing to cancer metabolic switch and tumor cell proliferation. Besides glycolysis, glycogen metabolism pathway plays a robust role in bladder cancer development. In particular, the overexpression of GLUT-1, the loss of the tumor suppressor glycogen debranching enzyme amylo-α-1,6-glucosidase, 4-α-glucanotransferase (AGL), and the increased activity of the tumor promoter enzyme glycogen phosphorylase impair glycogen metabolism. An increase in glucose uptake, decrease in normal cellular glycogen storage, and overproduction of lactate are consequences of decreased oxidative phosphorylation and inability to reuse glucose into the pentose phosphate and de novo fatty acid synthesis pathways. Moreover, AGL loss determines augmented levels of the serine-to-glycine enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase-2 (SHMT2), resulting in an increased glycine and purine ring of nucleotides synthesis, thus supporting cells proliferation. A deep understanding of the metabolic phenotype of bladder cancer will provide novel opportunities for targeted therapeutic strategies.

Li X, Lu P, Li B, et al.
Sensitization of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to irradiation by miR‑34a through targeting lactate dehydrogenase‑A.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(4):3661-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiation is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer, and is also used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRs) are endogenous, non‑coding single‑stranded RNA molecules, which regulate gene expression at the post‑transcriptional level. In the present study, the roles of miR‑34a‑mediated glycolysis in radiation sensitivity were investigated. By establishing a radioresistant liver cancer cell line, the present study compared the expression level of miR‑34a from radiosensitive and radioresistant cells using the reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The glucose uptake and lactate production were also compared between the two types of cells. The results demonstrated that miR‑34a acted as a tumor suppressor in human hepatocellular cancer cells. Following comparison of radiosensitive and radioresistant cancer cells, the results of the present study demonstrated that miR‑34a was negatively correlated with radiation resistance; and levels of miR‑34a were significantly downregulated in the HepG2 radioresistant cells. Furthermore, the rate of glycolysis in the radioresistant cells was elevated, and there was evidence that glucose uptake and lactate production increased. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which is a key enzyme in the glycolysis signaling pathway, was found to be a target of miR‑34a in hepatocellular cancer cells. Notably, the overexpression of miR‑34a re‑sensitized HepG2 radioresistant cells to radiation treatment by inhibiting LDHA. The results of the present study revealed a negative correlation between miR‑34a and glycolysis, caused by the targeting of LDHA‑34a, providing a novel mechanism for miR‑34a‑mediated radioresistance.

Xiao X, Huang X, Ye F, et al.
The miR-34a-LDHA axis regulates glucose metabolism and tumor growth in breast cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:21735 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is involved in a variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression, prognostic roles and function of LDHA in breast cancer. We found that LDHA was upregulated in both breast cancer cell lines and clinical specimens using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of tissue microarrays (TMAs) showed that high LDHA expression was associated with cell proliferation, metastasis and poor patient overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). Furthermore, we found that LDHA promoted glycolysis and cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. We also performed luciferase reporter assays and found that LDHA was a direct target of miR-34a. Repression of LDHA by miR-34a suppressed glycolysis and cell proliferation in breast cancer cells in vitro. Our findings provide clues regarding the role of miR-34a as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer through the inhibition of LDHA both in vitro and in vivo. Targeting LDHA through miR-34a could be a potential therapeutic strategy in breast cancer.

van der Mijn JC, Broxterman HJ, Knol JC, et al.
Sunitinib activates Axl signaling in renal cell cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(12):3002-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics provides a unique unbiased approach to evaluate signaling network in cancer cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is registered as treatment for patients with renal cell cancer (RCC). We investigated the effect of sunitinib on tyrosine phosphorylation in RCC tumor cells to get more insight in its mechanism of action and thereby to find potential leads for combination treatment strategies. Sunitinib inhibitory concentrations of proliferation (IC50) of 786-O, 769-p and A498 RCC cells were determined by MTT-assays. Global tyrosine phosphorylation was measured by LC-MS/MS after immunoprecipitation with the antiphosphotyrosine antibody p-TYR-100. Phosphoproteomic profiling of 786-O cells yielded 1519 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 675 unique proteins including 57 different phosphorylated protein kinases. Compared to control, incubation with sunitinib at its IC50 of 2 µM resulted in downregulation of 86 phosphopeptides including CDK5, DYRK3, DYRK4, G6PD, PKM and LDH-A, while 94 phosphopeptides including Axl, FAK, EPHA2 and p38α were upregulated. Axl- (y702), FAK- (y576) and p38α (y182) upregulation was confirmed by Western Blot in 786-O and A498 cells. Subsequent proliferation assays revealed that inhibition of Axl with a small molecule inhibitor (R428) sensitized 786-O RCC cells and immortalized endothelial cells to sunitinib up to 3 fold. In conclusion, incubation with sunitinib of RCC cells causes significant upregulation of multiple phosphopeptides including Axl. Simultaneous inhibition of Axl improves the antitumor activity of sunitinib. We envision that evaluation of phosphoproteomic changes by TKI treatment enables identification of new targets for combination treatment strategies.

Ai Z, Lu Y, Qiu S, Fan Z
Overcoming cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells by targeting HIF-1-regulated cancer metabolism.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 373(1):36-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Cisplatin is currently one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used for treating ovarian cancer; however, resistance to cisplatin is common. In this study, we explored an experimental strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer from the new perspective of cancer cell metabolism. By using two pairs of genetically matched cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines, we tested the hypothesis that downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, is a promising strategy for overcoming cisplatin resistance of human ovarian cancer cells. We found that cisplatin downregulated the level of the regulatable α subunit of HIF-1, HIF-1α, in cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cells through enhancing HIF-1α degradation but did not downregulate HIF-1α in their cisplatin-resistant counterparts. Overexpression of a degradation-resistant HIF-1α (HIF-1α ΔODD) reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in cisplatin-sensitive cells, whereas genetic knockdown of HIF-1α or pharmacological promotion of HIF-1α degradation enhanced response to cisplatin in both cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. We further demonstrated that knockdown of HIF-1α improved the response of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by redirecting the aerobic glycolysis in the resistant cancer cells toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to cell death through overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Our findings suggest that the HIF-1α-regulated cancer metabolism pathway could be a novel target for overcoming cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.

Liu X, Yao D, Liu C, et al.
Overexpression of ABCC3 promotes cell proliferation, drug resistance, and aerobic glycolysis and is associated with poor prognosis in urinary bladder cancer patients.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8367-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is the one of the most common malignancies worldwide and occurs at a higher frequency in male individuals. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter family, is highly expressed in tumor cells, where it actively effluxes a broad spectrum of metabolites. However, the expression and role of ABCC3 in human UBC remains unclear. Our study aimed to identify the expression status of ABCC3 in UBC cases and investigate the biological effects on UBC in cells. We found that both mRNA and protein levels of ABCC3 were significantly higher in UBC tissues than normal tissues. Immunochemistry evaluation of ABCC3 expression in 122 UBC clinical specimens showed that high expression of ABCC3 had a positive correlation with UBC tumor size, advanced tumor node metastasis stage, and malignant histology. Moreover, high ABCC3 expression was linked to poor overall survival in UBC. ABCC3 effects on cell proliferation and drug resistance were measured by colony formation and methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. ABCC3-knockdown cells showed a significant decrease in cell growth and drug resistance. RNA interference of ABCC3 also caused downregulation of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which positively correlated with ABCC3 expression in UBC specimens. In addition, cancer cell glycolytic ability was decreased upon ABCC3 knockdown. The activity of LDHA was also abrogated in ABCC3-deficient UBC cells, and the blockade of LDHA increased UBC cells sensitivity to Cis-diamine dichloroplatinum (CDDP). In summary, our study suggests ABCC3 is an important oncoprotein involved in glycolysis and drug resistance. These data also indicates that ABCC3 could be a potential prognostic marker and promising therapeutic target in UBC.

Lv XB, Liu L, Cheng C, et al.
SUN2 exerts tumor suppressor functions by suppressing the Warburg effect in lung cancer.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:17940 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
SUN2, a key component of LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex located at the inner nuclear membrane, plays unknown role in lung cancer. We found that SUN2 expression was decreased in lung cancer tissue compared with paired normal tissues and that higher SUN2 levels predicted better overall survival and first progression survival. Overexpression of SUN2 inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation and migration in lung cancer, whereas knockdown of SUN2 promotes cell proliferation and migration. Additionally, SUN2 increases the sensitivity of lung cancer to cisplatin by inducing cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, we showed that SUN2 exerts its tumor suppressor functions by decreasing the expression of GLUT1 and LDHA to inhibit the Warburg effect. Finally, our results provided evidence that SIRT5 acts, at least partly, as a negative regulator of SUN2.Taken together, our findings indicate that SUN2 is a key component in lung cancer progression by inhibiting the Warburg effect and that the novel SIRT5/SUN2 axis may prove to be useful for the development of new strategies for treating the patients with lung cancer.

Jiang Y, Wu GH, He GD, et al.
The Effect of Silencing HIF-1α Gene in BxPC-3 Cell Line on Glycolysis-Related Gene Expression, Cell Growth, Invasion, and Apoptosis.
Nutr Cancer. 2015; 67(8):1314-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia has been proved to be a typical character of solid tumors. Tumor cells prefer to use glucose through the glycolysis pathway instead of aerobic respiration. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying this so-called Warburg effect remains elusive. In the current study, siRNA was synthesized and transfected into BxPC-3 cell line to silence the expression of HIF-1α gene. It was found that hypoxia induced hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) overexpression in BxPC-3 cells, enhanced the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 and lactate dehydrogenase A, thus facilitating glycolysis and making tumor cells more tolerant to hypoxic stress. The silencing of HIF-1α gene significantly attenuated glycolysis under hypoxic conditions, inhibited the growth and invasion ability of BxPC-3 cells, and enhanced hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis.

Wang X, Duan W, Li X, et al.
PTTG regulates the metabolic switch of ovarian cancer cells via the c-myc pathway.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(38):40959-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Human pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) is a proto-oncogene involved in the development, invasion, and metastasis of many types of cancer, including ovarian cancer. However, little is known about the role of PTTG in the metabolic shift of ovarian cancer cells. In our study, we show that PTTG expression was positively correlated with the differentiation degree of ovarian cancer tissue. In addition, PTTG suppression by specific shRNA could inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells A2780 and SKOV-3. Furthermore, aerobic glycolysis was suppressed and oxidative phosphorylation was increased in ovarian cancer cells after PTTG suppression. We further found that the expression of c-myc and several crucial enzymes involved in aerobic glycolysis (e.g., PKM2, LDHA, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1)) were downregulated by PTTG knockwown. Overexpression of c-myc could prevent the metabolic shift induced by PTTG knockwown. Together, our findings suggest that the oncogene PTTG promotes the progression of ovarian cancer cells, and its loss resists tumor development, in part, by regulating cellular metabolic reprogramming that supports cell growth and proliferation via c-myc pathway.

Ye X
Confluence analysis of multiple omics on platinum resistance of ovarian cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(5):514-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to provide novel insight into the mechanism of platinum resistance of ovarian cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA-seq data ERP000710 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including specimens from six platinum sensitive samples and six platinum tolerance samples. The author analyzed the data of the 12 samples as a whole because of the low flux sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified between platinum-sensitive and platinum-tolerant samples using VARSCAN, followed by functional prediction of the SNPs. After processed by Btrim software, the data were subjected to Cuffdiff for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), followed by function and pathway enrichment analysis. In addition, VARSCAN software was used to detect the specific mutations in platinum tolerance samples, combined with functional prediction of mutations.
RESULTS: The author obtained 38 new SNPs after excluding 22 SNP from dbSNP database and 1000 Genomes Project and found ESRP1, LDHA, DDX5, and HEXA were associated with platinum resistance of ovarian cancer. Totally, 290 upregulated and 157 down-regulated genes were selected. Biological processes such as immune response, inflammatory response, and response to wounding and pathways such as cell adhesion molecules, calcium signaling, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways were enriched with upregulated genes. Cell-cell signaling, cell morphogenesis, and basal cell carcinoma pathway were related to downregulated genes.
CONCLUSION: Based on high-throughput RNA-seq data and confluence analysis of multiple omics, the author explored the biological mechanisms on platinum tolerance of ovarian cancer, which may provide new ideas and methods for further research.

Cho MH, Park CK, Park M, et al.
Clinicopathologic Features and Molecular Characteristics of Glucose Metabolism Contributing to ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0141413 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is useful in the preoperative diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs); however, the molecular characteristics of glucose metabolism of GIST are unknown. We evaluated 18F-FDG uptake on preoperative PET/CT of 40 patients and analyzed the expression of glycolytic enzymes in resected GIST tissues by qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Results of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off value of 4.99 had a sensitivity of 89.5%, specificity was 76.2%, and accuracy of 82.5% for identifying tumors with a high risk of malignancy. We found that 18F-FDG uptake correlated positively with tumor size, risk grade, and expression levels of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase 1 (HK1), and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). Elevated HK and LDH activity was found in high-risk tumors. Among the isoforms of GLUT and HK, GLUT1 and HK1 expression increased with higher tumor risk grade. In addition, overexpression of glycolytic enzymes M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and LDHA was observed in GISTs, especially in high-risk tumors. These results suggest that upregulation of GLUT1, HK1, PKM2, and LDHA may play an important role in GIST tumorigenesis and may be useful in the preoperative prediction of malignant potential.

Song K, Kwon H, Han C, et al.
Active glycolytic metabolism in CD133(+) hepatocellular cancer stem cells: regulation by MIR-122.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(38):40822-35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Although altered metabolic pathway is an important diagnostic maker and therapeutic target in cancer, it is poorly understood in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we show that the CD133 (+) hepatocellular CSCs have distinct metabolic properties, characterized by more active glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation, compared to the CD133 (-) cells. Inhibition of PDK4 and LDHA markedly suppresses CD133 (+) stemness characteristics and overcome resistance to sorafenib (current chemotherapeutic agent for hepatocellular cancer). Addition of glucose or lactate to CD133 (-) cells promotes CSC phenotypes, as evidenced by increased CD133 (+) cell population, elevated stemness gene expression and enhanced spheroid formation. Furthermore, the liver-specific miRNA, miR-122, inhibits CSC phenotypes by regulating glycolysis through targeting PDK4. Our findings suggest that enhanced glycolysis is associated with CD133 (+) stem-like characteristics and that metabolic reprogramming through miR-122 or PDK4 may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer.

Mondal S, Roy D, Camacho-Pereira J, et al.
HSulf-1 deficiency dictates a metabolic reprograming of glycolysis and TCA cycle in ovarian cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(32):33705-19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Warburg effect has emerged as a potential hallmark of many cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms that led to this metabolic state of aerobic glycolysis, particularly in ovarian cancer (OVCA) have not been completely elucidated. HSulf-1 predominantly functions by limiting the bioavailability of heparan binding growth factors and hence their downstream signaling. Here we report that HSulf-1, a known putative tumor suppressor, is a negative regulator of glycolysis. Silencing of HSulf-1 expression in OV202 cell line increased glucose uptake and lactate production by upregulating glycolytic genes such as Glut1, HKII, LDHA, as well as metabolites. Conversely, HSulf-1 overexpression in TOV21G cells resulted in the down regulation of glycolytic enzymes and reduced glycolytic phenotype, supporting the role of HSulf-1 loss in enhanced aerobic glycolysis. HSulf-1 deficiency mediated glycolytic enhancement also resulted in increased inhibitory phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) thus blocking the entry of glucose flux into TCA cycle. Consistent with this, metabolomic and isotope tracer analysis showed reduced glucose flux into TCA cycle. Moreover, HSulf-1 loss is associated with lower oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and impaired mitochondrial function. Mechanistically, lack of HSulf-1 promotes c-Myc induction through HB-EGF-mediated p-ERK activation. Pharmacological inhibition of c-Myc reduced HB-EGF induced glycolytic enzymes implicating a major role of c-Myc in loss of HSulf-1 mediated altered glycolytic pathway in OVCA. Similarly, PG545 treatment, an agent that binds to heparan binding growth factors and sequesters growth factors away from their ligand also blocked HB-EGF signaling and reduced glucose uptake in vivo in HSulf-1 deficient cells.

Lund RR, Leth-Larsen R, Caterino TD, et al.
NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase 3 Promotes Colonization and Metastasis Formation and Is a Prognostic Marker of Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015; 14(11):2988-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths and remains the most significant challenge to management of the disease. Metastases are established through a complex multistep process involving intracellular signaling pathways. To gain insight to proteins central to specific steps in metastasis formation, we used a metastasis cell line model that allows investigation of extravasation and colonization of circulating cancer cells to lungs in mice. Using stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture and subcellular fractionation, the nuclear, cytosol, and mitochondria proteomes were analyzed by LC-MS/MS, identifying a number of proteins that exhibited altered expression in isogenic metastatic versus nonmetastatic cancer cell lines, including NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3), l-lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), Niemann-pick c1 protein (NPC1), and nucleolar RNA helicase 2 (NRH2). The altered expression levels were validated at the protein and transcriptional levels, and analysis of breast cancer biopsies from two cohorts of patients demonstrated a significant correlation between high CYB5R3 expression and poor disease-free and overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors (DFS: p = .02, OS: p = .04). CYB5R3 gene knock-down using siRNA in metastasizing cells led to significantly decreased tumor burden in lungs when injected intravenously in immunodeficient mice. The cellular effects of CYB5R3 knock-down showed signaling alterations associated with extravasation, TGFβ and HIFα pathways, and apoptosis. The decreased apoptosis of CYB5R3 knock-down metastatic cancer cell lines was confirmed in functional assays. Our study reveals a central role of CYB5R3 in extravasation/colonization of cancer cells and demonstrates the ability of our quantitative, comparative proteomic approach to identify key proteins of specific important biological processes that may also prove useful as potential biomarkers of clinical relevance. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001391.

Konno M, Hamabe A, Doki Y, et al.
[Novel mechanism for invasion and metastasis involving metabolic enzymes in intractable cancer cells].
Rinsho Ketsueki. 2015; 56(8):1059-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer metabolism characterizes the malignant behavior of tumors. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a key player in maintaining aerobic glycolysis, stimulates tumor growth by controlling the Warburg effect. It has been shown that PKM2 translocates into the nucleus to regulate the transcriptions of numerous down-stream genes, including PDK1 and LDHA. To investigate the significance of PKM2 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological process which promotes the metastasis of cancer cells, we induced EMT in gastrointestinal cancer cells using TGFβ and EGF in vitro. After EMT induction, E-cadherin was down-regulated, whereas Vimentin was up-regulated. PKM2 expression was increased at both the transcriptional and the translational level, and PKM2 translocated into the nucleus. Immunohistochemical staining of PKM2 revealed that PKM2 positivity correlated significantly with lymph node metastasis and distant organ metastasis of gastrointestinal cancer. The present results indicate that nuclear PKM2 plays a crucial role in controlling invasion and metastasis.

Yang L, Hou Y, Yuan J, et al.
Twist promotes reprogramming of glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells through PI3K/AKT and p53 signaling pathways.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):25755-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Twist, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays an important role in the development of a tumorigenic phenotype. Energy metabolism reprogramming (EMR), a newly discovered hallmark of cancer cells, potentiates cancer cell proliferation, survival, and invasion. Currently little is known about the effects of Twist on tumor EMR. In this study, we found that glucose consumption and lactate production were increased and mitochondrial mass was decreased in Twist-overexpressing MCF10A mammary epithelial cells compared with vector-expressing MCF10A cells. Moreover, these Twist-induced phenotypic changes were augmented by hypoxia. The expression of some glucose metabolism-related genes such as PKM2, LDHA, and G6PD was also found to be upregulated. Mechanistically, activated β1-integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR and suppressed P53 signaling were responsible for the observed EMR. Knockdown of Twist reversed the effects of Twist on EMR in Twist-overexpressing MCF10A cells and Twist-positive breast cancer cells. Furthermore, blockage of the β1-integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by siRNA or specific chemical inhibitors, or rescue of p53 activation can partially reverse the switch of glucose metabolism and inhibit the migration of Twist-overexpressing MCF10A cells and Twist-positive breast cancer cells. Thus, our data suggest that Twist promotes reprogramming of glucose metabolism in MCF10A-Twist cells and Twist-positive breast cancer cells via activation of the β1-integrin/FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and inhibition of the p53 pathway. Our study provides new insight into EMR.

Xu X, Li J, Sun X, et al.
Tumor suppressor NDRG2 inhibits glycolysis and glutaminolysis in colorectal cancer cells by repressing c-Myc expression.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):26161-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Cancer cells use glucose and glutamine as the major sources of energy and precursor intermediates, and enhanced glycolysis and glutamimolysis are the major hallmarks of metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation alter multiple intracellular signaling pathways that affect glycolysis and glutaminolysis. N-Myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a tumor suppressor gene inhibiting cancer growth, metastasis and invasion. However, the role and molecular mechanism of NDRG2 in cancer metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we discovered the role of the tumor suppressor gene NDRG2 in aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis of cancer cells. NDRG2 inhibited glucose consumption and lactate production, glutamine consumption and glutamate production in colorectal cancer cells. Analysis of glucose transporters and the catalytic enzymes involved in glycolysis revealed that glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase 2 (HK2), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was significantly suppressed by NDRG2. Analysis of glutamine transporter and the catalytic enzymes involved in glutaminolysis revealed that glutamine transporter ASC amino-acid transporter 2 (ASCT2) and glutaminase 1 (GLS1) was also significantly suppressed by NDRG2. Transcription factor c-Myc mediated inhibition of glycolysis and glutaminolysis by NDRG2. More importantly, NDRG2 inhibited the expression of c-Myc by suppressing the expression of β-catenin, which can transcriptionally activate C-MYC gene in nucleus. In addition, the growth and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells were suppressed significantly by NDRG2 through inhibition of glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Taken together, these findings indicate that NDRG2 functions as an essential regulator in glycolysis and glutaminolysis via repression of c-Myc, and acts as a suppressor of carcinogenesis through coordinately targeting glucose and glutamine transporter, multiple catalytic enzymes involved in glycolysis and glutaminolysis, which fuels the bioenergy and biomaterials needed for cancer proliferation and progress.

Mushtaq M, Darekar S, Klein G, Kashuba E
Different Mechanisms of Regulation of the Warburg Effect in Lymphoblastoid and Burkitt Lymphoma Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0136142 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Warburg effect is one of the hallmarks of cancer and rapidly proliferating cells. It is known that the hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A) and MYC proteins cooperatively regulate expression of the HK2 and PDK1 genes, respectively, in the Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cell line P493-6, carrying an inducible MYC gene repression system. However, the mechanism of aerobic glycolysis in BL cells has not yet been fully understood.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Western blot analysis showed that the HIF1A protein was highly expressed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive BL cell lines. Using biochemical assays and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), we found that-unlike in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)-the MYC protein was the master regulator of the Warburg effect in these BL cell lines. Inhibition of the transactivation ability of MYC had no influence on aerobic glycolysis in LCLs, but it led to decreased expression of MYC-dependent genes and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity in BL cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg effect, in BL cells is regulated by MYC expressed at high levels, whereas in LCLs, HIF1A is responsible for this phenomenon.

Jiang W, Zhou F, Li N, et al.
FOXM1-LDHA signaling promoted gastric cancer glycolytic phenotype and progression.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(6):6756-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The oncogenic transcription factor forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) plays critical roles in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression. However, the underlying mechanisms has not fully demonstrated. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is widely overexpressed in a series of cancers and is one of the two subunits of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is the key glycolytic enzyme and catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate. In this study, we characterized the regulation of aerobic glycolysis by FOXM1 via transactivation of LDHA in GC. We found that LDHA was overexpressed GC cells, and the expression of LDHA was transcriptionally regulated by FOXM1. Furthermore, FOXM1 regulated GC cells glycolytic phenotype, proliferation, migration and invasion via LDHA. Thus, FOXM1-LDHA signaling functioned as a stimulator of glycolysis and promoted GC progression.

Kim J, Han J, Jang Y, et al.
High-capacity glycolytic and mitochondrial oxidative metabolisms mediate the growth ability of glioblastoma.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(3):1009-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among the primary brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has a radical proliferation ability that complicates the therapeutic modulation of cancer progression. The majority of GBM patients have a low survival rate (<1 year) due to radical tumor growth and late cancer diagnosis. Previous reports have shown that astrocytes have a specific metabolic organization that includes the production of lactate, the storage of glycogen, and use of lactate to support neurons which possess higher capacity of metabolism compared to neurons. We hypothesized that these characteristics of astrocytes could contribute to enhanced proliferation of GBM compared to neuroblastoma (NB). Here, we show that U87MG cells (a model of GBM) proliferate more rapidly than SH-SY5Y cells (a model of NB). A higher extracellular acidification rate and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate were observed in U87MG cells compared to SH-SY5Y cells. The expression levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A and LDH-B were higher in U87MG cells and primary cultured astrocytes than in SH-SY5Y cells and neurons. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of succinate dehydrogenase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ were high in U87MG cells, suggesting that these cells have high capacity for mitochondrial metabolism and uptake of fatty acids related to synthesis of the cell membrane, respectively. Taken together, we demonstrate that GBM cells are characterized by activation of the LDH-expression-related glycolytic pathway and mitochondrial metabolic capacity, suggesting two innate properties of astrocytes that could provide a driving force for the growth ability of GBM. Based on these findings, we propose that therapeutic approaches aimed at treating GBM could target LDH for modulating the metabolic properties of GBM cells.

Li Z, Zheng W, Li H, et al.
Synergistic Induction of Potential Warburg Effect in Zebrafish Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Co-Transgenic Expression of Myc and xmrk Oncogenes.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0132319 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Previously we have generated inducible liver tumor models by transgenic expression of Myc or xmrk (activated EGFR homolog) oncogenes in zebrafish. To investigate the interaction of the two oncogenes, we crossed the two transgenic lines and observed more severe and faster hepatocarcinogenesis in Myc/xmrk double transgenic zebrafish than either single transgenic fish. RNA-Seq analyses revealed distinct changes in many molecular pathways among the three types of liver tumors. In particular, we found dramatic alteration of cancer metabolism based on the uniquely enriched pathways in the Myc/xmrk tumors. Critical glycolytic genes including hk2, pkm and ldha were significantly up-regulated in Myc/xmrk tumors but not in either single oncogene-induced tumors, suggesting a potential Warburg effect. In RT-qPCR analyses, the specific pkm2 isoformin Warburg effect was found to be highly enriched in the Myc/xmrk tumors but not in Myc or xmrk tumors, consistent with the observations in many human cancers with Warburg effect. Moreover, the splicing factor genes (hnrnpa1, ptbp1a, ptbp1b and sfrs3b) responsible for generating the pkm isoform were also greatly up-regulated in the Myc/xmrk tumors. As Pkm2 isoform is generally inactive and causes incomplete glycolysis to favor anabolism and tumor growth, by treatment with a Pkm2-specific activator, TEPP-46, we further demonstrated that activation of Pkm2 suppressed the growth of oncogenic liver as well as proliferation of liver cells. Collectively, our Myc/xmrk zebrafish model suggests synergetic effect of EGFR and MYC in triggering Warburg effect in the HCC formation and may provide a promising in vivo model for Warburg effect.

Cui Y, Qin L, Wu J, et al.
SIRT3 Enhances Glycolysis and Proliferation in SIRT3-Expressing Gastric Cancer Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129834 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
SIRT3 is a key NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase in the mitochondria of mammalian cells, functioning to prevent cell aging and transformation via regulation of mitochondrial metabolic homeostasis. However, SIRT3 is also found to express in some human tumors; its role in these SIRT3-expressing tumor cells needs to be elucidated. This study demonstrated that the expression of SIRT3 was elevated in a group of gastric cancer cells compared to normal gastric epithelial cells. Although SIRT3 expression levels were increased in the gastric tumor tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissues, SIRT3 positive cancer cells were more frequently detected in the intestinal type gastric cancers than the diffuse type gastric cancers, indicating that SIRT3 is linked with subtypes of gastric cancer. Overexpression of SIRT3 promoted cell proliferation and enhanced ATP generation, glucose uptake, glycogen formation, MnSOD activity and lactate production, which were inhibited by SIRT3 knockdown, indicating that SIRT3 plays a role in reprogramming the bioenergetics in gastric tumor cells. Further analysis revealed that SIRT3 interacted with and deacetylated the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key protein in regulating anaerobic glycolysis, enhancing LDHA activity. In consistence, a cluster of glycolysis-associated genes was upregulated in the SIRT3-overexpressing gastric tumor cells. Thus, in addition to the well-documented SIRT3-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis in normal cells, SIRT3 may enhance glycolysis and cell proliferation in SIRT3-expressing cancer cells.

Rajeshkumar NV, Dutta P, Yabuuchi S, et al.
Therapeutic Targeting of the Warburg Effect in Pancreatic Cancer Relies on an Absence of p53 Function.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(16):3355-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The "Warburg effect" describes a peculiar metabolic feature of many solid tumors, namely their increased glucose uptake and high glycolytic rates, which allow cancer cells to accumulate building blocks for the biosynthesis of macromolecules. During aerobic glycolysis, pyruvate is preferentially metabolized to lactate by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), suggesting a possible vulnerability at this target for small-molecule inhibition in cancer cells. In this study, we used FX11, a small-molecule inhibitor of LDH-A, to investigate this possible vulnerability in a panel of 15 patient-derived mouse xenograft (PDX) models of pancreatic cancer. Unexpectedly, the p53 status of the PDX tumor determined the response to FX11. Tumors harboring wild-type (WT) TP53 were resistant to FX11. In contrast, tumors harboring mutant TP53 exhibited increased apoptosis, reduced proliferation indices, and attenuated tumor growth when exposed to FX11. [18F]-FDG PET-CT scans revealed a relative increase in glucose uptake in mutant TP53 versus WT TP53 tumors, with FX11 administration downregulating metabolic activity only in mutant TP53 tumors. Through a noninvasive quantitative assessment of lactate production, as determined by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of hyperpolarized pyruvate, we confirmed that FX11 administration inhibited pyruvate-to-lactate conversion only in mutant TP53 tumors, a feature associated with reduced expression of the TP53 target gene TIGAR, which is known to regulate glycolysis. Taken together, our findings highlight p53 status in pancreatic cancer as a biomarker to predict sensitivity to LDH-A inhibition, with regard to both real-time noninvasive imaging by 13C MRS as well as therapeutic response.

Lo AK, Dawson CW, Young LS, et al.
Activation of the FGFR1 signalling pathway by the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP1 promotes aerobic glycolysis and transformation of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells.
J Pathol. 2015; 237(2):238-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is believed to play an important role in NPC pathogenesis by virtue of its ability to activate multiple cell signalling pathways which collectively promote cell proliferation, transformation, angiogenesis, and invasiveness, as well as modulation of energy metabolism. In this study, we report that LMP1 increases cellular uptake of glucose and glutamine, enhances LDHA activity and lactate production, but reduces pyruvate kinase activity and pyruvate concentrations. LMP1 also increases the phosphorylation of PKM2, LDHA, and FGFR1, as well as the expression of PDHK1, FGFR1, c-Myc, and HIF-1α, regardless of oxygen availability. Collectively, these findings suggest that LMP1 promotes aerobic glycolysis. With respect to FGFR1 signalling, LMP1 not only increases FGFR1 expression, but also up-regulates FGF2, leading to constitutive activation of the FGFR1 signalling pathway. Furthermore, two inhibitors of FGFR1 (PD161570 and SU5402) attenuate LMP1-mediated aerobic glycolysis, cellular transformation (proliferation and anchorage-independent growth), cell migration, and invasion in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, identifying FGFR1 signalling as a key pathway in LMP1-mediated growth transformation. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that high levels of phosphorylated FGFR1 are common in primary NPC specimens and that this correlated with the expression of LMP1. In addition, FGFR1 inhibitors suppress cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of NPC cells. Our current findings demonstrate that LMP1-mediated FGFR1 activation contributes to aerobic glycolysis and transformation of epithelial cells, thereby implicating FGF2/FGFR1 signalling activation in the EBV-driven pathogenesis of NPC.

Prates J, Franco-Salla GB, Dinarte Dos Santos AR, et al.
ANXA1Ac₂₋₂₆ peptide reduces ID1 expression in cervical carcinoma cultures.
Gene. 2015; 570(2):248-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women worldwide and is associated with genetic alterations, infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), angiogenesis and inflammatory processes. The idea that inflammation is involved in tumorigenesis is supported by the frequent appearance of cancer in areas of chronic inflammation. On the other hand, the inflammatory response is controlled by the action of anti-inflammatory mediators, among these mediators, annexin A1 (ANXA1), a 37 kDa protein was detected as a modulator of inflammatory processes and is expressed by tumor cells. The study was carried out on the epithelial cancer cell line (SiHa) treated with the peptide of annexin A1 (ANXA1Ac2-26). We combined subtraction hybridization approach, Ingenuity Systems software and quantitative PCR, in order to evaluate gene expression influenced by ANXA1. We observed that ANXA1Ac2-26 inhibited proliferation in SiHa cells after 72h. In these cells, 55 genes exhibited changes in expression levels in response to peptide treatment. Six genes were selected and the expression results of 5 up-regulated genes (TPT1, LDHA, NCOA3, HIF1A, RAB13) and one down-regulated gene (ID1) were research by real time quantitative PCR. Four more genes (BMP4, BMPR1B, SMAD1 and SMAD4) of the ID1 pathway were investigated and only one (BMPR1B) shows the same down regulation. The data indicate the involvement of ANXA1Ac2-26 in the altered expression of genes involved in tumorigenic processes, which could potentially be applied as a therapeutic indicator of cervical cancer.

Wang J, Wang H, Liu A, et al.
Lactate dehydrogenase A negatively regulated by miRNAs promotes aerobic glycolysis and is increased in colorectal cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(23):19456-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Reprogramming metabolism of tumor cells is a hallmark of cancer. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. Previous studies has shown higher levels of LDHA is related with colorectal cancer (CRC), but its role in tumor maintenance and underlying molecular mechanisms has not been established. Here, we investigated miRNAs-induced changes in LDHA expression. We reported that colorectal cancer express higher levels of LDHA compared with adjacent normal tissue. Knockdown of LDHA resulted in decreased lactate and ATP production, and glucose uptake. Colorectal cancer cells with knockdown of LDHA had much slower growth rate than control cells. Furthermore, we found that miR-34a, miR-34c, miR-369-3p, miR-374a, and miR-4524a/b target LDHA and regulate glycolysis in cancer cells. There is a negative correlation between these miRNAs and LDHA expression in colorectal cancer tissues. More importantly, we identified a genetic loci newly associated with increased colorectal cancer progression, rs18407893 at 11p15.4 (in 3'-UTR of LDHA), which maps to the seed sequence recognized by miR-374a. Cancer cells overexpressed miR-374a has decreased levels of LDHA compared with miR-374a-MUT (rs18407893 at 11p15.4). Taken together, these novel findings provide more therapeutic approaches to the Warburg effect and therapeutic targets of cancer energy metabolism.

Xiang L, Gilkes DM, Hu H, et al.
HIF-1α and TAZ serve as reciprocal co-activators in human breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(14):11768-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression is a hallmark of intratumoral hypoxia that is associated with breast cancer metastasis and patient mortality. Previously, we demonstrated that HIF-1 stimulates the expression and activity of TAZ, which is a transcriptional effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, by increasing TAZ synthesis and nuclear localization. Here, we report that direct protein-protein interaction between HIF-1α and TAZ has reciprocal effects: HIF-1α stimulates transactivation mediated by TAZ and TAZ stimulates transactivation mediated by HIF-1α. Inhibition of TAZ expression impairs the hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes, such as PDK1, LDHA, BNIP3 and P4HA2 in response to hypoxia, whereas inhibition of HIF-1α expression impairs TAZ-mediated transactivation of the CTGF promoter. Taken together, these results complement our previous findings and establish bidirectional crosstalk between HIF-1α and TAZ that increases their transcriptional activities in hypoxic cells.

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