Gene Summary

Gene:SSTR2; somatostatin receptor 2
Summary:Somatostatin acts at many sites to inhibit the release of many hormones and other secretory proteins. The biologic effects of somatostatin are probably mediated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. SSTR2 is a member of the superfamily of receptors having seven transmembrane segments and is expressed in highest levels in cerebrum and kidney. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:somatostatin receptor type 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Pituitary Tumors
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • p53 Protein
  • X-Ray Computed Tomography
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Yttrium
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Adenoviridae
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Thigh
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Sulfonamides
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Acromegaly
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Stem Cells
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences
  • Water
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Gene Expression
  • Breast Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tumor Burden
  • Thyrotropin
  • Young Adult
  • Receptors, Somatostatin
  • Octreotide
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Apoptosis
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Adenoma
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors
  • Base Sequence
  • Messenger RNA
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Chromosome 17
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lung Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SSTR2 (cancer-related)

Wada H, Matsuda K, Akazawa Y, et al.
Expression of Somatostatin Receptor Type 2A and PTEN in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms Is Associated with Tumor Grade but Not with Site of Origin.
Endocr Pathol. 2016; 27(3):179-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are derived from endocrine cells in various organs and share common morphological features. This study aimed to clarify whether NENs of different organs are comparable at the molecular pathologic level. We retrospectively collected 99 cases of NENs from gastro-entero-pancreatic, lung, and other organs and reclassified these according to identical criteria. Grade, site, and molecular expression profile including NE markers, Ki-67, p53, somatostatin receptor type 2A (SSTR2A), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were compared. PTEN immunoreactivity was also compared with genomic copy number by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). No significant differences were observed in the immunoreactivities of NE markers, p53, SSTR2A, or PTEN expression in NENs between the different organ sites. PTEN and p53 functional inactivation along with the loss of membranous SSTR2A expression appeared to be commonly involved in high-grade NEN. FISH results were significantly correlated with the level of PTEN immunoreactivity and with the findings of ddPCR analyses. The demonstration that these tumors are comparable at the molecular level will likely contribute to the broadening of therapeutic options such as the use of somatostatin analogues and mTOR inhibitors against NENs regardless of the affected organ, whereas molecular characterization of tumor grade will be useful for determining treatment strategy.

Peculis R, Balcere I, Rovite V, et al.
Polymorphisms in MEN1 and DRD2 genes are associated with the occurrence and characteristics of pituitary adenomas.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2016; 175(2):145-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Although pituitary adenomas (PAs) affect a significant proportion of the population, only a fraction have the potential to become clinically relevant during an individual's lifetime, causing hormonal imbalance or complications due to mass effect. The overwhelming majority of cases are sporadic and without a clear familial history, and the genotype-phenotype correlation in PA patients is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of genes known for their role in familial cases on drug response and tumor suppression in the development and pathology of PAs in a patient group from Latvia.
DESIGN: The study included 143 cases and 354 controls, we investigated the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes (SSTR2, SSTR5, DRD2, MEN1, AIP, GNAS, and PRKAR1A) associated with pituitary tumor occurrence, phenotype, and clinical symptoms.
METHODS: Genotyping of 96 tag and nonsynonymous SNPs was performed in the genomic regions of interest.
RESULTS: We discovered a significant association (OR=17.8, CI 0.95=2.18-145.5, P=0.0002) between a rare MEN1 mutation (rs2959656) and clinically active adenoma in our patients. Additionally, rs7131056 at DRD2 was associated with a higher occurrence of extrasellar growth in patients with prolactinoma and somatotropinoma (OR=2.79, CI 0.95=1.58-4.95, P=0.0004).
CONCLUSIONS: rs2959656, a nonsynonymous variant in MEN1, is associated with the development of clinically active PA. Furthermore, rs7131056 in DRD2 contributes to either faster growth of the adenoma or reduced symptomatic presentation, allowing PAs to become larger before detection.

Gradiz R, Silva HC, Carvalho L, et al.
MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 - pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines with neuroendocrine differentiation and somatostatin receptors.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:21648 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Studies using cell lines should always characterize these cells to ensure that the results are not distorted by unexpected morphological or genetic changes possibly due to culture time or passage number. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe those MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell line phenotype and genotype characteristics that may play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer therapeutic assays, namely neuroendocrine chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Epithelial, mesenchymal, endocrine and stem cell marker characterization was performed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, and genotyping by PCR, gene sequencing and capillary electrophoresis. MIA PaCa-2 (polymorphism) expresses CK5.6, AE1/AE3, E-cadherin, vimentin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, SSTR2 and NTR1 but not CD56. PANC-1 (pleomorphism) expresses CK5.6, MNF-116, vimentin, chromogranin A, CD56 and SSTR2 but not E-cadherin, synaptophysin or NTR1. MIA PaCA-1 is CD24(-), CD44(+/++), CD326(-/+) and CD133/1(-), while PANC-1 is CD24(-/+), CD44(+), CD326(-/+) and CD133/1(-). Both cell lines have KRAS and TP53 mutations and homozygous deletions including the first 3 exons of CDKN2A/p16(INK4A), but no SMAD4/DPC4 mutations or microsatellite instability. Both have neuroendocrine differentiation and SSTR2 receptors, precisely the features making them suitable for the therapies we propose to assay in future studies.

Shen Z, Chen X, Li Q, et al.
SSTR2 promoter hypermethylation is associated with the risk and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in males.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11:10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) encodes somatostatin receptor that can inhibit the cell proliferation of solid tumors. Promoter hypermethylation is likely to silence the expression of SSTR2. The goal of our study was to investigate the association between SSTR2 promoter methylation and the risk and progression of laryngeal carcinoma.
METHODS: In the current study, tumor tissues and their adjacent non-tumor tissues were collected from a total of 87 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) male patients. DNA methylation levels of nine SSTR2 promoter CpGs were measured using the bisulphite pyrosequencing technology.
RESULTS: Our results revealed that there was a significantly increased SSTR2 promoter methylation in LSCC tissues than in their adjacent non-cancerous tissues (adjusted P = 0.003). Breakdown analysis by age indicated that the significant association was mainly contributed by patients younger than 60 (adjusted P = 0.039) but not in patients older than 60. Meanwhile, the significant association was observed in the patients with moderately (adjusted P = 0.037) and well differentiated tissues (adjusted P = 0.028), as well as the patients with histological stage IV (adjusted P = 0.031). Multivariate Cox analysis suggested that SSTR2 promoter methylation was an independent prognostic factor of LSCC (HR = 1.127, 95 % CI = 1.034-1.228).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, SSTR2 promoter hypermethylation might be associated with the risk and progression of LSCC in males.

Vitali E, Cambiaghi V, Zerbi A, et al.
Filamin-A is required to mediate SST2 effects in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016; 23(3):181-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2) is the main pharmacological target of somatostatin (SS) analogues widely used in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (P-NETs), this treatment being ineffective in a subset of patients. Since it has been demonstrated that Filamin A (FLNA) is involved in mediating GPCR expression, membrane anchoring and signalling, we investigated the role of this cytoskeleton protein in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in human P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line. We demonstrated that FLNA silencing was not able to affect SST2 expression in P-NET cells in basal conditions. Conversely, a significant reduction in SST2 expression (-43 ± 21%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was observed in FLNA silenced QGP1 cells after long term SST2 activation with BIM23120. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of BIM23120 on cyclin D1 expression (-46 ± 18%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), P-ERK1/2 levels (-42 ± 14%; P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), cAMP accumulation (-24 ± 3%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells), VEGF expression (-31 ± 5%, P < 0.01 vs untreated cells) and in vitro release (-40 ± 24%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) was completely lost after FLNA silencing. Interestingly, BIM23120 promoted cell adhesion (+86 ± 45%, P < 0.05 vs untreated cells) and inhibited cell migration (-24 ± 2%, P < 0.00001 vs untreated cells) in P-NETs cells and these effects were abolished in FLNA silenced cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that FLNA plays a crucial role in SST2 expression and signalling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and cell migration in P-NETs and in QGP1 cell line, suggesting a possible role of FLNA in determining the different responsiveness to SS analogues observed in P-NET patients.

Nakamura A, Mitsuhashi T, Takano Y, et al.
Usefulness of the octreotide test in Japanese patients for predicting the presence/absence of somatostatin receptor 2 expression in insulinomas.
Endocr J. 2016; 63(2):135-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the relationship between the results of the octreotide test and somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 2 expression in insulinoma patients, to evaluate the usefulness of this test for predicting SSTR2 expression in insulinomas in Japanese patients. Five females and one male were included in the study. All patients underwent the octreotide test before the surgery carried out to resect the tumor, and histopathological examination of the resected tumor was performed by a single experienced pathologist. SSTR2 expression was evaluated by the SSTR2 immunohistochemistry scoring system. Insulinoma was clinically diagnosed and surgically resected in all six patients. In the octreotide test, suppression of insulin secretion was sufficient after loading in patients 1-4 and 6. In patient 5, however, the suppression of insulin secretion was insufficient, which resulted in severe hypoglycemia with endogenous relative hyperinsulinemia after the octreotide loading. The histopathological findings revealed SSTR2 expression in the insulinomas of patients 1-4 and 6, but not in the insulinoma of patient 5. In conclusion, improvement of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia by octreotide in Japanese insulinoma patients was associated with SSTR2 expression in the tumor. Our results suggest that the octreotide test could be useful for predicting SSTR2 expression in the tumor.

Degirmenci M, Erdogan AP, Bulut G, et al.
Octreotide in combination with AT-101 induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis through up-regulation of somatostatin receptors 2 and 5 in DU-145 prostate cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):4939-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer among males. Although survival rate of early-stage PCa is high, treatment options are very limited for recurrent disease. In this study, the possible synergistic cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of octreotide in combination with AT-101 was investigated in DU-145 hormone and drug refractory prostate cancer cell line. To enlighten the action mechanisms of the combination treatment, expression levels of somatostatin receptors 2 and 5 (SSTR2 and SSTR5) were also investigated. Cell viability was measured by XTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed through DNA fragmentation analysis and caspase 3/7 assay. mRNA and protein levels of SSTR2 and SSTR5 were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Octreotide in combination with AT-101 inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis synergistically in DU-145 cells as compared to any agent alone. Combination treatment increased both SSTR2 and SSTR5 mRNA and protein levels in DU-145 cells. The data suggest that this combination therapy may be a good candidate for patients with advanced metastatic PCa do not respond to androgen deprivation.

Kiseljak-Vassiliades K, Xu M, Mills TS, et al.
Differential somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 1-5 expression and downstream effectors in histologic subtypes of growth hormone pituitary tumors.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015; 417:73-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine whether differential expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR) 1-5 and downstream effectors are different in densely (DG) and sparsely (SG) granulated histological growth hormone (GH) pituitary tumor subtypes.
METHODS: The study included 33 acromegalic patients with 23 DG and 10 SG tumors. SSTR1-5 were measured by qPCR and immunoblotting. Signaling candidates downstream of SSTR2 were also assessed.
RESULTS: SSTR2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in DG compared to SG tumors. Downstream of SSTR2, p27(kip1) was decreased (2.6-fold) in SG compared to DG tumors, suggesting a potential mechanism of SSA resistance in SG tumors with intact SSTR2 expression. Re-expression of E-cadherin in GH pituitary cell increased p27(kip1) levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Histological subtyping correlated with SSTR2, E cadherin and p27(kip) protein levels and these may serve as useful biomarkers in GH tumors to predict behavior and response to therapy with SSA.

Kaemmerer D, Träger T, Hoffmeister M, et al.
Inverse expression of somatostatin and CXCR4 chemokine receptors in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms of different malignancy.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29):27566-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are widely distributed in well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) and serve as primary targets for diagnostics and treatment. An overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, in contrast, is considered to be present mainly in highly proliferative and advanced tumors. Comparative data are still lacking, however, for neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC).
METHODS: SSTR subtype (1, 2A, 3, 5) and CXCR4 expression was evaluated in G1 (n = 31), G2 (n = 47), and low (G3a; Ki-67: 21-49%; n = 21) and highly proliferative (G3b; Ki-67: >50%, n = 22) G3 (total n = 43) gastroenteropancreatic NEN samples by performing immunohistochemistry with monoclonal rabbit anti-human anti-SSTR and anti-CXCR4 antibodies, respectively, and was correlated with clinical data.
RESULTS: Both CXCR4 and SSTR were widely expressed in all tumors investigated. CXCR4 expression differed significantly between the G1 and G3 specimens and within the G3 group (G3a to G3b), and was positively correlated with Ki-67 expression. SSTR2A, in contrast, exhibited an inverse association with Ki-67. SSTR2A was highly expressed in G1 and G2 tumors, but was significantly less abundant in G3 carcinomas. Additionally, SSTR1 expression was higher in G3a than in G3b tumors.
CONCLUSION: We observed an elevation in CXCR4 and a decrease in SSTR2A expression with increasing malignancy. Interestingly, 23% of the G3 specimens had strong SSTR2A expression. Because CXCR4 was strongly expressed in highly proliferative G3 carcinomas, it is an interesting new target and needs to be validated in larger studies.

Fan X, Mao Z, He D, et al.
Expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma and the regulation of miR-185.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2015; 38(10):1117-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Long-acting somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are most widely used to treat growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. However, approximately 30 % of treated patients show resistance to SSAs, which may be associated with the reduction of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) mRNA and protein expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study used immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5 in twenty human GH-secreting adenoma samples treated with SSAs and seven normal pituitary samples.
RESULTS: The staining intensities of SSTR2 and SSTR5 were stronger in most adenoma samples than in normal pituitary. The expression of SSTR2 tended to be lower in the SSA non-responder group than in responders. A search of the Bioinformatics data bank and the miRCURY™ LNA array confirmed miR-185 as the putative mircoRNA (miRNA) regulating the expression of SSTR2. An in vitro study using Dual Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-185 likely targets the 3'-UTR of SSTR2 mRNA in the rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cell line. MiR-185 also downregulated or upregulated the expression of SSTR2 mRNA and SSTR2 protein, following transfection with miR-185 mimics or inhibitors, respectively.
CONCLUSION: MiR-185 enhanced the cell proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of GH3 cells.

Graillon T, Defilles C, Mohamed A, et al.
Combined treatment by octreotide and everolimus: Octreotide enhances inhibitory effect of everolimus in aggressive meningiomas.
J Neurooncol. 2015; 124(1):33-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Treatment for recurrent and aggressive meningiomas remains an unmet medical need in neuro-oncology, and chemotherapy exhibits limited clinical activity, if any. Merlin expression, encoded by the NF2 gene, is lost in a majority of meningiomas, and merlin is a negative regulator of mTORC1. The sst2 somatostatin receptor, targeted by octreotide, is highly expressed in meningiomas. To investigate new therapeutic strategies, we evaluated the activity of everolimus (mTOR inhibitor), BKM-120 and BEZ-235 (new Pi3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors), octreotide and a combined treatment (octreotide plus everolimus), on cell proliferation, signaling pathways, and cell cycle proteins, respectively. The in vitro study was conducted on human meningioma primary cells extracted from fresh tumors, allowing the assessment of somatostatin analogs at the concentration levels used in patients. The results were correlated to WHO grades. Further, everolimus decreased cell viability of human meningiomas, but concomitantly, induced Akt activation, reducing the antiproliferative effect of the drug. The new Pi3K inhibitors were not more active than everolimus alone, limiting their clinical relevance. In contrast, a clear cooperative inhibitory effect of octreotide and everolimus was observed on cell proliferation in all tested meningiomas, including WHO grades II-III. Octreotide not only reversed everolimus-induced Akt phosphorylation but also displayed additive and complementary effects with everolimus on downstream proteins involved in translation (4EB-P1), and controlling cell cycle (p27Kip1 and cyclin D1). We have demonstrated a co-operative action between everolimus and octreotide on cell proliferation in human meningiomas, including aggressive ones, establishing the basis for a clinical trial.

Sakai K, Yonezawa T, Yamawaki H, Oyamada T
Alteration of somatostatin receptor 2 expression in canine mammary gland tumor.
J Vet Med Sci. 2015; 77(10):1319-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) is a negative regulator of cell proliferation in human breast cancer. Since there is little information about SSTR2 in canine mammary gland tumor (MGT), we clarified its distribution and expression level in normal mammary gland, benign MGT and malignant MGT. SSTR2 expression determined by immunohistochemical staining was observed in the cytoplasm of luminal epithelial cells. The intensity was negatively correlated with malignancy: normal tissues and some of the benign tumors had the highest levels, while the malignant tumors had little or no SSTR2 expression. As for the Western blotting, SSTR2 protein level in benign tumors was significantly lower than the normal mammary gland. On the other hand, SSTR2 protein levels in two of three malignant tumors were higher than the other groups. These results suggest that SSTR2 expression alters according to the malignancy of canine MGT.

Xu C, Zhang H
Somatostatin receptor based imaging and radionuclide therapy.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:917968 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) belong to the typical 7-transmembrane domain family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) have been identified, with SSTR2 showing the highest affinity for natural SST and synthetic SST analogs. Most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have high expression levels of SSTRs, which opens the possibility for tumor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs. A number of tracers have been developed for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of NETs with impressive results, which facilitates the applications of human SSTR subtype 2 (hSSTr2) reporter gene based imaging and therapy in SSTR negative or weakly positive tumors to provide a novel approach for the management of tumors. The hSSTr2 gene can act as not only a reporter gene for in vivo imaging, but also a therapeutic gene for local radionuclide therapy. Even a second therapeutic gene can be transfected into the same tumor cells together with hSSTr2 reporter gene to obtain a synergistic therapeutic effect. However, additional preclinical and especially translational and clinical researches are needed to confirm the value of hSSTr2 reporter gene based imaging and therapy in tumors.

Kaemmerer D, Wirtz RM, Fischer EK, et al.
Analysis of somatostatin receptor 2A immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, and in vivo PET/CT data in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm.
Pancreas. 2015; 44(4):648-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gallium 68 somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is one of the most sensitive imaging methods for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of the study was to correlate the receptor density generated from the static PET/CT (maximum standard uptake values [SUVmax], mean standard uptake values [SUVmean]) with subtype 2A SSTR (SSTR2A) immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) gene-expression data.
METHODS: Thirty-nine tumor specimens (17 primary pancreatic tumors [PTs], 22 metastases [MTS]) of 19 patients with PET/CT scans preoperatively were evaluated. Subtype 2A SSTR expression was quantified immunohistochemically (immunoreactive score [IRS]) and on messenger RNA (mRNA) level by RT-qPCR.
RESULTS: The PT and MTS did not differ significantly in their SUVmax (P = 0.07) but displayed a dissimilarity with respect to their SSTR2A expression (mean [SD] IRS PT, 8.8 [3.6] vs mean [SD] IRS MTS, 5.1 [4.5]; P = 0.02).The SUVmean was highly significantly correlated to SSTR2A mRNA expression (C = 0.85, P < 0.001) and moderately to SSTR2A protein expression (C = 0.53, P = 0.05). Moreover, the SUVmax correlated moderately with SSTR2A protein expression (C = 0.44, P = 0.03) and mRNA expression (C = 0.64, P = 0.042).
CONCLUSIONS: The SUVmax and SUVmean are reliable ex vivo parameters for in vivo quantification of SSTR expression in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Both immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR are comparable methods for SSTR2A quantification. The PT and MTS differ significantly in their SSTR2A expression. This fact should be taken into account when treating patients with somatostatin analogs or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.

Kanakis G, Grimelius L, Spathis A, et al.
Expression of Somatostatin Receptors 1-5 and Dopamine Receptor 2 in Lung Carcinoids: Implications for a Therapeutic Role.
Neuroendocrinology. 2015; 101(3):211-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) and dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) in neuroendocrine tumors is of clinical importance as somatostatin analogues and dopamine agonists can be used for their localization and/or treatment. The objective of this study is to examine the expression of the five SSTR subtypes and DR2 in lung carcinoids (LCs).
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 119 LCs from 106 patients [typical carcinoids (TCs): n = 100, and atypical carcinoids (ACs): n = 19]. The expression of all five SSTR subtypes and DR2 was evaluated immunohistochemically and correlated to clinicopathological data. In a subgroup of cases, receptor expression was further analyzed using semiquantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: SSTR2A was the SSTR subtype most frequently expressed immunohistochemically (72%), followed by SSTR1 (63%), SSTR5 (40%), and SSTR3 (20%), whereas SSTR4 was negative. DR2 was expressed in 74% and co-expressed with SSTR1 in 56%, with SSTR2A in 59%, with SSTR3 in 19%, and with SSTR5 in 37% of the tumors. Receptor expression was not related to the histological subtype, tumor aggressiveness (disease extent/grading) or functionality; however, DR2 was expressed more frequently in ACs than TCs (95 vs. 70%, p = 0.017). In a subset of patients, RT-PCR findings highly suggested that the expression of SSTR2A, SSTR3, DR2, and to a lesser extent that of SSTR1 and SSTR5 is the outcome of increased gene transcription.
CONCLUSIONS: The high and variable immunohistochemical expression of the majority of SSTRs along with their co-expression with DR2 in LCs provides a rationale for their possible treatment with agents that target these receptors.

Abdel-Hamid NM, Mohafez OM, Nazmy MH, et al.
The effect of co-administration of Lawsonia inermis extract and octreotide on experimental hepatocellular carcinoma.
Environ Health Prev Med. 2015; 20(3):195-203 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of Lawsonia inermis total methanolic extract (LIE) and octreotide (OC) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, depending on somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR-2) and Alfa fetoprotein (AFP) perturbations.
METHODS: Sixty albino mice, divided into five groups (12/each); all except control were injected with single diethyl nitrosamine (DENA) dose of 90 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally (IP). DENA group was killed at the last day of week 18. LIE group was given 200 mg/100 ml drinking water from first day of DENA injection until end of week 18. OC group received OC (0.1 mg/kg body weight, twice daily by subcutaneous injection, SC from the first day of week 17 till end of week 18. LIE + OC was given medications till the last day of week 18. Serum AFP, liver tissue SSTR-2 mRNA, its protein expression, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed.
RESULTS: A significant increase in plasma AFP and hepatic mRNA, associated to liver tissue neoplastic changes, SSTR-2 expression and MDA with decreased hepatic GSH were observed in DENA group. These changes were significantly improved by LIE and/or OC.
CONCLUSIONS: LIE and/or OC treatment has effective chemopreventive action due to their ability to alleviate oxidative stress, desensitizing cellular growth receptor to SST.

Chalabi-Dchar M, Cassant-Sourdy S, Duluc C, et al.
Loss of Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 2 Promotes Growth of KRAS-Induced Pancreatic Tumors in Mice by Activating PI3K Signaling and Overexpression of CXCL16.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 148(7):1452-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The KRAS gene is mutated in most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). Expression of this KRAS oncoprotein in mice is sufficient to initiate carcinogenesis but not progression to cancer. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for KRAS for induction and maintenance of PDAC in mice. The somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) inhibits PI3K, but sst2 expression is lost during the development of human PDAC. We investigated the effects of sst2 loss during KRAS-induced PDAC development in mice.
METHODS: We analyzed tumor growth in mice that expressed the oncogenic form of KRAS (KRAS(G12D)) in pancreatic precursor cells, as well as sst2+/- and sst2-/-, and in crossed KRAS(G12D);sst2+/- and KRAS(G12D);sst2-/- mice. Pancreatic tissues and acini were collected and assessed by histologic, immunoblot, immunohistochemical, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. We also compared protein levels in paraffin-embedded PDAC samples from patients vs heathy pancreatic tissues from individuals without pancreatic cancer.
RESULTS: In sst2+/- mice, PI3K was activated and signaled via AKT (PKB; protein kinase B); when these mice were crossed with KRAS(G12D) mice, premalignant lesions, tumors, and lymph node metastases developed more rapidly than in KRAS(G12D) mice. In crossed KRAS(G12D);sst2+/- mice, activation of PI3K signaling via AKT resulted in activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which increased KRAS activity and its downstream pathways, promoting initiation and progression of neoplastic lesions. We found this activation loop to be mediated by PI3K-induced production of the chemokine CXCL16. Administration of a CXCL16-neutralizing antibody to KRAS(G12D) mice reduced activation of PI3K signaling to AKT and NF-κB, blocking carcinogenesis. Levels of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 were significantly higher in PDAC tissues and surrounding acini than in healthy pancreatic tissues from mice or human beings. In addition, expression of sst2 was progressively lost, involving increased PI3K activity, in mouse lesions that expressed KRAS(G12D) and progressed to PDAC.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on analyses of mice, loss of sst2 from pancreatic tissues activates PI3K signaling via AKT, leading to activation of NF-κB, amplification of oncogenic KRAS signaling, increased expression of CXCL16, and pancreatic tumor formation. CXCL16 might be a therapeutic target for PDAC.

Tiscornia MM, González HS, Lorenzati MA, Zapata PD
Association between methylation of SHP-1 isoform I and SSTR2A promoter regions with breast and prostate carcinoma development.
Cancer Invest. 2015; 33(3):61-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Methylation pattern is presented here for first time as a potential molecular marker of changes on SSTR2A and SHP-1(I) gene promoter related to breast and prostate carcinoma. Our results have shown low concordances with SSTR2A and methylated state in prostate cancer and moderate relationship with unmethylated CpG-27 in breast cancer. We found significant concordances for both cancers and SHP-1(I) unmethylation, and increased HER2 expression and SSTR2A methylation in breast cancer. Moreover, we found a correlation between methylation patterns of two genes in normal breast tissue. These data might assist to select subgroups of patients for the administration of alternative therapies.

Gabalec F, Drastikova M, Cesak T, et al.
Dopamine 2 and somatostatin 1-5 receptors coexpression in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
Physiol Res. 2015; 64(3):369-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated quantitated expression of dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and somatostatin receptors of the five types (SSTR1-SSTR5) in a large series of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (CNFAs). Co-expression of these receptors in individual adenomas was studied as well as correlation between receptor types. Adenoma tissue from 198 patients who underwent surgery for CNFAs was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. D2R and SSTR1-3 mRNA was expressed in all 198 adenomas. SSTR4 and SSTR5 were detectable in 85 % and 61 % of adenomas, respectively. Expression of D2R was significantly higher than that of the somatostatin receptors. The median relative expressions were as follows from highest D2R > SSTR3 > SSTR2 > SSTR1 > SSTR5 > SSTR4. High relative expression (ratio to beta-glucuronidase mRNA > 1) of D2R was found in 60 % of tumors, high expression of SSTR1 in 7.5 %, SSTR2 in 7 %, SSTR3 in 4 % and SSTR5 in 0.5 %. The quantity of D2R correlated positively with expression of SSTR2 and SSTR3, and negatively with SSTR1 and SSTR5. Among histological adenoma types, SSTR1 was significantly higher in null-cell adenomas and SSTR3 was lower in silent corticotroph adenomas. In conclusions, in CNFAs, high expression of somatostatin receptors is much less common than that of D2R, and co-expression of both these receptors is exceptional. D2R and SSTR3 seem to be the most promising targets for pharmacological treatment.

Dmitriev IP, Kashentseva EA, Kim KH, et al.
Monitoring of biodistribution and persistence of conditionally replicative adenovirus in a murine model of ovarian cancer using capsid-incorporated mCherry and expression of human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 gene.
Mol Imaging. 2014; 13 [PubMed] Related Publications
A significant limiting factor to the human clinical application of conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd)-based virotherapy is the inability to noninvasively monitor these agents and their potential persistence. To address this issue, we proposed a novel imaging approach that combines transient expression of the human somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtype 2 reporter gene with genetic labeling of the viral capsid with mCherry fluorescent protein. To test this dual modality system, we constructed the Ad5/3Δ24pIXcherry/SSTR CRAd and validated its capacity to generate fluorescent and nuclear signals in vitro and following intratumoral injection. Analysis of 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE biodistribution in mice revealed reduced uptake in tumors injected with the imaging CRAd relative to the replication-incompetent, Ad-expressing SSTR2 but significantly greater uptake compared to the negative CRAd control. Optical imaging demonstrated relative correlation of fluorescent signal with virus replication as determined by viral genome quantification in tumors. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies demonstrated that we can visualize radioactive uptake in tumors injected with imaging CRAd and the trend for greater uptake by standardized uptake value analysis compared to control CRAd. In the aggregate, the plasticity of our dual imaging approach should provide the technical basis for monitoring CRAd biodistribution and persistence in preclinical studies while offering potential utility for a range of clinical applications.

Murasawa S, Kageyama K, Sugiyama A, et al.
Inhibitory effects of SOM230 on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 394(1-2):37-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by pituitary corticotroph adenomas is the main cause of Cushing's disease. A drug that targets pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas would aid treatment of Cushing's disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-preferring somatostatin analogue, has no effect on ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's disease. The multiligand SOM230 (pasireotide) displays a much higher affinity for SSTR1 and SSTR5 than octreotide and suppresses ACTH secretion in cultures of human corticotroph tumors to a greater extent than octreotide. In the present in vitro and in vivo study, we determined the effect of SOM230 on ACTH production and cell proliferation of AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in AtT-20 cells and ACTH levels in the culture medium of these cells, suggesting that SOM230 suppresses ACTH synthesis and secretion in corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 also decreased cell proliferation and both cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein and Akt phosphorylation in AtT-20 cells. SSTR5 knockdown inhibited the SOM230-induced decreases in cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses revealed that SOM230 did not attenuate cell cycle progression. Tumor weight in mice xenografted with AtT-20 cells and treated with SOM230 was significantly lower than in AtT-20-xenografted control mice. SOM230 also significantly decreased plasma ACTH levels, and POMC and pituitary tumor transforming gene mRNA levels in the tumor cells. Thus, SOM230 inhibits ACTH production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

Hennigs JK, Müller J, Adam M, et al.
Loss of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 in prostate cancer is linked to an aggressive cancer phenotype, high tumor cell proliferation and predicts early metastatic and biochemical relapse.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e100469 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) is the most frequently expressed SSTR subtype in normal human tissues. SSTR2 expression is differentially regulated in various tumor types and therapeutic somatostatin analogs binding to SSTR2 are in clinical use. In prostate cancers highly contradictory results in terms of SSTR2 expression and its consequences have been published over the past years. The aim of this study was to clarify prevalence and clinical significance of SSTR2 expression in prostate cancer. Therefore, quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a tissue microarray containing samples from 3,261 prostate cancer patients with extensive clinical and molecular cancer characteristics and oncological follow-up data was performed. IHC data was compared to publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus datasets of human prostate cancer gene expression arrays. While membranous SSTR2 staining was always seen in normal prostate epithelium, SSTR2 staining was absent in more than half (56.1%) of 2,195 interpretable prostate cancer samples. About 13% of all analyzed prostate cancers showed moderate to strong cytoplasmic and membranous SSTR2 staining. Staining intensities were inversely correlated with high Gleason grade, advanced pT category, high tumor cell proliferation (p<0.0001 each), high pre-operative PSA levels, (p = 0.0011) and positive surgical margins (p = 0.006). In silico analysis confirmed lower SSTR2 gene expression in prostate cancers vs. normal adjacent tissue (p = 0.0424), prostate cancer metastases vs. primary cancers (p = 0.0011) and recurrent vs. non-recurrent prostate cancers (p = 0.0438). PSA-free survival gradually declined with SSTR2 staining intensity (p<0.0001). SSTR2-negative cancers were more likely to develop metastases over time (p<0.05). In conclusion, most prostate cancers are indeed SSTR2-negative and loss of SSTR2 strongly predicts an unfavorable tumor phenotype and poor prognosis. Therefore, SSTR2 expression seems an important factor in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and re-introduction of the receptor in SSTR2-negative prostate cancers may feature a promising target for novel gene therapy approaches.

Gonzalez B, Vargas G, Ramirez C, et al.
Cytoplasmic expression of SSTR2 and 5 by immunohistochemistry and by RT/PCR is not associated with the pharmacological response to octreotide.
Endocrinol Nutr. 2014; 61(10):523-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 (SSTR 2 and 5) by RT/PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GH-secreting adenomas, seeking correlations with response to octreotide.
METHODS: SSTR2 and 5 expression was tested by IHC (n=37), RT/PCR (n=36) or both (n=13) in GH-secreting adenomas from 60 patients with acromegaly who had undergone pituitary surgery; 36 had been treated preoperatively with octreotide LAR for 3-6 months, and were categorized as responders (achievement of GH <2.5ng/mL and a normal age-adjusted IGF-1), partial responders (GH and IGF-1 reduction >50% and >30%, respectively) or non-responders. IHC was performed on a tissue microarray using specific antibodies directed to the carboxyl terminus of SSTR2 and 5.
RESULTS: SSTR5 was the predominantly expressed receptor subtype by both IHC and RT/PCR in all tumors tested, regardless of whether they came from octreotide-naïve, octreotide-responsive, or octreotide-resistant patients. Immunostaining was concentrated in the cytoplasm. Neither SSTR2 nor SSTR5 expression correlated with baseline or post-octreotide GH or IGF-1 levels or tumor volume by either method. The agreement rate between RT/PCR and IHC was 77% in all 13 adenomas in which both methods were used.
CONCLUSION: Expression of these receptors does not guarantee an adequate response to somatostatin analogs; other functional aspects of this interaction, such as receptor homo- and heterodimerization, and the resulting signaling cascade, probably play a role in determining whether a patient will respond or not to these agents.

Cao Y, Lindström S, Schumacher F, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor pathway genetic polymorphisms, circulating IGF1 and IGFBP3, and prostate cancer survival.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(6):dju085 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway has been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) initiation, but its role in progression remains unknown.
METHODS: Among 5887 PCa patients (704 PCa deaths) of European ancestry from seven cohorts in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, we conducted Cox kernel machine pathway analysis to evaluate whether 530 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 IGF pathway-related genes were collectively associated with PCa mortality. We also conducted SNP-specific analysis using stratified Cox models adjusting for multiple testing. In 2424 patients (313 PCa deaths), we evaluated the association of prediagnostic circulating IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels and PCa mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: The IGF signaling pathway was associated with PCa mortality (P = .03), and IGF2-AS and SSTR2 were the main contributors (both P = .04). In SNP-specific analysis, 36 SNPs were associated with PCa mortality with P trend less than .05, but only three SNPs in the IGF2-AS remained statistically significant after gene-based corrections. Two were in linkage disequilibrium (r 2 = 1 for rs1004446 and rs3741211), whereas the third, rs4366464, was independent (r 2 = 0.03). The hazard ratios (HRs) per each additional risk allele were 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.34; P trend = .003) for rs3741211 and 1.44 (95% CI = 1.20 to 1.73; P trend < .001) for rs4366464. rs4366464 remained statistically significant after correction for all SNPs (P trend.corr = .04). Prediagnostic IGF1 (HRhighest vs lowest quartile = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.48 to 1.04) and IGFBP3 (HR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.34) levels were not associated with PCa mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: The IGF signaling pathway, primarily IGF2-AS and SSTR2 genes, may be important in PCa survival.

Wang S, Bao Z, Liang QM, et al.
Octreotide stimulates somatostatin receptor-induced apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells by activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, A Wnt/β-catenin pathway modulator.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2013; 60(127):1639-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide hormone somatostatin and its receptors (SSTRs) have a wide range of physiological functions and play a role in the treatment of numerous human diseases, including colorectal cancer. Octreotide, a somatostatin-analog peptide, inhibits growth of colonic cancer SW480 cells through Wnt/β-catenin pathway modulation. However, the specific octreotide-stimulating SSTR subtypes and the signal-transduction mechanism responsible for the negative regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway by octreotide have not been fully elucidated.
METHODOLOGY: Octreotide-induced apoptosis in SW480 colon cancer cells mediated by SSTR2,SSTR5-dependent regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway components GSK-3β and β-catenin was investigated. Cell apoptosis of SW480 cells was measured by apoptosis-DNA ladder assay. SSTR1, SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR4, and SSTR5 mRNA expression levels were confirmed by RT-PCR; β-catenin, TCF-4, cyclin D1, c-Myc, and GSK-3β protein levels were examined by Western blot. The distribution of β-catenin in the cell was analyzed with immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS: Octreotide treatment increased SSTR2,SSTR5-induced apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells, promoted the plasma membrane accumulation of β-catenin, inactivated T-cell factor-dependent transcription, and downregulated Wnt target genes cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Further, octreotide treatment mediated the activation of GSK-3.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings showed the negative regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by peptide hormone G protein-coupled receptors SSTRs.

Sherman SK, Maxwell JE, Carr JC, et al.
GIPR expression in gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors.
J Surg Res. 2014; 190(2):587-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Compounds targeting somatostatin-receptor-type-2 (SSTR2) are useful for small bowel neuroendocrine tumor (SBNET) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) imaging and treatment. We recently characterized expression of 13 cell surface receptor genes in SBNETs and PNETs, identifying three drug targets (GIPR, OXTR, and OPRK1). This study set out to characterize expression of this gene panel in the less common neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach and duodenum (gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors [GDNETs]).
METHODS: Primary tumors and adjacent normal tissue were collected at surgery, RNA was extracted, and expression of 13 target genes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Expression was normalized to GAPDH and POLR2A internal control genes. Expression relative to normal tissue (ddCT) and absolute expression (dCT) were calculated. Wilcoxon tests compared median expression with false discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: Gene expression was similar in two gastric and seven duodenal tumors, and these were analyzed together. Like SBNETs (n = 63) and PNETs (n = 51), GDNETs showed significant overexpression compared with normal tissue of BRS3, GIPR, GRM1, GPR113, OPRK1, and SSTR2 (P < 0.05 for all). Of these, SSTR2 had the highest absolute expression in GDNETs (median dCT 4.0). Absolute expression of BRS3, GRM1, GPR113, and OPRK1 was significantly lower than SSTR2 in GDNETs (P < 0.05 for all), whereas expression of GIPR was similar to SSTR2 (median 4.3, P = 0.4).
CONCLUSIONS: As in SBNETs and PNETs, GIPR shows absolute expression close to SSTR2 but has greater overexpression relative to normal tissue (21.1 versus 3.5-fold overexpression). We conclude that GIPR could provide an improved signal-to-noise ratio for imaging versus SSTR2 and represents a promising novel therapeutic target in GDNETs.

Sherman SK, Carr JC, Wang D, et al.
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR) is a promising target for imaging and therapy in neuroendocrine tumors.
Surgery. 2013; 154(6):1206-13; discussion 1214 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ligands binding the somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) are useful for imaging and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), but not all tumors express high levels of these receptors. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression of new therapeutic targets in NETs relative to SSTR2.
METHODS: RNA was extracted from 103 primary small bowel and pancreatic NETs, matched normal tissue, and 123 metastases. Expression of 12 candidate genes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction normalized to internal controls; candidate gene expression was compared with SSTR2.
RESULTS: Relative to normal tissue, primary NET expression of SSTR2, GPR98, BRS3, GIPR, GRM1, and OPRK1 were increased by 3, 8, 13, 13, 17, and 20-fold, respectively. Similar changes were found in metastases. Although most candidate genes showed lesser absolute expressions than SSTR2, absolute GIPR expression was closest to SSTR2 (mean dCT 3.6 vs. 2.7, P = .01). Absolute OPRK1 and OXTR expression varied greatly by primary tumor type and was close to SSTR2 in small bowel NETs but not pancreatic NETs.
CONCLUSION: Compared with the current treatment standard SSTR2, GIPR has only somewhat lesser absolute gene expression in tumor tissue but much lesser expression in normal tissue, making it a promising new target for NET imaging and therapy.

Ruscica M, Magni P, Steffani L, et al.
Characterization and sub-cellular localization of SS1R, SS2R, and SS5R in human late-stage prostate cancer cells: effect of mono- and bi-specific somatostatin analogs on cell growth.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 382(2):860-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatin (SST) and SST receptors (SS1R, SS2R, SS3R, SS4R and SS5R) appear to play a significant role in the progression of human prostate cancer (PCa), which is associated with heterogeneity of SSRs expression and specific cell localization as we already demonstrated in the LNCaP cell line, an in vitro model of human androgen-dependent PCa. In this study, PC-3 and DU-145 human castration-resistant PCa cells were found to express all SSRs, while LNCaP expressed all but SS4R. A 48-h treatment with BIM-23244 (SS2R/SS5R) or BIM-23926 (SS1R) SST analogs was more effective in inhibiting cell proliferation, compared to BIM-23120 (SS2R), BIM-23206 (SS5R) and BIM-23704 (SS1R/SS2R). BIM-23926 (SS1R) treatment increased the amount of p21 and decreased phosphorylated (p) ERK1/2. BIM-23244 (SS2R/SS5R) led to p21 increment only in PC-3 cells, and to pERK1/2 reduction in both cell lines. SS1R/SS2R and SS2R/SS5R receptor dimers were natively present on cell membrane and their amount was increased by BIM-23704 (SS1R/SS2R) or BIM-23244 (SS2R/SS5R) treatment, respectively. SS1R, SS2R and SS5R were differently distributed among nuclear, lysosomal and microsomal compartment, according to their different recycling dynamics. These results show that, in PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP cells, activation of SS1R and SS2R/SS5R leads to relevant antiproliferative effects.

Vieria Neto L, Wildemberg LE, Colli LM, et al.
ZAC1 and SSTR2 are downregulated in non-functioning pituitary adenomas but not in somatotropinomas.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77406 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: There are few data regarding ZAC1 expression in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). Because somatotropinomas and NFPA behave differently with respect to tumor shrinkage during somatostatin analogs (SA) therapy, we sought to compare the ZAC1 and somatostatin receptor (sstr) types 1, 2, 3 and 5 mRNA expression in these two pituitary adenoma subtypes and in normal human pituitaries.
METHODS: ZAC1 and SSTR mRNA expression levels were evaluated using real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan) in 20 NFPA and compared with the expression levels in 23 somatotropinomas and five normal pituitaries. The NFPA invasiveness was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging with Hardy's modified criteria. Ki-67 and p53 were evaluated using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: A total of 20 patients with NFPA [6 males, median age 56 years (range: 30-78)], 23 with acromegaly [12 males, median age 43 years (range: 24-57)] and five normal pituitaries [4 males, median age 48 years (range: 36-54)] were included. Four of the patients (20%) had Hardy's grade 2 tumors; all of the others had Hardy's grade 3 tumors. The Ki-67 median expression was 2.35 (range: 0.2-9.23), and only four of the tumors (20%) were positive for p53. The ZAC1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in NFPA than in somatotropinomas and in normal pituitaries (p<0.001 for both), as well as the SSTR2 (p=0.001 and 0.01, respectively). The SSTR3 expression was higher in the NFPA than in the somatotropinomas and in the normal pituitaries (p=0.03 and 0.02, respectively). No correlation was found between the ZAC1 mRNA expression and the tumor invasiveness, Ki-67 and p53.
CONCLUSION: ZAC1 and SSTR2 are underexpressed and SSTR3 is overexpressed in NFPA compared to those in somatotropinomas and in normal pituitaries, which might explain the lack of tumor shrinkage that is observed in response to commercially available SA therapy in patients with NFPA.

Han L, Ravoori M, Wu G, et al.
Somatostatin receptor type 2-based reporter expression after plasmid-based in vivo gene delivery to non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol Imaging. 2013; 12(7):1-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Plasmids tend to have much lower expression than viruses. Gene expression after systemic administration of plasmid vectors has not been assessed using somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-based reporters. The purpose of this work was to identify gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after systemic liposomal nanoparticle delivery of plasmid containing SSTR2-based reporter gene. In vitro, Western blotting was performed after transient transfection with the plasmid cytomegalovirus (CMV)-SSTR2, CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2, or CMV-TUSC2. SSTR2 is the reporter gene, and TUSC2 is a therapeutic gene. Mice with A549 NSCLC lung tumors were injected intravenously with CMV-SSTR2, CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2, or CMV-TUSC2 plasmids in DOTAP:cholesterol-liposomal nanoparticles. Two days later, mice were injected intravenously with 111In-octreotide. The next day, biodistribution was performed. The experiment was repeated including single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Immunohistochemistry was performed. In vitro, SSTR2 expression was similar in cells transfected with CMV-SSTR2 or CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2. TUSC2 expression was similar in cells transfected with CMV-TUSC2 or CMV-TUSC2-SSTR2. Biodistribution demonstrated significantly greater 111In-octreotide uptake in tumors from mice injected with CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2 or CMV-SSTR2 than the control plasmid, CMV-TUSC2 (p < .05). Gamma-camera and SPECT/CT imaging illustrated SSTR2 expression in tumors in mice injected with CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2 or CMV-SSTR2 versus background with control plasmid. Immunohistochemistry corresponded with imaging. SSTR2-based reporter imaging can visualize gene expression in lung tumors after systemic liposomal nanoparticle delivery of plasmid containing SSTR2-based reporter gene or SSTR2 linked to a second therapeutic gene, such as TUSC2.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. SSTR2, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 11 March, 2017     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999