Gene Summary

Gene:TNFRSF25; TNF receptor superfamily member 25
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor is expressed preferentially in the tissues enriched in lymphocytes, and it may play a role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis. This receptor has been shown to stimulate NF-kappa B activity and regulate cell apoptosis. The signal transduction of this receptor is mediated by various death domain containing adaptor proteins. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this gene in the removal of self-reactive T cells in the thymus. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported, most of which are potentially secreted molecules. The alternative splicing of this gene in B and T cells encounters a programmed change upon T-cell activation, which predominantly produces full-length, membrane bound isoforms, and is thought to be involved in controlling lymphocyte proliferation induced by T-cell activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 25
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFRSF25 (cancer-related)

Zhong C, Mai Y, Gao H, et al.
Mitochondrial targeting of TR3 is involved in TPA induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
Gene. 2019; 693:61-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
TPA is considered to be a tumor promoting molecule that induces the expression of COX-2 protein. However, it is contradictory to find that TPA can induce tumor cell apoptosis and exert antitumor activity. Therefore, the role of TPA in tumorigenesis and development has not yet been elucidated. Here we show that TPA can promote the apoptosis of breast cancer cells and increase the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. It is suggested that TPA may induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Further studies showed that TPA could cause mitochondrial dysfunction and trigger mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In mechanism, the mitochondrial targeting of TR3 is involved in TPA induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that TPA can play a role in inhibiting cancer by inducing apoptosis and TR3 is expected to be a new target for cancer treatment.

Mohammadoo Khorasani M, Karami Tehrani F, Parizadeh SMR, Atri M
Differential expression of alternative transcripts of soluble guanylyl cyclase, GYCY1a3 and GUCY1b3 genes, in the malignant and benign breast tumors.
Nitric Oxide. 2019; 83:65-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extensive alterations in splicing is one of the molecular indicator for human cancers. Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), an obligatory heterodimer, is composed of α1 and β1 subunits. Each subunit is encoded by a separate gene, GUCY1a3 and GUCY1b3, correspondingly. sGC activity has been regulated by an alternative splicing and it has an important effect on the breast cancer. sGC alternative splicing has been evaluated in the 55 malignant, 25 benign and 30 normal breast tissues using qRT-PCR and RT-PCR. The differences between groups were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U. The expression of six different splice forms have been detected, three for α1 and three for β1 sGC. Expressions of Tr1, Tr2 β1 sGC and Tr7, Tr6 α1 sGC mRNA in the malignant breast tumors were significantly lower than those of benign and normal breast tissues. However, the expression of Tr3 α1 sGC mRNA was significantly higher than that of benign and normal tissues. Present data have provided some evidences for an alteration in the expression of α1 and β1 sGC alternative splicing forms which may contribute to the loss of sGC functions in the breast cancer. The observed information might be discussed by the cGMP status.

Grun D, Adhikary G, Eckert RL
NRP-1 interacts with GIPC1 and SYX to activate p38 MAPK signaling and cancer stem cell survival.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(4):488-499 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Epidermal cancer stem cells (ECS cells) comprise a limited population of cells that form aggressive, rapidly growing, and highly vascularized tumors. VEGF-A/NRP-1 signaling is a key driver of the ECS cell phenotype and aggressive tumor formation. However, relatively less is known regarding the downstream events following VEGF-A/NRP-1 interaction. In the present study, we show that VEGF-A/NRP-1, GIPC1, and Syx interact to increase RhoA-dependent p38 MAPK activity to enhance ECS cell spheroid formation, invasion, migration, and angiogenic potential. Inhibition or knockdown of NRP-1, GIPC1 or Syx attenuates RhoA and p38 activity to reduce the ECS cell phenotype, and NRP-1 knockout, or pharmacologic inhibition of VEGF-A/NRP-1 interaction or RhoA activity, reduces p38 MAPK activity and tumor growth. Moreover, expression of wild-type or constitutively-active RhoA, or p38, in NRP1-knockout cells, restores p38 activity and the ECS cell phenotype. These findings suggest that NRP-1 forms a complex with GIPC1 and Syx to activate RhoA/ROCK-dependent p38 activity to enhance the ECS cell phenotype and tumor formation.

Huang JP, Lin J, Tzen CY, et al.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(38):4412-4418 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Gastric polyposis is a rare disease. Not all polyps progress to cancer. Monoallelic mutation in Fanconi anemia (FA) genes, unlike biallelic gene mutations that causes typical FA phenotype, can increase risks of cancers in a sporadic manner. Aberrations in the FA pathway were reported in all molecular subtypes of gastric cancer. We studied a patient with synchronous gastric cancer from gastric polyposis by conducting a 13-year long-term follow up.

Wu L, Chen L
Characteristics of Nur77 and its ligands as potential anticancer compounds (Review).
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(6):4793-4801 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1; also termed Nur77/TR3/NGFIB), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is expressed as an early response gene to regulate the expression of multiple target genes. Nur77 has the typical structure of a nuclear receptor, including an N‑terminal domain, a DNA binding domain, and a ligand‑binding domain. The expression and localization of Nur77 are closely associated with its roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Nur77 was first identified as an orphan receptor, the endogenous ligand of which has not yet been identified; however, an increasing number of compounds targeting Nur77 have been reported to have beneficial effects in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This review provides a brief overview of the identification, structure, expression and localization, transcriptional role and non‑genomic function of Nur77, and summarizes the ligands that have been shown to interact with Nur77, including cytosporone B, cisplatin, TMPA, PDNPA, CCE9, THPN, Z‑ligustilide, celastrol and bisindole methane compounds, which may potentially be used to treat cancer in humans.

Wang J, Zhang YS, Thakur K, et al.
Licochalcone A from licorice root, an inhibitor of human hepatoma cell growth via induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2018; 120:407-417 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the anti-cancer activity of Licochalcone A (LCA), extracted from licorice root. LCA inhibited the proliferation of HepG

Yun H, Bedolla R, Horning A, et al.
BRCA1 Interacting Protein COBRA1 Facilitates Adaptation to Castrate-Resistant Growth Conditions.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
COBRA1 (co-factor of BRCA1) is one of the four subunits of the negative elongation factor originally identified as a BRCA1-interacting protein. Here, we provide first-time evidence for the oncogenic role of COBRA1 in prostate pathogenesis. COBRA1 is aberrantly expressed in prostate tumors. It positively influences androgen receptor (AR) target gene expression and promoter activity. Depletion of COBRA1 leads to decreased cell viability, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth in prostate cancer cell lines. Conversely, overexpression of COBRA1 significantly increases cell viability, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth over the higher basal levels. Remarkably, AR-positive androgen dependent (LNCaP) cells overexpressing COBRA1 survive under androgen-deprivation conditions. Remarkably, treatment of prostate cancer cells with well-studied antitumorigenic agent, 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME₂), caused significant DNA methylation changes in 3255 genes including COBRA1. Furthermore, treatment of prostate cancer cells with 2-ME₂ downregulates COBRA1 and inhibition of prostate tumors in TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinomas of mouse prostate) animals with 2-ME₂ was also associated with decreased COBRA1 levels. These observations implicate a novel role for COBRA1 in progression to CRPC and suggest that COBRA1 downregulation has therapeutic potential.

Winter JM, Curry NL, Gildea DM, et al.
Modifier locus mapping of a transgenic F2 mouse population identifies CCDC115 as a novel aggressive prostate cancer modifier gene in humans.
BMC Genomics. 2018; 19(1):450 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well known that development of prostate cancer (PC) can be attributed to somatic mutations of the genome, acquired within proto-oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes. What is less well understood is how germline variation contributes to disease aggressiveness in PC patients. To map germline modifiers of aggressive neuroendocrine PC, we generated a genetically diverse F2 intercross population using the transgenic TRAMP mouse model and the wild-derived WSB/EiJ (WSB) strain. The relevance of germline modifiers of aggressive PC identified in these mice was extensively correlated in human PC datasets and functionally validated in cell lines.
RESULTS: Aggressive PC traits were quantified in a population of 30 week old (TRAMP x WSB) F2 mice (n = 307). Correlation of germline genotype with aggressive disease phenotype revealed seven modifier loci that were significantly associated with aggressive disease. RNA-seq were analyzed using cis-eQTL and trait correlation analyses to identify candidate genes within each of these loci. Analysis of 92 (TRAMP x WSB) F2 prostates revealed 25 candidate genes that harbored both a significant cis-eQTL and mRNA expression correlations with an aggressive PC trait. We further delineated these candidate genes based on their clinical relevance, by interrogating human PC GWAS and PC tumor gene expression datasets. We identified four genes (CCDC115, DNAJC10, RNF149, and STYXL1), which encompassed all of the following characteristics: 1) one or more germline variants associated with aggressive PC traits; 2) differential mRNA levels associated with aggressive PC traits; and 3) differential mRNA expression between normal and tumor tissue. Functional validation studies of these four genes using the human LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma cell line revealed ectopic overexpression of CCDC115 can significantly impede cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, CCDC115 human prostate tumor expression was associated with better survival outcomes.
CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated how modifier locus mapping in mouse models of PC, coupled with in silico analyses of human PC datasets, can reveal novel germline modifier genes of aggressive PC. We have also characterized CCDC115 as being associated with less aggressive PC in humans, placing it as a potential prognostic marker of aggressive PC.

Qin T, Huang D, Liu Z, et al.
Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 promotes lymphatic metastasis via upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-C in a mouse model of lung cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(8):2469-2478 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Lymphatic metastasis is facilitated by lymphangiogenic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGFC) that is secreted by some primary tumors. We previously identified tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15), a blood vascular endothelium-derived cytokine, in lymphatic endothelial cells, as a key molecular modulator during lymphangiogenesis. However, the effect of TNFSF15 on tumor lymphatic metastasis and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We report here that TNFSF15, which is known to inhibit primary tumor growth by suppressing angiogenesis, can promote lymphatic metastasis through facilitating lymphangiogenesis in tumors. Mice bearing tumors induced by A549 cells stably overexpressing TNFSF15 exhibited a significant increase in densities of lymphatic vessels and a marked enhancement of A549 tumor cells in newly formed lymphatic vessels in the primary tumors as well as in lymph nodes. Treatment of A549 cells with TNFSF15 results in upregulation of VEGFC expression, which can be inhibited by siRNA gene silencing of death domain-containing receptor-3 (DR3), a cell surface receptor for TNFSF15. In addition, TNFSF15/DR3 signaling pathways in A549 cells include activation of NF-κB during tumor lymphangiogenesis. Our data indicate that TNFSF15, a cytokine mainly produced by blood endothelial cells, facilitates tumor lymphangiogenesis by upregulating VEGFC expression in A549 cells, contributing to lymphatic metastasis in tumor-bearing mice. This finding also suggests that TNFSF15 may have potential as an indicator for prognosis evaluation.

Wang F, Koul S, Shanmugam PST, et al.
Prostate-Derived Ets Factor (PDEF) Inhibits Metastasis by Inducing Epithelial/Luminal Phenotype in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(9):1430-1440 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is the primary cause of prostate cancer morbidity and mortality. Our previous studies revealed that Sam pointed domain ETS transcription factor, a.k.a. prostate-derived ETS factor (SPDEF/PDEF), inhibits prostate cancer metastasis. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, using microarray and gene set enrichment analysis, we discovered that PDEF upregulated epithelial/luminal differentiation-related genes while it suppressed stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related genes, especially Twist1. We also observed loss of PDEF and gain of Twist1 expression during prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP mouse model. Moreover, Twist1 knockdown resulted in upregulation of PDEF expression, suggesting a reciprocal regulation between PDEF and Twist1. Mechanistically, our ChIP-seq analysis revealed that PDEF directly regulated cytokeratin 18 (CK18) transcription through the GGAT motif within its putative promoter region. CK18 knockdown resulted in increased expression of Twist1, suggesting that PDEF regulated Twist1 in part via CK18. Our analysis of multiple clinical prostate cancer cohorts revealed an inverse relationship between PDEF expression and tumor grade, tumor metastasis, and poor patient survival. Furthermore, a two-gene signature of low PDEF and high Twist1 can better predict poor survival in prostate cancer patients than either gene alone. Collectively, our findings demonstrate PDEF inhibits prostate tumor progression, in part, by directly regulating transcription of CK18, and that PDEF/Twist1 expression could help distinguish between lethal and indolent prostate cancer.

Wattanavanitchakorn S, Rojvirat P, Chavalit T, et al.
CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) regulate expression of the human fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0194252 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) plays an essential role in gluconeogenesis. Here we report that the human FBP1 gene is regulated by two liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. C/EBPα regulates transcription of FBP1 gene via binding to the two overlapping C/EBPα sites located at nucleotide -228/-208 while HNF4α regulates FBP1 gene through binding to the classical H4-SBM site and direct repeat 3 (DR3) located at nucleotides -566/-554 and -212/-198, respectively. Mutations of these transcription factor binding sites result in marked decrease of C/EBPα- or HNF4α-mediated transcription activation of FBP1 promoter-luciferase reporter expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of -228/-208 C/EBPα or -566/-554 and -212/-198 HNF4α sites with nuclear extract of HepG2 cells overexpressing C/EBPα or HNF4α confirms binding of these two transcription factors to these sites. Finally, we showed that siRNA-mediated suppression of C/EBPα or HNF4α expression in HepG2 cells lowers expression of FBP1 in parallel with down-regulation of expression of other gluconeogenic enzymes. Our results suggest that an overall gluconeogenic program is regulated by these two transcription factors, enabling transcription to occur in a liver-specific manner.

Singh KB, Hahm ER, Rigatti LH, et al.
Inhibition of Glycolysis in Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2018; 11(6):337-346 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
We have shown previously that dietary administration of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a small molecule from edible cruciferous vegetables, significantly decreases the incidence of poorly differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice without any side effects. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Myc-regulated glycolysis in prostate cancer chemoprevention by PEITC. Exposure of LNCaP (androgen-responsive) and 22Rv1 (castration-resistant) human prostate cancer cells to PEITC resulted in suppression of expression as well as transcriptional activity of c-Myc. Prostate cancer cell growth inhibition by PEITC was significantly attenuated by stable overexpression of c-Myc. Analysis of the RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas indicated a significant positive association between

Jachetti E, Cancila V, Rigoni A, et al.
Cross-Talk between Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Mast Cells Mediates Tumor-Specific Immunosuppression in Prostate Cancer.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2018; 6(5):552-565 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunotherapy, including the use of checkpoint inhibitors, is a potent therapeutic approach for some cancers, but has limited success with prostate tumors, in which immune suppression is instigated by the tumor. The immunosuppressive capacity of mast cells, which promote adenocarcinoma development in the prostate, prompted our investigation on whether mast cells promote tolerance to SV40 Large-T antigen, the transforming oncogene in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. The incidence of adenocarcinoma was reduced in the offspring of a cross between TRAMP mice and mast cell-deficient Kit

Ganju A, Chauhan SC, Hafeez BB, et al.
Protein kinase D1 regulates subcellular localisation and metastatic function of metastasis-associated protein 1.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 118(4):587-599 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer progression and metastasis is profoundly influenced by protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in addition to other pathways. However, the nature of regulatory relationship between the PKD1 and MTA1, and its resulting impact on cancer metastasis remains unknown. Here we present evidence to establish that PKD1 is an upstream regulatory kinase of MTA1.
METHODS: Protein and mRNA expression of MTA1 in PKD1-overexpressing cells were determined using western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay (PLA) were used to determine the interaction between PKD1 and MTA1. PKD1-mediated nucleo-cytoplasmic export and polyubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation was determined using immunostaining. The correlation between PKD1 and MTA1 was determined using intra-tibial, subcutaneous xenograft, PTEN-knockout (PTEN-KO) and transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse models, as well as human cancer tissues.
RESULTS: We found that MTA1 is a PKD1-interacting substrate, and that PKD1 phosphorylates MTA1, supports its nucleus-to-cytoplasmic redistribution and utilises its N-terminal and kinase domains to effectively inhibit the levels of MTA1 via polyubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation. PKD1-mediated downregulation of MTA1 was accompanied by a significant suppression of prostate cancer progression and metastasis in physiologically relevant spontaneous tumour models. Accordingly, progression of human prostate tumours to increased invasiveness was also accompanied by decreased and increased levels of PKD1 and MTA1, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study, for the first time, establishes that PKD1 is an upstream regulatory kinase of MTA1 status and its associated metastatic activity, and that the PKD1-MTA1 axis could be targeted for anti-cancer strategies.

Alves LF, da Silva RF, Cagnon VHA
Nintedanib effects on delaying cancer progression and decreasing COX-2 and IL-17 in the prostate anterior lobe in TRAMP mice.
Tissue Cell. 2018; 50:96-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in men around the world. Due to its high incidence, new therapies have been evaluated, including drugs capable of inhibiting the FGF/VEGF pathways, as Nintedanib. The aim herein was to evaluate the Nintedanib therapeutic effects on morphology and COX-2 and IL-17 levels in the prostate anterior lobe in different grades of the tumor progression in TRAMP mice. Animals were treated with Nintedanib at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day in initial and intermediate grades of tumor development. At the end of treatment, the prostate anterior lobe was collected and submitted to morphological, immunohistochemical and Western Blotting analyses. The results showed that Nintedanib delayed the prostate carcinogenesis progression, with over 20% of reduction in frequency of tissue injuries, particularly in the group treated from 12 to 16 weeks of age. Also, decreased COX-2 and IL-17 levels were observed in both groups treated with Nintedanib in the prostate anterior lobe. Thus, we concluded that Nintedanib was effective in delaying tumor progression and, despite not directly acting on inflammation, Nintedanib may adversely affect inflammatory pathways, favoring prostate cancer delay.

Chang LC, Hsieh MT, Yang JS, et al.
Effect of bis(hydroxymethyl) alkanoate curcuminoid derivative MTH-3 on cell cycle arrest, apoptotic and autophagic pathway in triple-negative breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells: An in vitro study.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(1):67-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Curcumin has been shown to exert potential antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo involved in multiple signaling pathways. However, the application of curcumin is still limited because of its poor hydrophilicity and low bio-availability. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of a novel and water soluble bis(hydroxymethyl) alkanoate curcuminoid derivative, MTH-3, on human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. This study investigated the effect of MTH-3 on cell viability, cell cycle and induction of autophagy and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. After 24-h treatment with MTH-3, a concentration-dependent decrease in MDA-MB-231 cell viability was observed, and the IC50 value was 5.37±1.22 µM. MTH-3 significantly triggered G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Within a 24-h treatment, MTH-3 decreased the CDK1 activity by decreasing CDK1 and cyclin B1 protein levels. MTH-3-induced apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological assessment and annexin V/PI staining assay. Induction of apoptosis caused by MTH-3 was accompanied by an apparent increase of DR3, DR5 and FADD and, as well as a marked decrease of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. MTH-3 also decreased the protein levels of Ero1, PDI, PERK and calnexin, as well as increased the expression of IRE1α, CHOP and Bip that consequently led to ER stress and MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis. In addition, MTH-3-treated cells were involved in the autophagic process and cleavage of LC3B was observed. MTH-3 enhanced the protein levels of LC3B, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, p62 and Beclin-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, DNA microarray was carried out to investigate the level changes of gene expression modulated by MTH-3 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that MTH-3 might be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer in the near future.

Mishel S, Shneyer B, Korsensky L, et al.
Delivery of the gene encoding the tumor suppressor Sef into prostate tumors by therapeutic-ultrasound inhibits both tumor angiogenesis and growth.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):15060 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Carcinomas constitute over 80% of all human cancer types with no effective therapy for metastatic disease. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, the efficacy of therapeutic-ultrasound (TUS) to deliver a human tumor suppressor gene, hSef-b, to prostate tumors in vivo. Sef is downregulated in various human carcinomas, in a manner correlating with tumor aggressiveness. In vitro, hSef-b inhibited proliferation of TRAMP C2 cells and attenuated activation of ERK/MAPK and the master transcription factor NF-κB in response to FGF and IL-1/TNF, respectively. In vivo, transfection efficiency of a plasmid co-expressing hSef-b/eGFP into TRAMP C2 tumors was 14.7 ± 2.5% following a single TUS application. Repeated TUS treatments with hSef-b plasmid, significantly suppressed prostate tumor growth (60%) through inhibition of cell proliferation (60%), and reduction in blood vessel density (56%). In accordance, repeated TUS-treatments with hSef-b significantly inhibited in vivo expression of FGF2 and MMP-9. FGF2 is a known mitogen, and both FGF2/MMP-9 are proangiogenic factors. Taken together our results strongly suggest that hSef-b acts in a cell autonomous as well as non-cell autonomous manner. Moreover, the study demonstrates the efficacy of non-viral TUS-based hSef-b gene delivery approach for the treatment of prostate cancer tumors, and possibly other carcinomas where Sef is downregulated.

Mett V, Komarova EA, Greene K, et al.
Mobilan: a recombinant adenovirus carrying Toll-like receptor 5 self-activating cassette for cancer immunotherapy.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(4):439-449 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is considered an attractive target for anticancer immunotherapy. TLR5 agonists, bacterial flagellin and engineered flagellin derivatives, have been shown to have potent antitumor and metastasis-suppressive effects in multiple animal models and to be safe in both animals and humans. Anticancer efficacy of TLR5 agonists stems from TLR5-dependent activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) that mediates innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses. To extend application of TLR5-targeted anticancer immunotherapy to tumors that do not naturally express TLR5, we created an adenovirus-based vector for intratumor delivery, named Mobilan that drives expression of self-activating TLR5 signaling cassette comprising of human TLR5 and a secreted derivative of Salmonella flagellin structurally analogous to a clinical stage TLR5 agonist, entolimod. Co-expression of TLR5 receptor and agonist in Mobilan-infected cells established an autocrine/paracrine TLR5 signaling loop resulting in constitutive activation of NF-κB both in vitro and in vivo. Injection of Mobilan into primary tumors of the prostate cancer-prone transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice resulted in a strong induction of multiple genes involved in inflammatory responses and mobilization of innate immune cells into the tumors including neutrophils and NK cells and suppressed tumor progression. Intratumoral injection of Mobilan into subcutaneously growing syngeneic prostate tumors in immunocompetent hosts improved animal survival after surgical resection of the tumors, by suppression of tumor metastasis. In addition, vaccination of mice with irradiated Mobilan-transduced prostate tumor cells protected mice against subsequent tumor challenge. These results provide proof-of-concept for Mobilan as a tool for antitumor vaccination that directs TLR5-mediated immune response toward cancer cells and does not require identification of tumor antigens.

Pereira NB, do Carmo ACM, Campos K, et al.
DNA methylation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array of apoptosis-related genes in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017; 124(6):554-560 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the DNA methylation profile in 22 apoptosis-related genes in pleomorphic adenomas (PAs) of the salivary glands, in comparison with normal salivary glands (NSGs), and to address the differences in methylation patterns between smaller and larger tumors. Additionally, we investigated if the hypermethylation of differentially methylated genes between NSGs and PAs impacted the messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription.
DESIGN: Twenty-three fresh PA samples and 12 NSG samples were included. The PA samples were divided into 2 groups: PAs with clinical size larger than 2 cm (n = 12) and PAs with clinical size 2 cm or smaller (n = 11). DNA methylation at the promoter region of a panel of 22 genes involved in apoptosis was profiled by using a human apoptosis DNA methylation polymerase chain reaction array, and the transcriptional levels of genes showing differential methylation profiles between PAs and NSGs were assessed.
RESULTS: TNFRSF25 and BCL2 L11 were highly methylated in PAs, in comparison with NSGs, irrespective of tumor size. However, no difference could be observed in the mRNA transcription between PAs and NSGs.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylation of the proapoptotic genes BCL2 L11 and TNFRSF25 is observed in PA. However, this phenomenon did not impact mRNA transcription.

Wohlkoenig C, Leithner K, Olschewski A, et al.
TR3 is involved in hypoxia-induced apoptosis resistance in lung cancer cells downstream of HIF-1α.
Lung Cancer. 2017; 111:15-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Like in all solid tumors, hypoxia is common in lung cancer and contributes to apoptosis, and thus chemotherapy resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. TR3 (NR4A1, Nur77) is an orphan nuclear receptor that induces apoptosis and may mediate chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used A549, H23 and H1299 cell lines to investigate how TR3-mediated apoptosis is affected by hypoxia in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Cell culture, western blot analysis, apoptosis assay, and siRNA-mediated gene silencing were performed in this study.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The TR3 activator cytosporone B was used to investigate TR3-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Cytosporone B induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Chronic moderate hypoxia induced a significant down-regulation of TR3. Accordingly, the cytosporone B effect was reduced under these conditions. Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of TR3 was mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. Our immunoblotting analysis and expression data from a public dataset suggest that TR3 is downregulated in NSCLC. In conclusion, our findings suggest that hypoxia-induced down-regulation of TR3 might play an important role for hypoxia-induced apoptosis resistance in NSCLC.

Battaglia S, Karasik E, Gillard B, et al.
LSD1 dual function in mediating epigenetic corruption of the vitamin D signaling in prostate cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2017; 9:82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1) is a key regulator of the androgen (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER), and LSD1 levels correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that LSD1 regulates vitamin D receptor (VDR) activity and is a mediator of 1,25(OH)
METHODS: Athymic nude mice were xenografted with CWR22 cells and monitored weekly after testosterone pellet removal. Expression of LSD1 and VDR (IHC) were correlated with tumor growth using log-rank test. TRAMP tumors and prostates from wild-type (WT) mice were used to evaluate VDR and LSD1 expression via IHC and western blotting. The presence of VDR and LSD1 in the same transcriptional complex was evaluated via immunoprecipitation (IP) using nuclear cell lysate. The effect of LSD1 and 1,25(OH)
RESULTS: LSD1 and VDR protein levels are elevated in PCa tumors and correlate with faster tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. Knockdown of LSD1 reduces PCa cell viability, and gene expression data suggest a dual coregulatory role of LSD1 for VDR, acting as a coactivator and corepressor in a locus-specific manner. LSD1 modulates VDR-dependent transcription by mediating the recruitment of VDR and DNMT1 at the TSS of VDR-targeted genes and modulates the epigenetic status of transcribed genes by altering H3K4me2 and H3K9Ac and DNA methylation. Lastly, LSD1 and DNMT1 belong to a genome-wide signature whose expression correlates with shorter progression-free survival and overall survival in primary and metastatic patients' samples, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that LSD1 has a dual coregulatory role as corepressor and coactivator for VDR and defines a genomic signature whose targeting might have clinical relevance for PCa patients.

Demirci S, Doğan A, Başak Türkmen N, et al.
Poloxamer P85 increases anticancer activity of Schiff base against prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Anticancer Drugs. 2017; 28(8):869-879 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men and the leading cause of death after lung cancer. Development of hormone-refractory disease is a crucial step for prostate cancer progression for which an effective treatment option is currently unavailable. Therefore, there is a need for new agents that can efficiently target cancer cells, decrease tumor growth, and thereby extend the survival of patients in late-stage castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the current study, a novel heterodinuclear copper(II)Mn(II) Schiff base complex combined with P85 was used to evaluate anticancer activity against prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were evaluated by cell viability, gene, and protein expression assays in vitro. Results showed that the heterodinuclear copper(II)Mn(II) complex-P85 combination decreased cell proliferation by upregulating the apoptotic gene expressions and blocking the cell proliferation-related pathways. Tramp-C1-injected C57/B16 mice were used to mimic a prostate cancer model. Treatment combination of Schiff base complex and P85 significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of chemicals (by blocking the drug transporters and increased life time), suppressed tumor growth, and decreased tumor volume steadily over the course of the experiments. Overall, heterodinuclear copper(II)Mn(II) complex-P85 showed remarkable anticancer activity against prostate cancer in in vitro and in vivo.

van Haaften C, van Eendenburg J, Boot A, et al.
Chemosensitivity of BRCA1-Mutated Ovarian Cancer Cells and Established Cytotoxic Agents.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2017; 27(8):1571-1578 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Serous adenocarcinomas that arise in patients with inherited mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are initially well treatable with platinum/paclitaxel. For recurrent disease in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, olaparib treatment is available. To study additional therapeutic regimens, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the tumors in in vitro models is important.
METHODS/MATERIALS: From a high-grade serous ovarian tumor of a BRCA1 mutation carrier, we established 3 distinct cell line subclones, OVCA-TR3.1, -2, and -3. Immunohistochemical characterization, flow cytometric analyses, chemosensitivity, and somatic mutation profiling were performed.
RESULTS: The cell lines expressed AE1/AE3, Pax8, WT-1, OC125, estrogen receptor (ER), and p53, comparable to the primary tumor. Synergism could be shown in the combination treatment eremophila-1-(10)-11(13)-dien-12,8β-olide (EPD), with cisplatin, whereas combination with olaparib did not show synergism. Eremophila-1-(10)-11(13)-dien-12,8β-olide, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a novel chemotherapeutic agent. The inherited BRCA1 c.2989_2990dupAA mutation was confirmed in the cell lines. Loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 was detected in each cell line, as well as a homozygous TP53 c.722C>A mutation. Flow cytometry showed that all cell lines had a distinct DNA index.
CONCLUSIONS: Three new isogenic ovarian cancer cell lines were developed from a patient with a germ line BRCA1 mutation. Chemosensitivity profiling of the cell lines showed high tolerance for olaparib. Treatment with EPD proved synergistic with cisplatin. The effects of EPD will be further investigated for future clinical efficacy.

Jaworski FM, Gentilini LD, Gueron G, et al.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(17):5135-5148 [PubMed] Related Publications

Opoku-Acheampong AB, Henningson JN, Beck AP, Lindshield BL
5α-reductase 1 mRNA levels are positively correlated with TRAMP mouse prostate most severe lesion scores.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(5):e0175874 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The contribution of 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 to prostate cancer development and progression is not clearly understood. TRAMP mice are a common prostate cancer model, in which 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 expression levels, along with prostate lesions scores, have not been investigated at different time points to further understand prostate carcinogenesis.
METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To this end, 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-week-old male C57BL/6TRAMP x FVB mice prostate most severe and most common lesion scores, 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 in situ hybridization expression, and Ki-67, androgen receptor, and apoptosis immunohistochemistry levels were measured. Levels of these markers were quantified in prostate epithelium, hyperplasia, and tumors sections. Mice developed low- to high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia at 8 weeks as the most severe and most common lesions, and moderate- and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia at 12 and 16 weeks as the most severe lesion in all lobes. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed at 20 weeks in all lobes. Poorly differentiated carcinoma was not observed in any lobe until 12-weeks-old. 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 were not significantly decreased in tumors compared to prostate epithelium and hyperplasia in all groups, while proliferation, apoptosis, and androgen receptor were either notably or significantly decreased in tumors compared with prostate epithelium and hyperplasia in most or all groups. Prostate 5αR1 levels were positively correlated with adjusted prostate most severe lesion scores.
CONCLUSION: Downregulation of androgen receptor and 5α-reductase 2, along with upregulation of 5α-reductase 1 in tumors may promote prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer development in TRAMP mice.

Hedrick E, Lee SO, Safe S
The nuclear orphan receptor NR4A1 regulates β1-integrin expression in pancreatic and colon cancer cells and can be targeted by NR4A1 antagonists.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(9):2066-2075 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
β1-Integrin is highly expressed and is a negative prognostic factor for colon and pancreatic cancer patients and the gene plays a functional role in cell migration and invasion. In this study, we demonstrate that β1-integrin expression is regulated in pancreatic and colon cancer cells by the pro-oncogenic orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1, Nur77, TR3) and knockdown of this receptor by RNA interference decreases β1-integrin protein and mRNA expression, α5-integrin, and also expression of β1-integrin-dependent phosphorylation of FAK (pFak). Knockdown of NR4A1 also decreased migration and fibronectin-induced adhesion in pancreatic (Panc1, L3.6 pL, and MiaPaCa2) and colon (RKO and SW480) cancer cells. 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methane (C-DIM) compounds containing p-hydroxy (DIM-C-pPhOH) and p-carbomethoxy (DIM-C-pPhCO

O'Malley J, Kumar R, Kuzmin AN, et al.
Lipid quantification by Raman microspectroscopy as a potential biomarker in prostate cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 397:52-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains incurable and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death among American men. Therefore, detection of prostate cancer (PCa) at early stages may reduce PCa-related mortality in men. We show that lipid quantification by vibrational Raman Microspectroscopy and Biomolecular Component Analysis may serve as a potential biomarker in PCa. Transcript levels of lipogenic genes including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and its downstream effector fatty acid synthase (FASN), and rate-limiting enzyme acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACACA) were upregulated corresponding to both Gleason score and pathologic T stage in the PRAD TCGA cohort. Increased lipid accumulation in late-stage transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) tumors compared to early-stage TRAMP and normal prostate tissues were observed. FASN along with other lipogenesis enzymes, and SREBP-1 proteins were upregulated in TRAMP tumors compared to wild-type prostatic tissues. Genetic alterations of key lipogenic genes predicted the overall patient survival using TCGA PRAD cohort. Correlation between lipid accumulation and tumor stage provides quantitative marker for PCa diagnosis. Thus, Raman spectroscopy-based lipid quantification could be a sensitive and reliable tool for PCa diagnosis and staging.

Pu H, Begemann DE, Kyprianou N
Aberrant TGF-β Signaling Drives Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer in a Male Mouse Model of Prostate Tumorigenesis.
Endocrinology. 2017; 158(6):1612-1622 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role as a driver of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Our previous studies demonstrated that disruption of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling via introduction of dominant-negative transforming growth factor-β type II receptor (DNTGFβRII) in the prostate epithelium of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the prostate mice accelerated tumor. This study investigated the consequences of disrupted TGF-β signaling on prostate tumor growth under conditions of castration-induced androgen deprivation in the preclinical model of DNTGFβRII. Our results indicate that in response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) the proliferative index in prostate tumors from DNTGFβRII mice was higher compared with prostate tumors from TGFβRII wild-type (WT) mice, whereas there was a reduced incidence of apoptosis in tumors from DNTGFβRII. Protein and gene expression profiling revealed that tumors from DNTGFβRII mice exhibit a strong nuclear AR localization among the prostate tumor epithelial cells and increased AR messenger RNA after ADT. In contrast, TGFβRII WT mice exhibited a marked loss in nuclear AR in prostate tumor acini (20 weeks), followed by a downregulation of AR and transmembrane protease serine 2 messenger RNA. There was a significant increase in nuclear AR and activity in prostate tumors from castrate DNTGFβRII compared with TGFβRII WT mice. Consequential to aberrant TGF-β signaling, ADT enhanced expression and nuclear localization of Smad4 and β-catenin. Our findings support that under castrate conditions, aberrant TGF-β signaling leads to AR activation and β-catenin nuclear localization, an adaptation mechanism contributing to emergence of CRPC. The work defines a potentially significant new targeting platform for overcoming therapeutic resistance in CRPC.

Costa S, Pereira NB, Pereira K, et al.
DNA methylation pattern of apoptosis-related genes in ameloblastoma.
Oral Dis. 2017; 23(6):779-783 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: DNA methylation is an important mechanism of gene control expression, and it has been poorly addressed in odontogenic tumours. On this basis, we aimed to assess the methylation pattern of 22 apoptosis-related genes in solid ameloblastomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ameloblastoma fresh samples (n = 10) and dental follicles (n = 8) were included in the study. The percentage fraction of methylated and unmethylated DNA promoter of 22 apoptosis-related genes was determined using enzymatic restriction digestion and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) array. The relative expressions of the genes that showed the most discrepant methylation profile between tumours and controls were analysed by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).
RESULTS: Lower methylation percentages of TNFRSF25 (47.2%) and BCL2L11 (33.2%) were observed in ameloblastomas compared with dental follicles (79.3% and 59.5%, respectively). The RT-qPCR analysis showed increased expression of BCL2L11 in ameloblastomas compared with dental follicles, in agreement with the methylation analysis results, while there was no difference between the expression levels of TNFRSF25 between both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our results, the transcription of the apoptosis-related gene BCL2L11 is possibly regulated by promoter DNA methylation in ameloblastoma. The biological significance of this finding in ameloblastoma pathobiology remains to be clarified.

Jachetti E, Rigoni A, Bongiovanni L, et al.
Imatinib Spares cKit-Expressing Prostate Neuroendocrine Tumors, whereas Kills Seminal Vesicle Epithelial-Stromal Tumors by Targeting PDGFR-β.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(2):365-375 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in males worldwide. Indeed, advanced and metastatic disease characterized by androgen resistance and often associated with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation remains incurable. Using the spontaneous prostate cancer TRAMP model, we have shown that mast cells (MCs) support in vivo the growth of prostate adenocarcinoma, whereas their genetic or pharmacologic targeting favors prostate NE cancer arousal. Aiming at simultaneously targeting prostate NE tumor cells and MCs, both expressing the cKit tyrosine kinase receptor, we have tested the therapeutic effect of imatinib in TRAMP mice. Imatinib-treated TRAMP mice experience a partial benefit against prostate adenocarcinoma, because of inhibition of supportive MCs. However, they show an unexpected outgrowth of prostate NE tumors, likely because of defective signaling pathway downstream of cKit receptor. Also unexpected but very effective was the inhibition of epithelial-stromal tumors of the seminal vesicles achieved by imatinib treatment. These tumors normally arise in the seminal vesicles of TRAMP mice, independently of the degree of prostatic glandular lesions, and resemble phyllodes tumors found in human prostate and seminal vesicles, and in breast. In both mice and in patients, these tumors are negative for cKit but express PDGFR-β, another tyrosine kinase receptor specifically inhibited by imatinib. Our results imply a possible detrimental effect of imatinib in prostate cancer patients but suggest a promising therapeutic application of imatinib in the treatment of recurrent or metastatic phyllodes tumors. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(2); 365-75. ©2016 AACR.

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