Gene Summary

Gene:TRB; T cell receptor beta locus
Aliases: TCRB, TRB@
Summary:T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds to rearrange the beta and alpha loci. This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor beta locus. The beta locus includes V (variable), J (joining), diversity (D), and C (constant) segments. During T cell development, the beta chain is synthesized by a recombination event at the DNA level joining a D segment with a J segment; a V segment is then joined to the D-J gene. The C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random additional of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. Several V segments and one J segment of the beta locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. The beta locus also includes eight trypsinogen genes, three of which encode functional proteins and five of which are pseudogenes. Chromosomal abnormalities involving the T-cell receptor beta locus have been associated with T-cell lymphomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Immunophenotyping
  • Skin Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Genes, T-Cell Receptor alpha
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Childhood Cancer
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Melanoma
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Clone Cells
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Sezary Syndrome
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Residual Disease
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • T-Lymphocyte Gene Rearrangement
  • Beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor Gene Rearrangement
  • Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • T-Cell Lymphoma
  • T-Cell Leukemia
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • p53 Protein
  • Leukaemia
  • NOTCH1
  • TRG
  • Adolescents
  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Chromosome 7
  • TRB
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Thymus Gland
  • Complementarity Determining Regions
  • Cancer DNA
  • T-Cell Antigen Receptors
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Southern Blotting
  • Genes, Immunoglobulin
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TRB (cancer-related)

Agdashian D, ElGindi M, Xie C, et al.
The effect of anti-CTLA4 treatment on peripheral and intra-tumoral T cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(4):599-608 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors have recently been approved for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, biomarkers, which will help identify patients responding to therapy, are missing. We recently tested the combination of anti-CTLA4 treatment (tremelimumab) with loco-regional therapy in patients with HCC and reported a partial response rate of 26%.
METHODS: Here, we report updated survival analyses and results from our immune monitoring studies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tumors from these patients.
RESULTS: Tremelimumab therapy increased CD4
CONCLUSION: In summary, we observed a clear activation of T cell responses in HCC patients treated with tremelimumab and identified potential biomarkers which will help identify patients responding to immunotherapy with anti-CTLA4.

Roca AM, Chobrutskiy BI, Callahan BM, Blanck G
T-cell receptor V and J usage paired with specific HLA alleles associates with distinct cervical cancer survival rates.
Hum Immunol. 2019; 80(4):237-242 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is more strongly associated with a specific virus, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), in otherwise healthy individuals, than is any other cancer. Thus, there is an expectation that an adaptive immune signature of cervical cancer would be highly apparent. Here we used a genomics approach to investigate the relationship between T-cell receptor (TCR) V and J usage and survival for patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, relying exclusively on tissue and blood exome files. Specific TCR V or J segments, identified in recombination reads recovered from the exome files, were combined with the patient HLA alleles to identify V or J, HLA allele combination groups associated with distinct survival rates. For examples, the T-cell receptor-β (TRB) V6-5, HLA-A*02:01 combination was associated with a positive outcome, and the TRBV6-1, HLA-A*01:01 combination was associated with a negative outcome. Overall, these results point to V or J usage, HLA allele combinations as survival biomarkers, likely conveniently accessible with a noninvasive procedure, and the results may point the way towards immunological reagents useful in therapy designs.

Tomita S, Kikuti YY, Carreras J, Nakamura N
Monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma with T-cell receptor (TCR) of silent phenotype shows rearrangement of TCRβ or TCRγ gene.
Pathol Int. 2019; 69(2):117-118 [PubMed] Related Publications

Wang J, Rea B, Haun P, et al.
High-throughput sequencing of the T-cell receptor β chain gene distinguishes 2 subgroups of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019; 80(4):1148-1150.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications

Rea B, Haun P, Emerson R, et al.
Role of high-throughput sequencing in the diagnosis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(9):814-820 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Substantial clinicopathological overlap exists between cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and benign conditions, leading to diagnostic difficulties. We sought to delineate the utility of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) across a spectrum of histological findings in CTCL and reactive mimics.
METHODS: One hundred skin biopsies obtained for clinical concern for CTCL were identified, comprising 25 cases each from four histological categories: 'definitive CTCL', 'atypical lymphoid infiltrate, concerning for CTCL', 'atypical lymphoid infiltrate, favour reactive' or 'reactive lymphoid infiltrate'. T-cell receptor gamma chain gene (TRG) PCR and T-cell receptor beta chain gene HTS were performed on both skin biopsy and concurrently collected peripheral blood; most peripheral blood samples were also analysed by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Histologically defined CTCL specimens had significantly higher clonality scores and T-cell fractions via HTS than all other groups (all p<0.002 and p<0.03, respectively). HTS was more diagnostically specific than TRG PCR in skin (100% vs 88%), while diagnostic sensitivity (68% vs 72%) and accuracy (84% vs 80%) were similar. TRG PCR and flow cytometry performed on blood were the least diagnostically useful assays. Some identically sized peaks detected by TRG PCR in concurrent skin and peripheral blood specimens were non-identical by HTS analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: HTS, by assessing both clonality and T-cell fractions in skin biopsies, is a powerful tool to aid in the diagnosis of CTCL. It is more specific than TRG PCR in distinguishing definitive CTCL from reactive and indeterminate histology. Identically sized peaks by TRG PCR, typically interpreted to be clonally related, are not always clonally identical by sequencing.

Callahan BM, Tong WL, Blanck G
T cell receptor-β J usage, in combination with particular HLA class II alleles, correlates with better cancer survival rates.
Immunol Res. 2018; 66(2):219-223 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cell receptor (TCR) β V and J usage correlates with either the HLA class I or HLA class II major histocompatibility subtypes, and in both infectious diseases and autoimmune settings, the use of particular TCR-β V and J's, in persons with specific HLA alleles, represents either better outcomes or certain clinical features. However, the relationship of TCR V and J usage, HLA alleles, and clinical parameters in the cancer setting has been less well studied. Here, we have evaluated the relationship of what is likely dominant TCR-β V and J usage among tissue-resident lymphocytes for lung, head and neck, kidney, stomach, ovarian, and endometrial cancers, with patient HLA class II alleles. The most striking indication is that TCR-β J subgroup usage, in combination with particular patient HLA class II alleles, correlated with either better or worse outcomes for lung cancer. One combination, TCR-β J2 segment usage and the HLA-DRB1*1501 allele, correlated with a better survival rate for both lung and head and neck cancers. These results fill a gap in knowledge regarding the relevance of HLA typing to cancer and indicate that HLA typing, along with an indication of dominant TCR-β J usage among tissue-resident lymphocytes, can be useful for prognosis.

Beausang JF, Wheeler AJ, Chan NH, et al.
T cell receptor sequencing of early-stage breast cancer tumors identifies altered clonal structure of the T cell repertoire.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(48):E10409-E10417 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-infiltrating T cells play an important role in many cancers, and can improve prognosis and yield therapeutic targets. We characterized T cells infiltrating both breast cancer tumors and the surrounding normal breast tissue to identify T cells specific to each, as well as their abundance in peripheral blood. Using immune profiling of the T cell beta-chain repertoire in 16 patients with early-stage breast cancer, we show that the clonal structure of the tumor is significantly different from adjacent breast tissue, with the tumor containing ∼2.5-fold greater density of T cells and higher clonality compared with normal breast. The clonal structure of T cells in blood and normal breast is more similar than between blood and tumor, and could be used to distinguish tumor from normal breast tissue in 14 of 16 patients. Many T cell sequences overlap between tissue and blood from the same patient, including ∼50% of T cells between tumor and normal breast. Both tumor and normal breast contain high-abundance "enriched" sequences that are absent or of low abundance in the other tissue. Many of these T cells are either not detected or detected with very low frequency in the blood, suggesting the existence of separate compartments of T cells in both tumor and normal breast. Enriched T cell sequences are typically unique to each patient, but a subset is shared between many different patients. We show that many of these are commonly generated sequences, and thus unlikely to play an important role in the tumor microenvironment.

Mantaka P, Malecka A, Trøen G, et al.
Folliculotropic Mycosis Fungoides with Skewed T-cell Receptor CDR3 Motif: Suggestive of Lipid-antigen Selection?
Acta Derm Venereol. 2017; 97(9):1081-1086 [PubMed] Related Publications
Folliculotropic mycosis fungoides (FMF), a variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) with distinct clinical features, is characterized by infiltration of malignant T cells in hair follicles. This raises the hypothesis that antigens in the hair follicle may contribute to the pathogenesis of FMF. T-cell receptor β gene (TRB) sequences as well as dendritic cell subsets in patients with FMF (n = 21) and control patients with MF (n = 20) were studied to explore this hypothesis. A recurrent usage of the TRB junctional genes TRBJ2-1 and TRBJ2-7 was found in patients with FMF compared with those with MF. These genes contribute to an amino acid motif in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the T-cell receptor. This motif was previously found in T cells stimulated by lipids bound to CD1 on antigen-presenting cells. Additional immunohistochemical analysis revealed abundant CD1c- and CD1a- expressing dendritic cells in FMF. The combined findings support a role for lipid-antigen stimulation in FMF.

Deniger DC, Kwong ML, Pasetto A, et al.
A Pilot Trial of the Combination of Vemurafenib with Adoptive Cell Therapy in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(2):351-362 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: This pilot feasibility clinical trial evaluated the coadministration of vemurafenib, a small-molecule antagonist of BRAF
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A metastatic tumor was resected for growth of TILs, and patients were treated with vemurafenib for 2 weeks, followed by resection of a second lesion. Patients then received a nonmyeloablative preconditioning regimen, infusion of autologous TILs, and high-dose interleukin-2 administration. Vemurafenib was restarted at the time of TIL infusion and was continued for 2 years or until disease progression. Clinical responses were evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.0. Metastases resected prior to and after 2 weeks of vemurafenib were compared using TCRB deep sequencing, immunohistochemistry, proliferation, and recognition of autologous tumor.
RESULTS: The treatment was well tolerated and had a safety profile similar to that of TIL or vemurafenib alone. Seven of 11 patients (64%) experienced an objective clinical response, and 2 patients (18%) had a complete response for 3 years (one response is ongoing at 46 months). Proliferation and viability of infusion bag TILs and peripheral blood T cells were inhibited in vitro by research-grade vemurafenib (PLX4032) when approaching the maximum serum concentration of vemurafenib. TCRB repertoire (clonotypes numbers, clonality, and frequency) did not significantly change between pre- and post-vemurafenib lesions. Recognition of autologous tumor by T cells was similar between TILs grown from pre- and post-vemurafenib metastases.
CONCLUSIONS: Coadministration of vemurafenib and TILs was safe and feasible and generated objective clinical responses in this small pilot clinical trial. Clin Cancer Res; 23(2); 351-62. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Cogdill et al., p. 327.

Peluso AL, Cozzolino I, Bottiglieri A, et al.
Immunoglobulin heavy and light chains and T-cell receptor beta and gamma chains PCR assessment on cytological samples. A study comparing FTA cards and cryopreserved lymph node fine-needle cytology.
Cytopathology. 2017; 28(3):203-215 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the DNA yield and quality extracted from lymph node fine needle cytology (FNC) samples stored on FTA cards to those cryopreserved, and to assess the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains (IGHK) and T-Cell receptor beta and gamma chains (TCRBG) PCR tests.
METHODS: DNA extractions were performed on FNC of 80 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), four myelomas and 56 benign reactive hyperplasias (BRH) cryopreserved and stored on FTA cards. The JAK2 gene was amplified to assess the DNA integrity and the IGHK/TCRBG clonality status was tested.
RESULTS: IGHK monoclonality was found in 99% of B-cell NHL and 100% of myeloma. TCRBG monoclonality was found in 100% of T-cell NHL. TCRBG polyclonality was detected in 97% of B-cell NHL, 100% of myeloma and 96% of BRH. IGHK/TCRBG PCR data were confirmed by histological and/or follow-up controls. No differences were found in the DNA quality between cryopreservation and FTA cards storage methods.
CONCLUSIONS: IGHK/TCRBG PCR of the lymphoproliferative process on FTA cards is comparable to those cryopreserved. FTA cards can be used to store lymph node FNC for further molecular investigations.

Samy MD, Tong WL, Yavorski JM, et al.
T cell receptor gene recombinations in human tumor specimen exome files: detection of T cell receptor-β VDJ recombinations associates with a favorable oncologic outcome for bladder cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017; 66(3):403-410 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding tumor-resident T cells is important for cancer prognosis and treatment options. Conventional, solid tumor specimen exome files can be searched directly for recombined T cell receptor (TcR)-α segments; RNASeq files can include TcR-β VDJ recombinations. To learn whether there are medically relevant uses of exome-based detection of TcR V(D)J recombinations in the tumor microenvironment, we searched cancer genome atlas and Moffitt Cancer Center, tumor specimen exome files for TcR-β, TcR-γ, and TcR-δ recombinations, for bladder and stomach cancer. We found that bladder cancer exomes with productive TcR-β recombinations had a significant association with No Subsequent Tumors and a positive response to drug treatments, with p < 0.004, p < 0.05, and p < 0.004, depending on the sample sets examined. We also discovered the opportunity to detect productive TcR-γ and TcR-δ recombinations in the tumor microenvironment, via the tumor specimen exome files.

Huang W, Qiu T, Zeng L, et al.
High frequency of clonal IG and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(48):78355-78362 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms from hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues no longer required the absence of clonal B-cell/T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. It is true that the clonal B-cell/T-cell receptor gene rearrangements have been identified in rare cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms, such as those with or following lymphoma/leukemia or in some sporadic histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcomas, but the clonal features of such group of tumor are still not clear. Here we investigated the clonal status of 33 samples including Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) and histiocytic sarcoma (HS). Among them, twenty-eight cases were sporadic without current or past lymphoma/leukemia. Three cases were found with a past history of T-cell lymphoma, one case was followed by extraosseous plasmacytoma, and one case was found with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Our results showed that there was a high frequency of clonal IG and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in these cases. Notably, 4 cases of LCH and 2 cases of FDCS showed both B and T cell receptor gene rearrangements concurrently. One case of FDCS synchronous with DLBCL showed identical clonal IGH in both tumor populations and clonal TCRβ in FDCS alone. No matter if the presence of clonal receptor gene rearrangements was associated with the tumor origin or tumorigenesis, it might serve as a novel tumor marker for developing target therapy.

Yue Y, Leung SG, Liu Y, et al.
Nucks1 synergizes with Trp53 to promote radiation lymphomagenesis in mice.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(38):61874-61889 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NUCKS1 is a 27 kD vertebrate-specific protein, with a role in the DNA damage response. Here, we show that after 4 Gy total-body X-irradiation, Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice more rapidly developed tumors, particularly thymic lymphoma (TL), than Trp53+/- mice. TLs in both cohorts showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the Trp53+ allele in essentially all cases. In contrast, LOH of the Nucks1+ allele was rare. Nucks1 expression correlated well with Nucks1 gene dosage in normal thymi, but was increased in the majority of TLs from Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice, suggesting that elevated Nucks1 message may be associated with progression towards malignancy in vivo. Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice frequently succumbed to CD4- CD8- TLs harboring translocations involving Igh but not Tcra/d, indicating TLs in Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice mostly originated prior to the double positive stage and at earlier lineage than TLs in Trp53+/- mice. Monoclonal rearrangements at Tcrb were more prevalent in TLs from Trp53+/- Nucks1+/- mice, as was infiltration of primary TL cells to distant organs (liver, kidney and spleen). We propose that, in the context of Trp53 deficiency, wild type levels of Nucks1 are required to suppress radiation-induced TL, likely through the role of the NUCKS1 protein in the DNA damage response.

Sun BG, Zhang L, Xiang T, et al.
[Effects of Jianpi Jiedu Recipe on TCRVβCDR3 Spectratyping of Liver Cancer Rats with Pi Deficiency Syndrome].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2016; 36(6):735-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To observe anti-cancer effects of Jianpi Jiedu Recipe (JJR) on liver cancer (LC) rats with Pi deficiency syndrome (PDS) and its relation with the third complementary-determining region gene spectratyping of TCRVβ-chain (TCRVβCDR3).
METHODS: Rats were divided into 8 groups according to random digit table, i.e., the blank control group (normal), the PDS group, the LC model group, the LC-PDS group, high, middle, and low dose JJR groups (75.00, 37.50, 18.75 g/kg, respectively by gastrogavage, once per day), the thymus pentapeptide group (5 mg/kg, intramuscular injection, twice per week), 8 in each group. Rats in the normal group were administered with physiological saline by gastrogavage once per day. PDS rat model was prepared by bitter-cold purgation. LC model was prepared by orthotopic transplantation method. Twenty gene subfamilies of TCRβCDR3 in the thymus, liver, and LC tissues were detected by Gene Scan.
RESULTS: High and middle dose JJR could postpone the growth of LC volume (P < 0.05), with equivalent liver index and thymus index to those of the normal group (P > 0.05). In thymus and liver tissue of the normal group, the number of clones (20 and 19), gene fragment number (220 and 113), Quasi-Gaussian distribution ratio of TCRVβCDR3 gene repertoire (100.0% and 42.1%), and fragment fluorescence peak area (6,539 ± 2,325 and 1,238 ± 439) were at the highest level among the 8 groups. TCRVβCDR3 expressions in thymus and liver tissue of high and middle dose JJR groups were approximate to those of the normal group. They were in the middle of the thymus pentapeptide group, the PDS group, the LC model group, and poorest in the LC-PDS group. TCRVβCDR3 in liver tissue expressed the best in the thymus pentapeptide group.
CONCLUSION: JJR might inhibit the growth of LC cells, and its mechanism might be related to enhancing TCRVβCDR3 spectratype expression.

Nakanishi K, Kukita Y, Segawa H, et al.
Characterization of the T-cell receptor beta chain repertoire in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(9):2513-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are direct effectors of tumor immunity, and their characterization is important for further development of immunotherapy. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled a comprehensive analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences, which may provide information of therapeutic importance. We developed a high-fidelity target sequencing method with the ability for absolute quantitation, and performed large-scale sequencing of TCR beta chain (TCRB) CDR3 regions in TILs and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). The estimated TCRB repertoire sizes of PBLs from four healthy individuals and TILs from four colorectal cancer tissue samples were 608,664-1,003,098 and 90,228-223,757, respectively. The usage of J- and V-regions was similar in PBLs and TILs. Proportions of CDR3 amino acid (aa) sequences occupying more than 0.01% of the total molecular population were 0.33-0.43% in PBLs and 1.3-3.6% in TILs. Additional low coverage sequencing of 15 samples identified five CDR3 aa sequences that were shared by nine patients, one sequence shared by 10 patients, and one sequence shared by 12 patients. The estimated size of the TCRB repertoire in TILs was significantly smaller than that in PBLs. The proportion of abundant species (>0.01%) in TILs was larger than that in PBLs. Shared CDR3 aa sequences represent a response to common antigens, and the identification of such CDR3 sequences may be beneficial in developing clinical biomarkers.

Levy E, Marty R, Gárate Calderón V, et al.
Immune DNA signature of T-cell infiltration in breast tumor exomes.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:30064 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with favorable prognosis in multiple tumor types. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) represents the largest collection of cancer molecular data, but lacks detailed information about the immune environment. Here, we show that exome reads mapping to the complementarity-determining-region 3 (CDR3) of mature T-cell receptor beta (TCRB) can be used as an immune DNA (iDNA) signature. Specifically, we propose a method to identify CDR3 reads in a breast tumor exome and validate it using deep TCRB sequencing. In 1,078 TCGA breast cancer exomes, the fraction of CDR3 reads was associated with TILs fraction, tumor purity, adaptive immunity gene expression signatures and improved survival in Her2+ patients. Only 2/839 TCRB clonotypes were shared between patients and none associated with a specific HLA allele or somatic driver mutations. The iDNA biomarker enriches the comprehensive dataset collected through TCGA, revealing associations with other molecular features and clinical outcomes.

Ruggiero E, Nicolay JP, Fronza R, et al.
High-resolution analysis of the human T-cell receptor repertoire.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8081 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Unbiased dissection of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity at the nucleotide level could provide important insights into human immunity. Here we show that TCR ligation-anchored-magnetically captured PCR (TCR-LA-MC PCR) identifies TCR α- and β-chain diversity without sequence-associated or quantitative restrictions in healthy and diseased conditions. TCR-LA-MC PCR identifies convergent recombination events, classifies different stages of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in vivo and demonstrates TCR reactivation after in vitro cytomegalovirus stimulation. TCR-LA-MC PCR allows ultra-deep data access to both physiological TCR diversity and mechanisms influencing clonality in all clinical settings with restricted or distorted TCR repertoires.

Yew PY, Alachkar H, Yamaguchi R, et al.
Quantitative characterization of T-cell repertoire in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2015; 50(9):1227-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is one of curative treatment options for patients with hematologic malignancies. Although GVHD mediated by the donor's T lymphocytes remains the most challenging toxicity of allo-HSCT, graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect targeting leukemic cells, has an important role in affecting the overall outcome of patients with AML. Here we comprehensively characterized the TCR repertoire in patients who underwent matched donor or haplo-cord HSCT using next-generation sequencing approach. Our study defines the functional kinetics of each TCRA and TCRB clone, and changes in T-cell diversity (with identification of CDR3 sequences) and the extent of clonal expansion of certain T-cells. Using this approach, our study demonstrates that higher percentage of cord-blood cells at 30 days after transplant was correlated with higher diversity of TCR repertoire, implicating the role of cord-chimerism in enhancing immune recovery. Importantly, we found that GVHD and relapse, exclusive of each other, were correlated with lower TCR repertoire diversity and expansion of certain T-cell clones. Our results highlight novel insights into the balance between GVHD and GVL effect, suggesting that higher diversity early after transplant possibly implies lower risks of both GVHD and relapse following the HSCT transplantation.

Sheng N, Li Z, Su W, et al.
A Case of Primary Cutaneous Aggressive Epidermotropic CD8+ Cytotoxic T-cell Lymphoma Misdiagnosed as Febrile Ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann Disease.
Acta Derm Venereol. 2016; 96(1):136-7 [PubMed] Related Publications

Shao H, Lin Y, Wang T, et al.
Identification of peptide-specific TCR genes by in vitro peptide stimulation and CDR3 length polymorphism analysis.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 363(1):83-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of TCR genes specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is necessary for TCR gene modification of T cells, which is applied in anti-tumor adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). The usual identification methods are based on isolating single peptide-responding T cells and cloning the TCR gene by in vitro expansion or by single-cell RT-PCR. However, the long and exacting in vitro culture period and demanding operational requirements restrict the application of these methods. Immunoscope is an effective tool that profiles a repertoire of TCRs and identifies significantly expanded clones through CDR3 length analysis. In this study, a survivin-derived mutant peptide optimized for HLA-A2 binding was selected to load DCs and activate T cells. The monoclonal expansion of TCRA and TCRB genes was separately identified by Immunoscope analysis and following sequence identification, the properly paired TCR genes were transferred into T cells. Peptide recognition and cytotoxicity assays indicated that TCR-modified PBMCs could respond to both the mutant and wild type peptides and lyse target cells. These results show that combining Immunoscope with in vitro peptide stimulation provides an alternative and superior method for identifying specific TCR genes, which represents a significant advance for the application of TCR gene-modified T cells.

Finalet Ferreiro J, Rouhigharabaei L, Urbankova H, et al.
Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analysis identified candidate genes implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102977 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is an aggressive lymphoma cytogenetically characterized by isochromosome 7q [i(7)(q10)], of which the molecular consequences remain unknown. We report here results of an integrative genomic and transcriptomic (expression microarray and RNA-sequencing) study of six i(7)(q10)-positive HSTL cases, including HSTL-derived cell line (DERL-2), and three cases with ring 7 [r(7)], the recently identified rare variant aberration. Using high resolution array CGH, we profiled all cases and mapped the common deleted region (CDR) at 7p22.1p14.1 (34.88 Mb; 3506316-38406226 bp) and the common gained region (CGR) at 7q22.11q31.1 (38.77 Mb; 86259620-124892276 bp). Interestingly, CDR spans a smaller region of 13 Mb (86259620-99271246 bp) constantly amplified in cases with r(7). In addition, we found that TCRG (7p14.1) and TCRB (7q32) are involved in formation of r(7), which seems to be a byproduct of illegitimate somatic rearrangement of both loci. Further transcriptomic analysis has not identified any CDR-related candidate tumor suppressor gene. Instead, loss of 7p22.1p14.1 correlated with an enhanced expression of CHN2 (7p14.1) and the encoded β2-chimerin. Gain and amplification of 7q22.11q31.1 are associated with an increased expression of several genes postulated to be implicated in cancer, including RUNDC3B, PPP1R9A and ABCB1, a known multidrug resistance gene. RNA-sequencing did not identify any disease-defining mutation or gene fusion. Thus, chromosome 7 imbalances remain the only driver events detected in this tumor. We hypothesize that the Δ7p22.1p14.1-associated enhanced expression of CHN2/β2-chimerin leads to downmodulation of the NFAT pathway and a proliferative response, while upregulation of the CGR-related genes provides growth advantage for neoplastic δγT-cells and underlies their intrinsic chemoresistance. Finally, our study confirms the previously described gene expression profile of HSTL and identifies a set of 24 genes, including three located on chromosome 7 (CHN2, ABCB1 and PPP1R9A), distinguishing HSTL from other malignancies.

Ai X, Fu Q, Wang J, et al.
[Significance of BIOMED-2 standardized IG/TCR gene rearrangement detection in paraffin-embedded section in lymphoma diagnosis].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2014; 35(6):495-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of detecting lymphoma with the application of BIOMED-2 standardized immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (IG/TCR) gene rearrangement system in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples, and to discuss the relationship between the longest amplification fragment of extracted DNA and positive detection rate of different IGH V-J primers.
METHODS: DNA was extracted from 50 cases of FFPE tissue samples. Multiplex-PCR amplifications were performed and then the IG/TCR gene rearrangements were analyzed using BIOMED-2 standardized clonality analysis system.
RESULTS: (1)When the DNA concentration was diluted to 50-100 ng/μl from 100-500 ng/μl, the proportion of the longest amplification fragment (300-400 bp) of DNA was improved from 10.0% to 90.0% in 30 cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) wax roll samples (P<0.01). The positive rate of IGH+IGK was increased from 46.7% to 83.3%, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.006). The lengths of the longest amplification fragments of DNA were all longer than 300 bp in the paraffin section samples of DLBCL. The positive rate of IGH+IGK of these samples was 96.7%. The difference of the positive rate of IGH+IGK between the wax roll samples and the paraffin section samples had no statistical significance (P=0.195). (2)When the concentration of DNA was high, most of the longest amplification fragments of extracted DNA were 100 bp or 200 bp, and the detection rate of short fragment IGH FR3 was more stable than that of long fragment IGH FR1. (3)The clonality analysis of TCRG+TCRB in all 13 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma samples showed positive results, while no positive IG/TCR clones were found in 7 cases of reactive lymphoid tissue hyperplasia in control group.
CONCLUSION: Dilution of DNA is the only method to improve not only the proportion of longest fragment amplification but also the detection rate of clonality. The detection rate of IGH FR3 would not be affected by the concentration of DNA. The application of BIOMED-2 standardized IG/TCR gene rearrangement system in FFPE tissue samples plays an important role in the lymphoma diagnosis.

Weng WK, Armstrong R, Arai S, et al.
Minimal residual disease monitoring with high-throughput sequencing of T cell receptors in cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
Sci Transl Med. 2013; 5(214):214ra171 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mycosis fungoides (MF) and the leukemic presentation Sézary syndrome (SS) are clonal T cell lymphomas arising from the skin and are considered noncurable with standard therapies. To develop a specific and sensitive monitoring tool, we tested the ability of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of T cell receptors (TCRB) to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or skin samples. The rearranged TCRβ loci were amplified using Vβ- and Jβ-specific primers, followed by HTS, to generate up to 1,000,000 reads spanning the CDR3 region of individual cells. Malignant clones were identified in diagnostic samples in all cases by a dominant CDR3 sequence. Before transplant, four patients had circulating Sézary cells by the routine flow cytometry, which was confirmed by TCRB HTS. Although the flow cytometry found no detectable Sézary cells, malignant clones were detected by TCRB HTS in all other six cases. Five patients achieved "molecular remission" in blood between +30 and +540 days after transplant. Four of these patients also achieved molecular clearance in skin after transplant. Experiments using blood samples spiked with purified Sézary cells demonstrated that TCRB HTS can detect Sézary cells at the level of 1 in 50,000 PBMCs, which is more sensitive than standard diagnostics. We have thus demonstrated the utility of TCRB HTS to assess MRD with increased sensitivity and specificity compared to other current methodologies, and to monitor response to therapy in this MF/SS patient population.

Gerlinger M, Quezada SA, Peggs KS, et al.
Ultra-deep T cell receptor sequencing reveals the complexity and intratumour heterogeneity of T cell clones in renal cell carcinomas.
J Pathol. 2013; 231(4):424-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The recognition of cancer cells by T cells can impact upon prognosis and be exploited for immunotherapeutic approaches. This recognition depends on the specific interaction between antigens displayed on the surface of cancer cells and the T cell receptor (TCR), which is generated by somatic rearrangements of TCR α- and β-chains (TCRb). Our aim was to assess whether ultra-deep sequencing of the rearranged TCRb in DNA extracted from unfractionated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples can provide insights into the clonality and heterogeneity of intratumoural T cells in ccRCCs, a tumour type that can display extensive genetic intratumour heterogeneity (ITH). For this purpose, DNA was extracted from two to four tumour regions from each of four primary ccRCCs and was analysed by ultra-deep TCR sequencing. In parallel, tumour infiltration by CD4, CD8 and Foxp3 regulatory T cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with TCR-sequencing data. A polyclonal T cell repertoire with 367-16 289 (median 2394) unique TCRb sequences was identified per tumour region. The frequencies of the 100 most abundant T cell clones/tumour were poorly correlated between most regions (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.218 to 0.465). 3-93% of these T cell clones were not detectable across all regions. Thus, the clonal composition of T cell populations can be heterogeneous across different regions of the same ccRCC. T cell ITH was higher in tumours pretreated with an mTOR inhibitor, which could suggest that therapy can influence adaptive tumour immunity. These data show that ultra-deep TCR-sequencing technology can be applied directly to DNA extracted from unfractionated tumour samples, allowing novel insights into the clonality of T cell populations in cancers. These were polyclonal and displayed ITH in ccRCC. TCRb sequencing may shed light on mechanisms of cancer immunity and the efficacy of immunotherapy approaches.

Kobayashi E, Mizukoshi E, Kishi H, et al.
A new cloning and expression system yields and validates TCRs from blood lymphocytes of patients with cancer within 10 days.
Nat Med. 2013; 19(11):1542-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antigen-specific T cell therapy, or T cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy, is a promising immunotherapy for infectious diseases and cancers. However, a suitable rapid and direct screening system for antigen-specific TCRs is not available. Here, we report an efficient cloning and functional evaluation system to determine the antigen specificity of TCR cDNAs derived from single antigen-specific human T cells within 10 d. Using this system, we cloned and analyzed 380 Epstein-Barr virus-specific TCRs from ten healthy donors with latent Epstein-Barr virus infection and assessed the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) carrying these TCRs against antigenic peptide-bearing target cells. We also used this system to clone tumor antigen-specific TCRs from peptide-vaccinated patients with cancer. We obtained 210 tumor-associated antigen-specific TCRs and demonstrated the cytotoxic activity of CTLs carrying these TCRs against peptide-bearing cells. This system may provide a fast and powerful approach for TCR gene therapy for infectious diseases and cancers.

Emerson RO, Sherwood AM, Rieder MJ, et al.
High-throughput sequencing of T-cell receptors reveals a homogeneous repertoire of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.
J Pathol. 2013; 231(4):433-440 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cellular adaptive immune system mounts a response to many solid tumours mediated by tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs). Basic measurements of these TILs, including total count, show promise as prognostic markers for a variety of cancers, including ovarian and colorectal. In addition, recent therapeutic advances are thought to exploit this immune response to effectively fight melanoma, with promising studies showing efficacy in additional cancers. However, many of the basic properties of TILs are poorly understood, including specificity, clonality, and spatial heterogeneity of the T-cell response. We utilize deep sequencing of rearranged T-cell receptor beta (TCRB) genes to characterize the basic properties of TILs in ovarian carcinoma. Due to somatic rearrangement during T-cell development, the TCR beta chain sequence serves as a molecular tag for each T-cell clone. Using these sequence tags, we assess similarities and differences between infiltrating T cells in discretely sampled sections of large tumours and compare to T cells from peripheral blood. Within the limits of sensitivity of our assay, the TIL repertoires show strong similarity throughout each tumour and are distinct from the circulating T-cell repertoire. We conclude that the cellular adaptive immune response within ovarian carcinomas is spatially homogeneous and distinct from the T-cell compartment of peripheral blood.

Miyagawa F, Fukumoto T, Yurugi S, et al.
CD8+ primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma in an 18-year-old woman.
J Dermatol. 2013; 40(7):571-2 [PubMed] Related Publications

Boone E, Verhaaf B, Langerak AW
PCR-based analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes by GeneScan analysis or heteroduplex analysis for clonality assessment in lymphoma diagnostics.
Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 971:65-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The assessment of the presence of clonal lymphoproliferations via polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) or T-cell receptor (TCR) genes is a valuable technique in the diagnosis of suspect lymphoproliferative disorders. Furthermore this technique is more and more used to evaluate dissemination of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and/or the presence of (minimal) residual disease. In this chapter we describe an integrated approach to assess clonality via analysis of Ig heavy chain (IGH), Ig kappa (IGK), TCR beta (TCRB), and TCR gamma (TCRG) gene rearrangements. The described PCR protocol is based on the standardized multiplex PCRs as developed by the European BIOMED-2 collaborative study (Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936). Furthermore it also includes the pre-analytical DNA isolation step from various tissues (formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, fresh tissues, body fluids, peripheral blood and bone marrow), GeneScan analysis of labeled PCR products on a genetic analyzer, heteroduplex analysis of unlabeled PCR products, and post-analytical guidelines for the interpretation of the obtained "molecular morphology" patterns.

Wu D, Sherwood A, Fromm JR, et al.
High-throughput sequencing detects minimal residual disease in acute T lymphoblastic leukemia.
Sci Transl Med. 2012; 4(134):134ra63 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of lymphoid receptor genes is an emerging technology that can comprehensively assess the diversity of the immune system. Here, we applied HTS to the diagnosis of T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma. Using 43 paired patient samples, we then assessed minimal residual disease (MRD) at day 29 after treatment. The variable regions of TCRB and TCRG were sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq platform after performance of multiplexed polymerase chain reaction, which targeted all potential V-J rearrangement combinations. Pretreatment samples were used to define clonal T cell receptor (TCR) complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences, and paired posttreatment samples were evaluated for MRD. Abnormal T lymphoblast identification by multiparametric flow cytometry was concurrently performed for comparison. We found that TCRB and TCRG HTS not only identified clonality at diagnosis in most cases (31 of 43 for TCRB and 27 of 43 for TCRG) but also detected subsequent MRD. As expected, HTS of TCRB and TCRG identified MRD that was not detected by flow cytometry in a subset of cases (25 of 35 HTS compared with 13 of 35, respectively), which highlights the potential of this technology to define lower detection thresholds for MRD that could affect clinical treatment decisions. Thus, next-generation sequencing of lymphoid receptor gene repertoire may improve clinical diagnosis and subsequent MRD monitoring of lymphoproliferative disorders.

Wu RQ, Qiao C, Tong Y, et al.
[Study of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2012; 33(1):10-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements in bone marrow or peripheral blood of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and to explore the potential clinical significance.
METHODS: The Ig/TCR gene rearrangements in bone marrow or peripheral blood of 139 NHL patients were analyzed by using BIOMED-2 multiple primers system and Multiplex PCR assay.
RESULTS: Ig clonality was detected in 85.4% (70/82) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including 46.3% (38/82) IgH rearrangement, 62.2% (51/82) IgK rearrangement and 1.2% (1/82) IgL rearrangement, and in 39.4% (13/33) of other categories of B-lineage NHL (B-NHL), including 33.3% (11/33) IgH and 39.4% (13/33) IgK rearrangements. TCR clonality was detected in 50.0% (12/24) of all definite T-lineage NHL (T-NHL), including 8.3% (2/24) TCRB and 45.8% (11/24) TCRG, no TCRD was detected. The detection rate of gene rearrangements of NHL diversed in different clinical stages \[36.4% in early stage (Ann Arbor stage I and II) and 45.6% in late stage (III and IV)\] and in different degrees of malignancy (40.0% indolent NHL and 45.6% aggressive NHL), but no obvious statistical significance was obtained (P > 0.05). The detection rate of bone marrow invasions of NHL (except CLL) with examinations of bone marrow smear under the microscope was 12.3% (7/57), much lower than the clonality testing (43.9%, 25/57) (P < 0.05). Sensitivity test showed that the sensitivity of malignant clonality testing by multiplex PCR was 3.12% - 6.25%.
CONCLUSIONS: The detection rate of gene rearrangements diverses in different clinical stages and degrees of malignancy of NHL, but the correlation has not been proved in this research. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR-based clonality testing is enhanced with the combination of BIOMED-2 primers system. It is more sensitive than the morphological examinations of bone marrow smear in detecting bone marrow invasions, and may provide a powerful strategy in the routine diagnosis and assessment after treatment.

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