Research IndicatorsGraph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: TRPM8 (cancer-related)
Yu S, Xu Z, Zou C, et al.Ion channel TRPM8 promotes hypoxic growth of prostate cancer cells via an O2 -independent and RACK1-mediated mechanism of HIF-1α stabilization.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(4):514-25 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The growth adaptation of cancer cells to a hypoxic tumour microenvironment is mostly regulated by hypoxia-induced transcription factor HIF-1. HIF-1 transcriptional activity is strictly controlled by protein levels of the HIF-1α subunit, which is tightly regulated by a well-characterized O2 -dependent ubiquitin ligase-proteasomal degradation pathway. The cold-sensitive Ca(2+) channel protein TRPM8 exhibits increased expression in advanced prostate cancer. However, its exact functional roles in prostate cancer growth regulation are unclear and controversial. In this work, we show that TRPM8 promotes in vitro hypoxic growth capacities, drug resistance, and in vivo tumourigenicity, accompanied with enhanced HIF-1α protein levels. These effects are further potentiated by TRPM8 agonists but suppressed by TRPM8 gene knockdown and blocking with antagonists or TRPM8 antibody. TRPM8-induced suppression of HIF-1α ubiquitination and enhanced HIF-1 transactivation were attenuated by forced RACK1 expression and TRPM8 overexpression reduced phospho-RACK1 levels, thus affecting its dimerization status, and promoted RACK1 binding to HIF-1α and calcineurin. These data indicate that TRPM8-induced increase of HIF-1α protein in hypoxia- or normoxia-exposed prostate cancer cells was mediated through a newly characterized Ca(2+) -dependent but O2 -independent mechanism involving binding of RACK1 to HIF-1α and RACK1-mediated ubiquitination of HIF-1α. Collectively, our study not only provides a mechanistic insight into how TRPM8 promotes the hypoxic growth adaptation of cancer cells via its promotion of RACK1-mediated stabilization of HIF-1α but also suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer by targeting TRPM8.
Liu J, Chen Y, Shuai S, et al.TRPM8 promotes aggressiveness of breast cancer cells by regulating EMT via activating AKT/GSK-3β pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8969-77 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer already taken the first place of incidence in Chinese female cancer patients. TRPM8 is found to be over-expressed in breast cancer, but whether it promotes breast cancer aggressiveness remains unknown. In our study, TRPM8 was identified highly expressing in all the tested breast cancer cell lines including MCF-7, T47D, MDA-MB-231, BT549, SKBR3 and ZR-75-30, while it just could be detected in MCF-10A, the normal breast epithelial cell. Then four pairs of clinical samples were analyzed using Western blotting and the result showed that TRPM8 expression is higher in tumor tissues than in adjacent nontumor tissues. Subsequently, we established TRPM8 high-expressing MCF-7 cell line and TRPM8 knockout MDA-MB-231 cell line to explore expression status of cancer-related proteins. The Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis outcomes demonstrated that TRPM8 might influence cancer cell metastasis by regulating the EMT phenotype via activating AKT/GSK-3β pathway, and the hypothesis had been supported by cell function tests. All the results demonstrated that TRPM8 significantly up-expressed in breast cancer cells and promoted their metastasis by regulating EMT via activating AKT/GSK-3β pathway, indicating TRPM8 gets the prospects of to be developed as medication or diagnostic indicator to be applied in clinical work.
Kijpornyongpan T, Sereemaspun A, Chanchao CDose-dependent cytotoxic effects of menthol on human malignant melanoma A-375 cells: correlation with TRPM8 transcript expression.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(4):1551-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a principle membrane receptor involved in calcium ion influx and cell signal transduction, has been found to be up-regulated in some cancer types, including melanomas. Efficiency of menthol, an agonist of TRPM8, in killing melanoma cancer cells has been reported previously, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We here determined whether in vitro cytotoxic effects of menthol on A-375 human malignant melanoma cells might be related to TRPM8 transcript expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PrestoBlue® cell viability assay was used to assess the in vitro cytotoxic effect of menthol after 24h of treatment. RT-PCR was used to quantify TRPM8 transcript expression levels in normal and menthol- treated cells. Cell morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast light microscopy.
RESULTS: TRPM8 transcript expression was found at low levels in A-375 cells and down-regulated in a potentially dose-dependent manner by menthol. Menthol exerted in vitro cytotoxic effects on A-375 cells with an IC50 value of 11.8 μM, which was at least as effective as 5-fluorouracil (IC50=120 μM), a commonly applied chemotherapeutic drug. Menthol showed no dose-dependent cytotoxicity on HeLa cells, a TRPM8 non-expressing cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: The cytotoxic effects on A-375 cells caused by menthol might be related to reduction of the TRPM8 transcript level. This suggests that menthol might activate TRPM8 to increase cytosolic Ca2+ levels, which leads to cytosolic Ca2+ imbalance and triggers cell death.
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the prostate cancer (PCa)-specific up-regulation of certain genes such as AMACR, EZH2, PSGR, PSMA and TRPM8 could be associated with an aberrant expression of non-coding microRNAs (miRNA).
METHODS: In silico analyses were used to search for miRNAs being putative regulators of PCa-associated genes. The expression of nine selected miRNAs (hsa-miR-101, -138, -186, -224, -26a, -26b, -374a, -410, -660) as well as of the aforementioned PCa-associated genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR using 50 malignant (Tu) and matched non-malignant (Tf) tissue samples from prostatectomy specimens as well as 30 samples from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Then, correlations between paired miRNA and target gene expression levels were analyzed. Furthermore, the effect of exogenously administered miR-26a on selected target genes was determined by quantitative PCR and Western Blot in various PCa cell lines. A luciferase reporter assay was used for target validation.
RESULTS: The expression of all selected miRNAs was decreased in PCa tissue samples compared to either control group (Tu vs Tf: -1.35 to -5.61-fold; Tu vs BPH: -1.17 to -5.49-fold). The down-regulation of most miRNAs inversely correlated with an up-regulation of their putative target genes with Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from -0.107 to -0.551. MiR-186 showed a significantly diminished expression in patients with non-organ confined PCa and initial metastases. Furthermore, over-expression of miR-26a reduced the mRNA and protein expression of its potential target gene AMACR in vitro. Using the luciferase reporter assay AMACR was validated as new target for miR-26a.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that the expression of specific miRNAs is decreased in PCa and inversely correlates with the up-regulation of their putative target genes. Consequently, miRNAs could contribute to oncogenesis and progression of PCa via an altered miRNA-target gene-interaction.
As the function of transient receptor potential melastatin member 8 (TRPM8) in osteosarcoma is still unknown, we aim to investigate the possible effects and potential mechanisms of TRPM8 on cell proliferation, metastasis and chemosensitivity in osteosarcoma cells. We find that TRPM8 is aberrantly over-expressed in human osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of TRPM8 by siRNA in osteosarcoma cells leads to the impaired regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and then the Akt-GSK-3β pathway and the phosphorylation of p44/p42 and FAK are suppressed. Knockdown of TRPM8 not only negatively influences the cell proliferation and metastasis but also enhances epirubicin-induced cell apoptosis. Such results reveal that TRPM8 is worthy further investigation for its potential as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.
Mergler S, Derckx R, Reinach PS, et al.Calcium regulation by temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels in human uveal melanoma cells.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(1):56-69 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Uveal melanoma (UM) is both the most common and fatal intraocular cancer among adults worldwide. As with all types of neoplasia, changes in Ca(2+) channel regulation can contribute to the onset and progression of this pathological condition. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) are two different types of Ca(2+) permeation pathways that can be dysregulated during neoplasia. We determined in malignant human UM and healthy uvea and four different UM cell lines whether there is gene and functional expression of TRP subtypes and CB1 since they could serve as drug targets to either prevent or inhibit initiation and progression of UM. RT-PCR, Ca(2+) transients, immunohistochemistry and planar patch-clamp analysis probed for their gene expression and functional activity, respectively. In UM cells, TRPV1 and TRPM8 gene expression was identified. Capsaicin (CAP), menthol or icilin induced Ca(2+) transients as well as changes in ion current behavior characteristic of TRPV1 and TRPM8 expression. Such effects were blocked with either La(3+), capsazepine (CPZ) or BCTC. TRPA1 and CB1 are highly expressed in human uvea, but TRPA1 is not expressed in all UM cell lines. In UM cells, the CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-2, induced Ca(2+) transients, which were suppressed by La(3+) and CPZ whereas CAP-induced Ca(2+) transients could also be suppressed by CB1 activation. Identification of functional TRPV1, TRPM8, TRPA1 and CB1 expression in these tissues may provide novel drug targets for treatment of this aggressive neoplastic disease.
Du GJ, Li JH, Liu WJ, et al.The combination of TRPM8 and TRPA1 expression causes an invasive phenotype in lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(2):1251-61 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Our recent studies have shown that hypothermic microenvironment promotes tumor progression and that the molecular sensors for cold are the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPM8 and TRPA1. To evaluate the contribution of TRPM8 and TRPA1 to cancer malignancy, we screened cell subpopulations from Lewis lung cancer (LLC) using limiting dilutions and Western blotting. We identified that LLC-1 cells express 3-fold more TRPM8 than TRPA1, LLC-2 cells express TRPM8 at levels similar to TRPA1, and LLC-3 cells express TRPM8 at one-third the level of TRPA1. LLC-2 cells showed greater adhesion, migration, invasiveness and resistance to hypothermia than LLC-1 and LLC-3 cells, although LLC-2 cells had a longer doubling time. TRPM8 or TRPA1 knockdown using siRNA promoted cell proliferation and decreased adhesion and invasiveness in LLC-2 cells. When assessed for UCP2 staining, LLC-1 cells showed increased staining compared to LLC-2 cells, both of which had more UCP2-positive cells than the LLC-3 subpopulation. In an autophagy assay, hypothermia induced substantially less autophagy in LLC-1 cells than in LLC-2 cells, which displayed decreased autophagy compared to LLC-3 cells. Moreover, mice injected with LLC-2 cells had significantly more spontaneous and experimental lung metastases and a shorter overall survival time than mice injected with LLC-1 or LLC-3 cells. Importantly, LLC-2 cells were also more resistant to activated spleen CTL and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin than LLC-1 and LLC-3 cells in vitro. Collectively, our data suggest that TRPM8 induces UCP2 to trigger metabolic transformation, whereas TRPA1 induces autophagy during adverse conditions, and the combination of both genes contributes directly to an invasive phenotype in lung cancer.
Väänänen RM, Lilja H, Cronin A, et al.Association of transcript levels of 10 established or candidate-biomarker gene targets with cancerous versus non-cancerous prostate tissue from radical prostatectomy specimens.
Clin Biochem. 2013; 46(7-8):670-4 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The benefits of PSA (prostate specific antigen)-testing in prostate cancer remain controversial with a consequential need for validation of additional biomarkers. We used highly standardized reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR assays to compare transcript levels of 10 candidate cancer marker genes - BMP6, FGF-8b, KLK2, KLK3, KLK4, KLK15, MSMB, PCA3, PSCA and Trpm8 - in carefully ascertained non-cancerous versus cancerous prostate tissue from patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from fresh frozen prostate tissue procured immediately after resection from two separate areas in each of 87 radical prostatectomy specimens. Subsequent histopathological assessment classified 86 samples as cancerous and 88 as histologically benign prostate tissue. Variation in total RNA recovery was accounted for by using external and internal standards and enabled us to measure transcript levels by RT-PCR in a highly quantitative manner.
RESULTS: Of the ten genes, there were significantly higher levels only of one of the less abundant transcripts, PCA3, in cancerous versus non-cancerous prostate tissue whereas PSCA mRNA levels were significantly lower in cancerous versus histologically benign tissue. Advanced pathologic stage was associated with significantly higher expression of KLK15 and PCA3 mRNAs. Median transcript levels of the most abundantly expressed genes (i.e. MSMB, KLK3, KLK4 and KLK2) in prostate tissue were up to 10(5)-fold higher than those of other gene targets.
CONCLUSIONS: PCA3 expression was associated with advanced pathological stage but the magnitude of overexpression of PCA3 in cancerous versus non-cancerous prostate tissue was modest compared to previously reported data.
Journigan VB, Zaveri NTTRPM8 ion channel ligands for new therapeutic applications and as probes to study menthol pharmacology.
Life Sci. 2013; 92(8-9):425-37 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Since the discovery of the TRPM8 gene in 2001, the TRPM8 ion channel, better known as the 'cold receptor' has been the target of a significant effort from the pharmaceutical industry to produce small-molecule agonists and antagonists of this receptor for various therapeutic applications ranging from cancer and urological disorders to the treatment of cold hypersensitivity and pain. Recently, a number of clinical studies have implicated menthol, the natural ligand of TRPM8, in facilitating and maintaining cigarette smoking behavior, possibly through its counter-irritant effects. However, a pharmacological link between menthol's action via TRPM8 and nicotine addiction has not been yet been investigated. This review gives an overview of reported small-molecule TRPM8 agonists and antagonists and discusses their efficacy in models of various disease states. These compounds may be useful pharmacological tools to investigate the effect of menthol on nicotine addiction.
Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily plays important roles in variety cellular processes including polymodal cellular sensing, cell adhesion, cell polarity, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. One of its subfamilies are TRPM channels. mRNA expression of its founding member, TRPM1 (melastatin), correlates with terminal melanocytic differentiation and loss of its expression has been identified as an important diagnostic and prognostic marker for primary cutaneous melanoma. Because TRPM1 gene codes two transcripts: TRPM1 channel protein in its exons and miR-211 in one of its introns, we propose a dual role for TRPM1 gene where the loss of TRPM1 channel protein is an excellent marker of melanoma aggressiveness, while the expression of miR-211 is linked to the tumor suppressor function of TRPM1. In addition, three other members of this subfamily, TRPM 2, 7 and 8 are implicated in the regulation of melanocytic behaviour. TRPM2 is capable of inducing melanoma apoptosis and necrosis. TRPM7 can be a protector and detoxifier in both melanocytes and melanoma cells. TRPM8 can mediate agonist-induced melanoma cell death. Therefore, we propose that TRPM1, TRPM2, TRPM7 and TRPM8 play crucial roles in melanocyte physiology and melanoma oncology and are excellent diagnostic markers and theraputic targets.
Yee NS, Brown RD, Lee MS, et al.TRPM8 ion channel is aberrantly expressed and required for preventing replicative senescence in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: potential role of TRPM8 as a biomarker and target.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2012; 13(8):592-9 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is mostly fatal and generally resistant to conventional treatments, such that effective therapies with tolerable side effects are desperately needed. Ion channels including the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implicated in human malignancies, but their roles in pancreatic cancer were mostly unknown. Recent identification of the melastatin-subfamily members of the TRP family of ion channels, and their functions in pancreatic epithelia and adenocarcinoma, is expected to provide a new perspective to understanding the mechanism underlying pancreatic tumorigenesis. In this report, we present the clinical and pathological features of a mini-series of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which aberrantly exhibits immunoreactivity against the TRPM8 channel. We have recently demonstrated the proliferative role of TRPM8 channel in pancreatic cancer cells. Here, we present evidence that RNA interference-mediated silencing of TRPM8 induces replicative senescence in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. This suggests that the aberrantly expressed TRPM8 channel may contribute to pancreatic tumorigenesis by preventing oncogene-induced senescence, and targeted inhibition of TRPM8 may enhance tumor sensitivity to therapeutics. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the TRPM8 ion channel plays a crucial role in the growth and progression of pancreatic neoplasia during tumorigenesis. We propose that TRPM8 can be exploited as a clinical biomarker and as a therapeutic target for developing personalized therapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Mergler S, Cheng Y, Skosyrski S, et al.Altered calcium regulation by thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels in etoposide-resistant WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells.
Exp Eye Res. 2012; 94(1):157-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Differences in transient receptor potential (TRP) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) expression levels can serve as prognostic factors for retinoblastoma (RB) tumor progression. We hypothesized in RB tissue that such differences are also indicators of whether or not they are sensitive to etoposide. Accordingly, we compared in malignant etoposide-sensitive and etoposide-resistant WERI-Rb1 cells TRPV1, TRPM8 and TRPA1 subtype and CB1 gene expression pattern levels and accompanying functional activity using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy, calcium imaging as well as patch-clamp technology. Gene expression patterns were evaluated in enucleated human RB tissues (n = 4). Both etoposide-resistant and etoposide-sensitive WERI-Rb1 cells expressed all of the aforementioned channels based on responses to known activators and thermal challenges. However, TRPA1 was absent in the etoposide-resistant counterpart. Even though both types of RB cells express TRPV1 as well as TRPM8 and CB1, the capsaicin (50 μM) (CAP)-induced Ca(2+) rise caused by TRPV1 activation was prompt and transient only in etoposide-resistant RB cells (n = 8). In this cell type, the inability of CB1 activation (10 μM WIN) to suppress Ca(2+) responses to CAP (50 μM; n = 4) may be attributable to the absence of TRPA1 gene expression. Therefore, using genetic approaches to upregulate TRPA1 expression could provide a means to induce etoposide sensitivity and suppress RB cell tumorigenesis.
Dhennin-Duthille I, Gautier M, Faouzi M, et al.High expression of transient receptor potential channels in human breast cancer epithelial cells and tissues: correlation with pathological parameters.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011; 28(5):813-22 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are expressed in many solid tumors. However, their expression in breast cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the profile expression of 13 TRP channels in human breast ductal adenocarcinoma (hBDA) and performed a correlation between their overexpression and pathological parameters.
METHODS: The TRP channels expression was determined by RT-PCR in hBDA tissue, in human breast cancer epithelial (hBCE) primary culture and in MCF-7 cell line. The TRP protein level was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in hBDA tissue samples of 59 patients.
RESULTS: TRPC1, TRPC6, TRPM7, TRPM8, and TRPV6 channels were overexpressed in hBDA compared to the adjacent non-tumoral tissue. Most interestingly, TRPC1, TRPM7 and TRPM8 expression strongly correlated with proliferative parameters (SBR grade, Ki67 proliferation index, and tumor size), and TRPV6 was mainly overexpressed in the invasive breast cancer cells. Using laser capture microdissection, we found that TRPV6 expression was higher in invasive areas, compared to the corresponding non-invasive ones. Moreover, TRPV6 silencing inhibited MDA-MB-231 migration and invasion, and MCF-7 migration.
CONCLUSION: TRP channels are aberrantly expressed in hBDA, hBCE primary cultures, and cell lines, and associated with pathological parameters. The high expression of TRP channels in tumors suggests the potential of these channels for diagnostic, prognosis and/or therapeutic approaches in human breast ductal adenocarcinoma.
Mergler S, Skrzypski M, Sassek M, et al.Thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 regulates intracellular calcium and triggers chromogranin A secretion in pancreatic neuroendocrine BON-1 tumor cells.
Cell Signal. 2012; 24(1):233-46 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) regulate tumor growth via calcium-dependent mechanisms. The (thermosensitive) capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is overexpressed in numerous highly aggressive cancers. TRPV1 has potent antiproliferative activity and is therefore potentially applicable in targeted therapy of malignancies. Recently, we characterized TRPM8 functions in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), however, the role of TRPV1 is unknown. Here, we studied the expression and the role of TRPV1 in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) and chromogranin A (CgA) secretion in pancreatic NET BON-1 cell line and in primary NET cells (prNET). TRPV1 expression was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured by fura-2; TRPV1 channel currents by the planar patch-clamp technique. Nonselective cation currents were analyzed by a color-coded plot method and CgA secretion by ELISA. Pancreatic BON-1 cells and NETs express TRPV1. Pharmacological blockade of TRPs by La(3+) (100 μM) or by ruthenium-red (RuR) or by capsazepine (CPZ) (both at 10 μM) suppressed the capsaicin (CAP)- or heat-stimulated increase of [Ca(2+)](i) in NET cells. CAP (20 μM) also increased nonselective cation channel currents in BON-1 cells. Furthermore, CAP (10 μM) stimulated CgA secretion, which was inhibited by CPZ or by RuR (both 10 μM). La(3+) potently reduced both stimulated and the basal CgA secretion. Our study shows for the first time that TRPV1 is expressed in pancreatic NETs. Activation of TRPV1 translates into changes of intracellular Ca(2+), a known mechanism triggering the secretion of CgA. The clinical relevance of TRPV1 activation in NETs requires further investigations.
Jamaspishvili T, Kral M, Khomeriki I, et al.Quadriplex model enhances urine-based detection of prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2011; 14(4):354-60 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The major advantages of urine-based assays are their non-invasive character and ability to monitor prostate cancer (CaP) with heterogeneous foci. While the test for the prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is commercially available, the aim of our research was to test other putative urine markers in multiplex settings (AMACR (α-methylacyl-CoA racemase), EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), GOLM1 (golgi membrane protein 1), MSMB (microseminoprotein, β), SPINK1 (serine peptidase inhibitor) and TRPM8 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 8)).
METHODS: Expression of the candidate biomarkers was studied in sedimented urine using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in two sets of patients with and without restriction on serum PSA levels.
RESULTS: We confirmed that PCA3 is an independent predictor of cancer in the patients without restriction of serum PSA values (set 1, n=176, PSA=0.1-587 ng ml(-1)). However, AMACR was the only parameter that differentiated CaP from non-CaP patients with serum PSA between 3 and 15 ng ml(-1) (set 2, n=104). The area under curve (AUC) for this gene was 0.645 with both sensitivity and specificity at 65%. Further improvement was achieved by multivariate logistic regression analysis, which identified novel duplex (TRPM8 and MSMB), triplex (plus AMACR) and quadriplex (plus PCA3) models for the detection of early CaPs (AUC=0.665, 0.726 and 0.741, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Novel quadriplex test could be implemented as an adjunct to serum PSA or urine PCA3 and this could improve decision making for diagnostics in the case of 'PSA dilemma' patients.
Ion channels and notably TRP channels play a crucial role in a variety of physiological functions and in addition these channels have been also shown associated with several diseases including cancer. The process of cancer initiation and progression involves the altered expression of one or more of TRP proteins, depending on the nature of the cancer. The most clearly described role in pathogenesis has been evidenced for TRPM8, TRPV6 and TRPM1 channels. The increased expression of some other channels, such as TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPM5 has also been demonstrated in some cancers. Further investigations are required to precise the role of TRP channels in cancer development and/or progression and to specifically develop further knowledge of TRP proteins as discriminative markers and prospective targets for pharmaceutical intervention in treating cancer.
BACKGROUND: There is no cure for castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC) and the mechanisms underlying this stage of the disease are unknown.
METHODS: We analyzed the transcriptome of human LNCaP prostate cancer cells as they progress to CRPC in vivo using replicate LongSAGE libraries. We refer to these libraries as the LNCaP atlas and compared these gene expression profiles with current suggested models of CRPC.
RESULTS: Three million tags were sequenced using in vivo samples at various stages of hormonal progression to reveal 96 novel genes differentially expressed in CRPC. Thirty-one genes encode proteins that are either secreted or are located at the plasma membrane, 21 genes changed levels of expression in response to androgen, and 8 genes have enriched expression in the prostate. Expression of 26, 6, 12, and 15 genes have previously been linked to prostate cancer, Gleason grade, progression, and metastasis, respectively. Expression profiles of genes in CRPC support a role for the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (CCNH, CUEDC2, FLNA, PSMA7), steroid synthesis and metabolism (DHCR24, DHRS7, ELOVL5, HSD17B4, OPRK1), neuroendocrine (ENO2, MAOA, OPRK1, S100A10, TRPM8), and proliferation (GAS5, GNB2L1, MT-ND3, NKX3-1, PCGEM1, PTGFR, STEAP1, TMEM30A), but neither supported nor discounted a role for cell survival genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The in vivo gene expression atlas for LNCaP was sequenced and support a role for the androgen receptor in CRPC.
Van Haute C, De Ridder D, Nilius BTRP channels in human prostate.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2010; 10:1597-611 [PubMed
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This review gives an overview of morphological and functional characteristics in the human prostate. It will focus on the current knowledge about transient receptor potential (TRP) channels expressed in the human prostate, and their putative role in normal physiology and prostate carcinogenesis. Controversial data regarding the expression pattern and the potential impact of TRP channels in prostate function, and their involvement in prostate cancer and other prostate diseases, will be discussed.
Gkika D, Flourakis M, Lemonnier L, Prevarskaya NPSA reduces prostate cancer cell motility by stimulating TRPM8 activity and plasma membrane expression.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(32):4611-6 [PubMed
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Although the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) cold receptor is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and constitutes a promising diagnostic and prognostic indicator, the natural agonists of this channel in the prostate, as well as its physiological and pathological functions, remain unknown. In this study, we identified the well-known PCa marker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), as a physiological TRPM8 agonist. Electrophysiological and Ca(2+) imaging studies demonstrated that PSA activated TRPM8-mediated current by the bradykinin 2 receptor signaling pathway. Further investigation of this mechanism by cell-surface biotinylation revealed that the increase in TRPM8 current induced by PSA was due to an increase in the number of functional TRPM8 channels on the plasma membrane. Importantly, wound-healing and migration assays revealed that TRPM8 activation by PSA reduced motility of the PC3 PCa cell line, suggesting that plasma membrane TRPM8 has a protective role in PCa progression. Consequently, PSA was identified as a natural TRPM8 agonist in the prostate and we propose a putative physiological role for both of these proteins in carcinogenesis, making this pathway a potentially important target for anticancer agent development.
BACKGROUND: The calcium-permeable cation channel TRPM8 (melastatin-related transient receptor potential member 8) is over-expressed in several cancers. The present study aimed at investigating the expression, function and potential regulation of TRPM8 channels by ER alpha (estrogen receptor alpha) in breast cancer.
METHODS: RT-PCR, Western blot, immuno-histochemical, and siRNA techniques were used to investigate TRPM8 expression, its regulation by estrogen receptors, and its expression in breast tissue. To investigate the channel activity in MCF-7 cells, we used the whole cell patch clamp and the calcium imaging techniques.
RESULTS: TRPM8 channels are expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Bath application of the potent TRPM8 agonist Icilin (20 microM) induced a strong outwardly rectifying current at depolarizing potentials, which is associated with an elevation of cytosolic calcium concentration, consistent with established TRPM8 channel properties. RT-PCR experiments revealed a decrease in TRPM8 mRNA expression following steroid deprivation for 48 and 72 hours. In steroid deprived medium, addition of 17-beta-estradiol (E2, 10 nM) increased both TRPM8 mRNA expression and the number of cells which respond to Icilin, but failed to affect the Ca2+ entry amplitude. Moreover, silencing ERalpha mRNA expression with small interfering RNA reduced the expression of TRPM8. Immuno-histochemical examination of the expression of TRPM8 channels in human breast tissues revealed an over-expression of TRPM8 in breast adenocarcinomas, which is correlated with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) status of the tumours.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results show that TRPM8 channels are expressed and functional in breast cancer and that their expression is regulated by ER alpha.
Louhivuori LM, Bart G, Larsson KP, et al.Differentiation dependent expression of TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2009; 221(1):67-74 [PubMed
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TRPA1 and TRPM8 are transient receptor potential (TRP) channels involved in sensory perception. TRPA1 is a non-selective calcium permeable channel activated by irritants and proalgesic agents. TRPM8 reacts to chemical cooling agents such as menthol. The human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 undergoes a remarkable differentiation in response to treatment with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. The cells acquire a neuronal morphology with increased expression of N-type voltage gated calcium channels and neurotransmitters. Here we show using RT-PCR, that mRNA for TRPA1 and TRPM8 are strongly upregulated in differentiating IMR-32 cells. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings, we demonstrate that activators of these channels, wasabi, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) and menthol activate membrane currents in differentiated cells. Calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that AITC mediated elevation of intracellular calcium levels were attenuated by ruthenium red, spermine, and HC-030031 as well as by siRNA directed against the channel. This indicates that the detected mRNA level correlate with the presence of functional channels of both types in the membrane of differentiated cells. Although the differentiated IMR-32 cells responded to cooling many of the cells showing this response did not respond to TRPA1/TRPM8 channel activators (60% and 90% for AITC and menthol respectively). Conversely many of the cells responding to these activators did not respond to cooling (30%). This suggests that these channels have also other functions than cold perception in these cells. Furthermore, our results suggest that IMR-32 cells have sensory characteristics and can be used to study native TRPA1 and TRPM8 channel function as well as developmental expression.
We investigated the effects of transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) channel on the proliferation and motility of androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells. After being permanently transfected with an empty vector and cDNA encoding the TRPM8 protein, cells were analysed for cell cycle distribution and motility using flow cytometry and scratch assay. Immunocytochemistry and Ca2+ imaging analysis revealed the overexpression of functional TRPM8 channel on both endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane of PC-3-TRPM8 cells. Cell cycle distribution and scratch assay analysis revealed that TRPM8 induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 stage (P < 0.05) and facilitated the cell apoptosis induced by starvation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, TRPM8 inhibited the migration of PC-3-TRPM8 cells (P < 0.01) through the inactivation of focal-adhesion kinase. It appears that TRPM8 was not essential for the survival of PC-3 cells; however, the overexpression of TRPM8 had negative effects on the proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells. Thus, TRPM8 and its agonists may serve as important targets for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Yamamura H, Ugawa S, Ueda T, et al.TRPM8 activation suppresses cellular viability in human melanoma.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008; 295(2):C296-301 [PubMed
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The transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily (TRPM), which is a mammalian homologue of cell death-regulated genes in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, has potential roles in the process of the cell cycle and regulation of Ca(2+) signaling. Among this subfamily, TRPM8 (also known as Trp-p8) is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel that was originally identified as a prostate-specific gene upregulated in tumors. Here we showed that the TRPM8 channel was expressed in human melanoma G-361 cells, and activation of the channel produced sustainable Ca(2+) influx. The application of menthol, an agonist for TRPM8 channel, elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC(50) value of 286 microM in melanoma cells. Menthol-induced responses were significantly abolished by the removal of external Ca(2+). Moreover, inward currents at a holding potential of -60 mV in melanoma cells were markedly potentiated by the addition of 300 microM menthol. The most striking finding was that the viability of melanoma cells was dose-dependently depressed in the presence of menthol. These results reveal that a functional TRPM8 protein is expressed in human melanoma cells to involve the mechanism underlying tumor progression via the Ca(2+) handling pathway, providing us with a novel target of drug development for malignant melanoma.
The progression of cells from a normal differentiated state in which rates of proliferation and apoptosis are balanced to a tumorigenic and metastatic state involves the accumulation of mutations in multiple key signalling proteins and the evolution and clonal selection of more aggressive cell phenotypes. These events are associated with changes in the expression of numerous other proteins. This process of tumorigenesis involves the altered expression of one or more TRP proteins, depending on the nature of the cancer. The most clearly described changes are those involving TRPM8, TRPV6 and TRPM1. Expression of TRPM8 is substantially increased in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells, but is decreased in androgen independent and metastatic prostate cancer. TRPM8 expression is regulated, in part, by androgens, most likely through androgen response elements in the TRPM8 promoter region. TRPM8 channels are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Expression of TRPV6 is also increased in prostate cancer and in a number of other cancers. In contrast to TRPM8, expression of TRPV6 is not directly regulated by androgens. TRPM1 is highly expressed in early stage melanomas but its expression declines with increases in the degree of aggressiveness of the melanoma. The expression of TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPM5 is also increased in some cancers. The level of expression of TRPM8 and TRPV6 in prostate cancer, and of TRPM1 in melanomas, potentially provides a good prognostic marker for predicting the course of the cancer in individuals. The Drosophila melanogaster, TRPL, and the TRPV1 and TRPM8 proteins, have been used to try to develop strategies to selectively kill cancer cells by activating Ca(2+) and Na(+) entry, producing a sustained increase in the cytoplasmic concentration of these ions, and subsequent cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. TRPV1 is expressed in neurones involved in sensing cancer pain, and is a potential target for pharmacological inhibition of cancer pain in bone metastases, pancreatic cancer and most likely in other cancers. Further studies are required to assess which other TRP proteins are associated with the development and progression of cancer, what roles TRP proteins play in this process, and to develop further knowledge of TRP proteins as targets for pharmaceutical intervention and targeting in cancer.
Prevarskaya N, Flourakis M, Bidaux G, et al.Differential role of TRP channels in prostate cancer.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2007; 35(Pt 1):133-5 [PubMed
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A major clinical problem with PC (prostate cancer) is the cell's ability to survive and proliferate upon androgen withdrawal. Indeed, deregulated cell differentiation and proliferation, together with the suppression of apoptosis, provides the condition for abnormal tissue growth. Here, we examine the differential role of TRP (transient receptor potential) channels in the control of Ca(2+) homoeostasis and growth of PC cells.
Originally cloned as a prostate-specific protein, TRPM8 is now best known as a cold- and menthol-activated channel implicated in thermosensation. In this chapter we provide a brief review of current knowledge concerning the biophysical properties, gating mechanisms, pharmacology and (patho)physiology of this TRP channel.
Schmidt U, Fuessel S, Koch R, et al.Quantitative multi-gene expression profiling of primary prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2006; 66(14):1521-34 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: This study describes the evaluation of the expression patterns of prostate-related transcripts in 106 matched prostate tissues from prostatectomies as predictors for prostate cancer (PCa).
METHODS: Quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays with site-specific hybridization probes were established for four housekeeping genes (GAPDH, HPRT, PBGD, TBP) and nine prostate-related genes (AibZIP, D-GPCR, EZH2, PCA3, PDEF, prostein, PSA, PSCA, TRPM8).
RESULTS: The relative mRNA expression levels of AibZIP, D-GPCR, EZH2, PCA3, PDEF, PSA, TRPM8 (all P < 0.001) and prostein (P = 0.019) normalized to the TBP reference gene were significantly higher in malignant compared to non-malignant prostate tissues. Employing receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, PCA3 was the best single tumor marker with the highest area-under-the-curve (AUC = 0.85). A multivariate logit model for the predictability of the tumor was developed, which employed the relative expression levels of EZH2, PCA3, prostein, and TRPM8 and yielded an AUC of 0.90.
CONCLUSIONS: The transcript marker PCA3 is a powerful predictor of primary PCa but the inclusion of EZH2, prostein, and TRPM8 adds even more to the diagnostic power. The finding of a significantly higher mRNA expression of three different genes (prostein, PSA, TRPM8) in organ-confined tumors compared to non-organ-confined tumors as well as the multi-marker PCa prediction model developed in the retrospective model system on prostatectomies could be of clinical importance for diagnostic purposes, and should be verified in diagnostic biopsies.
Thebault S, Lemonnier L, Bidaux G, et al.Novel role of cold/menthol-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatine family member 8 (TRPM8) in the activation of store-operated channels in LNCaP human prostate cancer epithelial cells.
J Biol Chem. 2005; 280(47):39423-35 [PubMed
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Recent cloning of a cold/menthol-sensitive TRPM8 channel (transient receptor potential melastatine family member 8) from rodent sensory neurons has provided the molecular basis for the cold sensation. Surprisingly, the human orthologue of rodent TRPM8 also appears to be strongly expressed in the prostate and in the prostate cancer-derived epithelial cell line, LNCaP. In this study, we show that despite such expression, LNCaP cells respond to cold/menthol stimulus by membrane current (I(cold/menthol)) that shows inward rectification and high Ca(2+) selectivity, which are dramatically different properties from "classical" TRPM8-mediated I(cold/menthol). Yet, silencing of endogenous TRPM8 mRNA by either antisense or siRNA strategies suppresses both I(cold/menthol) and TRPM8 protein in LNCaP cells. We demonstrate that these puzzling results arise from TRPM8 localization not in the plasma, but in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane of LNCaP cells, where it supports cold/menthol/icilin-induced Ca(2+) release from the ER with concomitant activation of plasma membrane (PM) store-operated channels (SOC). In contrast, GFP-tagged TRPM8 heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells target the PM. We also demonstrate that TRPM8 expression and the magnitude of SOC current associated with it are androgen-dependent. Our results suggest that the TRPM8 may be an important new ER Ca(2+) release channel, potentially involved in a number of Ca(2+)- and store-dependent processes in prostate cancer epithelial cells, including those that are important for prostate carcinogenesis, such as proliferation and apoptosis.
Cunha AC, Weigle B, Kiessling A, et al.Tissue-specificity of prostate specific antigens: comparative analysis of transcript levels in prostate and non-prostatic tissues.
Cancer Lett. 2006; 236(2):229-38 [PubMed
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Activation of immune defense mechanisms against tumor antigens appears to be a promising therapeutic option for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Specific immunotherapy critically depends on target antigens that are selectively expressed in the tumorous and optional in the normal prostate tissue in sufficient amounts. Although several prostate antigens have been described and some have already been used in clinical trials, a detailed comparative evaluation of their tissue-specificity and expression levels is still lacking. We determined the transcript levels of eight prostate targets (PSA, PAP, PSCA, PSGR, Prostein, PSMA, AIbZIP, trp-p8) in 16 different tissues by quantitative PCR and calculated a tissue-specificity index (TSI) for each molecule. Besides a preferential expression in prostate for all targets, striking differences in the expression levels and TSI were revealed which may be important for the selection of appropriate antigens for immunotherapy of PCa.
Bidaux G, Roudbaraki M, Merle C, et al.Evidence for specific TRPM8 expression in human prostate secretory epithelial cells: functional androgen receptor requirement.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005; 12(2):367-82 [PubMed
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TRPM8 (melastatine-related transient receptor potential member 8), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels, has been shown to be a calcium-channel protein. TRPM8 mRNA has also been shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer and is considered to play an important role in prostate physiology. This study was designed to determine the androgen-regulation mechanisms for TRPM8 mRNA expression and to identify the phenotype of TRPM8-expressing cells in the human prostate. Our findings show that trpm8 gene expression requires a functional androgen receptor. Furthermore, this article argues strongly in favour of the fact that the trpm8 gene is a primary androgen-responsive gene. Single-cell reverse transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemical experiments also showed that the trpm8 gene was mainly expressed in the apical secretory epithelial cells of the human prostate and trpm8 down-regulation occurred during the loss of the apical differentiated phenotype of the primary cultured human prostate epithelial cells. The androgen-regulated trpm8 expression mechanisms are important in understanding the progression of prostate cancer to androgen-independence. These findings may contribute to design a strategy to predict prostate cancer status from the TRPM8 mRNA level. Furthermore, as the TRPM8 channel is localized in human prostate cells, it will be interesting to understand its physiological function in the normal prostate and its potential role in prostate cancer development.