Gene Summary

Gene:TSC22D1; TSC22 domain family member 1
Aliases: Ptg-2, TSC22, TGFB1I4
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the TSC22 domain family of leucine zipper transcription factors. The encoded protein is stimulated by transforming growth factor beta, and regulates the transcription of multiple genes including C-type natriuretic peptide. The encoded protein may play a critical role in tumor suppression through the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of this gene has been associated with diabetic nephropathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:TSC22 domain family protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Base Sequence
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Cancer RNA
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Viral Proteins
  • Transcription
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Down-Regulation
  • Chromosome 13
  • NCOR1
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • siRNA
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Apoptosis
  • Quinolines
  • Histones
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins
  • Cell Cycle
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Gene Enhancer Elements
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Tgfb1i4 protein, mouse
  • beta 2-Microglobulin
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Salivary Gland Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Prostate Cancer
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TSC22D1 (cancer-related)

Glushkova M, Bojinova V, Koleva M, et al.
Molecular genetic diagnostics of tuberous sclerosis complex in Bulgaria: six novel mutations in the
J Genet. 2018; 97(2):419-427 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of hamartomas localized in various tissues which can occur in the skin, brain, kidney and other organs. TSC is caused by mutations in the

Qin S, Zhou Y, Chen J, et al.
Low levels of TSC22 enhance tumorigenesis by inducing cell proliferation in colorectal cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 497(4):1062-1067 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor β-stimulated clone 22 domain 1 (TSC22) has been identified as a cancer suppressor gene in various kinds of cancers. The purpose of this study was to explore the expression of TSC22 in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and cell lines. 24 matched CRC and normal tissue samples by qPCR along with 18 pairs of them by Western blot demonstrated TSC22 level was decreased in CRC compared with normal tissue. The protein expression of TSC22 was examined in 310 CRC specimens. Results showed low expression of TSC22 was significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.048) and tumor infiltration (P = 0.016). Kaplan-Meier method suggested low expression of TSC22 was inversely associated with OS for 276 samples (P < 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed TSC22 expression as independent predictors of the OS in CRC patients. Furthermore, we found TSC22 could suppress tumor by inhibiting cell proliferation in CRC cell lines.

Chen WC, Wang CY, Hung YH, et al.
Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155660 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL) 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL family in individual type of cancers.

Bruserud Ø, Reikvam H, Fredly H, et al.
Expression of the potential therapeutic target CXXC5 in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells - high expression is associated with adverse prognosis as well as altered intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulation.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(5):2794-811 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The CXXC5 gene encodes a transcriptional activator with a zinc-finger domain, and high expression in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells is associated with adverse prognosis. We now characterized the biological context of CXXC5 expression in primary human AML cells. The global gene expression profile of AML cells derived from 48 consecutive patients was analyzed; cells with high and low CXXC5 expression then showed major differences with regard to extracellular communication and intracellular signaling. We observed significant differences in the phosphorylation status of several intracellular signaling mediators (CREB, PDK1, SRC, STAT1, p38, STAT3, rpS6) that are important for PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling and/or transcriptional regulation. High CXXC5 expression was also associated with high mRNA expression of several stem cell-associated transcriptional regulators, the strongest associations being with WT1, GATA2, RUNX1, LYL1, DNMT3, SPI1, and MYB. Finally, CXXC5 knockdown in human AML cell lines caused significantly increased expression of the potential tumor suppressor gene TSC22 and genes encoding the growth factor receptor KIT, the cytokine Angiopoietin 1 and the selenium-containing glycoprotein Selenoprotein P. Thus, high CXXC5 expression seems to affect several steps in human leukemogenesis, including intracellular events as well as extracellular communication.

Yoon CH, Rho SB, Kim ST, et al.
Crucial role of TSC-22 in preventing the proteasomal degradation of p53 in cervical cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e42006 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The p53 tumor suppressor function can be compromised in many tumors by the cellular antagonist HDM2 and human papillomavirus oncogene E6 that induce p53 degradation. Restoration of p53 activity has strong therapeutic potential. Here, we identified TSC-22 as a novel p53-interacting protein and show its novel function as a positive regulator of p53. We found that TSC-22 level was significantly down-regulated in cervical cancer tissues. Moreover, over-expression of TSC-22 was sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation, promote cellular apoptosis in cervical cancer cells and suppress growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Expression of also TSC-22 enhanced the protein level of p53 by protecting it from poly-ubiquitination. When bound to the motif between amino acids 100 and 200 of p53, TSC-22 inhibited the HDM2- and E6-mediated p53 poly-ubiquitination and degradation. Consequently, ectopic over-expression of TSC-22 activated the function of p53, followed by increased expression of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and PUMA in human cervical cancer cell lines. Interestingly, TSC-22 did not affect the interaction between p53 and HDM2. Knock-down of TSC-22 by small interfering RNA clearly enhanced the poly-ubiquitination of p53, leading to the degradation of p53. These results suggest that TSC-22 acts as a tumor suppressor by safeguarding p53 from poly-ubiquitination mediated-degradation.

Zhao T, Satou Y, Sugata K, et al.
HTLV-1 bZIP factor enhances TGF-β signaling through p300 coactivator.
Blood. 2011; 118(7):1865-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus that is etiologically associated with adult T-cell leukemia. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus strand of the provirus, is involved in both regulation of viral gene transcription and T-cell proliferation. We showed in this report that HBZ interacted with Smad2/3, and enhanced transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad transcriptional responses in a p300-dependent manner. The N-terminal LXXLL motif of HBZ was responsible for HBZ-mediated TGF-β signaling activation. In a serial immunoprecipitation assay, HBZ, Smad3, and p300 formed a ternary complex, and the association between Smad3 and p300 was markedly enhanced in the presence of HBZ. In addition, HBZ could overcome the repression of the TGF-β response by Tax. Finally, HBZ expression resulted in enhanced transcription of Pdgfb, Sox4, Ctgf, Foxp3, Runx1, and Tsc22d1 genes and suppression of the Id2 gene; such effects were similar to those by TGF-β. In particular, HBZ induced Foxp3 expression in naive T cells through Smad3-dependent TGF-β signaling. Our results suggest that HBZ, by enhancing TGF-β signaling and Foxp3 expression, enables HTLV-1 to convert infected T cells into regulatory T cells, which is thought to be a critical strategy for virus persistence.

Yu J, Ershler M, Yu L, et al.
TSC-22 contributes to hematopoietic precursor cell proliferation and repopulation and is epigenetically silenced in large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
Blood. 2009; 113(22):5558-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes can lead to their silencing in many cancers. TSC-22 is a gene silenced in several solid tumors, but its function and the mechanism(s) responsible for its silencing are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the TSC-22 promoter is methylated in primary mouse T or natural killer (NK) large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia and this is associated with down-regulation or silencing of TSC-22 expression. The TSC-22 deregulation was reversed in vivo by a 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine therapy of T or NK LGL leukemia, which significantly increased survival of the mice bearing this disease. Ectopic expression of TSC-22 in mouse leukemia or lymphoma cell lines resulted in delayed in vivo tumor formation. Targeted disruption of TSC-22 in wild-type mice enhanced proliferation and in vivo repopulation efficiency of hematopoietic precursor cells (HPCs). Collectively, our data suggest that TSC-22 normally contributes to the regulation of HPC function and is a putative tumor suppressor gene that is hypermethylated and silenced in T or NK LGL leukemia.

Meijer D, Jansen MP, Look MP, et al.
TSC22D1 and PSAP predict clinical outcome of tamoxifen treatment in patients with recurrent breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009; 113(2):253-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Purpose Two genes, TSC22 domain family, member 1 (TSC22D1) and prosaposin (PSAP) were identified in an in vitro functional screen for genes having a causative role in tamoxifen resistance. These genes were also present in our previously established 81-gene signature for resistance to first-line tamoxifen therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of these genes for tamoxifen therapy failure in patients with recurrent breast cancer. Experimental Design The mRNA levels of TSC22D1 and PSAP were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 223 estrogen receptor-positive primary breast tumors of patients with recurrent disease treated with first-line tamoxifen therapy. The main objective of this study was the length of progression-free survival (PFS). Results High mRNA levels of TSC22D1 and PSAP were significantly associated with shorter PFS and both were independent of the traditional predictive factors (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.04-1.64 P = 0.023; and HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03-1.88, P = 0.029, respectively). In multivariate analysis, patients with high mRNA levels of both genes associated significantly with no clinical benefit (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06-0.62, P = 0.006) and had the shortest PFS (HR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.29-3.25, P = 0.002). Conclusion These results confirm our previous in vitro and tumor-related findings and are indicative for the failure of tamoxifen treatment in breast-cancer patients. Both TSC22D1 and PSAP are associated with clinical outcome and may have a functional role in therapy resistance.

Lee YH, Hong SW, Jun W, et al.
Anti-histone acetyltransferase activity from allspice extracts inhibits androgen receptor-dependent prostate cancer cell growth.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007; 71(11):2712-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone acetylation depends on the activity of two enzyme families, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC). In this study, we screened various plant extracts to find potent HAT inhibitors. Hot water extracts of allspice inhibited HAT activity, especially p300 and CBP (40% at 100 microg/ml). The mRNA levels of two androgen receptor (AR) regulated genes, PSA and TSC22, decreased with allspice treatment (100 microg/ml). Importantly, in IP western analysis, AR acetylation was dramatically decreased by allspice treatment.Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that the acetylation of histone H3 in the PSA and B2M promoter regions was also repressed. Finally, allspice treatment reduced the growth of human prostate cancer cells, LNCaP (50% growth inhibition at 200 microg/ml). Taken together, our data indicate that the potent HAT inhibitory activity of allspice reduced AR and histone acetylation and led to decreased transcription of AR target genes, resulting in inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth.

Lu Y, Kitaura J, Oki T, et al.
Identification of TSC-22 as a potential tumor suppressor that is upregulated by Flt3-D835V but not Flt3-ITD.
Leukemia. 2007; 21(11):2246-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22) was originally isolated as a TGF-beta-inducible gene. In this study, we identified TSC-22 as a potential leukemia suppressor. Two types of FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (Flt3) mutations are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia: Flt3-ITD harboring an internal tandem duplication in the juxtamembrane domain associated with poor prognosis and Flt3-TKD harboring a point mutation in the kinase domain. Comparison of gene expression profiles between Flt3-ITD- and Flt3-TKD-transduced Ba/F3 cells revealed that constitutive activation of Flt3 by Flt3-TKD, but not Flt3-ITD, upregulated the expression of TSC-22. Importantly, treatment with an Flt3 inhibitor PKC412 or an Flt3 small interfering RNA decreased the expression level of TSC-22 in Flt3-TKD-transduced cells. Forced expression of TSC-22 suppressed the growth and accelerated the differentiation of several leukemia cell lines into monocytes, in particular, in combination with differentiation-inducing reagents. On the other hand, a dominant-negative form of TSC-22 accelerated the growth of Flt3-TKD-transduced 32Dcl.3 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that TSC-22 is a possible target of leukemia therapy.

Yanatatsaneejit P, Chalermchai T, Kerekhanjanarong V, et al.
Promoter hypermethylation of CCNA1, RARRES1, and HRASLS3 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2008; 44(4):400-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In search for putative tumor suppressor genes critical of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we analyzed the available information from the expression profiling in conjunction with the comprehensive alleotyping published data relevant to this malignancy. Integration of this information suggested eight potential candidate tumor suppressor genes, CCNA1, HRASLS3, RARRES1, CLMN, EML1, TSC22, LOH11CR2A and MCC. However, to confirm the above observations, we chose to investigate if promoter hypermethylation of these candidate genes would be one of the mechanisms responsible for the de-regulation of gene expression in NPC in addition to the loss of genetic materials. In this study, we detected consistent hypermethylation of the 5' element of CCNA1, RARRES1, and HRASLS in NPC tissues with prevalence of 48%, 51%, and 17%, respectively. Moreover, we found a similar profile of promoter hypermethylation in primary cultured NPC cells but none in normal nasopharyngeal epithelium or leukocytes, which further substantiate our hypothesis. Our data indicate that CCNA1, RARRES1, and HRASLS3 may be the putative tumor suppressor genes in NPC.

Shostak KO, Dmitrenko VV, Vudmaska MI, et al.
Patterns of expression of TSC-22 protein in astrocytic gliomas.
Exp Oncol. 2005; 27(4):314-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate expression patterns of protein product of putative tumor suppressor gene TSC-22 in human astrocytic tumors by immunohistochemical approach.
METHODS: Plasmid pET-23d-TSC22 was constructed for the expression of human TSC-22 protein in bacterial system, and polyclonal rabbit antibodies against recombinant TSC-22 were produced. Immunohistochemical analysis of TSC-22 and GFAP expression with the use of anti-human-TSC-22- and anti-human-GFAP-antibodies was performed on histological slides of astrocytic tumors.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis has shown that the number of cells expressing TSC-22 was significantly lower in glioblastoma tissues than that in diffuse astrocytoma. Double immunohistochemical staining of astrocytic tumors using anti-human-TSC-2- and anti-human-GFAP-antibodies showed that both TSC-22 and GFAP expression is co-localized in astrocytes.
CONCLUSION: TSC-22 protein is expressed in astrocytes, but not in macrophage/microglial cells. In more aggressive forms of astrocytic tumors decreased expression of TSC-22 mRNA correlates with its lowered expression on protein level.

Yoon HG, Wong J
The corepressors silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor and nuclear receptor corepressor are involved in agonist- and antagonist-regulated transcription by androgen receptor.
Mol Endocrinol. 2006; 20(5):1048-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have investigated the role of corepressors SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor) and N-CoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) in transcriptional regulation by androgen receptor (AR) in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Using specific small interference RNAs to knock down SMRT and/or N-CoR in LNCaP cells, we found that SMRT and N-CoR not only mediate antagonist-dependent inhibition of AR activation but also have a widespread role in suppressing agonist-dependent activation of several AR target genes we have tested, including PSA (prostate-specific antigen), TSC22 (TSC22 domain family member 1), NKX3-1 (NK3 transcription factor locus 1), and B2M(beta-2-microglobulin). By sequencing analysis followed by analysis of physical association by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we mapped the putative androgen response elements in the NKX3-1 and B2M. Consistent with a role in both antagonist- and agonist-regulated transcription by AR, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that both SMRT and N-CoR were recruited by AR to these genes in the presence of either flutamide or R1881. Knocking down SMRT and N-CoR enhanced the recruitment of the coactivators steroid receptor coactivator 1 and p300 by agonist-bound AR and led to increased hyperacetylation of histone H3 and H4, suggesting that the corepressors actively compete with coactivators for binding to agonist-bound AR. Taken together, our data indicate that SMRT and N-CoR corepressors are involved in transcriptional regulation by both agonist- and antagonist-bound AR and regulate the magnitude of hormone response, at least in part, by competing with coactivators.

Urzúa U, Roby KF, Gangi LM, et al.
Transcriptomic analysis of an in vitro murine model of ovarian carcinoma: functional similarity to the human disease and identification of prospective tumoral markers and targets.
J Cell Physiol. 2006; 206(3):594-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is an aggressive disease of poor prognostic when detected at advanced stage. It is widely accepted that the ovarian surface epithelium plays a central role in disease etiology, but little is known about disease progression at the molecular level. To identify genes involved in ovarian tumorigenesis, we carried out a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of six spontaneously transformed mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cell lines, an in vitro model for human ovarian carcinoma. Loess normalization followed by statistical analysis with control of multiple testing resulted in 509 differentially expressed genes using an adjusted P-value < or = 0.05 as cut-off. The top 20 differentially expressed genes included 10 genes (Spp1, Cyp1b1, Btg1, Cfh, Mt1, Mt2, Igfbp5, Gstm1, Gstm2, and Esr1) implicated in various aspects of ovarian carcinomas, and other 3 genes (Gsto1, Lcn7, and Alcam) associated to breast cancer. Upon functional analysis, the majority of alterations affected genes involved in glutathione metabolism and MAPK signaling pathways. Interestingly, over 20% of the aberrantly expressed genes were related to extracellular components, suggestive of potential markers of disease progression. In addition, we identified the genes Pura, Cnn3, Arpc1b, Map4k4, Tgfb1i4, and Crsp2 correlated to in vivo tumorigenic parameters previously reported for these cells. Taken together, our findings support the utility of MOSE cells in studying ovarian cancer biology and as a source of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

Rentsch CA, Cecchini MG, Schwaninger R, et al.
Differential expression of TGFbeta-stimulated clone 22 in normal prostate and prostate cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2006; 118(4):899-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily and its downstream effector genes are key regulators of epithelial homeostasis. Altered expression of these genes may be associated with malignant transformation of the prostate gland. The cDNA array analysis of differential expression of the TGFbeta superfamily and functionally related genes between patient-matched noncancerous prostate (NP) and prostate cancer (PC) bulk tissue specimens highlighted two genes, namely TGFbeta-stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22) and Id4. Verification of their mRNA expression by real-time PCR in patient-matched NP and PC bulk tissue, in laser-captured pure epithelial and cancer cells and in NP and PC cell lines confirmed TSC-22 underexpression, but not Id4 overexpression, in PC and in human PC cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that TSC-22 protein expression in NP is restricted to the basal cells and colocalizes with the basal cell marker cytokeratin 5. In contrast, all matched PC samples lack TSC-22 immunoreactivity. Likewise, PC cell lines do not show detectable TSC-22 protein expression as shown by immunoblotting. TSC-22 should be considered as a novel basal cell marker, potentially useful for studying lineage determination within the epithelial compartment of the prostate. Conversely, lack of TSC-22 seems to be a hallmark of malignant transformation of the prostate epithelium. Accordingly, TSC-22 immunohistochemistry may prove to be a diagnostic tool for discriminating benign lesions from malignant ones of the prostate. The suggested tumour suppressor function of TSC-22 warrants further investigation on its role in prostate carcinogenesis and on the TSC-22 pathway as a candidate therapeutic target in PC.

Kawamata H, Fujimori T, Imai Y
TSC-22 (TGF-beta stimulated clone-22): a novel molecular target for differentiation-inducing therapy in salivary gland cancer.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2004; 4(6):521-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
TSC-22 (Transforming growth factor-beta stimulated clone-22) was originally isolated as a TGF-beta-inducible gene in mouse osteoblastic cells. TSC-22 encodes a putative transcriptional regulator containing a leucine zipper-like structure. Several differentiation-inducing stimuli up-regulate the TSC-22 gene. Furthermore, TSC-22 acts as an effector that integrates multiple extracellular signals during embryogenesis of Drosophila and mouse. Separately, we identified TSC-22 cDNA as an anti-cancer drug (vesnarinone)-inducible gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. Vesnarinone is known to have a differentiation-inducing activity in several cell types. We showed that TSC-22 negatively regulated the growth of TYS cells, and that down-regulation of TSC-22 played a major role in the salivary gland tumorigenesis. Subsequently, we found that artificial overexpression of TSC-22 enhanced chemosensitivity and radiation-sensitivity by inducing apoptosis in TYS cells. Recently, we isolated TSC-22 genomic DNA and analyzed the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the TSC-22 gene. Then, we confirmed by the luciferase reporter assay that several differentiation-inducing stimuli directly activated the promoter region of TSC-22 gene. Now we are investigating the chemical compounds, which could enhance the transcription of the TSC-22 gene. Thus, because TSC-22 is a key molecule for differentiation of several cells, it can be used as a molecular target for cancer differentiation therapy in salivary gland cancer.

Shostak KO, Dmitrenko VV, Garifulin OM, et al.
Downregulation of putative tumor suppressor gene TSC-22 in human brain tumors.
J Surg Oncol. 2003; 82(1):57-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to identify differentially expressed genes involved in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
METHODS: Screening of arrayed human fetal brain and human postnatal brain cDNA libraries was performed by differential hybridization with glioblastoma multiforme and human normal brain cDNAs.
RESULTS: Repeated differential hybridization of more than 100 cDNA clones selected by primary screening and analysis of RNA from adult normal brain and glial tumors showed 16 nucleotide sequences differentially expressed between normal brain and brain tumors. Among others, decreased content in astrocytic tumors was determined for TSC-22 mRNA corresponding to cDNA in the ICRFp507J1041 clone from human fetal brain cDNA library. Northern blot hybridization of RNA from different human brain tumors showed very low amounts of TSC-22 mRNA in most investigated samples of GBM, anaplastic astrocytoma, and some other tumors. Complete lack of expression of TSC-22 occurred in one sample of anaplastic astrocytoma, as well as in meningioma, brain sarcoma, sarcomatous meningioma, and oligodendroglioma. The differential expression of TSC-22 gene was confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR in 15 samples of astrocytomas WHO grade II-IV and three samples of normal brain.
CONCLUSIONS: Significantly decreased levels of TSC-22 mRNA in human brain and salivary gland tumors and antiproliferative role of TSC-22 strongly suggest a tumor suppressor role for TSC-22. J.

Hino S, Kawamata H, Omotehara F, et al.
Cytoplasmic TSC-22 (transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22) markedly enhances the radiation sensitivity of salivary gland cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002; 292(4):957-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
We transfected a salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS, with three different forms of TSC-22 (transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22) gene: full-length TSC-22 (TSC-22FL) containing nuclear export signal, TSC-box and leucine zipper, truncated TSC-22 (TSC-22LZ) containing only TSC-box and leucine zipper, and truncated TSC-22 with nuclear localization signal (NLS-TSC-22LZ). High expression of TSC-22FL in the cytoplasm markedly enhanced the radiation-sensitivity of TYS cells, while, moderate expression of TSC-22FL marginally affected the radiation-sensitivity. TSC-22LZ, which was expressed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, enhanced the radiation-sensitivity of TYS cells irrespective to its expression level. NLS-TSC-22LZ, which was expressed only in the nucleus, marginally affected the radiation-sensitivity of the cells even at high expression level. Interestingly, cytoplasmic TSC-22 translocates to nucleus concomitant with radiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that cytoplasmic localization of TSC-22 and translocation of TSC-22 from cytoplasm to nucleus is important for regulating the cell death signal after irradiation-induced DNA damage.

Omotehara F, Uchida D, Hino S, et al.
In vivo enhancement of chemosensitivity of human salivary gland cancer cells by overexpression of TGF-beta stimulated clone-22.
Oncol Rep. 2000 Jul-Aug; 7(4):737-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have isolated transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22 (TSC-22) cDNA as an anti-cancer drug-inducible gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We have previously reported that TSC-22 negatively regulates the growth of TYS cells, and that overexpression of TSC-22 protein in TYS cells enhanced the in vitro chemosensitivity of the cells. In this study, we examined the in vivo chemosensitivity of TSC-22-expressing TYS cells. TSC-22-expressing TYS cells formed tumors in nude mice, but tumors formed by TSC-22-expressing TYS cells were significantly smaller than tumors formed by control cells (p<0.001, one way ANOVA). Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) markedly inhibited the growth of the TSC-22-expressing TYS tumors, but did not affect the growth of control tumors. It was found by TUNEL assay that TSC-22-expressing TYS tumors were induced to undergo apoptosis by 5-FU treatment. These findings suggest that overexpression of TSC-22 protein in TYS cells enhances the in vivo chemosensitivity of the cells to 5-FU via induction of apoptosis.

Kawamata H, Nakashiro K, Uchida D, et al.
Induction of TSC-22 by treatment with a new anti-cancer drug, vesnarinone, in a human salivary gland cancer cell.
Br J Cancer. 1998; 77(1):71-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We undertook the present study to clarify the molecular mechanism of the effect of a new anti-cancer drug, vesnarinone, on a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We isolated TSC-22cDNA as avesnarinone-inducible gene from a cDNA library constructed from vesnarinone-treated TYS cells. TSC-22 was originally reported as a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-inducible gene. The expression of TSC-22 was up-regulated within a few hours after treatment with vesnarinone and was continued for 3 days. The level of TSC-22 mRNA in TYS cells was continuously increased until the cells reached confluency. Furthermore, the induction of TSC-22 by vesnarinone was inhibited by treatment with cycloheximide. When we treated the cells with an antisense oligonucleotide against TSC-22 mRNA under quiescent conditions, the antisense oligonucleotide stimulated the growth of TYS cells; however, under growing conditions the antisense oligonucleotide did not affect cell growth. Furthermore, the antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the antiproliferative effect of vesnarinone. These results suggest that TSC-22 may be a negative growth regulator and may play an important role in the antiproliferative effect of vesnarinone.

Nakashiro K, Kawamata H, Hino S, et al.
Down-regulation of TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) markedly enhances the growth of a human salivary gland cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Res. 1998; 58(3):549-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) cDNA as a new anticancer drug (Vesnarinone)-inducible gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We conducted the present study to examine whether up-regulation or down-regulation of TSC-22 can affect the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. We constructed an expression vector containing sense- or antisense-oriented human TSC-22 cDNA under the transcriptional control of the SR alpha promoter. We cotransfected TYS cells with the sense or antisense expression vector and pSV2neo and obtained more than 200 G418-resistant colonies in each sense or antisense transfectant. Approximately 80% of representative G418-resistant clones expressed the transcripts from transfected sense or antisense TSC-22 cDNA. To avoid the clonal heterogeneity of the cells, we mixed all of the G418-resistant colonies together in each sense or antisense transfectant and examined the expression of TSC-22 protein, in vitro growth, and the tumorigenicity in nude mice. The expression of TSC-22 protein was examined by solid-phase ELISA using a specific antibody against recombinant TSC-22 protein. The expression of TSC-22 protein was up-regulated in the sense transfectants and down-regulated in the antisense transfectants. Contrary to our expectation, up-regulation of TSC-22 protein did not affect both in vitro and in vivo growth of TYS cells. However, down-regulation of TSC-22 markedly enhanced the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the expression of TSC-22 mRNA in several human salivary gland tumors. The mRNA expression of TSC-22 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors was significantly decreased when compared to that in tumor-free salivary glands (P < 0.05; one-way ANOVA), and in some salivary gland tumors, the expression of TSC-22 mRNA was not detectable by reverse transcription-PCR. These results suggest that down-regulation of TSC-22 may play a major role on salivary gland tumorigenesis.

Ohta S, Yanagihara K, Nagata K
Mechanism of apoptotic cell death of human gastric carcinoma cells mediated by transforming growth factor beta.
Biochem J. 1997; 324 ( Pt 3):777-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human gastric carcinoma cell line HSC-39 has been shown to undergo apoptotic cell death in response to treatment with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). To understand better the cell death mechanism in this TGF-beta1-mediated apoptosis, we investigated the effect of the expression of TGF-beta-stimulated clone 22 (TSC-22) on cell death events. TGF-beta1 induced TSC-22 gene expression in HSC-39 cells only when the cells had previously been adapted to the serum-free culture conditions required to undergo TGF-beta1-mediated apoptosis. HSC-39 cells transfected with a TSC-22 expression vector showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared with those transfected with a control vector. The cellular events characteristic of apoptosis, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation were observed only in cells transfected with a TSC-22 expression vector. On immunostaining of the transfected cells, almost every cell that expressed TSC-22 tagged with influenza virus haemagglutinin exhibited the morphology of an apoptotic cell. Partial protection from the cell death effect of TGF-beta1 on HSC-39 cells was observed when cells were treated with acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamyl-L-valyl-L-aspart-1-al (Ac-DEVD-CHO, an inhibitor specific for CPP32-type protease). Protection against cell death by the transfection of a TSC-22 expression vector was also offered by Ac-DEVD-CHO addition. These results suggest that TSC-22 elicits the apoptotic cell death of human gastric carcinoma cells through the activation of CPP32-like protease and mediates the TGF-beta1 signalling pathway to apoptosis.

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