Gene Summary

Gene:UGT2B17; UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 2 member B17
Aliases: BMND12, UDPGT2B17
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase protein family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the transfer of glucuronic acid from uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid to a diverse array of substrates including steroid hormones and lipid-soluble drugs. This process, known as glucuronidation, is an intermediate step in the metabolism of steroids. Copy number variation in this gene is associated with susceptibility to osteoporosis.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Genomic Structural Variation
  • Prostate
  • Homozygote
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Alleles
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Testosterone
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Chromosome 4
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Odds Ratio
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Glucuronosyltransferase
  • Steroids
  • Promoter Regions
  • Sweden
  • Messenger RNA
  • MicroRNAs
  • Gene Expression
  • Disease Progression
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Androgens
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Lung Cancer
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Smoking
  • Vidarabine
  • Breast Cancer
  • Polymorphism
  • Gene Deletion
  • Genotype
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Dihydrotestosterone
  • Gene Dosage
  • Logistic Models
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: UGT2B17 (cancer-related)

Che X, Yu D, Wu Z, et al.
Association of Genetic Polymorphisms in UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases 2B17 with the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Chinese Han Population.
Clin Lab. 2015; 61(12):1905-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study is aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms in UGT2B17 and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in Chinese Han population.
METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted, and 1579 healthy controls and 406 pancreatic cancer patients were enrolled. Real-time PCR was applied to identify the genetic polymorphisms in the subjects, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between UGT2B17 polymorphisms and susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
RESULTS: The prevalence of the UGT2B17 del/del, del/ins, and ins/ins in cases were 72.9%, 24.0%, and 3.1%, respectively, and in controls 66.6%, 30.7%, and 2.7%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that, compared with the del/del genotype, the del/ins genotype in UGT2B17 is related to a significant reduction in pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.60 - 0.99; P = 0.04). In the female subjects, compared with the del/del genotype, the del/ins genotype was related to a substantial reduction in pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.39 - 0.90, P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: All these results indicate a higher ratio of UGT2B17 deletion polymorphisms in Asians. UGT2B17 deletion polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in Chinese Han population, especially in the female population.

Zhang A, Zhang J, Plymate S, Mostaghel EA
Classical and Non-Classical Roles for Pre-Receptor Control of DHT Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression.
Horm Cancer. 2016; 7(2):104-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Androgens play an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Accordingly, androgen deprivation therapy remains the front-line treatment for locally recurrent or advanced PCa, but patients eventually relapse with the lethal form of the disease termed castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Importantly, castration does not eliminate androgens from the prostate tumor microenvironment which is characterized by elevated tissue androgens that are well within the range capable of activating the androgen receptor (AR). In this mini-review, we discuss emerging data that suggest a role for the enzymes mediating pre-receptor control of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) metabolism, including AKR1C2, HSD17B6, HSD17B10, and the UGT family members UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, in controlling intratumoral androgen levels, and thereby influencing PCa progression. We review the expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in this pathway in primary PCa and CRPC, the activity and regulation of these enzymes in PCa experimental models, and the impact of genetic variation in genes mediating pre-receptor DHT metabolism on PCa risk. Finally, we discuss recent data that suggests several of these enzymes may also play an unrecognized role in CRPC progression separate from their role in androgen inactivation.

Hagberg Thulin M, Nilsson ME, Thulin P, et al.
Osteoblasts promote castration-resistant prostate cancer by altering intratumoral steroidogenesis.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016; 422:182-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The skeleton is the preferred site for prostate cancer (PC) metastasis leading to incurable castration-resistant disease. The increased expression of genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes found in bone metastatic tissue from patients suggests that up-regulated steroidogenesis might contribute to tumor growth at the metastatic site. Because of the overall sclerotic phenotype, we hypothesize that osteoblasts regulate the intratumoral steroidogenesis of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in bone. We here show that osteoblasts alter the steroidogenic transcription program in CRPC cells, closely mimicking the gene expression pattern described in CRPC. Osteoblast-stimulated LNCaP-19 cells displayed an increased expression of genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1, HSD3B1, and AKR1C3), estrogen signaling-related genes (CYP19A1, and ESR2), and genes for DHT-inactivating enzymes (UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17). The observed osteoblast-induced effect was exclusive to osteogenic CRPC cells (LNCaP-19) in contrast to osteolytic PC-3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. The altered steroid enzymatic pattern was specific for the intratibial tumors and verified by immunohistochemistry in tissue specimens from LNCaP-19 xenograft tumors. Additionally, the overall steroidogenic effect was reflected by corresponding levels of progesterone and testosterone in serum from castrated mice with intratibial xenografts. A bi-directional interplay was demonstrated since both proliferation and Esr2 expression of osteoblasts were induced by CRPC cells in steroid-depleted conditions. Together, our results demonstrate that osteoblasts are important mediators of the intratumoral steroidogenesis of CRPC and for castration-resistant growth in bone. Targeting osteoblasts may therefore be important in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

Margaillan G, Lévesque É, Guillemette C
Epigenetic regulation of steroid inactivating UDP-glucuronosyltransferases by microRNAs in prostate cancer.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016; 155(Pt A):85-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgens play a central role in prostate cancer progression. Systemic and local androgen bioavailability is controlled by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases conjugating enzymes (UGT), namely UGT2B15, UGT2B17 and UGT2B28. Reporter vector assays in HEK293 cells initially validated in silico-predicted regulatory potential of candidate miRNAs to target UGT transcripts, including miR-376c, miR-409 and miR-494 for UGT2B17, miR-331-5p and miR-376c for UGT2B15 while none were efficient for UGT2B28. miR-376c was shown as the most effective to downregulate UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 through interactions with a site conserved in both UGTs. Ectopic miR-376c expression in prostate cancer cells significantly reduced UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 expression (>32%; P<0.005) with a consequent decrease in dihydrotestosterone glucuronidation (-37%; P<0.001). Consistent with reduced androgen inactivation, ectopic expression of miR-376c changed expression of androgen responsive genes and enhanced cell proliferation with no effect on androgen receptor levels. Sustaining a role of miR-376c in the regulation of androgen-inactivating UGTs, its expression was significantly downregulated in prostatic tumors and further reduced in metastases (P<0.0001), whereas the opposite was observed for UGT2B15/17 (P=0.031). In high-grade tumors (Gleason ≥8), UGT2B15/17 and miR-376c were inversely correlated (r=-0.557; P=0.048) with also a significant relationship in metastases (r=-0.747; P=0.003). In line with a modification in androgen bioavailability, PSA mRNA levels were also negatively correlated to those of UGT2B15/17 (r=-0.573; P=0.01) but positively linked to levels of miR-376c (r=0.577; P=0.039). This study reveals that the androgen-inactivating UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 genes are direct targets of miR-376c and thus may influence steroid metabolism during prostate cancer progression.

Romero-Lorca A, Novillo A, Gaibar M, et al.
Impacts of the Glucuronidase Genotypes UGT1A4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 on Tamoxifen Metabolism in Breast Cancer Patients.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0132269 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Tamoxifen is used to prevent and treat estrogen-dependent breast cancer. It is described as a prodrug since most of its antiestrogen effects are exerted through its hydroxylated metabolites 4-OH-tamoxifen and endoxifen. In prior work, we correlated optimal plasma levels of these metabolites with certain genotypes of CYP2D6 and SULT1A2. This descriptive study examines correlations between concentrations of tamoxifen's glucuronide metabolites and genotypes UGT1A4 Pro24Thr, UGT1A4 Leu48Val, UGT2B7 His268Tyr, UGT2B15 Asp85YTyr UGT2B15 Lys523Thr and UGT2B17del in 132 patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer under treatment with tamoxifen. Patients were genotyped by real-time and conventional PCR-RFLP. The glucuronides 4-OH-tamoxifen-N-glucuronide, 4-OH-tamoxifen-O-glucuronide and endoxifen-O-glucuronide were isolated from blood plasma and quantified using a high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Individuals who were homozygous for UGT1A448VAL showed significantly lower mean concentrations of both glucuronide metabolites compared to subjects genotyped as wt/wt plus wt/48Val (p=0.037 and p=0.031, respectively). Women homozygous for UGT2B7268Tyr also showed mean substrate/product ratios of 4-OH-tamoxifen/4-OH-tamoxifen-O-glucuronide and 4-OH-tamoxifen/4-OH-tamoxifen-N-glucuronide indicative of reduced glucuronidase activity compared to wt homozygotes or to heterozygotes for the polymorphism (p=0.005 and p=0.003, respectively). In contrast, UGT2B15 Lys523Thr and UGT2B17del were associated with possibly increased enzyme activity. Patients with at least one variant allele UGT2B15523Thr showed significantly higher 4-OH-tamoxifen-O-glucuronide and endoxifen-glucuronide levels (p=0.023 and p=0.025, respectively) indicating a variant gene-dose effect. Higher 4-OH-tamoxifen-N-glucuronide levels observed in UGT2B17del genotypes (p=0.042) could be attributed to a mechanism that compensates for the greater expression of other genes in UGT2B17 del/del individuals. Our observations suggest that patients carrying mutations UGT1A448Val, UGT2B7268Tyr or with wt genotypes for UGT2B17nodel and UGT2B15523Lys could be the best candidates for a good response to tamoxifen therapy in terms of eliciting effective plasma active tamoxifen metabolite levels. However, additional studies examining the effects of UGT genotype on overall patient response to TAM are needed to further examine the role of UGT polymorphisms in the therapeutic efficacy of TAM.

Wijayakumara DD, Hu DG, Meech R, et al.
Regulation of Human UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 by miR-376c in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015; 354(3):417-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Given the prime importance of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B15 and UGT2B17 in inactivating testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, control of their expression and activity in the prostate is essential for androgen signaling homeostasis in this organ. Although several studies provide evidence of transcriptional control of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 by various endogenous and exogenous compounds, potential post-transcriptional regulation of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 by microRNAs (miRs) in prostate cancer cells has not been examined. The present study identified a putative miR-376c target site in the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of both UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 mRNAs. In accordance with the possibility that this miRNA negatively regulates UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 expression, there is an inverse correlation in the levels of miR-376c and UGT2B15/UGT2B17 mRNAs in prostate cancer cell lines versus normal prostate tissue. In LNCaP cells, transfection of miR-376c mimics inhibited the glucuronidations of testosterone, 4-methylumbelliferone (a substrate of UGT2B15), and androsterone (a substrate of UGT2B17). miR-376c reduced both UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 mRNA and protein levels and the activity of luciferase reporters containing UGT2B15 or UGT2B17 3'-UTRs. This microRNA-mediated repression was significantly abrogated by mutating the miR-376c binding site in the 3'-UTRs of both UGTs. Collectively, these data indicate that the expression of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 is negatively regulated by the binding of miR-376c to the 3'-UTRs of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 in prostate cancer cells. This represents the first evidence for post-transcriptional regulation of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 by miRNAs in prostate cancer cells and may have importance in regulating androgen receptor signaling.

Mafune A, Hama T, Suda T, et al.
Homozygous deletions of UGT2B17 modifies effects of smoking on TP53-mutations and relapse of head and neck carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:205 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Smoking induces oncogenic TP53-mutations in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Disruptive mutations of TP53-gene and expression of p16 protein [p16 (+)] in tumor tissue associate with worse and better prognosis, respectively. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B17 (UGT2B17) detoxifies smoking-related metabolites. Differences among ethnic groups in UGT2B17 are extremely high. Homozygous deletions of UGT2B17 gene (UGT2B17-deletion) are a common copy number variant (CNV) among Japanese, but not a common CNV among Africans and Europeans. Thus, we examined Japanese patients with HNSCC to explore if UGT2B17-deletion and/or p16 (+) modify effects of smoking on TP53-mutations and affect relapse.
METHODS: We conducted a posthoc analysis of a prospective cohort. Polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and direct sequencing were used to determine UGT2B17-deletion, p16 (+), and detailed TP53-mutations, respectively.
RESULTS: UGT2B17-deletion was observed in 80% of this study population. For this 80%, TP53-mutations were significantly more common among smokers than non-smokers (P = 0.0016), but this difference between smokers and nonsmokers was not significant for the 20% with UGT2B17. In patients with UGT2B17-deletion and p16 (+), simultaneously, TP53-mutations were much more common among smokers than among non-smokers (81% versus 17%; P = 0.0050). Patients with both UGT2B17-deletion and disruptive TP53-mutations had higher relapse rates than other patients (hazard ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 3.80, P = 0.004) in a stepwise method.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that UGT2B17-deletion interacting with p16 (+) may modify effects of smoking on TP53-mutations and may further interact with the disruptive TP53-mutations to raise relapse rates among Japanese patients with HNSCC.

Xiang C, Wang J, Kou X, et al.
Pulmonary expression of CYP2A13 and ABCB1 is regulated by FOXA2, and their genetic interaction is associated with lung cancer.
FASEB J. 2015; 29(5):1986-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhaled xenobiotics such as tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone are mainly metabolized by phase I oxidase cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 13 (CYP2A13), phase II conjugate UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B17 (UGT2B17), and phase III transporter ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 1 (ABCB1), with genetic polymorphisms implicated in lung cancer. Their genetic interaction and pulmonary expression regulation are largely unknown. We analyzed joint association for CYP2A13 and ABCB1 polymorphisms in 2 independent lung cancer case populations (669 and 566 patients) and 1 common control population (749 subjects), and characterized the trans-acting function of the lung development-related transcription factor forkhead box A2 (FOXA2). We undertook FOXA2 overexpression and down-regulation in lung epithelial cell lines, analyzed functional impact on the transactivation of CYP2A13, UGT2B17, and ABCB1, and measured correlation for their expressions in lung tissues. We found a substantial reduction in cancer risk (OR 0.39; 95% CI 0.25-0.61; Pinteraction = 0.029) associated with combined genotypes for CYP2A13 R257C and a functionary regulatory variant in the cis element of ABCB1 synergistically targeted by GATA binding protein 6 and FOXA2. Genetic manipulation of FOXA2 consistently influenced its binding to and transactivation of the promoters of CYP2A13, UGT2B17, and ABCB1, whose mRNA and protein expressions were all consistently correlated with those of FOXA2 in both tumorous and normal lung tissues. We therefore establish FOXA2 as a core transcriptional modulator for pulmonary xenobiotic metabolic pathways and uncover an etiologically relevant interaction between CYP2A13 and ABCB1, furthering our understanding of expression and function of the xenobiotic metabolism system.

Gauthier-Landry L, Bélanger A, Barbier O
Multiple roles for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)2B15 and UGT2B17 enzymes in androgen metabolism and prostate cancer evolution.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 145:187-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the prostate, approximately 50% of androgens are from adrenal steroids, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulfate and androstenedione. These compounds are converted first into testosterone, and then into the active hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT). After having activated the androgen receptor (AR), DHT is reduced into androstane-3α-DIOL (3α-DIOL) and androsterone (ADT), which are subsequently converted into 2 inactive and easily excretable metabolites: 3α-DIOL-17glucuronide (3α-DIOL-17G) and ADT-3glucuronide (ADT-3G). The formation of these last derivatives through the glucuronidation reaction involves 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, namely UGT2B15 and UGT2B17. The present review article aims at providing a comprehensive view of the physiological and pharmacological importance of these 2 enzymes for the control of androgen homeostasis. We will resume: (i) how UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 contribute to androgen elimination; (ii) how their glucuronidation capacity influences the androgen signaling pathway in prostate cells; (iii) how they contribute to the anti-proliferative properties of AR antagonists in prostate cancer cells; and (iv) how AR and its spliced variants regulate the UGT2B15 and/or UGT2B17 genes expression. Finally, whether the unexploited AR-UGT axis could serve as a prognostic maker or a pharmacological target for novel therapeutics in the treatment of prostate cancer is also discussed. This article is part of a special issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'.

Vidal AC, Tucker C, Schildkraut JM, et al.
Novel associations of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene variants with prostate cancer risk in a multiethnic study.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:556 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a functional polymorphism of the UGT2B15 gene (rs1902023) was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PC). Novel functional polymorphisms of the UGT2B17 and UGT2B15 genes have been recently characterized by in vitro assays but have not been evaluated in epidemiologic studies.
METHODS: Fifteen functional SNPs of the UGT2B17 and UGT2B15 genes, including cis-acting UGT2B gene SNPs, were genotyped in African American and Caucasian men (233 PC cases and 342 controls). Regression models were used to analyze the association between SNPs and PC risk.
RESULTS: After adjusting for race, age and BMI, we found that six UGT2B15 SNPs (rs4148269, rs3100, rs9994887, rs13112099, rs7686914 and rs7696472) were associated with an increased risk of PC in log-additive models (p < 0.05). A SNP cis-acting on UGT2B17 and UGT2B15 expression (rs17147338) was also associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.00-2.70); while a stronger association among men with high Gleason sum was observed for SNPs rs4148269 and rs3100.
CONCLUSIONS: Although small sample size limits inference, we report novel associations between UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 variants and PC risk. These associations with PC risk in men with high Gleason sum, more frequently found in African American men, support the relevance of genetic differences in the androgen metabolism pathway, which could explain, in part, the high incidence of PC among African American men. Larger studies are required.

Grosse L, Pâquet S, Caron P, et al.
Androgen glucuronidation: an unexpected target for androgen deprivation therapy, with prognosis and diagnostic implications.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(23):6963-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADTh) remains a mainstay of prostate cancer treatment, but its efficacy is bypassed by mechanisms that are not fully understood. In human prostate cancer cells, androgen glucuronidation, catalyzed by the two UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, is the major androgen inactivation pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADTh on androgen glucuronidation to evaluate its potential clinical utility for prostate cancer prognosis or therapy. UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 expression was evaluated in prostate cancer specimens from untreated or treated patients and in cell models of prostate cancer exposed to clinically relevant antiandrogens. UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 protein levels in prostate were increased after 5 months of ADTh when compared with specimens from untreated patients. UGT2B15 expression remained elevated for up to 12 months, but UGT2B17 returned to initial levels as soon as after 6 months. Several androgen receptor (AR) antagonists tested caused a dose- and time-dependent stimulation of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 expression and androgen glucuronidation in prostate cancer cell lines. The role of AR in these regulatory events was confirmed using AR-deficient LNCaP cells, in which UGT2B attenuation reduced the antiproliferative effects of AR pharmacologic antagonists. Through this combination of clinical and functional investigations, our work revealed that ADTh stimulates a local androgen metabolism in prostate cells, establishing a foundation to evaluate the potential of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 as drug targets and/or molecular markers for ADTh responsiveness and maintenance in prostate cancer.

Gruber M, Le T, Filipits M, et al.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 genotype and the risk of lung cancer among Austrian Caucasians.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37(5):625-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The enzyme uridine diphospho glucuronosyltansferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) glucuronidates several endogenous and exogenous compounds, including carcinogens from tobacco smoke like 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanl (NNAL). UGT2B17 shows a remarkable copy number variation (CNV) and an association between deletion genotype and increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma in women has been previously reported.
METHODS: We investigated the UGT2B17 CNV by PCR in 453 Austrian lung cancer patients and in 449 healthy donors and analyzed the impact on lung cancer susceptibility and outcome.
RESULTS: Copy numbers of UGT2B17 were 44.4% (+/+), 42.2% (+/-) and 13.5% (-/-) in lung cancer patients and 43.0% (+/+), 46.3% (+/-) and 10.7% (-/-) among healthy donors. The null genotype was not significantly more frequent among women with adenocarcinoma compared to healthy women (p=0.59). There was no association with overall survival (p=0.622) and no significant sex-associated (p=0.423) or histology-related impact on development of lung cancer.
CONCLUSION: UGT2B17 deletion genotype was not associated with a significant risk for lung cancer development or outcome in our Central European patient cohort. Our study indicates that UGT2B17 is not a crucial factor in lung carcinogenesis among Caucasians and shows the importance of investigating such markers in large cohorts from different populations.

Malhotra A, Shibata Y, Hall IM, Dutta A
Chromosomal structural variations during progression of a prostate epithelial cell line to a malignant metastatic state inactivate the NF2, NIPSNAP1, UGT2B17, and LPIN2 genes.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2013; 14(9):840-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the second highest cause of male cancer deaths in the United States. A significant number of tumors advance to a highly invasive and metastatic stage, which is typically resistant to traditional cancer therapeutics. In order to identify chromosomal structural variants that may contribute to prostate cancer progression we sequenced the genomes of a HPV-18 immortalized nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cell line, RWPE1, and compared it to its malignant, metastatic derivative, WPE1-NB26. There were a total of 34 large (> 1 Mbp) and 38 small copy number variants (<100 kbp) in WPE1-NB26 that were not present in the precursor cell line. We also identified and validated 46 structural variants present in the two cell lines, of which 23 were unique to WPE1-NB26. Structural variants unique to the malignant cell line inactivated: (1) the neurofibromin2 (NF2) gene, a known tumor suppressor; (2) its neighboring gene NIPSNAP1, another putative tumor suppressor that inhibits TRPV6, an anti-apoptotic oncogene implicated in prostate cancer progression; (3) UGT2B17, a gene that inactivates dihydrotestosterone, a known activator of prostate cancer progression; and (4) LPIN2, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase and a co-factor of PGC1a that is important for lipid metabolism and for suppressing autoinflammation. Our results illustrate the value of comparing the genomes of defined related pairs of cell lines to discover chromosomal structural variants that may contribute to cancer progression.

Angstadt AY, Berg A, Zhu J, et al.
The effect of copy number variation in the phase II detoxification genes UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 on colorectal cancer risk.
Cancer. 2013; 119(13):2477-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms in combination with the Western-style diet, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity have been hypothesized to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Metabolizers of environmental carcinogenic and endogenous compounds affecting CRC risk include the phase II detoxification UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes UGT2B17 and UGT2B28, which are 2 of the most commonly deleted genes in the genome.
METHODS: To study the effect of UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 copy number variation (CNV) on CRC risk, 665 Caucasian CRC cases and 621 Caucasian controls were genotyped who had completed extensive demographics and lifestyle questionnaires.
RESULTS: A significant association between the UGT2B17 deletion genotype (0/0) and decreased CRC risk was found when the entire population was analyzed (P = .044). Stratification by sex yielded a decreased risk (P = .020) in men with the UGT2B17 deletion (0/0), but no association was observed in women (P = .724). A significant association between UGT2B17 (0/0) and decreased risk for rectal (P = .0065) but not colon cancer was found. No significant association was found between UGT2B28 CNV and CRC risk.
CONCLUSIONS: The UGT2B17 deletion genotype (0/0) was associated with a decreased CRC risk in a Caucasian population. After sex stratification, the association was observed in men but not in women, which is consistent with previous findings that men have higher UGT2B17 expression and activity than women. Because UGT2B17 metabolizes certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and flavonoids with antioxidative properties, individuals with a gene deletion may have higher levels of these protective dietary components.

Nakka M, Agoulnik IU, Weigel NL
Targeted disruption of the p160 coactivator interface of androgen receptor (AR) selectively inhibits AR activity in both androgen-dependent and castration-resistant AR-expressing prostate cancer cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 45(4):763-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The evidence that androgen blockade-resistant prostate cancer, termed castration resistant, remains androgen receptor (AR) dependent is compelling. AR is re-activated through multiple mechanisms including expression of constitutively active splice variants that lack hormone binding domains (HBDs). This highlights the need to develop therapies that target regions other than the HBD. Because the p160 coactivators interact most strongly with the amino-terminus of AR, we examined the consequences of disrupting this interaction. We identified two overlapping SRC-1 peptides that interact with AR, but not with progesterone receptor. These peptides reduce AR and AR variant AR-V7 dependent induction of an AR responsive reporter. Using mammalian two hybrid assays, we found that the peptides interrupt the AR/SRC-1, AR/SRC-2 and AR N/C interactions, but not SRC-1/CARM-1 interactions. Consistent with the SRC-1 dependence of induced, but not repressed genes, in LNCaP cells, the peptides inhibited hormone dependent induction of endogenous target genes including PSA and TMPRSS2, but did not block AR dependent repression of UGT2B17 or inhibit vitamin D receptor activity. Simultaneous detection of SRC-1 peptides and PSA by double immunofluorescence in transfected LNCaP cells clearly demonstrated a strong reduction in PSA levels in cells expressing the peptides. The peptides also inhibited the AR dependent expression of PSA in castration resistant C4-2 cells. Moreover they inhibited androgen dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells and proliferation of C4-2 cells in androgen depleted medium without affecting AR negative PC-3 cells. Thus, the p160 coactivator binding site is a novel potential therapeutic target to inhibit AR activity.

Gruber M, Bellemare J, Hoermann G, et al.
Overexpression of uridine diphospho glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood. 2013; 121(7):1175-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uridine diphospho glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) glucuronidates androgens and xenobiotics including certain drugs. The UGT2B17 gene shows a remarkable copy number variation (CNV), which predisposes for solid tumors and influences drug response. Here, we identify a yet undescribed UGT2B17 mRNA overexpression in poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In total, 320 CLL patients and 449 healthy donors were analyzed. High (above median) UGT2B17 expression was associated with established CLL poor prognostic factors and resulted in shorter treatment-free and overall survival (hazard ratio ([death] 2.18; 95% CI 1.18-4.01; P = .013). The prognostic impact of mRNA expression was more significant than that of UGT2B17 CNV. UGT2B17 mRNA levels in primary CLL samples directly correlated with functional glucuronidation activity toward androgens and the anticancer drug vorinostat (R > 0.9, P < .001). After treatment with fludarabine containing regimens UGT2B17 was up-regulated particularly in poor responders (P = .030). We observed an exclusive involvement of the 2B17 isoform within the UGT protein family. Gene expression profiling of a stable UGT2B17 knockdown in the CLL cell line MEC-1 demonstrated a significant involvement in key cellular processes. These findings establish a relevant role of UGT2B17 in CLL with functional consequences and potential therapeutic implications.

Grant DJ, Hoyo C, Oliver SD, et al.
Association of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene variants with serum glucuronide levels and prostate cancer risk.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2013; 17(1):3-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
AIMS: Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B (UGT2B) enzymes conjugate testosterone metabolites to enable their excretion in humans. The functional significance of the UGT2B genetic variants has never been described in humans. We evaluated UGT2B variants in relation to plasma androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide (AAG) levels and the prostate cancer risk.
RESULTS: AAG levels were measured in sera from 150 controls and compared to the polymorphisms of UGT2B17, UGT2B15, and UGT2B7. Genomic DNA from controls (301) and cases (148) was genotyped for the polymorphisms, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analyses. Having two copies of UGT2B17 was associated with higher AAG levels in controls among Whites (p=0.02), but not Blacks (p=0.82). Logistic regression models adjusting for age and race revealed that homozygosity for the G allele of the UGT2B15(D85Y) polymorphism was directly associated with the prostate cancer risk (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.28, 5.55).
CONCLUSIONS: While the small sample size limits inference, our findings suggest that an association between the UGT2B17 copy number variant (CNV) and serum AAG levels in Whites, but unexpectedly not in Blacks. This novel observation suggests that genetic determinants of AAG levels in Blacks are unrelated to the UGT2B17 CNV. This study replicates the results that show an association of UGT215(D85Y) with an increased prostate cancer risk.

Eskandari-Nasab E, Hashemi M, Rezaei H, et al.
Evaluation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes deletion and the expression level of NGX6 mRNA in breast cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(12):10531-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study was aimed to investigate the possible association between 19-base pair (bp) deletion polymorphism of the DHFR gene (rs70991108), null genotype of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) as well as the expression level of nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated gene 6 (NGX6) with the risk of breast cancer. This case-control study was done on 236 patients with breast cancer and 203 cancer free women. Detection of 19-bp del of DHFR was done using bi-directional PCR allele-specific amplification and UGT2B17 genotyping was performed using multiplex PCR assay. NGX6 mRNA expression level was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in 62 breast cancerous and 62 adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Our finding showed an association between null genotype of UGT2B17 and risk of breast cancer and the null genotype increased susceptibility to breast cancer (OR: 2.99; 95 % CI: 1.94-4.60; p < 0.0001). However, no statistically significant difference was found between breast cancer patients and cancer free normal women regarding 19-bp ins/del of DHFR (χ(2) = 0.91, p = 0.63). Real-time PCR data showed that the relative expression level of NGX6 mRNA was significantly lower in cancerous than that in non-cancerous breast tissue specimens (0.936 ± 0.042 and 1.042 ± 0.039, respectively). However, NGX6 mRNA expression was not correlated with tumors grade (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the null genotype of UGT2B17 revealed to be a risk factor for breast cancer in a sample of Iranian population. Furthermore, down-regulation of NGX6 mRNA expression in breast carcinoma confirms the growing proof regarding the tumor suppressor role of NGX6.

Pâquet S, Fazli L, Grosse L, et al.
Differential expression of the androgen-conjugating UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 enzymes in prostate tumor cells during cancer progression.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(3):E428-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Androgens play major roles in prostate cancer initiation and development. In prostate cells, the human uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)2B15 and UGT2B17 enzymes inactivate androgens.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated in vivo how UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 expressions are affected during prostate cancer development.
DESIGN: We conducted an observational study of the UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 mRNA and protein levels.
SETTING: The study was conducted at Laval University (Québec, Canada) and at the University of British Columbia (Vancouver, Canada).
PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Participants were from a cohort of prostate cancer patients from the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec hospital (Québec; mRNA analyses) and from the Vancouver Prostate Centre tissue bank (Vancouver; tissue microarray experiments).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: UGT mRNA and protein levels were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively.
RESULTS: Both UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 mRNA and protein levels were not significantly associated with Gleason score stratification. However, when protein levels were compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia, UGT2B17 was significantly more abundant in all Gleason-scored tumors. By contrast, UGT2B15 levels were significantly reduced in naive and castration-resistant tumors and undetectable in lymph node metastases. Finally, UGT2B17 proteins were 5-fold more abundant in metastases than in benign samples.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study reveals that UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 are differentially regulated during prostate cancer progression. Furthermore, this study also identifies the UGT2B15 gene as a negatively regulated target gene in castration-resistant prostate cancer and lymph node metastases.

Cai L, Huang W, Chou KC
Prostate cancer with variants in CYP17 and UGT2B17 genes: a meta-analysis.
Protein Pept Lett. 2012; 19(1):62-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both CYP17 and UGT2B17 are suggested to be potential risk factors of prostate cancer (PCa). To date, many studies have evaluated the relationship between CYP17 T-34C and UGT2B17 Del polymorphisms and Prostate cancer with conflicting results. Here, we performed comprehensive meta-analyses of over 25 studies, including results from about 17,000 subjects on the association of CYP17 T-34C and UGT2B17 Del polymorphisms with Prostate cancer. Overall, no significant associations between CYP17 T-34C polymorphism and Prostate cancer risk were found for T versus C (P=0.63), TT versus CC (P=0.52), TT+TC versus CC (P=0.40) or TT versus TC+CC (P=0.98), though there was a marginally significant association with the UGT2B17 Del polymorphism under Del/Del versus Ins/Ins +Ins/Del (P=0.05). In an analysis of various subgroups, there were no substantially significant associations with the CYP17 T-34C polymorphism; while there was a significant association for the UGT2B17 Del/Del genotype in a subgroup of men-based controls (P < 0.0001). The current meta-analysis results suggest that the CYP17 T-34C polymorphism may not be associated with Prostate cancer, while the UGT2B17 Del polymorphism may significantly contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility in men. These findings also support the idea that CYP17 has no significant effects on androgen levels, while UGT2B17 does.

Nadeau G, Bellemare J, Audet-Walsh É, et al.
Deletions of the androgen-metabolizing UGT2B genes have an effect on circulating steroid levels and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(9):E1550-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: The prognostic relevance of inherited variations in hormone-related genes in the context of prostate cancer (PCa) progression has not been well studied. Of these, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) gene products lead to inactivation of steroids.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether polymorphisms in five UGT genes, involved in steroid metabolism, are associated with the risk of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) and to examine their relationship with hormonal exposure.
DESIGN: The study included 526 Caucasian and 320 Asian men who underwent RP for clinically localized PCa. The relationship between genotypes and biochemical recurrence were assessed with multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Plasma steroids were measured using specific and sensitive mass spectrometry-based methods.
RESULTS: The presence of at least two deleted copies of UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 genes resulted in a hazard ratio of 2.26 (95% confidence interval = 1.41-3.61; P = 0.0007) for Caucasians and 2.16 (95% confidence interval = 1.24-3.73; P = 0.006) for Asians. A positive association was observed only between UGT2B17 deletion and the Gleason score in Asians, whereas no other interaction was shown with prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and TNM (tumor node metastasis) staging. Patients carrying UGT2B17 deletions and those with three deleted UGT2B copies had significantly lower androgen glucuronides, in support of an altered androgen metabolism.
CONCLUSION: This study is the first to recognize the prognostic significance of common deletions in steroid inactivation pathways in localized PCa after RP. Alteration of circulating steroid levels associated with UGT2B gene deletions further support the notion that such inherited genomic deletions have the potential to modify hormonal exposure and risk of recurrence.

Pfeiffer MJ, Smit FP, Sedelaar JP, Schalken JA
Steroidogenic enzymes and stem cell markers are upregulated during androgen deprivation in prostate cancer.
Mol Med. 2011; 17(7-8):657-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Considerable levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are found in prostate cancer (PCa) tissue after androgen deprivation therapy. Treatment of surviving cancer-initiating cells and the ability to metabolize steroids from precursors may be the keystones for the appearance of recurrent tumors. To study this hypothesis, we assessed the expression of several steroidogenic enzymes and stem cell markers in clinical PCa samples and cell cultures during androgen depletion. Gene expression profiles were determined by microarray or qRT-PCR. In addition, we measured cell viability and analyzed stem cell marker expression in DuCaP cells by immunocytochemistry. Seventy patient samples from different stages of PCa, and the PCa cell line DuCaP were included in this study. The androgen receptor (AR) and enzymes (AKR1C3, HSD17B2, HSD17B3, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 ) that are involved in the metabolism of adrenal steroids were upregulated in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In vitro, some DuCaP cells survived androgen depletion, and eventually gave rise to a culture adapted to these conditions. During and after this transition, most of the steroidogenic enzymes were upregulated. These cells also are enriched with stem/progenitor cell markers cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2). Similarly, putative stem/progenitor cell markers CK5, c-Kit, nestin, CD44, c-met, ALDH1A1, α2-integrin, CD133, ABCG2, CXCR4 and POU5F1 were upregulated in clinical CRPC. The upregulation of steroidogenic enzymes and stem cell markers in recurrent tumors suggests that cancer initiating cells can expand by adaptation to their T/DHT deprived environment. Therapies targeting the metabolism of adrenal steroids by the tumor may prove effective in preventing tumor regrowth.

Hu DG, Mackenzie PI
Forkhead box protein A1 regulates UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 gene transcription in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2010; 38(12):2105-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) 2B15 and 2B17 are the major UGTs involved in the inactivation and elimination of the active androgens, dihydrotestosterone and testosterone. Although regulation of these UGT genes by various endogenous and exogenous ligands, including steroid hormones and bile acids, is well documented, the mechanisms controlling their basal gene expression are poorly understood. We recently reported that Forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) regulates the basal expression of the UGT2B17 gene in prostate cancer cells. In this study, we show that FOXA1 also regulates basal expression of the UGT2B15 gene in the prostate cell line LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate). FOXA1 binds to a site -208 to -217 base pairs relative to the UGT2B15 translation start site, as shown by electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Mutation of this site prevents binding and substantially decreases basal UGT2B15 promoter activity. Silencing of FOXA1 expression by small interfering RNA significantly reduced UGT2B15 transcript levels, further confirming a crucial role of FOXA1 in controlling UGT2B15 gene expression. Because local inactivation of active androgens by UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 has been shown to be a major determinant of androgen response and signaling activity, regulation of the UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 genes by FOXA1 may have an important role in the maintenance of androgen homeostasis within prostate cancer cells.

Hu DG, Gardner-Stephen D, Severi G, et al.
A novel polymorphism in a forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) binding site of the human UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 gene modulates promoter activity and is associated with altered levels of circulating androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide.
Mol Pharmacol. 2010; 78(4):714-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 is present in the prostate, where it catalyzes the addition of glucuronic acid to testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and their metabolites androsterone and androstane-3α,17β-diol. Hence, changes in UGT2B17 gene expression may affect the capacity of the prostate to inactivate and eliminate male sex hormones. In this work, we identify a prevalent polymorphism, -155G/A, in the proximal promoter of the UGT2B17 gene. This polymorphism modulates UGT2B17 promoter activity, because luciferase-gene reporter constructs containing the -155A allele were 13-fold more active than those containing the -155G allele in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. The -155G/A polymorphism is contained within a putative binding site for the transcription factor Forkhead Box A1 (FOXA1). Using gene reporter, electromobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, we show that FOXA1 binds to this site and stimulates the UGT2B17 promoter. Furthermore, down-regulation of FOXA1 in LNCaP cells substantially reduces UGT2B17 mRNA levels. The binding of FOXA1 and subsequent stimulation of the UGT2B17 promoter is greatly reduced in the presence of the -155G allele compared with the -155A allele. Consonant with its capacity to be stimulated by FOXA1, the UGT2B17 -155A allele, compared with the -155G allele, is associated with higher levels of circulating androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide. Although the initial phases of prostate cancer are androgen-dependent and UGT2B17 inactivates androgens, there was no association of the UGT2B17 -155G/A polymorphism with prostate cancer risk. In summary, this work identifies FOXA1 as an important regulator of UGT2B17 expression in prostate cancer LNCaP cells and identifies a polymorphism that alters this regulation.

Hirata H, Hinoda Y, Zaman MS, et al.
Function of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) is involved in endometrial cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(9):1620-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Endometrial cancer (EC) is a steroid hormone-dependent cancer. Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes conjugate and detoxify endogenous and exogenous steroid hormones and environmental carcinogens. Among these enzymes, the function of UGT2B17 is unknown except for glucuronidation. The messenger RNA expression of UGT2B17 and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) was significantly increased in EC tissues compared with matched normal endometrial tissues. Therefore, we focused on the function of UGT2B17 in EC. A total of nine patients with confirmed EC were enrolled in this study to investigate the expression of UGT2B17 and target genes. EC cell lines were used for functional tests including cell growth, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle analyses. To find the target genes of UGT2B17, we performed microarray analysis to see which genes were upregulated or downregulated by UGT2B17-transfected cells. Functional analysis showed decreased numbers of viable cells and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in si-UGT2B17-transfected Ishikawa cells. Among microarray target genes, Mcl-1 was significantly downregulated in si-UGT2B17-transfected cells. We also found upregulation of Puma protein, a target of Mcl-1, in si-UGT2B17-transfected cells. This is the first report to show that UGT2B17 and Mcl-1 expression are upregulated in EC tissues and that UGT2B17 depletion induces inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis in EC cells through Mcl-1 downregulation.

Setlur SR, Chen CX, Hossain RR, et al.
Genetic variation of genes involved in dihydrotestosterone metabolism and the risk of prostate cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(1):229-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is an important factor in prostate cancer (PCA) genesis and disease progression. Given PCA's strong genetic component, we evaluated the possibility that variation in genes involved in DHT metabolism influence PCA risk.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated copy number variants (CNV) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). We explored associations between CNV of uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) genes from the 2B subclass, given their prostate specificity and/or involvement in steroid metabolism and PCA risk. We also investigated associations between SNPs in genes (HSD3B1, SRD5A1/2, and AKR1C2) involved in the conversion of testosterone to DHT, and in DHT metabolism and PCA risk. The population consisted of 426 men (205 controls and 221 cases) who underwent prostate-specific antigen screening as part of a PCA early detection program in Tyrol, Austria.
RESULTS: No association between CNV in UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 and PCA risk was identified. Men carrying the AA genotype at SNP rs6428830 (HSD3B1) had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.0 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 1.1-4.1] compared with men with GG, and men with AG or GG versus AA in rs1691053 (SRD5A1) had an OR of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.04-3.13). Individuals carrying both risk alleles had an OR of 3.1 (95% CI, 1.4-6.7) when compared with men carrying neither (P = 0.005). Controls with the AA genotype on rs7594951 (SRD5A2) tended toward higher serum DHT levels (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to implicate the 5alpha-reductase isoform 1 (SRD5A1) and PCA risk, supporting the rationale of blocking enzymatic activity of both isoforms of 5alpha-reductase for PCA chemoprevention.

Balliet RM, Chen G, Dellinger RW, Lazarus P
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A10: activity against the tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol, and a potential role for a novel UGT1A10 promoter deletion polymorphism in cancer susceptibility.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2010; 38(3):484-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A10 (UGT1A10) is a phase II metabolizing enzyme that is active against a number of potent carcinogens. In the present study, UGT1A10 was examined for activity against 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), the major procarcinogenic metabolite of the potent tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, and the promoter region of UGT1A10 was examined for variants that could lead to altered UGT1A10 expression. UGT1A10-overexpressing cell homogenates exhibited high O-glucuronidation activity against NNAL (K(M) = 5.95 mM). A 2000-base pair (bp) product corresponding to the UGT1A10 proximal promoter region was polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified using genomic DNA from 97 white subjects, and 42 of these were sequenced. In addition to a previously reported C/G single-nucleotide polymorphism at -1271 bp (rs2741032), a novel 1664-bp deletion located between nucleotides -190 to -1856 relative to the UGT1A10 translation start site was identified. Using real-time multiplex PCR, this deletion exhibited a prevalence of 0.022 in whites (n = 156) and 0.056 in blacks (n = 133). To determine whether either polymorphism altered gene expression, in vitro assays were performed using luciferase constructs containing up to 2000 bp of the proximal UGT1A10 promoter. Constructs containing the 1664-bp deletion exhibited a significant (p = 0.009) 3-fold increase in luciferase activity compared with constructs containing the wild-type UGT1A10 promoter. No effect on luciferase activity was observed for the UGT1A10(-1271G) promoter variant. These data are consistent with previous studies that indicate the presence of a transcriptional repressor element within the newly identified deletion and that this deletion polymorphism may contribute to altered UGT1A10 expression and altered carcinogen detoxification between individuals.

Hu DG, Mackenzie PI
Estrogen receptor alpha, fos-related antigen-2, and c-Jun coordinately regulate human UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 and 2B17 expression in response to 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells.
Mol Pharmacol. 2009; 76(2):425-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 and 2B17 expression is up-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, as assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Using 5'-deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol activation of UGT2B15 gene transcription is mediated by a 282-base pair fragment positioned -454 to -172 nucleotides from the translation start site. This region contains two putative activator protein-1 (AP-1) elements, one imperfect estrogen response element (ERE), and two consensus ERE half-sites. We propose that these five sites act as an estrogen response unit (ERU), because mutation in any site reduces activation of the UGT2B15 promoter by 17beta-estradiol. Despite the presence of two AP-1 elements, the UGT2B15 promoter is not responsive to the AP-1 activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Although electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) indicate that the AP-1 proteins c-Jun and Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) bound to the distal AP-1 site, binding of Jun or Fos family members to the proximal AP-1 site was not detected by EMSA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed a 17beta-estradiol-induced recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, c-Jun, and Fra-2 to the 282-bp ERU. The involvement of these three transcription factors in the stimulation of UGT2B15 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol was confirmed by siRNA silencing experiments. Mutagenesis and siRNA experiments indicate that UGT2B17 expression is also regulated by 17beta-estradiol via the ERU, which is fully conserved in both promoters. Because UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 inactivate steroid hormones by glucuronidation, the regulation of their genes by 17beta-estradiol may maintain steroid hormone homeostasis and prevent excessive estrogen signaling activity.

Montgomery RB, Mostaghel EA, Vessella R, et al.
Maintenance of intratumoral androgens in metastatic prostate cancer: a mechanism for castration-resistant tumor growth.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(11):4447-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Therapy for advanced prostate cancer centers on suppressing systemic androgens and blocking activation of the androgen receptor (AR). Despite anorchid serum androgen levels, nearly all patients develop castration-resistant disease. We hypothesized that ongoing steroidogenesis within prostate tumors and the maintenance of intratumoral androgens may contribute to castration-resistant growth. Using mass spectrometry and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we evaluated androgen levels and transcripts encoding steroidogenic enzymes in benign prostate tissue, untreated primary prostate cancer, metastases from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, and xenografts derived from castration-resistant metastases. Testosterone levels within metastases from anorchid men [0.74 ng/g; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.59-0.89] were significantly higher than levels within primary prostate cancers from untreated eugonadal men (0.23 ng/g; 95% CI, 0.03-0.44; P < 0.0001). Compared with primary prostate tumors, castration-resistant metastases displayed alterations in genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes, including up-regulated expression of FASN, CYP17A1, HSD3B1, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, and UGT2B17 and down-regulated expression of SRD5A2 (P < 0.001 for all). Prostate cancer xenografts derived from castration-resistant tumors maintained similar intratumoral androgen levels when passaged in castrate compared with eugonadal animals. Metastatic prostate cancers from anorchid men express transcripts encoding androgen-synthesizing enzymes and maintain intratumoral androgens at concentrations capable of activating AR target genes and maintaining tumor cell survival. We conclude that intracrine steroidogenesis may permit tumors to circumvent low levels of circulating androgens. Maximal therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer will require novel agents capable of inhibiting intracrine steroidogenic pathways within the prostate tumor microenvironment.

Bao BY, Chuang BF, Wang Q, et al.
Androgen receptor mediates the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 B15 and B17 genes.
Prostate. 2008; 68(8):839-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Enhanced androgen receptor (AR) activity by increased testosterone availability may play important roles in prostate cancer progressing to castration resistant state. Comparison of expression profiles in androgen dependent and independent prostate tumors demonstrated a marked increase of the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 (UGT2B15), an androgen catabolic enzyme. We investigated mechanisms controlling the differential expression of UGT2B15 and B17 in response to androgen treatments.
METHODS: Gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. The association of AR with UGT2B15/B17 genes was determined by Chromatin immuno-precipitation (CHIP). RNA interference was used to knock-down gene expression.
RESULTS: UGT2B15 and B17 genes were not expressed in AR negative prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and DU145, while they were expressed in AR positive cell lines, LNCaP, LNCaP-abl (an androgen independent LNCaP sub-line), and VCaP. The expression levels of UGT2B15/B17 were up-regulated in LNCaP-abl comparing to those in LNCaP. These results suggest the requirement of AR for the expression of UGT2B15/B17. Treatment with DHT down-regulated the expression of UGT2B15/B17 in LNCaP in a time and dose dependent manner and this down-regulation was competitively antagonized by flutamide and bicalutimide, suggesting a pathway mediated by AR. Further CHIP experiments demonstrated the direct interaction of AR with the promoter regions of UGT2B15/B17 genes. Knocking down AR expression in LNCaP significantly reduced the expression of UGT2B15/B17 and completely inhibited the DHT-induced down-regulation of UGT2B15/B17 genes.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that UGT2B15 and B17 are primary androgen-regulated genes and AR is required for both their basal expression and their androgen-regulated expression.

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