Gene Summary

Gene:XRCC1; X-ray repair cross complementing 1
Aliases: RCC
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the efficient repair of DNA single-strand breaks formed by exposure to ionizing radiation and alkylating agents. This protein interacts with DNA ligase III, polymerase beta and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase to participate in the base excision repair pathway. It may play a role in DNA processing during meiogenesis and recombination in germ cells. A rare microsatellite polymorphism in this gene is associated with cancer in patients of varying radiosensitivity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA repair protein XRCC1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: XRCC1 (cancer-related)

Zhou Z, Li Y, Wang H, et al.
Biological Features of a Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Line Derived from Spinal Metastasis.
DNA Cell Biol. 2017; 36(2):168-176 [PubMed] Related Publications
The establishment of a metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) cell line can facilitate the search for molecular mechanisms involved in RCC metastasis. A novel human mRCC cell line, designated RCC96, was established from an mRCC of the spine from a 65-year-old Chinese man. Morphology, cell cycle phase, chromosome number, cell capability of migration, tumorigenicity in nude mice, and cytogenetic features of RCC96 were investigated. Cell growth curve was detected and the cell number doubling time was 52 h. Karyotype analysis showed that these cells were polyploidy. Transmission electron microscope showed that cells were with large atypical nuclei, well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, rich Golgi complex, and mitochondria, as well as visible microacinar in the cytoplasm. PCR and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the expression of some genes such as KISS-1, MMP2, and VEGF in RCC96 was not entirely consistent with that in other RCC cell lines, indicating the differences between primary and metastatic RCC cell lines. The RCC96 cell line may serve as a useful tool for studying the molecular pathogenesis and testing new therapeutic reagents for mRCC.

Nitta T, Koike H, Miyao T, et al.
YM155 Reverses Statin Resistance in Renal Cancer by Reducing Expression of Survivin.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):75-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether treatment with YM155, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of survivin, reverses statin resistance in statin-resistant renal cell cancer (RCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We induced simvastatin resistance in a renal clear cell carcinoma cell line (Caki-1-staR). In vitro and in vivo models were used to test the efficacy of YM155 and simvastatin.
RESULTS: Survivin gene expression was significantly stronger in Caki-1-staR cells than in its parent cells (Caki-1). In Caki-1-staR cells, YM155 significantly reduced expression of survivin gene and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with YM155 significantly reversed simvastatin resistance in Caki-1-staR cells. YM155 significantly inhibited the growth of Caki-1-staR tumors in a nude mouse tumor xenograft model. Furthermore, YM155 significantly enhanced the antitumor effects of simvastatin on Caki-1-staR tumors.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that inhibition of survivin by YM155 overcomes statin resistance in RCC cells.

Yang L, Zhao Z, Zhao S, et al.
The Clinicopathological Significance of Epigenetic Silencing of VHL Promoter and Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(6):1465-1472 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) has been reported as a tumor-suppressor gene in some cancers. However, the association between VHL promoter hypermethylation and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains to be clarified. We are the first to systematically integrate published papers to assess the role of hypermethylated VHL in RCC.
METHODS: The potential relevant papers were searched via PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, CNKI, and Wanfang databases. The overall odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to evaluate the relationship between VHL promoter hypermethylation and RCC.
RESULTS: Finally, a total of 1,998 RCC patients and 294 controls from 13 eligible articles were included in this meta-analysis. Under the fixed-effects model, the pooled OR from seven studies including 596 RCC and 294 nonmalignant samples showed that VHL promoter hypermethylation was significantly higher in cancer than in controls (OR = 7.93, 95% CI = 2.84- 22.15, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis based on ethnic population and testing method revealed that hypermethylated VHL had a significantly similar OR value in different races and detection methodologies. No significant association was found between hypermethylated VHL and tumor grade, tumor stage, tumor size, histological types, and lymph node status in cancer (all P > 0.05). In the current study, there was no evidence of publication bias as determined by Egger's test (all P > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: In the investigated patients, VHL promoter hypermethylation, which may play an important role in carcinogenesis of RCC, is significantly associated with an increased risk of RCC. However, VHL promoter hypermethylation is not correlated with specific clinicopathological characteristics. Additional future studies are needed to confirm our results.

Martinez-Gutierrez JC, D'Andrea MR, Cahill DP, et al.
Diagnosis and management of craniopharyngiomas in the era of genomics and targeted therapy.
Neurosurg Focus. 2016; 41(6):E2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Craniopharyngiomas are rare intracranial neoplasms that pose clinical challenges due to their location adjacent to vital structures. The authors have previously shown high mutation rates of BRAF V600E in papillary craniopharyngioma and of CTNNB1 in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. These activating driver mutations are potential therapeutic targets, and the authors have recently reported a significant response to BRAF/MEK inhibition in a patient with multiply recurrent PCP. As these targetable mutations warrant prospective research, the authors will be conducting a national National Cancer Institute-sponsored multicenter clinical trial to investigate BRAF/MEK inhibition in the treatment of craniopharyngioma. In this new era of genomic discovery, the treatment paradigm of craniopharyngioma is likely to change.

Liu HX, Li J, Ye BG
Correlation between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTP1, ERCC2, XRCC1, and XRCC3 and susceptibility to lung cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(4) [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor that is characterized by high morbidity and poor prognosis. Studies suggest that an individual's genetic background affects the risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to lung cancer. We recruited 308 primary lung cancer patients as subjects and 253 healthy adults as controls. After extraction of DNA from blood samples, gene polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTP1, ERCC2, XRCC1, and XRCC3 were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequencies of the genotypes in both groups were investigated to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, and correlation analysis was carried out. The analysis results showed that the following polymorphisms were correlated with susceptibility to lung cancer: rs4646903 in CYP1A1 (P < 0.001), rs1048943 in CYP1A1 (P < 0.001), rs1695 in GSTP1 (P < 0.05), rs13181 in ERCC2 (P < 0.001), and rs25487 in XRCC1 (P < 0.05); no such correlation existed in rs861539 in XRCC3 (P > 0.05). The study revealed that the more high-risk gene polymorphisms a patient carries, the greater the risk of developing lung cancer. Carriers of rs4646903 in CYP1A1, rs1048943 in CYP1A1, rs1695 in GSTP1, rs13181 in ERCC2, and rs25487 in XRCC1 are more likely to develop lung cancer.

Karam RA, Al Jiffry BO, Al Saeed M, et al.
DNA repair genes polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer in Saudi patients.
Arab J Gastroenterol. 2016; 17(3):117-120 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes may influence individual capacity to repair DNA damage, which may be associated with increased genetic instability and carcinogenesis. Our aim was to evaluate the relation of genetic polymorphisms in 2 DNA repair genes, XPD Lys751Gln and XRCC1 (A399G), with colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. We further investigated the potential effect of these DNA repair variants on clinicopathological parameters of CRC patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Both XPD and XRCC1 polymorphisms were characterised in one hundred CRC patients and one hundred healthy controls who had no history of any malignancy by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and PCR with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP), using DNA from peripheral blood in a case control study.
RESULTS: Our results revealed that the frequencies of GG genotype of XRCC1 399 polymorphism were significantly higher in the CRC patients than in the normal individuals (p⩽0.03), and did not observe any association between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and CRC risk. We found association between both XRCC1 A399G polymorphisms and histological grading of disease.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that, XRCC1 gene is an important candidate gene for susceptibility to colorectal carcinoma.

Yu L, Li J, Xu S, et al.
An Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma with SMARCB1 (INI1) inactivation in adult end-stage renal disease: a case report.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation/transcription factor E3 (TFE3) rearrangement renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC with limited clinical and pathological data.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present an unusual high-grade Xp11.2 translocation RCC with a rhabdoid feature and SMARCB1 (INI1) inactivation in a 40-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease. The histological examination of the dissected left renal tumor showed an organoid architecture of the eosinophilic or clear neoplastic cells with necrosis and high mitotic activity. In some areas, non-adhesive tumor cells with eccentric nuclei were observed. Immunohistochemically (IHC), the tumor cells are positive for TFE3 and the renal tubular markers (PAX2 and PAX8), and completely negative for SMARCB1, an oncosuppressor protein. Break-apart florescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed TFE3 rearrangement on Xp11.2 and the presence of ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion gene. DNA sequencing revealed a frameshift mutation in exon 4 of SMARCB1 gene.
CONCLUSION: It is important to recognize this rare RCC with both TFE3 rearrangement and SMARCB1 inactivation, as the prognosis and therapeutic strategies, particularly targeted therapies for such tumors, might be different.

Sanie-Jahromi F, Saadat I, Saadat M
Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field and cisplatin on mRNA levels of some DNA repair genes.
Life Sci. 2016; 166:41-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: It has been shown that exposure to extremely-low frequency (˂300Hz) oscillating electromagnetic field (EMF) can affect gene expression. The effects of different exposure patterns of 50-Hz EMF and co-treatment of EMF plus cisplatin (CDDP) on mRNA levels of seven genes involved in DNA repair pathways (GADD45A, XRCC1, XRCC4, Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs and LIG4) were evaluated.
MAIN METHODS: Two 50-Hz EMF intensities (0.25 and 0.50mT), three exposure patterns (5min field-on/5min field-off, 15min field-on/15min field-off, 30min field-on continuously) and two cell lines (MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y) were used. The mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time PCR.
KEY FINDINGS: The examined genes had tendency to be down-regulated in MCF-7 cells treated with EMF. In the pattern of 15min field-on/15min field-off of the 0.50mT EMF, no increase in mRNA levels were observed, but the mRNA levels of GADD45A, XRCC1, XRCC4, Ku80, Ku70, and LIG4 were down-regulated. A significant elevation in IC50 of CDDP was observed when MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y cells were co-treated with CDDP+EMF in comparison with the cells treated with CDDP alone. GADD45A mRNA levels in MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y cells co-treated with CDDP+EMF were increased and at the same time the mRNA levels of XRCC4, Ku80, Ku70 and DNA-PKcs were down-regulated.
SIGNIFICANCE: Present study provides evidence that co-treatment of CDDP+EMF can enhance down-regulation of the genes involved in non-homologous end-joining pathway. It might be suggested that co-treatment of CDDP+EMF could be more promising for sensitizing cancer cells to DNA double strand breaks.

Chen S, Zhu XC, Liu YL, et al.
Investigating the association between XRCC1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to gastric cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
We carried out a hospital-based case-control study to investigate the role of XRCC1 gene Arg399Gln, Arg280His, and Arg194Trp polymorphisms in susceptibility to gastric cancer. A total of 214 gastric cancer patients and 247 control subjects were recruited between March 2013 and March 2015, and polymorphism genotype frequencies were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Using the chi-square test, we detected statistically significant differences in age (chi-square = 22.25, P < 0.001), gender (chi-square = 6.74, P = 0.01), and family history of cancer (chi-square = 4.73, P = 0.03) between the case and control groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the XRCC1 Arg194Trp TT genotype conferred increased susceptibility to gastric cancer compared to the CC genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-4.49]. Moreover, individuals carrying the T allele of this variant were found to be at moderately increased risk of this disease (OR = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.16-2.09). However, the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg280His polymorphisms were shown to have no influence on the development of gastric cancer. In conclusion, we suggest that the XRCC1 gene Arg194Trp polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population.

Fan SC, Zhou JG, Yin JZ
Investigation of the role of XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms in the development of gliomas in a Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a study in a Chinese Han population to investigate the role of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms (Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp) with a risk of susceptibility to gliomas. Samples from 115 patients with gliomas and 228 control subjects were consecutively collected between March 2012 and December 2014. Genotype analysis of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. All the analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 software package. We observed that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp genotype frequencies conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We observed that the Trp/Trp genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp was associated with an increased risk of glioma when compared to the wild-type genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.86, P = 0.03). In the dominant model, we found that the Arg/Trp + Trp/Trp genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp could significantly elevate the susceptibility of developing glioma (OR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.07-0.94). However, we observed that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln genetic polymorphism did not influence the risk of glioma. In summary, we suggest that the XRCC1 Arg194Trp genetic polymorphism could be a predictive biomarker for the susceptibility to glioma in a Chinese population.

Udager AM, Mehra R
Morphologic, Molecular, and Taxonomic Evolution of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Conceptual Perspective With Emphasis on Updates to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016; 140(10):1026-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular and morphologic interrogation has driven a much-needed reexamination of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Indeed, the recently released 2016 World Health Organization classification now recognizes 12 distinct RCC subtypes, as well as several other emerging/provisional RCC entities. From a clinical perspective, accurate RCC classification may have important implications for patients and their families, including prognostic risk stratification, targeted therapeutics selection, and identification for genetic testing. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for approaching RCC diagnosis and classification by categorizing RCCs as tumors with clear cytoplasm, papillary architecture, and eosinophilic (oncocytic) cytoplasm. The currently recognized 2016 World Health Organization classification for RCC subtypes is briefly discussed, including new diagnostic entities (clear cell papillary RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC-associated RCC, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, tubulocystic RCC, and acquired cystic disease-associated RCC) and areas of evolving RCC classification, such as transcription elongation factor B subunit 1 (TCEB1)-mutated RCC/RCC with angioleiomyoma-like stroma/RCC with leiomyomatous stroma, RCC associated with anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement, thyroidlike follicular RCC, and RCC in neuroblastoma survivors. For each RCC subtype, relevant clinical, molecular, gross, and microscopic findings are reviewed, and ancillary studies helpful for its differential diagnosis are presented, providing a practical approach to modern RCC classification.

Wang Z, Liu S, Ding K, et al.
Silencing Livin induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death, increasing chemotherapeutic sensitivity to cisplatin of renal carcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):15133-15143 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3 % of all adult malignancies and is the most lethal urological cancer. Livin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, which is associated with tumor resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Clinical data also showed that patients with high tumor grades and stages have higher expression levels of Livin in RCC cells. Autophagy is a survival mechanism activated in response to nutrient deprivation. A possible role of Livin in the autophagy of RCC cells has not been investigated; therefore, this pioneer study was carried out. Livin was silenced in RCC cells (slow virus infection [SVI]-shLivin cells) by lentiviral transfection. Then, mRNA and protein expression levels in the transfected cells were assessed by quantitative fluorescence PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, acridine orange staining and electron microscopy were used to assess autophagy in SVI-shLivin cells. The cisplatin IC50 values for RCC cells were measured by the CCK8 assay. Potent antitumor activities were observed in xenograft mouse models generated with Livin-silenced RCC cells in terms of delayed tumor onset and suppressed tumor growth. These results suggested that Livin silencing could increase the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of RCC cells to cisplatin and induce autophagic cell death. A possible mechanism of Bcl-2 and Akt pathway involvement was discussed specifically in this study. Overall, Livin silencing induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death and increases chemotherapeutic sensitivity of RCC cells to cisplatin.

Calvo E, Schmidinger M, Heng DY, et al.
Improvement in survival end points of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma through sequential targeted therapy.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 50:109-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
Survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has improved since the advent of targeted therapy. Approved agents include the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, pazopanib, cabozantinib, and lenvatinib (approved in combination with everolimus), the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus, and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) targeted immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab. The identification of predictive and prognostic factors of survival is increasing, and both clinical predictive factors and pathology-related prognostic factors are being evaluated. Serum-based biomarkers and certain histologic subtypes of RCC, as well as clinical factors such as dose intensity and the development of some class effect adverse events, have been identified as predictors of survival. Expression levels of microRNAs, expression of chemokine receptor 4, hypermethylation of certain genes, VEGF polymorphisms, and elevation of plasma fibrinogen or d-dimer have been shown to be prognostic indicators of survival. In the future, prognosis and treatment of patients with mRCC might be based on genomic classification, especially of the 4 most commonly mutated genes in RCC (VHL, PBRM1, BAP1, and SETD2). Median overall survival has improved for patients treated with a first-line targeted agent compared with survival of patients treated with first-line interferon-α, and results of clinical trials have shown a survival benefit of sequential treatment with targeted agents. Prognosis of patients with mRCC will likely improve with optimization and individualization of current sequential treatment with targeted agents.

Machackova T, Mlcochova H, Stanik M, et al.
MiR-429 is linked to metastasis and poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma by affecting epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14653-14658 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proven to be important oncogenes and tumor suppressors in wide range of cancers, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In our study, we evaluated miRNA-429 as potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarker in 172 clear cell RCC patients and as a potential regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro. We demonstrated that miR-429 is down-regulated in tumor tissue samples (P < 0.0001) and is significantly associated with cancer metastasis (P < 0.0001), shorter disease-free (P = 0.0105), and overall survival (P = 0.0020). In addition, ectopic expression of miR-429 in 786-0 RCC cells followed by TGF-β treatment led to increase in the levels of E-cadherin expression (P < 0.0001) and suppression of cellular migration (P < 0.0001) in comparison to TGF-β-treated controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-429 may serve as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in RCC patients. We further suggest that miR-429 has a capacity to inhibit loss of E-cadherin in RCC cells undergoing EMT and consequently attenuate their motility.

Kumagai S, Ishibashi K, Kataoka M, et al.
Impact of Sulfatase-2 on cancer progression and prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(11):1632-1641 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heparan sulfate-specific endosulfatase-2 (SULF-2) can modulate the signaling of heparan sulfate proteoglycan-binding proteins. The involvement of SULF-2 in cancer growth varies by cancer type. The roles of SULF-2 expression in the progression and prognosis of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) have not yet been fully clarified. In the present study, the expression levels of SULF-2 mRNA and protein in 49 clinical RCC samples were determined by RT-PCR and immunostaining. The existence of RCC with higher SULF-2 expression and lower SULF-2 expression compared to the adjacent normal kidney tissues was suggested. High SULF-2 expression was correlated with an early clinical stage and less invasive pathological factors. Low SULF-2 expression was correlated with an advanced stage and higher invasive factors. Three-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) for high SULF-2 RCC and low SULF-2 RCC were 100% and 71.4%, respectively (log-rank P = 0.0019), with a significantly shorter CSS observed in low SULF-2 RCC patients. The influence of SULF-2 expression level on Wnt/VEGF/FGF signaling, cell viability and invasive properties was examined in three RCC cell lines, Caki-2, ACHN and 786-O, using a SULF-2 suppression model involving siRNA or a SULF-2 overexpression model involving a plasmid vector. High SULF-2 expression enhanced Wnt signaling and Wnt-induced cell viability, but not cell invasion. In contrast, low levels of SULF-2 expression significantly enhanced both cell invasion and viability through the activation of VEGF/FGF pathways. RCC with lower SULF-2 expression might have a higher potential for cell invasion and proliferation, leading to a poorer prognosis via the activation of VEGF and/or FGF signaling.

Toraih EA, Fawz MS, Elgazzaz MG, et al.
Combined Genotype Analyses of Precursor miRNA196a2 and 499a Variants with Hepatic and Renal Cancer Susceptibility a Preliminary Study.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3369-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs, a novel class of small noncoding RNAs, are key players in many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and regeneration. Tissue and circulatory microRNAs could serve as useful clinical biomarkers and deregulated expression levels have been observed in various cancers. Gene variants may alter microRNA processing and maturation. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association of MIR196a2 rs11614913 (C/T), MIR499a rs3746444 (A/G) polymorphisms and their combination with cancer susceptibility in an Egyptian population. Sixty five renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 60 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and 150 controls were enrolled in the study. They were genotyped using realtime polymerase chain reaction technology. Both miR196a2*T and miR499a*G were associated with RCC risk, but only miR196a*T was associated with HCC development. Carriage of the homozygote combinations (MIR196a2*TT + MIR499a*AA) and (MIR196a2*CC + MIR499a*GG) was associated with 25 and 48 fold elevation of likelhood to develop RCC, respectively. The miR196a2 SNP was also linked with larger tumor size in RCC and advanced tumor stage in HCC. miR196a2 and miR499a combined genotypes were associated with RCC and HCC. Further functional analysis of SNPs is required to confirm relationships between genotypes and phenotypes.

Zhang HP, Zou J, Yin Y, et al.
High-resolution Melting PCR Analysis for Genotyping Lys109Arg and Gln223Arg in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2016; 46(4):367-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although several studies have documented the role of leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in cancers, the association between leptin receptor gene polymorphisms and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to develop a high-resolution melting (HRM) approach for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms of leptin receptor gene on the LightCycler 480, and to explore the relation between polymorphisms of the leptin receptor gene and RCC. The study population consisted of 83 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 161 healthy control subjects. The Lys109Arg (A/G) and Gln223Arg (A/G) polymorphisms of leptin receptor gene were examined with HRM assay. Direct DNA sequencing and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used as a reference method for genotyping Lys109Arg and Gln223Arg, respectively. Three genotypes of Lys109Arg or Gln223Arg were clearly distinguishable from the melting curve shapes with HRM assay. The data also showed the results of the direct DNA sequencing or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis were in complete concordance to genotyping results obtained by HRM (kappa=1.0). In addition, the data showed the G-G haplotype frequency was higher (p<0.05), and that the A-G (p<0.001) and G-A (p<0.01) haplotypes frequencies were lower in the RCC than controls. We developed a rapid, low cost, high-throughput and reliable single-tube technology for genotyping Lys109Arg and Gln223Arg polymorphisms. In addition, our data suggest that Lys109Arg and Gln223Arg gene polymorphisms are associated with RCC in Chinese Han studied population.

Ciccarese C, Brunelli M, Montironi R, et al.
The prospect of precision therapy for renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 49:37-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
The therapeutic landscape of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has greatly expanded in the last decade. From being a malignancy orphan of effective therapies, kidney cancer has become today a tumor with several treatment options. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). In this complex scenario it is important to find prognostic and predictive factors that can help in decision making in the treatment of mRCC.

Javorhazy A, Farkas N, Beothe T, et al.
Lack of TMEM27 expression is associated with postoperative progression of clinically localized conventional renal cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(9):1947-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In spite of early detection of conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by widespread use of abdominal imaging, approximately 10-15 % of patients will die due to disease. The aim of this study was to identify new biomarkers predicting the postoperative progression of conventional RCC.
METHODS: Tissue multiarrays (TMA) of conventional RCC from a cohort of 486 patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry for expression of the transmembrane protein TMEM27, which was identified as a candidate biomarker by Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 array. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were addressed to assess cancer-specific survival in association with clinicopathological variables and TMEM27 expression. Cancer-specific survival time was estimated with Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the comparison of survival curves was made with the log-rank test.
RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated a poor disease-specific survival rates for tumours without TMEM27 staining. Univariate analysis revealed an association of patient survival with T stadium, grade, stage and size of tumour and TMEM27 expression in all cases as well as in the cohort of patients with postoperative tumour progression. In multivariate analysis, only T stadium and TMEM27 staining showed a significant association with postoperative cancer-specific death (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Lack of expression of the TMEM27 in conventional RCC defines a group of patients at high risk for cancer-related death.

Cheng X, Gan W, Zhang G, et al.
Clinical characteristics of XP11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC which is firstly described as a distinct entity in 2004 so that clinical characteristics of Xp11.2 RCC in different gender and age are unknown. The purpose of systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide a comprehensive assessment on them.
METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies which evaluate the clinical characteristics of Xp11.2 RCC. The literature published between July 2004 and May 2014 was searched.
RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 147 participants were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated that number of patients of all age in female was higher than in male with pooled OR of 3.93(95 % CI = 1.66-9.34). However, incidence of distant metastases (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI = 0.12-1.57) and lymphatic metastases (OR = 0.51, 95 % CI = 0.14-1.91), tumor stage (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.34-2.15) and overall survival (OS) (OR = 0.46, 95 % CI = 0.05-4.34) between male and female were comparable. Incidence in female was higher than in male with pooled OR of 5.13(95 % CI = 1.67-15.72) in adults, while in children no gender-related predominance (OR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 0.38-3.72) was observed. In addition, incidence of distant metastases (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.13-7.84) and lymphatic metastases (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.07-13.67) and tumor stage (OR = 1.94, 95 % CI = 0.20-19.03) between children and adults were comparable. Survival curves presented comparable outcomes between male and female (P = 0.707) as well as between children and adults (P = 0.383).
CONCLUSIONS: Female patients with Xp11.2 RCC in adults exhibit a high incidence compared to male, but not in children. Comparable clinical characteristics including incidence of distant and lymphatic metastases, tumor stage and prognosis is presented between male and female as well as between children and adults.

Joseph MM, G A, T K M, T T S
Galactoxyloglucan-doxorubicin nanoparticles exerts superior cytotoxic effects on cancer cells-A mechanistic and in silico approach.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2016; 92:20-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Galactoxyloglucan (PST001), isolated from seed kernel of Tamarindus indica is a non-toxic immunostimlatory agent with selective cytotoxicity on cancer cells. Toxicity associated with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (Dox) is the major barrier in its clinical application. Stable, spherically shaped PST-Dox nanoparticles with an average size of 10nm were prepared via ionic gelation of Dox with PST001 which displayed a pH dependent cumulative Dox release kinetics. PST-Dox nanoparticles demonstrated cancer-specific enhanced cytotoxic effects than PST001 and Dox in cancer cells by enhanced cellular uptake of Dox through the induction of apoptosis, sparing normal cells and RBCs. Elucidation of molecular mechanism by whole genome microarray revealed down-regulation of tyrosine kinase oncogenic pathways as PST-Dox mode of action. An in silico model of PST-Dox was developed and computed the activity against topoisomerase IIß, human Abl kinase and protein tyrosine kinases. Computational studies further affirmed the findings of genomic and proteomic investigations with an increased interaction energy between PST-Dox complexes with target system than with Dox and PST001 alone. The important findings and profoundly restrained methodologies highlighted in the current study will accelerate the therapeutic potential of this nanoparticle formulation for substantial clinical studies and testing in several cancers. To conclude, PST-Dox nanoparticles represent a superior drug delivery nanosystem for the effective treatment of cancer even though detailed investigations are warranted.

Costa EF, Santos ES, Liutti VT, et al.
Association between polymorphisms in genes related to DNA base-excision repair with risk and prognosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(9):1917-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We examined the influence of OGG1 c.977C>G (rs1052133), APEX1 c.444T>G (rs1130409), XRCC1 c.-77T>C (rs3213245), c.580C>T (rs1799782), c.839G>A (rs25489) and c.1196G>A (rs25487) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), involved in base-excision repair (BER) pathway, on oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) risk and prognosis.
METHODS: Aiming to identify the genotypes, DNA from 200 consecutive OPSCC patients and 200 controls was analyzed by PCR-RFLP. The prognostic impact of genotypes of SNPs on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival of OPSCC patients was examined using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression analyses.
RESULTS: XRCC1 c.580CT or TT genotypes (19.5 vs. 11.0 %, P = 0.04) and XRCC1 TTGG haplotype from c.-77T>C, c.580C>T, c.839G>A and c.1196G>A SNPs (17.5 vs. 10.0 %, P = 0.04) were more common in patients with OPSCC than in controls. Carriers of combined genotypes of c.580C>T and TTGG haplotype of XRCC1 gene were under 3.35- and 3.22-fold increased risk of OPSCC than others. For survival analysis, we selected only patients with tumor at stage IV. The median follow-up time was 24.5 months. At 24 months of follow-up, PFS was shorter in patients with OGG1 c.977CC genotype when compared with others genotypes (35.5 vs. 52.1 %, log-rank test, P = 0.03). After multivariate Cox analysis, patients with OGG1 c.977CC genotype had more chance to present tumor progression when compared with others (HR 1.68, P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data present, for the first time, evidence that inherited OGG1 c.977C>G; XRCC1 c.-77T>C, c.580C>T, c.839G>A and c.1196G>A abnormalities of DNA BER pathway are important determinants of OPSCC and predictors of patient outcomes.

Singh SA, Ghosh SK
Polymorphisms of XRCC1 and XRCC2 DNA Repair genes and Interaction with Environmental Factors Influence the Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Northeast India.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(6):2811-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple genetic and environmental factors have been reported to play key role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we investigated interactions of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphisms and environmental factors in modulating susceptibility to NPC in Northeast India. One-hundred NPC patients, 90 first-degree relatives of patients and 120 controls were enrolled in the study. XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphisms were determined using PCR-RFLP, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Logistic regression (LR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) approaches were applied for statistical analysis. The XRCC1 Gln/Gln genotype showed increased risk (OR=2.76; <0.024) of NPC. However, individuals with both XRCC1 and XRCC2 polymorphic variants had 3.2 fold elevated risk (<0.041). An enhanced risk of NPC was also observed in smoked meat (OR=4.07; P=0.004) and fermented fish consumers (OR=4.34, P=0.001), and tobacco-betel quid chewers (OR=7.00; P=0.0001) carrying XRCC1 polymorphic variants. However, smokers carrying defective XRCC1 gene showed the highest risk (OR = 7.47; <0.0001). On MDR analysis, the best model for NPC risk was the five-factor model combination of XRCC1 variant genotype, fermented fish, smoked meat, smoking and chewing (CVC=10/10; TBA=0.636; <0.0001); whereas in interaction entropy graphs, smoked meat and tobacco chewing showed synergistic interactions with XRCC1. These findings suggest that interaction of genetic and environmental factors might increase susceptibility to NPC in Northeast Indian populations.

Dimberg J, Skarstedt M, Slind Olsen R, et al.
Gene polymorphism in DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC6 and association with colorectal cancer in Swedish patients.
APMIS. 2016; 124(9):736-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
The DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC6 have been proposed to participate in the pathological process of cancer by modulating the DNA repair capacity. This study evaluated the susceptibility of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) XRCC1 (rs25487, G > A) and XRCC6 (rs2267437, C > G) to colorectal cancer (CRC) and their association with clinical parameters in Swedish patients with CRC. Using the TaqMan system, these SNPs were screened in 452 patients and 464 controls. No significant difference in genotype distribution was found between the patients and controls, or any significant association with cancer-specific or disease-free survival in patients. However, we showed that the carriers of allele A in XRCC1 (rs25487, G > A) were connected with a higher risk of disseminated CRC (Odds Ratio = 1.64; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.12-2.41, p = 0.012).

Zhang M, Lu W, Huang Y, et al.
Downregulation of the long noncoding RNA TUG1 inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion and promotes apoptosis of renal cell carcinoma.
J Mol Histol. 2016; 47(4):421-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs, a newly discovered category of noncoding genes, play a leading role in various biological processes, including tumorigenesis. In our study, we aimed to examine the TUG1 expression, and explore the influence of TUG1 silencing on cell proliferation and apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. The TUG1 expression level was detected using quantitative real-time PCR reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 40 paired clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and adjacent paired normal tissues, as well as four RCC cell lines and one normal human proximal tubule epithelial cell line HK-2. Small interfering RNA was applied to suppress the TUG1 expression in RCC cell lines (A489 and A704). In vitro assays were conducted to further deliberate its potential functions in RCC progression. The relative TUG1 expression was significantly higher in ccRCC tissues compared to the adjacent normal renal tissues. In addition, higher TUG1 expression was equally detected in RCC cell lines (particularly in A498 and A704) compared to HK-2. The ccRCC specimens with higher TUG1 expression had a higher Fuhrman grade and larger tumor size than those with lower TUG1 expression. In vitro assays results suggested that knockdown of TUG1 suppressed RCC cells migration, invasion and proliferation, while the apoptosis process was activated. Our results indicate that TUG1 is identified as a novel oncogene in the morbid state of RCC, which potentially acts as a therapeutic target/biomarker in RCC. The graphic abstract of the present work.

Jin JJ, Wang HQ, Kuang HP, et al.
Analyzing the association between XRCC1 c.1804C>A genetic variant and lung cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Lung cancer is the most common cancer occurring worldwide. The human X-ray repair complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene is one of the most important candidate genes that influence the susceptibility to lung cancer. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential association between the c.1804C>A genetic variant of XRCC1 and lung cancer susceptibility. A total of 703 subjects were recruited for this study. Genotyping of c.1804C>A genetic variant was performed using the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction. Statistically significant differences in allele frequencies and genotype were found between lung cancer patients and cancer-free controls. The genotype AA was statistically associated with the increased risk of lung cancer when compared to the wild genotype, CC, and the carrier genotype, CA/CC (AA vs CC: OR = 2.71, 95%CI = 1.57-4.67, P < 0.001; AA vs
CA/CC: OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 1.50-4.29, P < 0.001). The allele A likely contributes to the susceptibility to lung cancer (A vs C: OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.17-1.84, P = 0.001). Our data indicates that the c.1804C>A genetic variant of XRCC1 is statistically associated with the susceptibility to lung cancer in the Chinese population.

Wang LJ, Wang HT, Wang XX
Association of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a case-control study to assess the role of the XRCC1 Arg399Gln, Arg280His, and Arg194Trp gene polymorphisms in pancreatic cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population. A total of 152 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and 264 control subjects were enrolled in this study between March 2012 and October 2014. XRCC1 Arg399Gln, Arg280His, and Arg194Trp were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. As determined by the chi-squared test, a statistically significant difference was observed between pancreatic cancer patients and control subjects in regard to the genetic distribution of XRCC1 Arg399Gln (χ(2) = 16.13, P < 0.001). Using an unconditional regression analysis, we found that the TT genotype of Arg399Gln was associated with a significantly increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 2.33, 95%CI = 1.20-4.51), and that the CT+TT genotype also significantly increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.04-2.41), compared to the wild-type genotype. In conclusion, we found that XRCC1 Arg399Gln genetic variations are associated with pancreatic cancer development, whereas the XRCC1 Arg280His and Arg194Trp polymorphisms did not affect pancreatic cancer risk.

Bu L, Zhang LB, Mao X, Wang P
GSTP1 Ile105Val and XRCC1 Arg399Gln gene polymorphisms contribute to the clinical outcome of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) genetic variations may in-fluence the efficacy of chemotherapy in various cancers. We investi-gated the possible roles of GSTP1 Ile105Val and XRCC1 Arg194Trp, and Arg399Gln gene polymorphisms in the prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Between January 2010 and December 2012, this study consecutively recruited 141 patients with advanced NSCLC from the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province. Logistic regression analy-sis showed that individuals carrying the GG genotype were associated with a better response to chemotherapy than those with the wide-type genotype, with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, CI) of 4.07 (1.06-25.06). Moreover, we observed that the AA genotype of XRCC1 Arg399Gln was correlated with a greater complete response + partial response to chemotherapy than that with the GG genotype (odds ratio = 2.71, 95%CI = 1.13-10.08). Based on the Cox hazard proportional model, the GG genotype of GSTP1 Ile105Val was found to be associated with a lower risk of death from all causes as compared to that with the AA genotype (hazard ratio = 0.07, 95%CI = 0.01-0.34). In summary, we suggest that GSTP1 Ile105Val and XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms could influence the response to chemotherapy and sur-vival of advanced NSCLC.

Halkova T, Dvorakova S, Sykorova V, et al.
Polymorphisms in selected DNA repair genes and cell cycle regulating genes involved in the risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(1):97-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. In addition to causal somatic mutations in the BRAF gene and RET/PTC rearrangements, the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in low-penetrance genes in the development of PTC has been proposed.
METHODS: Four SNPs in the XRCC1 (Arg399Gln, Arg280His, Arg194Trp and T-77C) and one SNP from each of three other genes participating in DNA repair pathways and/or cell cycle regulation (ATM Asp1853Asn, TP53 Arg72Pro, CDKN1B Val109Gly) were selected. The allelic and genotypic distributions of these variants as well as haplotypes of the XRCC1 were examined in 583 individuals comprising well-characterized cohorts of 209 PTC patients and 374 healthy volunteers. Correlations of polymorphism with clinical-pathological data and mutation status were performed.
RESULTS: XRCC1 T-77C polymorphism affects the genetic susceptibility for PTC development in men, the specific combination of XRCC1 haplotypes correlates with RET/PTC incidence, CDKN1B Val109Gly significantly influences the risk of developing PTC regardless of gender and in PTC cases, selected genotypes of TP53 Arg72Pro and ATM Asp1853Asn were significantly associated with monitored tumour characteristics.
CONCLUSION: It seems that SNPs in studied regulating genes contribute to the development of PTC and modify the tumour behaviour or characteristics.

Chen X, Zhu Q, Li B, et al.
Renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion: imaging findings in 21 patients.
Eur Radiol. 2017; 27(2):543-552 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To characterize imaging features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion.
METHODS: Twenty-one patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumour location, size, density, cystic or solid appearance, calcification, capsule sign, enhancement pattern and metastases were assessed.
RESULTS: Fourteen women and seven men were identified with 12 being 25 years old or younger. Tumours were solitary and cystic-solid (76.2 %) masses with a capsule (76.2 %); 90.5 % were located in the medulla. Calcifications and lymph node metastases were each observed in 24 %. On unenhanced CT, tumour attenuation was greater than in normal renal parenchyma (85.7 %). Tumour enhancement was less than in normal renal cortex on all enhanced phases, greater than in normal renal medulla on cortical and medullary phases, but less than in normal renal medulla on delayed phase. On MR, the tumours were isointense on T1WI, heterogeneously hypointense on T2WI and slightly hyperintense on diffusion-weighted imaging.
CONCLUSION: Xp11.2/TFE RCC usually occurs in young women. It is a cystic-solid, hyperdense mass with a capsule. It arises from the renal medulla with enhancement less than in the cortex but greater than in the medulla in all phases except the delayed phase, when it is lower than in the medulla.
KEY POINTS: • Xp11.2/TFE RCC was more prevalent in young women. • On unenhanced CT, Xp11.2/TFE RCC attenuation was greater than in renal parenchyma. • Xp111/2TFE RCC arises primarily from the renal medulla. • Xp11.2/TFE RCC enhancement was less than in the cortex on all phases. • Enhancement was greater than in the medulla in arterial and corticomedullary phase.

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