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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 29.3m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 37,400
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 143.6
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:15.0%
People dying from cancer /yr: 21,700
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Malaysia Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Malaysia

Malaysia Cancer Organisations and Resources (7 links)

Latest Research Publications Related to Malaysia

Sharma P, Mehta M, Dhanjal DS, et al.
Emerging trends in the novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of lung cancer.
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 309:108720 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is one of the major diseases that cause a high number of deaths globally. Of the major types of cancers, lung cancer is known to be the most chronic form of cancer in the world. The conventional management of lung cancer includes different medical interventions like chemotherapy, surgical removal, and radiation therapy. However, this type of approach lacks specificity and also harms the adjacent normal cells. Lately, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising intervention in the management and treatment of lung cancers. Nanotechnology has revolutionized the existing modalities and focuses primarily on reducing toxicity and improving the bioavailability of anticancer drugs to the target tumor cells. Nanocarrier systems are being currently used extensively to exploit and to overcome the obstructions induced by cancers in the lungs. The nano-carrier-loaded therapeutic drug delivery methods have shown promising potential in treating lung cancer as its target is to control the growth of tumor cells. In this review, various modes of nano drug delivery options like liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and metallic nanoparticles have been discussed. Nano-carrier drug delivery systems emerge as a promising approach and thus is expected to provide newer and advanced avenues in cancer therapeutics.

Hamidu A, Mokrish A, Mansor R, et al.
Modified methods of nanoparticles synthesis in pH-sensitive nano-carriers production for doxorubicin delivery on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:3615-3627 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Youl Lee J, Taniguchi T, Zhang K, et al.
Report of the forth Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) study meeting.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2019; 49(6):581-586 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) Study is an Asia-wide prospective registry study for surveying the treatment outcome of prostate cancer patients who have received a histopathological diagnosis. The study aims to clarify the clinical situation for prostate cancer in Asia and use the outcomes for the purposes of international comparison. Following the first meeting in Tokyo on December 2015, the second meeting in Seoul, Korea 2016, the third meeting in Chiang Mai, Thailand, on October 2017, the fourth meeting was held in Seoul, again on August 2018 with the participation of members and collaborators from 13 countries and regions. In the meeting, participating countries and regions presented the current status of data collection and the A-CaP office presented a preliminary analysis of the registered cases received from each country and region. Participants discussed ongoing challenges relating to data cleaning and data up-dating which is the next step of the A-CaP study following the data collection phase between 2016 and 2018. There was specific difference in term of the patient characteristics, and initial treatment pattern among East Asia, Southeast Asia and Turkey, and Jordan. Finally, a close relationship between prevalence of PSA test and disease stage of the patients at diagnosis in Japan and Malaysia was discussed.

Abdul Rafar NR, Hong YH, Wu DB, et al.
Cost-Effectiveness of Adjuvant Trastuzumab Therapy for Early Breast Cancer in Asia: A Systematic Review.
Value Health Reg Issues. 2019; 18:151-158 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and assess the quality of the economic evidence of adjuvant trastuzumab usage in early breast cancer in Asian countries.
METHODS: Literature search was performed using 6 electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, EconLit, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, and ISI Web of Knowledge). The final search was performed in October 2018. All potential economic studies were then checked for eligibility. The reporting and methodological qualities of each study were independently assessed by 2 authors of this review, using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards, Drummond, and Philips checklists. To compare the different currencies used in these studies, all costs were converted into US dollars (2016).
RESULTS: A total of 6 studies were included; most of them were performed from the healthcare provider perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for evaluation performed for a lifetime horizon were reported at $8573 and $20 816 per quality-adjusted life-year in 2 studies. The model outcome was generally sensitive to the changes in trastuzumab drug acquisition cost and discount rate, as well as its clinical effectiveness. For the quality assessment, all studies fulfilled more than 50% of the requirements in the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards, Drummond, and Philips checklists.
CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant trastuzumab therapy is considered a cost-effective option for early breast cancer in Asian countries including China, Iran, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan. All studies were generally well conducted. Economic evaluations from the societal perspective, with inclusion of indirect and informal care costs, are warranted to facilitate informed decision making among policy makers.

Wang L, Xu J, Yan Y, et al.
Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles from Scutellaria barbata and its anticancer activity in pancreatic cancer cell (PANC-1).
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1):1617-1627 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nanotechnology has been materialized as a proficient technology for the development of anticancer nanoparticles all the way through an environment-friendly approach. Conventionally, nanoparticles have been assembled by dissimilar methods, but regrettably rely on the negative impact on the natural environment. Amalgamation of nanoparticles by means of plant extract is alternate conservative methods. Scutellaria barbata species was used majorly as food or as medicines against various diseases, and extensive research was conducted for their therapeutic properties. The present research was mainly focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles from the Scutellaria barbata by green route method and evaluation of its anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1). The gold nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, SAED, AFM, and FTIR analysis. The synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessed effective anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1). Hence, further research on this plant may lead to the development of novel anticancer drugs which can be used to combat pancreatic cancer.

Zhang XC, Wang J, Shao GG, et al.
Comprehensive genomic and immunological characterization of Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1772 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deep understanding of the genomic and immunological differences between Chinese and Western lung cancer patients is of great importance for target therapy selection and development for Chinese patients. Here we report an extensive molecular and immune profiling study of 245 Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte estimated using immune cell signatures is found to be significantly higher in adenocarcinoma (ADC, 72.5%) compared with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC, 54.4%). The correlation of genomic alterations with immune signatures reveals that low immune infiltration was associated with EGFR mutations in ADC samples, PI3K and/or WNT pathway activation in SQCC. While KRAS mutations are found to be significantly associated with T cell infiltration in ADC samples. The SQCC patients with high antigen presentation machinery and cytotoxic T cell signature scores are found to have a prolonged overall survival time.

Looi CK, Chung FF, Leong CO, et al.
Therapeutic challenges and current immunomodulatory strategies in targeting the immunosuppressive pancreatic tumor microenvironment.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):162 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal type of cancers, with an overall five-year survival rate of less than 5%. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage with limited therapeutic options. To date, no effective treatment options have demonstrated long-term benefits in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Compared with other cancers, pancreatic cancer exhibits remarkable resistance to conventional therapy and possesses a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME).
MAIN BODY: In this review, we summarized the evidence and unique properties of TME in pancreatic cancer that may contribute to its resistance towards immunotherapies as well as strategies to overcome those barriers. We reviewed the current strategies and future perspectives of combination therapies that (1) promote T cell priming through tumor associated antigen presentation; (2) inhibit tumor immunosuppressive environment; and (3) break-down the desmoplastic barrier which improves tumor infiltrating lymphocytes entry into the TME.
CONCLUSIONS: It is imperative for clinicians and scientists to understand tumor immunology, identify novel biomarkers, and optimize the position of immunotherapy in therapeutic sequence, in order to improve pancreatic cancer clinical trial outcomes. Our collaborative efforts in targeting pancreatic TME will be the mainstay of achieving better clinical prognosis among pancreatic cancer patients. Ultimately, pancreatic cancer will be a treatable medical condition instead of a death sentence for a patient.

Chua LS, Lau CH, Chew CY, Dawood DAS
Solvent Fractionation and Acetone Precipitation for Crude Saponins from
Molecules. 2019; 24(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Lim WK, Fong CY, Li L, et al.
Extensive intracranial haemorrhage as a complication of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with hyperleukocytosis.
J Clin Neurosci. 2019; 64:11-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a rare case of distinctive extensive punctate intracranial haemorrhage associated with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with hyperleukocytosis. A 7-year-old girl presented with hyperleukocytosis (white cell count 788.7 × 10

Raihan J, Ahmad U, Yong YK, et al.
Regression of solid breast tumours in mice by Newcastle disease virus is associated with production of apoptosis related-cytokines.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):315 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Different strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) worldwide proved to have tumouricidal activity in several types of cancer cells. However, the possible anti-cancer activity of Malaysian NDV AF2240 strain and its mechanism of action remains unknown. The ability of cytokine-related apoptosis-inducing NDV AF2240 to treat breast cancer was investigated in the current study.
METHODS: A total of 90 mice were used and divided into 15 groups, each group comprising of 6 mice. Tumour, body weight and mortality of the mice were determined throughout the experiment, to observe the effect of NDV and NDV + tamoxifen treatments on the mice. In addition, the toxic effect of the treatments was determined through liver function test. In order to elucidate the involvement of cytokine production induced by NDV, a total of six cytokines, i.e. IL-6, IFN-γ, MCP-1, IL-10, IL12p70 and TNF-α were measured using cytometric bead array assay (plasma) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (isolated splenocytes).
RESULTS: The results demonstrated that 4 T1 breast cancer cells in allotransplanted mice treated with AF2240 showed a noticeable inhibition of tumour growth and induce apoptotic-related cytokines.
CONCLUSIONS: NDV AF2240 suppression of breast tumour growth is associated with induction of apoptotic-related cytokines. It would be important to further investigate the molecular mechanism underlaying cytokines production by Newcastle disease virus.

Lee SS, Cheah YK
The Interplay between MicroRNAs and Cellular Components of Tumour Microenvironment (TME) on Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Progression.
J Immunol Res. 2019; 2019:3046379 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cellular components of the tumour microenvironment (TME) are recognized to regulate the hallmarks of cancers including tumour proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, as well as chemotherapeutic resistance. The linkage between miRNA, TME, and the development of the hallmarks of cancer makes miRNA-mediated regulation of TME a potential therapeutic strategy to complement current cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in cancer therapy, lung cancer remains the deadliest form of cancer among males in the world and has overtaken breast cancer as the most fatal cancer among females in more developed countries. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments for NSCLC, which is the most common type of lung cancer. Hence, this review will focus on current literature pertaining to antitumour or protumourigenic effects elicited by nonmalignant stromal cells of TME in NSCLC through miRNA regulation as well as current status and future prospects of miRNAs as therapeutic agents or targets to regulate TME in NSCLC.

Lim RZM, Ooi JY, Tan JH, et al.
Outcome of Cervical Lymph Nodes Dissection for Thyroid Cancer with Nodal Metastases: A Southeast Asian 3-Year Experience.
Int J Surg Oncol. 2019; 2019:6109643 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: Therapeutic nodal dissection is still the mainstay of treatment for patients with lymph node metastases in many centres. The local data, however, on the outcome of therapeutic LND remains limited. Hence, this study aims to inform practice by presenting the outcomes of LND for thyroid cancer patients and our experience in a tertiary referral centre.
Methods: This is a single-centre retrospective observational study in a Malaysian tertiary endocrine surgery referral centre. Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection between years 2013 and 2015 were included and electronic medical records over a 3-year follow-up period were reviewed. The outcomes of different lymph node dissection (LND), including central neck dissection, lateral neck dissection, or both, were compared.
Results: Of the 43 subjects included, 28 (65.1%) had Stage IV cancer. Among the 43 subjects included, 8 underwent central LND, and 15 had lateral LND while the remaining 20 had dissection of both lateral and central lymph nodes. Locoregional recurrence was found in 16 (37.2%) of our subjects included, with no statistical difference between the central (2/8), lateral (7/15), and both (7/20). Postoperative hypocalcaemia occurred in 7 (16.3%) patients, and vocal cord palsy occurred in 5 (11.6%), whereas 9 patients (20.9%) required reoperation. Death occurred in 4 of our patients.
Conclusion: High recurrence and reoperative rates were observed in our centre. While the routine prophylactic LND remains controversial, high risk patients may be considered for prophylactic LND. The long-term risk and benefit of prophylactic LND with individualised patient selection in the local setting deserve further studies.

Yahaya MAF, Lila MAM, Ismail S, et al.
Tumour-Associated Macrophages (TAMs) in Colon Cancer and How to Reeducate Them.
J Immunol Res. 2019; 2019:2368249 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumour-associated macrophage (TAM) serves as the site in which most inflammatory cells coreside. It plays an important role in determining the progression and metastasis of a tumour. The characteristic of TAM is largely dependent on the stimuli present in its tumour microenvironment (TME). Under this environment, however, M2 macrophages are found to be in abundance compared to M1 macrophages which later promote tumour progression. Numerous studies have elucidated the relationship between TAM and the progression of tumour; hence, TAM has now been the subject of interest among researchers for anticancer therapy. This review discusses the role of TAM in colorectal cancer (CRC) and some of the potential candidates that could reeducate TAM to fight against CRC. It is with hope that this review will serve as the foundation in understanding TAM in CRC and helping other researchers to select the most suitable candidate to reeducate TAM that could assist in enhancing the tumouricidal activity of M1 macrophage and eventually repress the development of CRC.

Goud EVSS, Malleedi S, Ramanathan A, et al.
Association of Interleukin-10 Genotypes and Oral Cancer Susceptibility in Selected Malaysian Population: A Case- Control Study
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):935-941 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Interleukin-10 (IL10) genotypes have been closely correlated to the susceptibility for oral squamous cell carcinoma. More than half of oral cancers in the world occur in Asia with estimated 168,850 new cases were diagnosed in this geographical region alone. Considering the rising numbers of oral cancer cases in Malaysia, association of IL10 A1082G gene polymorphism was correlated. Methodology: 41 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases and 48 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, and with habits like smoking, alcohol consumption and betel quid chewing were selected. In this case-control study, samples were collected from the Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre (OCRCC), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Malaysia. Genotyping conditions were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR products were subjected to digestion by MnlI enzyme (NEB, UK) to screen for the IL10 A-1082G. Digested DNA products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 4% (w/v) agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide and imaged under UV illumination. Chi-square test and Fisher’s Exact test were used in statistical analysis. Results: AG genotypes were present in 81.3% and 86.0% of healthy control and OSCC cases respectively (OR=0.468, 95% CI=0.133-1.653). No significant association was found between IL10 A1082G polymorphism with risk habits, clinico-pathological parameters and 5-years overall survival. The findings also show no significant correlation between the IL10 genotype and features of OSCC within the case group as measured by tumor size, lymph node involvement, stage, invasive front, grading, depth, pattern of invasion. Conclusion: This study suggests that functional polymorphism AG of IL10 A1082G may have no influence with OSCC susceptibility. However, further investigation with larger sample sizes can be conducted to provide additional evidence to support the lack of association of IL10 A1082G polymorphism in oral cancer.

Abdullah MI, Junit SM, Ng KL, et al.
Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Genetic Alterations and Molecular Biomarker Investigations.
Int J Med Sci. 2019; 16(3):450-460 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most prevalent form of malignancy among all cancers of the thyroid. It is also one of the few cancers with a rapidly increasing incidence. PTC is usually contained within the thyroid gland and generally biologically indolent. Prognosis of the cancer is excellent, with less than 2% mortality at 5 years. However, more than 25% of patients with PTC developed a recurrence during a long term follow-up. The present article provides an updated condensed overview of PTC, which focuses mainly on the molecular alterations involved and recent biomarker investigations.

Ali- Saeed R, Alabsi AM, Ideris A, et al.
Evaluation of Ultra-Microscopic Changes and Proliferation of Apoptotic Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells Induced by Velogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus AF2240
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):757-765 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of genus Avulavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Interest of using NDV as an anticancer agent has arisen from its ability to kill tumor cells with limited toxicity to normal cells. Methods: In this investigation, the proliferation of brain tumor cell line, glioblastoma multiform (DBTRG.05MG) induced by NDV strain AF2240 was evaluated in-vitro, by using MTT proliferation assay. Furthermore, Cytological observations were studied using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, DNA laddering in agarose gel electrophoresis assay used to detect the mode of cell death and analysis of the cellular DNA content by flowcytometery. Results: MTT proliferation assay, Cytological observations using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show the anti-proliferation effect and apoptogenic features of NDV on DBTRG.05MG. Furthermore, analysis of the cellular DNA content showed that there was a loss of treated cells in all cell cycle phases (G1, S and G2/M) accompanied with increasing in sub-G1 region (apoptosis peak). Conclusion: It could be concluded that NDV strain AF2240 is a potent antitumor agent that induce apoptosis and its cytotoxicity increasing while increasing of time and virus titer.

Ganggayah MD, Taib NA, Har YC, et al.
Predicting factors for survival of breast cancer patients using machine learning techniques.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2019; 19(1):48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common diseases in women worldwide. Many studies have been conducted to predict the survival indicators, however most of these analyses were predominantly performed using basic statistical methods. As an alternative, this study used machine learning techniques to build models for detecting and visualising significant prognostic indicators of breast cancer survival rate.
METHODS: A large hospital-based breast cancer dataset retrieved from the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n = 8066) with diagnosis information between 1993 and 2016 was used in this study. The dataset contained 23 predictor variables and one dependent variable, which referred to the survival status of the patients (alive or dead). In determining the significant prognostic factors of breast cancer survival rate, prediction models were built using decision tree, random forest, neural networks, extreme boost, logistic regression, and support vector machine. Next, the dataset was clustered based on the receptor status of breast cancer patients identified via immunohistochemistry to perform advanced modelling using random forest. Subsequently, the important variables were ranked via variable selection methods in random forest. Finally, decision trees were built and validation was performed using survival analysis.
RESULTS: In terms of both model accuracy and calibration measure, all algorithms produced close outcomes, with the lowest obtained from decision tree (accuracy = 79.8%) and the highest from random forest (accuracy = 82.7%). The important variables identified in this study were cancer stage classification, tumour size, number of total axillary lymph nodes removed, number of positive lymph nodes, types of primary treatment, and methods of diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: Interestingly the various machine learning algorithms used in this study yielded close accuracy hence these methods could be used as alternative predictive tools in the breast cancer survival studies, particularly in the Asian region. The important prognostic factors influencing survival rate of breast cancer identified in this study, which were validated by survival curves, are useful and could be translated into decision support tools in the medical domain.

Lawrenson K, Song F, Hazelett DJ, et al.
Genome-wide association studies identify susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer in east Asian women.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(2):343-355 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women.
METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations.
RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10
CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.

Syafruddin SE, Rodrigues P, Vojtasova E, et al.
A KLF6-driven transcriptional network links lipid homeostasis and tumour growth in renal carcinoma.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1152 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional networks are critical for the establishment of tissue-specific cellular states in health and disease, including cancer. Yet, the transcriptional circuits that control carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we report that Kruppel like factor 6 (KLF6), a transcription factor of the zinc finger family, regulates lipid homeostasis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We show that KLF6 supports the expression of lipid metabolism genes and promotes the expression of PDGFB, which activates mTOR signalling and the downstream lipid metabolism regulators SREBF1 and SREBF2. KLF6 expression is driven by a robust super enhancer that integrates signals from multiple pathways, including the ccRCC-initiating VHL-HIF2A pathway. These results suggest an underlying mechanism for high mTOR activity in ccRCC cells. More generally, the link between super enhancer-driven transcriptional networks and essential metabolic pathways may provide clues to the mechanisms that maintain the stability of cell identity-defining transcriptional programmes in cancer.

Daddiouaissa D, Amid A, Kabbashi NA, et al.
Antiproliferative activity of ionic liquid-graviola fruit extract against human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines using flow cytometry techniques.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2019; 236:466-473 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal plants have been used for ages by indigenous communities around the world to help humankind sustain its health. Graviola (Annona muricata), also called soursop, is a member of the Annonaceae family and is an evergreen plant that is generally distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Graviola tree has a long history of traditional use due to its therapeutic potential including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticide and cytotoxic to tumor cells.
AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects and apoptotic events of the ionic liquid extract of Graviola fruit (IL-GFE) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their cytokinetics behaviour to observe their potential as a therapeutic alternative in cancer treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cell viability assay of the extract was measured using tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay) to observe the effects of Graviola fruit extract. Then the cytokinetics behaviour of MCF-7 cells treated with IL-GFE is observed by plotting the growth curve of the cells. Additionally, the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis mechanism of IL-GFE action on MCF-7 cancer cells were observed by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: IL-GFE exhibited anti-proliferative activity on MCF-7 with the IC50 value of 4.75 μg/mL, compared to Taxol with an IC50 value of 0.99 μg/mL. IL- GFE also reduced the number of cell generations from 3.71 to 1.67 generations compared to 2.18 generations when treated with Taxol. Furthermore, the anti-proliferative activities were verified when the growth rate was decreased dynamically from 0.0077 h to 1 to 0.0035 h-1. Observation of the IL-GFE-treated MCF-7 under microscope demonstrated detachment of cells and loss of density. The growth inhibition of the cells by extracts was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and phosphatidylserine externalisation confirms the anti-proliferation through apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: ionic liquid Graviola fruit extract affect the cytokinetics behaviour of MCF-7 cells by reducing cell viability, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase.

Choo CS, Wan Abdul Rahman WF, Jaafar H, Ramli RR
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of maxilla in paediatric patient.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma (CS) is a malignant tumour of long and flat bone characterised by the formation of cartilage. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MCS) is a rare subtype of CS that is more aggressive and may lead to erroneous diagnosis in a limited biopsy. The diagnosis is mainly based on the histopathological appearance of biphasic pattern of undifferentiated small round cells separated by islands of well-differentiated hyaline cartilage. We report a case of 13-year-old boy who initially presented with gum swelling and the biopsy result suggested a benign fibrous lesion. Following an extensive lesion shown in radiologic findings, the tumour excision was done and finally was diagnosed as an MCS of the maxilla. The patient was given postoperative chemotherapy (EURO-EWING 99 regimen), and now on regular follow-up for monitoring of local recurrence or tumour metastasis.

Nabil S, Nazimi AJ, Nordin R, et al.
Mandibulotomy: an analysis of its morbidities.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018; 47(12):1511-1518 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mandibulotomy is a procedure that was developed to improve access in tumour resection. This study aimed to investigate the complications associated with mandibulotomy and analyze factors that could affect the risks of developing these complications. The hospital records of all patients who underwent a mandibulotomy as part of their tumour ablative surgery at two major centres in Malaysia were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical, and complications data were recorded and analyzed. Early postoperative complications occurred in 46.5% of the patients and post-radiation therapy complications in 16.1%. Wound dehiscence (27.9%) and inferior alveolar nerve injury (25.6%) were the common early postoperative complications. Dental injuries (9.7%) and plate exposure/infection (9.7%) were the common post-radiation therapy complications. Furthermore, inferior alveolar nerve injury and early abscess formation were significantly associated with the site of the mandibulotomy. The T-stage of a tumour but not the site of mandibulotomy was significantly associated with tumour margin clearance. Mandibulotomy does pose an added risk of complications for a patient undergoing tumour surgery. The benefits of mandibulotomy in terms of gaining margin clearance could not be proven in this study. The site of mandibulotomy appears to increase the risk of developing an inferior alveolar nerve injury.

Narayanan V, Jayapalan RR, Singh Sidhu A, Koh KMR
Single Port Endoscope-Assisted Excision of Forehead Lesions: An Innovative Way of Improving the Optical Cavity.
J Craniofac Surg. 2019 May/Jun; 30(3):841-842 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exophytic lesions involving the face present with an undesirable esthetic deformity and usually necessitate surgical excision. Conventional open excision techniques may lead to scar formation or pigmentation issues postoperatively. Minimally invasive endoscope-assisted surgery will be able to overcome these problems. However, this technique is not widely used because of the limited optical cavity working space, which hinders good visualization. We describe a technique to improve the optical cavity workspace to enable adequate endoscope-assisted surgical excision of forehead lesions in 2 cases. Foley's catheter and ribbon gauze were used in both cases to gain optical cavity workspace. The surgical technique is described in detail. One case had a frontal osteoma, whereas other was a nodular fasciitis of the forehead, confirmed by histology. Postoperative follow-up showed good outcomes at 1 year with no recurrences. Both patients were satisfied with the surgical and cosmetic outcomes. Endoscopic excision of a forehead lesion using the described technique is both safe and reliable. It is an excellent method for excising benign growths over the forehead while being cosmetically acceptable.

Zakaria KN, Amid A, Zakaria Z, et al.
Anti-Proliferative Activity of Triterpenes Isolated from Clinicanthus nutans on Hep-G2 Liver Cancer Cells
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(2):563-567 [PubMed] Related Publications
Problem statement: Clinicanthus nutans has been used by Malaysian since long time ago. It is used to treat many diseases including cancer. Many studies carried out on its crude extract but no clear report on the specific secondary metabolites responsible for its nature in treating selected diseases. Objective: This study aims to confirm the practice carried out by many people on the usage of Clinicanthus nutans in treating cancer. Methods: C. nutans leaves were extracted by methanol. Thin layer chromatography was used to identify the suitable solvent for fractions separation. The fractions were then separated at larger volume using gravity column chromatography. Each fraction was tested on its anti-proliferative activity on Hep-G2 liver cancer cells by MTT assay. The phytochemical screening was carried out to identify the bioactive compound based on qualitative analysis. Results: The fraction 2 (F2) of C. nutans showed the lowest IC50 value of 1.73 μg/ml against Hep-G2 cancer cells, and it is identified as triterpenes. Conclusion: The fraction F2 identified as triterpenes isolated from C. nutans has potential as an anti-proliferative agent against liver cancer.

Mohd Norsuddin N, Mello-Thoms C, Reed W, Lewis S
Radiologists’ Performance at Reduced Recall Rates in Mammography: A Laboratory Study
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(2):537-543 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rationale and objectives: Target recall rates are often used as a performance indicator in mammography screening programs with the intention of reducing false positive decisions, over diagnosis and anxiety for participants. However, the relationship between target recall rates and cancer detection is unclear, especially when readers are directed to adhere to a predetermined rate. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of setting different recall rates on radiologist’s performance. Materials and Methods: Institutional ethics approval was granted and informed consent was obtained from each participating radiologist. Five experienced breast imaging radiologists read a single test set of 200 mammographic cases (20 abnormal and 180 normal). The radiologists were asked to identify each case that they required to be recalled in three different recall conditions; free recall, 15% and 10% and mark the location of any suspicious lesions. Results: Wide variability in recall rates was observed when reading at free recall, ranging from 18.5% to 34.0%. Readers demonstrated significantly reduced performance when reading at prescribed recall rates, with lower sensitivity (H=12.891, P=0.002), case location sensitivity (H=12.512, P=0.002) and ROC AUC (H=11.601, P=0.003) albeit with an increased specificity (H=12.704, P=0.002). However, no significant changes were evident in lesion location sensitivity (H=1.982, P=0.371) and JAFROC FOM (H=1.820, P=0.403). Conclusion: In this laboratory study, reducing the number of recalled cases to 10% significantly reduced radiologists’ performance with lower detection sensitivity, although a significant improvement in specificity was observed.

Haron NH, Mohamad Hanif EA, Abdul Manaf MR, et al.
Microsatellite Instability and Altered Expressions of MLH1 and MSH2 in Gastric Cancer
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(2):509-517 [PubMed] Related Publications
Introduction: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hallmark of defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) of genes especially MLH1 and MSH2. It is frequently involved in the carcinogenesis of various tumours including gastric cancer (GC). However, MSI in GCs have not been reported in Malaysia before. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the microsatellite instability (MSI) status in gastric cancer by microsatellite analysis, sequencing, its association with MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression and H.pylori infection by immunohistochemistry. Method: A total of 60 gastric cancer cases were retrieved. DNA was extracted from paired normal and tumour tissues while MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression as well as H. pylori status were determined by IHC staining. For microsatellite analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for paired tissue samples using a panel of five microsatellite markers. MSI-positive results were subjected for DNA sequencing to assess mutations in the MLH1 and MSH2 genes. Results: Microsatellite analysis identified ten MSI positive cases (16.7%), out of which only six cases (10.3%) showed absence of MLH1 (n=3) or MSH2 (n=3) protein expression by IHC. The most frequent microsatellite marker in MSI positive cases was BAT26 (90%). Nine of ten MSI positive cases were intestinal type with one diffuse and all were located distally. H. pylori infection was detected in 13 of 60 cases (21.7%) including in three MSI positive cases. All these results however were not statistically significant. Our sequencing data displayed novel mutations. However these data were not statistically correlated with expression levels of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins by IHC. This may be due to small sample size to detect small or moderately sized effects. Conclusion: The frequency of MSI in this study was comparable with published results. Determination of affected MMR genes by more than two antibodies may increase the sensitivity of IHC to that of MSI analysis.

Mat Zin AA, Zulkarnain S
Diagnostic Accuracy of Cytology Smear and Frozen Section in Glioma
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(2):321-325 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is the commonest primary intracranial tumour and it has been the most predominant tumour in many studies. It accounts for 24.7% of all primary brain tumour and 74.6% of malignant brain tumour. Intraoperative diagnosis plays a crucial role in determining the patient management. Frozen section has been the established technique in providing rapid and accurate intraoperative diagnosis. However due to some disadvantages like ice crystal artefact, high expenditure and requirement of skilled technician, there is increase usage of cytology smear either replacing or supplementing frozen section technique. The aim of this review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of cytology smear and frozen section in glioma and to see whether there is significant difference between those techniques. The overall diagnostic accuracy for frozen section in glioma ranging from 78.4% to 95% while for cytology smear, the diagnostic accuracy ranging from 50% to 100%. Based on certain literatures, no statistically difference was observed in diagnostic accuracy of cytology smear and frozen section. Thus, cytology smear provides an alternative method in establishing intraoperative diagnosis. Both cytology smear and frozen section are complimentary to each other. It is recommended to use both techniques to improve the diagnostic accuracy in addition with adequate knowledge, clinical history, neuroimaging and intraoperative findings.

Kong TW, Ryu HS, Kim SC, et al.
Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology International Workshop 2018.
J Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 30(2):e39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology International Workshop 2018 on gynecologic oncology was held in the Ajou University Hospital, Suwon, Korea on the 24th to 25th August 2018. The workshop was an opportunity for Asian doctors to discuss the latest findings of gynecologic cancer, including cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancers, as well as the future of fertility-sparing treatments, minimally invasive/radical/debulking surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Clinical guidelines and position statement of Asian countries were presented by experts. Asian clinical trials for gynecologic cancers were reviewed and experts emphasized the point that original Asian study is beneficial for Asian patients. In Junior session, young gynecologic oncologists presented their latest research on gynecologic cancers.

Mohd Nor NA, Taib NA, Saad M, et al.
Development of electronic medical records for clinical and research purposes: the breast cancer module using an implementation framework in a middle income country- Malaysia.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 19(Suppl 13):402 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Advances in medical domain has led to an increase of clinical data production which offers enhancement opportunities for clinical research sector. In this paper, we propose to expand the scope of Electronic Medical Records in the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) using different techniques in establishing interoperability functions between multiple clinical departments involving diagnosis, screening and treatment of breast cancer and building automatic systems for clinical audits as well as for potential data mining to enhance clinical breast cancer research in the future.
RESULTS: Quality Implementation Framework (QIF) was adopted to develop the breast cancer module as part of the in-house EMR system used at UMMC, called i-Pesakit©. The completion of the i-Pesakit© Breast Cancer Module requires management of clinical data electronically, integration of clinical data from multiple internal clinical departments towards setting up of a research focused patient data governance model. The 14 QIF steps were performed in four main phases involved in this study which are (i) initial considerations regarding host setting, (ii) creating structure for implementation, (iii) ongoing structure once implementation begins, and (iv) improving future applications. The architectural framework of the module incorporates both clinical and research needs that comply to the Personal Data Protection Act.
CONCLUSION: The completion of the UMMC i-Pesakit© Breast Cancer Module required populating EMR including management of clinical data access, establishing information technology and research focused governance model and integrating clinical data from multiple internal clinical departments. This multidisciplinary collaboration has enhanced the quality of data capture in clinical service, benefited hospital data monitoring, quality assurance, audit reporting and research data management, as well as a framework for implementing a responsive EMR for a clinical and research organization in a typical middle-income country setting. Future applications include establishing integration with external organization such as the National Registration Department for mortality data, reporting of institutional data for national cancer registry as well as data mining for clinical research. We believe that integration of multiple clinical visit data sources provides a more comprehensive, accurate and real-time update of clinical data to be used for epidemiological studies and audits.

Abdul Ghani R, Mohamed Shah FZ, Hanafiah M, Abdul Aziz M
Periadrenal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour: half a decade before cure.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
A 30-year-old ex-smoker with a background history of childhood asthma presented with worsening shortness of breath despite receiving high doses of oral corticosteroid for pemphigus vulgaris which was diagnosed 5 years earlier. A high-resolution CT examination of the thorax reported non-specific bronchiectatic changes and revealed an incidental suprarenal mass. A subsequent CT scan confirmed a large adrenal mass with areas of necrosis and calcification. Serum renin and aldosterone, urinary catecholamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were within normal limits. Surgical intervention was delayed due to difficulty in optimising preoperative respiratory functions. He finally underwent a midline laparotomy for removal of the tumour. Histopathological examinations revealed extrapulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour arising from the periadrenal soft-tissue, with presence of normal adrenal gland. He showed immediate improvements of his asthmatic symptoms and pemphigus vulgaris following the surgery. His oral steroid was rapidly reduced and he achieved complete remission 2 months later.

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