Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (9)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: AQP1 (cancer-related)
Gastric carcinoma is one of the most lethal malignancy at present with leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small, integral membrane proteins, which have been evidenced to play a crucial role in cell migration and proliferation of different cancer cells including gastric cancers. However, the aberrant expression of specific AQPs and its correlation to detect predictive and prognostic significance in gastric cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we comprehensively explored immunohistochemistry based map of protein expression profiles in normal tissues, cancer and cell lines from publicly available Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database. Moreover, to improve our understanding of general gastric biology and guide to find novel predictive prognostic gastric cancer biomarker, we also retrieved 'The Kaplan-Meier plotter' (KM plotter) online database with specific
Luo L, Yang R, Zhao S, et al.Decreased miR-320 expression is associated with breast cancer progression, cell migration, and invasiveness via targeting Aquaporin 1.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2018; 50(5):473-480 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Our previous studies have demonstrated that Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is overexpressed in breast cancer. However, the mechanism remains elusive. MicroRNA 320 (miR-320) downregulation has been reported in various types of cancers, and it may regulate AQP1 expression. In this study, miR-320 and AQP1 expressions were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The clinicopathological implications of these molecules were also analyzed. We found that miR-320 expression is downregulated in both plasma and tumor tissue in human breast cancer patients. Survival analysis showed that reduced expression of miR-320 and overexpression of AQP1 are associated with worse prognosis. Luciferase assays showed that miR-320 negatively regulates AQP1 expression. In addition, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion assays were performed to investigate the effects of miR-320 on breast cancer cells. Our results showed that miR-320 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer cells by downregulating AQP1. These observations suggested that miR-320 downregulation may enhance AQP1 expression in breast cancer, favoring tumor progression. Our findings indicated that miR-320 and AQP1 may serve as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the treatment of breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: The immunohistochemical expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in asbestos-related malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is emerging as a useful prognostic indicator of improved survival. A significantly increased incidence of MPM in a small town in southern Italy was ascribed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a naturally occurring asbestos fiber. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of AQP1 in patients affected by FE-related MPM; taking into consideration its suggested independent prognostic role, its possible correlation with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome was also evaluated.
METHODS: Ten patients were selected for this study, as neoplastic tissue blocks, clinical and follow-up data were available. The immunohistochemical overexpression of AQP1 was defined as ≥50% of tumor cells showing membranous staining.
RESULTS: Six cases showed AQP1 expression in ≥50% of tumor cells; in this group, a significant association of AQP1 overexpression with an increased median overall survival (OS) of 26.3 months was observed. By contrast, four patients exhibited an AQP1 score of <50% of stained cells, with a shorter median OS of 8.9 months.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study represents further confirmation of the hypothesized prognostic role of AQP1, which seems a reliable prognostic indicator.
Aquaporins (AQPs), a family of transmembrane channel, are composed of 13 identified members (AQP0-12). Accumulating evidences reported that AQPs were correlated with various biological roles and represented a prognostic predictor in various cancer types. However, the prognostic value of AQPs expression in ovarian cancer remains unclear. Using 'Kaplan-Meier plotter' (KM plotter) online database, we explored the predictive prognostic value of individual AQPs members' mRNA expression to overall survival (OS) in different clinical data, such as histology, pathological grades, clinical stages, TP53 status, and applied chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. Our results revealed that higher
Shimasaki M, Kanazawa Y, Sato K, et al.Aquaporin-1 and -5 are involved in the invasion and proliferation of soft tissue sarcomas.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(1):80-88 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies of several carcinomas have reported that aquaporin possesses novel oncogenic properties. The aim of this study was to clarify the involvement of aquaporin-1 and -5 in the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of soft tissue sarcomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of aquaporin-1 and -5 was immunohistochemically examined in 73 soft tissue sarcomas as well as in benign, locally aggressive soft tissue tumors, and in soft tissues of adult humans and human fetuses. The mRNA and protein expression of aquaporin-1 and -5 genes were quantified in 19 sarcoma tissues.
RESULTS: Aquaporin-1 was expressed in the tumor cells of 37 (51%) and aquaporin-5 in 29 (40%) of 73 soft tissue sarcomas. Two expression patterns were identified: a differentiation-dependent pattern, similar to their expression in adult human soft tissue and in benign soft tissue tumors, and an aggressiveness-related pattern, that is similar to their expression in the mesenchymal cells of the developing fetal limb. The latter expression pattern proved to be an independent prognostic factor for patients with soft tissue sarcoma, in which aquaporin-1 was related to the invasiveness, and aquaporin-5 to the proliferation of soft tissue sarcoma cells.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate pivotal roles for aquaporin-1 and -5 in the aggressive growth and metastatic potential of soft tissue sarcomas, suggesting that they are promising targets for the treatment of patients with intractable soft tissue sarcoma.
Meningiomas are the most commonly reported primary intracranial tumor in dogs and humans and between the two species there are similarities in histology and biologic behavior. Due to these similarities, dogs have been proposed as models for meningioma pathobiology. However, little is known about specific pathways and individual genes that are involved in the development and progression of canine meningioma. In addition, studies are lacking that utilize RNAseq to characterize gene expression in clinical cases of canine meningioma. The primary objective of this study was to develop a technique for which high quality RNA can be extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue and then used for transcriptome analysis to determine patterns of gene expression. RNA was extracted from thirteen canine meningiomas-eleven from formalin fixed and two flash-frozen. These represented six grade I and seven grade II meningiomas based on the World Health Organization classification system for human meningioma. RNA was also extracted from fresh frozen leptomeninges from three control dogs for comparison. RNAseq libraries made from formalin fixed tissue were of sufficient quality to successfully identify 125 significantly differentially expressed genes, the majority of which were related to oncogenic processes. Twelve genes (AQP1, BMPER, FBLN2, FRZB, MEDAG, MYC, PAMR1, PDGFRL, PDPN, PECAM1, PERP, ZC2HC1C) were validated using qPCR. Among the differentially expressed genes were oncogenes, tumor suppressors, transcription factors, VEGF-related genes, and members of the WNT pathway. Our work demonstrates that RNA of sufficient quality can be extracted from FFPE canine meningioma samples to provide biologically relevant transcriptome analyses using a next-generation sequencing technique, such as RNA-seq.
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a proangiogenic water channel protein promoting endothelial cell migration. We previously reported that AQP1 silencing by RNA interference reduces angiogenesis-dependent primary tumour growth in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that AQP1 inhibition also affects animal survival and lung nodule formation. Melanoma was induced by injecting B16F10 cells into the back of C57BL6J mice. Intratumoural injection of AQP1 siRNA and CTRL siRNA was performed 10 days after tumour cell implantation. Lung nodule formation was analysed after the death of the mice. Western blot was used to quantify HIF-1α, caspase-3 (CASP3) and metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) protein levels. We found that AQP1 knock-down (KD) strongly inhibited metastatic lung nodule formation. Moreover, AQP1 siRNA-treated mice showed a twofold survival advantage compared to mice receiving CTRL siRNAs. The reduced AQP1-dependent tumour angiogenesis caused a hypoxic condition, evaluated by HIF-1α significant increase, in turn causing an increased level of apoptosis in AQP1 KD tumours, assessed by CASP3 quantification and DNA fragmentation. Importantly, a decreased level of MMP2 after AQP1 KD indicated a decreased activity against extracellular matrix associated with reduced vascularization and metastatic formation. In conclusion, these findings highlight an additional role for AQP1 as an important determinant of tumour dissemination by facilitating tumour cell extravasation and metastatic formation. This study adds knowledge on the role played by AQP1 in tumour biology and supports the view of AQP1 as a potential drug target for cancer therapy.
Cagini L, Balloni S, Ludovini V, et al.Variations in gene expression of lung macromolecules after induction chemotherapy for lung cancer.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017; 52(6):1077-1082 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: Preoperative chemotherapy may play a role in postoperative respiratory complications due to subclinical parenchymal damage. We investigated the gene expression of lung tissue components after neoadjuvant chemotherapy of alveolar-capillary membrane, extracellular matrix and membrane proteins.
METHODS: The study group included 14 patients submitted to pulmonary resection for lung cancer after 3 cycles of gemcitabine-cisplatin, while the control group included 14 naive-treatment patients. RNA was extracted from frozen tissue obtained by healthy lung specimens using EZ1 RNA Universal Tissue kit and automatically purified by BioRobot EZ1 instrument. Three hundred nanograms of total RNA was reverse transcribed to complementary DNA and used to evaluate the gene expression of type I and III collagen, elastin, syndecan, metalloproteinase 13 and aquaporins (AQPs) in real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation of 3 independent experiments. Analysis of variance followed by Sheffe's F-test was performed.
RESULTS: Among the alveolar-capillary membrane and extracellular matrix genes, type I-III collagens and syndecan were significantly up-regulated (+645%, +327% and +261%, respectively), while elastin and metalloproteinase 13 were down-regulated in the study group versus control group (-46% and -77%, respectively). Furthermore, chemotherapy was associated with a significant up-regulation of AQP expressions (AQP1:+51% and AQP5:+36%).
CONCLUSIONS: We observed, in the treated group, increases in the mean values of gene expressions for macromolecules involved in the remodelling of both the alveolar septa and parenchyma scaffold, thereby supporting the hypothesis that induction chemotherapy may foster a fibrosing effect on the pulmonary parenchyma and lead to altering the alveolar-capillary membrane.
Wang Y, Fan Y, Zheng C, Zhang XKnockdown of AQP1 inhibits growth and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(4):5499-5504 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Aquaporin 1 (AQP1), which is a water channel protein, has been demonstrated to have an important role in cell proliferation and migration of various cancers. However, its specific role in ovarian cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that AQP1 expression was elevated in the majority of patients with ovarian cancer compared with normal ovarian tissues. In addition, a short interfering (si)RNA targeting AQP1 was established, and transfected into the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line, to investigate the effects on cell viability, apoptosis, migration and invasion in the ovarian cancer cells using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, wound healing and Transwell invasion chamber assays, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that siRNA targeting AQP1 effectively downregulated AQP1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, markedly suppressed cell viability, migration and invasion and promoted apoptosis of ovarian cancers cells. These results suggested that AQP1 may serve as a novel target for ovarian cancer treatment in the future.
BACKGROUND: Intramedullary ependymal cysts of the spinal cord are rare, benign, fluid-filled cysts usually situated along the ventral surface of the spinal cord. Only 32 cases have been reported since they were first described. Thus, owing to the rarity at which these cysts are encountered, their management and pathogenesis remain controversial. Whereas some investigators have advocated for cystosubarachnoid shunt placement for symptomatic ependymal cysts, others have argued for complete cyst resection or simple fenestration. Here we report the case of a 56-year-old female with a T11-T12 ependymal cyst that was successfully managed with cyst fenestration. We further investigated a potential pathological mechanism of cyst formation by performing immunohistochemistry to detect aquaporin expression in the cyst lining.
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 56-year-old female was found to harbor an enlarging cystic lesion of the conus that was discovered on workup of progressive paraparesis and urinary incontinence. She had lower extremity weakness and progressive myelopathy. Thoracic laminectomy with cyst fenestration arrested her neurologic deterioration. Pathological analysis revealed an intramedullary ependymal cyst. Immunohistochemistry was subsequently performed for expression of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4. There was dense staining of the underlying neuropil with concurrent membranous staining pattern of the cyst lining.
CONCLUSIONS: Intramedullary ependymal cysts are rare, cystic lesions of the spinal cord. Early cyst fenestration decompresses the cyst and prevents neurologic deterioration. Here we report for the first time that aquaporins are expressed in the cyst wall, which is consistent with a passive, osmotic pathogenic mechanism of cyst formation.
In this chapter, we mainly discuss the expression and function of aquaporins (AQPs ) expressed in digestive system . AQPs in gastrointestinal tract include four members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5 and AQP8, and a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3. In the digestive glands, especially the liver, we discuss three members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP5 and AQP8, a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP9. AQP3 is involved in the diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease; AQP5 is relevant to gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and migration; AQP9 plays considerable role in glycerol metabolism , urea transport and hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigation is necessary for specific locations and functions of AQPs in digestive system.
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are water channel proteins supposed to facilitating fluid transport in alveolar space, airway humidification, pleural fluid absorption, and submucosal gland secretion . In this chapter, we mainly focus on the expression of 4 AQPs in the lungs which include AQP1, AQP2 , AQP4 and AQP5 in normal and disease status, and the experience of AQPs function from various model and transgenic mice were summarized in detail to improve our understanding of the role of AQPs in fluid balance of respiratory system. It has been suggested that AQPs play important roles in various physiology and pathophysiology conditions of different lung diseases. There still remains unclear the exact role of AQPs in lung diseases, and thus continuous efforts on elucidating the roles of AQPs in lung physiological and pathophysilogical processes are warranted.
Aquaporins (AQPs ) mediate water flux between the four distinct water compartments in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present chapter, we mainly focus on the expression and function of the 9 AQPs expressed in the CNS, which include five members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, and AQP8; three members of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9; and one member of superaquaporin subfamily: AQP11. In addition, AQP1, AQP2 and AQP4 expressed in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are also reviewed. AQP4, the predominant water channel in the CNS, is involved both in the astrocyte swelling of cytotoxic edema and the resolution of vasogenic edema, and is of pivotal importance in the pathology of brain disorders such as neuromyelitis optica , brain tumors and Alzheimer's disease. Other AQPs are also involved in a variety of important physiological and pathological process in the brain. It has been suggested that AQPs could represent an important target in treatment of brain disorders like cerebral edema. Future investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological significance of AQPs in the CNS.
Cancer is a major health burden worldwide. Despite the advances in our understanding of its pathogenesis and continued improvement in cancer management and outcomes, there remains a strong clinical demand for more accurate and reliable biomarkers of metastatic progression and novel therapeutic targets to abrogate angiogenesis and tumour progression. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a small hydrophobic integral transmembrane protein with a predominant role in trans-cellular water transport. Recently, over-expression of AQP1 has been associated with many types of cancer as a distinctive clinical prognostic factor. This has prompted researchers to evaluate the link between AQP1 and cancer biological functions. Available literature implicates the role of AQP1 in tumour cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. This article reviews the current understanding of AQP1-facilitated tumour development and progression with a focus on regulatory mechanisms and downstream signalling pathways.
Antiangiogenic therapies have failed to confer survival benefits in patients with metastatic breast cancer (mBC). However, to date, there has not been an inquiry into the roles for acquired versus innate drug resistance in this setting. In this study, we report roles for these distinct phenotypes in determining therapeutic response in a murine model of mBC resistance to the antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. Using tumor measurement and vascular patterning approaches, we differentiated tumors displaying innate versus acquired resistance. Bioluminescent imaging of tumor metastases to the liver, lungs, and spleen revealed that sunitinib administration enhances metastasis, but only in tumors displaying innate resistance to therapy. Transcriptomic analysis of tumors displaying acquired versus innate resistance allowed the identification of specific biomarkers, many of which have a role in angiogenesis. In particular, aquaporin-1 upregulation occurred in acquired resistance, mTOR in innate resistance, and pleiotrophin in both settings, suggesting their utility as candidate diagnostics to predict drug response or to design tactics to circumvent resistance. Our results unravel specific features of antiangiogenic resistance, with potential therapeutic implications.
Non-invasive imaging of gene expression in live, optically opaque animals is important for multiple applications, including monitoring of genetic circuits and tracking of cell-based therapeutics. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable such monitoring with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, existing MRI reporter genes based on metalloproteins or chemical exchange probes are limited by their reliance on metals or relatively low sensitivity. Here we introduce a new class of MRI reporters based on the human water channel aquaporin 1. We show that aquaporin overexpression produces contrast in diffusion-weighted MRI by increasing tissue water diffusivity without affecting viability. Low aquaporin levels or mixed populations comprising as few as 10% aquaporin-expressing cells are sufficient to produce MRI contrast. We characterize this new contrast mechanism through experiments and simulations, and demonstrate its utility in vivo by imaging gene expression in tumours. Our results establish an alternative class of sensitive, metal-free reporter genes for non-invasive imaging.
Soveral G, Casini AAquaporin modulators: a patent review (2010-2015).
Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2017; 27(1):49-62 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Since the discovery of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) as a water channel, more than 2,000 articles, reviews and chapters have been published. The wide tissue expression, functional and biological roles have documented the major and essential physiological importance of these channels both in health and disease. Thus, over the years, studies have revealed essential importance of aquaporins in mammalian pathophysiology revealing aquaporins as potential drug targets. Areas covered: Starting from a brief description of the main structural and functional features of aquaporins, their roles in physiology and pathophysiology of different human diseases, this review describes the main classes of small molecules and biologicals patented, published from 2010 to 2015, able to regulate AQPs for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Expert opinion: Several patents report on AQP modulators, mostly inhibitors, and related pharmaceutical formulations, to be used for treatments of water imbalance disorders, such as edema. Noteworthy, a unique class of gold-based compounds as selective inhibitors of aquaglyceroporin isoforms may provide new chemical tools for therapeutic applications, especially in cancer. AQP4-targeted therapies for neuromyelitis optica, enhancement of AQP2 function for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and AQP1-5 gene transfer for the Sjogren's syndrome represent promising therapies that deserve further investigation by clinical trials.
Zhang C, Gao W, Wen S, et al.Potential key molecular correlations in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma revealed by integrated analysis of mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA microarray profiles.
Neoplasma. 2016; 63(6):888-900 [PubMed
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To uncover potential key genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), microarray data of mRNA, miRNAs and lncRNAs produced from matched sample pairs of LSCC and adjacent normal samples were used to this analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) and lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs) were identified, and functions and correlations of them were analyzed. In total, 826 DEGs, 44 DE-miRNAs and 347 DE-lncRNAs were identified. The up-regulated DEGs were mainly related to cell cycle, and the down-regulated DEGs were correlated with regulation of biological quality and extracellular region. Furthermore, ATP1A2 was regulated by the lncRNA FLJ42875; AQP1 and TGFBR2 were targeted by LOC100505976; genes like BUB1B and CENPE were modulated by XLOC_l2_010636. Besides, genes like FGF2 and PIK3R1, and lncRNAs like LOC100505976 and XLOC_l2_010636 were modulated by hsa-miR-424-5p. The expression levels of hsa-miR-424-5p, LOC100505976 and XLOC_l2_010636 as well as several DEGs were confirmed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. These regulatory relationships of DEGs, DE-miRNAs and DE-lncRNAs might play pivotal roles in the tumorigenesis of LSCC.
Crisp RL, Maltaneri RE, Vittori DC, et al.Red blood cell aquaporin-1 expression is decreased in hereditary spherocytosis.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(10):1595-601 [PubMed
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Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is the membrane water channel responsible for changes in erythrocyte volume in response to the tonicity of the medium. As the aberrant distribution of proteins in hereditary spherocytosis (HS) generates deficiencies of proteins other than those codified by the mutated gene, we postulated that AQP1 expression might be impaired in spherocytes. AQP1 expression was evaluated through flow cytometry in 5 normal controls, 1 autoimmune hemolytic anemia, 10 HS (2 mild, 3 moderate, 2 severe, and 3 splenectomized), and 3 silent carriers. The effect of AQP1 inhibitors was evaluated through water flow-based tests: osmotic fragility and hypertonic cryohemolysis. Serum osmolality was measured in 20 normal controls and 13 HS. The effect of erythropoietin (Epo) on AQP1 expression was determined in cultures of erythroleukemia UT-7 cells, dependent on Epo to survive. Independent of erythrocyte size, HS patients showed a lower content of AQP1 in erythrocyte membranes which correlated with the severity of the disease. Accordingly, red blood cells from HS subjects were less sensitive to cryohemolysis than normal erythrocytes after inhibition of the AQP1 water channel. A lower serum osmolality in HS with respect to normal controls suggests alterations during reticulocyte remodeling. The decreased AQP1 expression could contribute to explain variable degrees of anemia in hereditary spherocytosis. The finding of AQP1 expression induced by Epo in a model of erythroid cells may be interpreted as a mechanism to restore the balance of red cell water fluxes.
Glioma-Associated Oncogene Homolog1 (Gli1) is known to be activated in malignant glioma; however, its downstream pathway has not been fully explained. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gli1-Aquaporin1 (AQP1) signal pathway in glioma cell survival. Our data suggests that both Gli1 and AQP1 are upregulated in glioma tissues, as in comparison to in normal tissues. These up-regulation phenomena were also observed in glioma U251 and U87 cells. It was demonstrated that Gli1 positively regulated the AQP1 expression. By luciferase reporter gene and ChIP assay, we observed that this modulation process was realized by combination of Gli1 with AQP1 promotor. In addition, knock down of Gli1 by siRNA interference reduced the viability of glioma cells as well as suppressed cell metastasis. Also, the inhibitory effects of cell survival by silenced Gli1 were abrogated by AQP1 overexpression. In summary, glioma cell survival is a regulatory process and can be mediated by Gli1-AQP1 pathway. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 394-399].
BACKGROUND: Hilar cholangiocarcinomas are malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. An early prediction of prognosis for patients may help us determine treatment strategies. Aquaporin 1 is a cell membrane channel involved in water transport, cell motility, and proliferation. Increasing evidences showed that aquaporin 1 played a role in tumor prognosis and diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of aquaporin 1 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
METHODS: Here, we analyzed messenger RNA expression data of genes function as bile secretion in a data set of 169 samples using the R2 bioinformatic platform ( http://r2.amc.nl ). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to verify the gene expression in 17 hilar cholangiocarcinoma samples. Immunohistochemistry was also performed in a series of specimens from 62 hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues, and its clinical significance was assessed by clinical correlation and Kaplan-Meier analyses.
RESULTS: All data were analyzed using the R2 web application, aquaporin 1 was selected for further analysis. The significant expression variation of aquaporin 1 among 17 cases with cholangiocarcinoma was also found using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression level of aquaporin 1 protein significantly correlated with tumor-node-metastasis stage ( P = .002) and overall survival time ( P = .010). Higher aquaporin 1 expression indicated poor prognostic outcomes ( P <.05, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis also showed strong aquaporin 1 protein expression was an independent adverse prognosticator in hilar cholangiocarcinoma ( P = .002).
CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the prognostic value of aquaporin 1 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Strong aquaporin 1 expression predicts poor survival, regardless of pathological features. Immunohistochemical detection of aquaporin 1, as a prognostic marker, may contribute to predicting clinical outcome for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Dorward HS, Du A, Bruhn MA, et al.Pharmacological blockade of aquaporin-1 water channel by AqB013 restricts migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells and prevents endothelial tube formation in vitro.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:36 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQP) are water channel proteins that enable fluid fluxes across cell membranes, important for homeostasis of the tissue environment and for cell migration. AQP1 knockout mouse models of human cancers showed marked inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, and in pre-clinical studies of colon adenocarcinomas, forced over-expression of AQP1 was shown to increase angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. We have synthesized small molecule antagonists of AQP1. Our hypothesis is that inhibition of AQP1 will reduce migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells, and the migration and tube-forming capacity of endothelial cells in vitro.
METHODS: Expression of AQP1 in cell lines was assessed by quantitative (q) PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence, while expression of AQP1 in human colon tumour tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of varying concentrations of the AQP1 inhibitor AqB013 was tested on human colon cancer cell lines expressing high versus low levels of AQP1, using wound closure (migration) assays, matrigel invasion assays, and proliferation assays. The effect of AqB013 on angiogenesis was tested using an endothelial cell tube-formation assay.
RESULTS: HT29 colon cancer cells with high AQP1 levels showed significant inhibition of migration compared to vehicle control of 27.9% ± 2.6% (p < 0.0001) and 41.2% ± 2.7 (p <0.0001) treated with 160 or 320 μM AqB013 respectively, whereas there was no effect on migration of HCT-116 cells with low AQP1 expression. In an invasion assay, HT29 cells treated with 160 μM of AqB013, showed a 60.3% ± 8.5% decrease in invasion at 144 hours (p < 0.0001) and significantly decreased rate of invasion compared with the vehicle control (F-test, p = 0.001). Almost complete inhibition of endothelial tube formation (angiogenesis assay) was achieved at 80 μM AqB013 compared to vehicle control (p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: These data provide good evidence for further testing of the inhibitor as a therapeutic agent in colon cancer.
PURPOSE: To discover novel prognostic biomarkers in ovarian serous carcinomas.
METHODS: A meta-analysis of all single genes probes in the TCGA and HAS ovarian cohorts was performed to identify possible biomarkers using Cox regression as a continuous variable for overall survival. Genes were ranked by p-value using Stouffer's method and selected for statistical significance with a false discovery rate (FDR) <.05 using the Benjamini-Hochberg method.
RESULTS: Twelve genes with high mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (AXL, APC, RAB11FIP5, C19orf2, CYBRD1, PINK1, LRRN3, AQP1, DES, XRCC4, BCHE, and ASAP3). Twenty genes with low mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (LRIG1, SLC33A1, NUCB2, POLD3, ESR2, GOLPH3, XBP1, PAXIP1, CYB561, POLA2, CDH1, GMNN, SLC37A4, FAM174B, AGR2, SDR39U1, MAGT1, GJB1, SDF2L1, and C9orf82).
CONCLUSION: A meta-analysis of all single genes identified thirty-two candidate biomarkers for their possible role in ovarian serous carcinoma. These genes can provide insight into the drivers or regulators of ovarian cancer and should be evaluated in future studies. Genes with high expression indicating poor outcome are possible therapeutic targets with known antagonists or inhibitors. Additionally, the genes could be combined into a prognostic multi-gene signature and tested in future ovarian cohorts.
Sun WJ, Hu DH, Wu H, et al.Expression of AQP1 Was Associated with Apoptosis and Survival of Patients in Gastric Adenocarcinoma.
Dig Surg. 2016; 33(3):190-6 [PubMed
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RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Recently, interest in the role of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in human gastrointestinal carcinogenesis has developed. However, to date no studies have examined relationships between AQP1 expression and specific characteristics of gastric adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: We investigated 109 specimens of primary gastric adenocarcinoma and their corresponding normal gastric mucosa using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine AQP1 expression. We then evaluated disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in these patients in association with AQP1 expression.
RESULTS: Both immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses identified increased AQP1 expression in tumors from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001). The 3-year DFS and OS rates were higher in the AQP1-negative group than in the positive group (DFS: 77.2 vs. 52.8%, p < 0.001; OS: 85.1 vs. 70.7%, p < 0.001). The 5-year DFS and OS rates exhibited a similar trend (p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis of patients with early gastric adenocarcinoma (stages I and II) revealed a total 5-year OS of 90.0%, with 5-year OS being higher in the AQP1-negative group than in the positive group (95.2 vs. 84.2%). Furthermore, incidence of tumor recurrence following surgical treatment was significantly higher in the AQP1-positive group (4/19, 21.1%) compared with the negative group (0/21, 0%).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that AQP1 plays an important role in gastric adenocarcinoma and may therefore represent a novel therapeutic target and prognostic marker in this disease.
Liu YH, Zhu WLEffects of cetuximab combined with afatinib on the expression of KDR and AQP1 in lung cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):16652-61 [PubMed
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In this study, we examined the effect of cetuximab (epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody) combined with afatinib (epidermal growth factor receptorand human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase irreversible inhibitor) on the apoptosis of A549 cells and on kinase domain receptor (KDR) and aquaporin 1 (AQP1) expression in A549 cells. A549 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 and then divided into 4 groups: control group, 1-nM cetuximab group, 25-μM afatinib group, and 1-nM cetuximab + 25-μM afatinib group. After incubation for 48 h, the cell inhibition rate, cell cycle distribution, and invasive ability of A549 cells before and after treatment were examined using MTT, flow cytometry, and transwell assays, respectively. Gene and protein expression levels of KDR and AQP1 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Cetuximab and afatinib significantly inhibited A549 cell growth. Their combination produced greater growth inhibition (P < 0.01). Cetuximab and afatinib both induced the apoptosis of A549 cells, and their combination produced a higher apoptosis rate (P < 0.01). Compared with monotherapy, cetuximab in combination with afatinib induced G1 phase arrest and downregulated the gene and protein expression of KDR and AQP1 (P < 0.05). Cetuximab in combination with afatinib synergistically inhibited the growth and migration of cells and downregulated the gene and protein expression of KDR and AQP1, indicating that a combination of cetuximab and afatinib is a potential strategy for lung cancer therapy.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed and play a key role in tumorigenesis. The aim of the study was to determine the lncRNA expression profile in astrocytomas and to assess its potential clinical value. We performed a three-step analysis to establish the lncRNA profile for astrocytoma: a) the lncRNA expression was examined on 3 astrocytomas as well as 3 NATs (normal adjacent tissues) using the lncRNA microarray; b) the top-hits were validated in 40 astrocytomas (WHO grade II-IV) by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR); c) the hits with significant differences were re-evaluated using qRT-PCR in 90 astrocytomas. Finally, 7 lncRNAs were found to have a significantly different expression profile in astrocytoma samples compared to the NAT samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis further revealed the potential of the 7-lncRNA profile to differentiate between tumors and NAT samples. The upregulation of ENST00000545440 and NR_002809 was associated with advanced clinical stages of astrocytoma. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we showed that the low expression of BC002811 or XLOC_010967, or the high expression of NR_002809 was significantly associated with poor patient survival. Moreover, Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that this prognostic impact was independent of other clinicopathological factors. Our results indicate that the lncRNA profile may be a potential prognostic biomarker for the prediction of post-surgical outcomes.
Aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a member of water channel proteins, functions as a water-selective transporting protein in cell membranes. In recent years, AQP1 has been found to be overexpressed in various tumors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the biological function of AQP1 in osteosarcoma is still unclear. This study was aimed at elucidating the roles of AQP1 in regulating the biological behavior of osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we found that AQP1 mRNA was elevated in osteosarcoma tissue. High level of AQP1 was associated with poor prognosis in osteosarcoma. Then, we found that knockdown of AQP1 in osteosarcoma cells, U2OS or MG63 cells inhibited cell proliferation and significantly increased cells population in G1 phase. Additionally, suppressing AQP1 expression in osteosarcoma cells dramatically induced cell apoptosis. We also found that down-regulation of AQP1 significantly inhibited cell adhesion and invasion. More importantly, AQP1 knockdown inhibited tumor growth in vivo and prolonged the survival time of nude mice. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway and focal adhesion genes was correlatively with AQP1 expression. In addition, real time PCR and western blot analysis revealed that expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β2, RhoA and laminin β 2 (LAMB2) was remarkably impaired by AQP1 silencing. In conclusion, AQP1 may be a useful diagnosis and prognosis marker for osteosarcoma. AQP1 knockdown can effectively inhibit cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion and tumorigenesis by targeting TGF-β signaling pathway and focal adhesion genes, which may serve a promising therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma.
Wei X, Dong JAquaporin 1 promotes the proliferation and migration of lung cancer cell in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(3):1440-8 [PubMed
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To examine the potential role of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in lung cancer progression, the effects of AQP1 expression and underlying mechanisms on cell proliferation and migration were investigated on LLC and LTEP-A2 cell lines in vitro. LLC and LTEP-A2 lung cancer cells with a discrepant AQP1 expression level were used to determine the role of AQP1 in cancer cell proliferation and migration potential. An immuno-fluorescence assay was used to detect AQP1 expression levels in the LLC and LTEP-A2 cell lines. The method targeting the knockdown of AQP1 on lung cancer cell lines by siRNA was established and validated by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The proliferation and migration abilities of AQP1 knockdown cell lines were detected by MTT, invasion and wound-healing assays. Moreover, the alteration of MMP-2, MMP-9, TGF-β and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, associated with the migration and metastasis potential of lung cancer cell lines, was identified by western blot analysis in transfected cells. In the tumor cell migration and invasion test, AQP1 knockdown significantly decreased the migration and invasion of AQP1-siRNA cells. Additionally, the expression levels of MMPs were markedly decreased after AQP1-siRNA treatment in the two cell lines. Moreover, the decrease of MMP-2/-9 expression on lung cancer cell lines was associated with AQP1-siRNA doses. However, AQP1 knockdown did not have a significant effect on TGF-β and EGFR. The results suggest that AQP1 may facilitate lung cancer cell proliferation and migration in an MMP-2 and-9-dependent manner.
BACKGROUND: We analyzed aquaporin 4 and -1 expression in subependymomas, benign and slow growing brain tumors WHO grade I. Ten subependymoma cases were investigated, five of the fossa inferior and five of the fossa superior.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Using immunohistochemistry, we observed different aquaporin expression patterns depending on localization: aquaporin 4 and -1 were detected in infratentorial subependymomas in the entire tumor tissue. In contrast, supratentorial subependymomas revealed aquaporin 4 and -1 expression only in border areas of the tumor. PCR analyses however showed no difference in aquaporin 4 expression between all subependymomas independent of localization but at higher levels than in normal brain. In contrast, aquaporin 1 RNA levels were found to be higher only in infratentorial samples compared to supratentorial and normal brain samples. The reason for the different distribution pattern of aquaporin 4 in subependymomas still remains unclear. On the cellular level, aquaporin 4 was redistributed on the surface of the tumor cells, and in freeze fracture replicas no orthogonal arrays of particles were found. This was similar to our previous findings in malignant glioblastomas. From these studies, we know that extracellular matrix molecules within the tumor like agrin and its receptor alpha-dystroglycan are involved in forming orthogonal arrays of particles. In subependymomas neither agrin nor alpha-dystroglycan were detected around blood vessels.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we show in this study that in the benign subependymomas aquaporins 1 and 4 are dramatically redistributed and upregulated. We speculate that extracellular environments of infra- and supratentorial subependymomas are different and lead to different distribution patterns of aquaporin 4 and -1.
Lehnerdt GF, Bachmann HS, Adamzik M, et al.AQP1, AQP5, Bcl-2 and p16 in pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Laryngol Otol. 2015; 129(6):580-6 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to link expression patterns of AQP1, AQP5, Bcl-2 and p16 to clinicopathological characteristics of oro-hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of AQP1, AQP5, Bcl-2 and p16 was investigated in 107 consecutive oro-hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases. Molecular interrelationship and correlations with clinicopathological parameters and survival were computed.
RESULTS: AQP1 was expressed exclusively by a subgroup of basaloid-like squamous cell carcinomas. AQP5 was detected in 25.2 per cent of the samples, showing significant association with the absence of p16 and Bcl-2 (p = 0.018; p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, overexpression of p16 was significantly correlated with favourable overall survival (p = 0.014).
CONCLUSION: AQP5 defined a subset of patients with Bcl-2-negative and p16-negative tumours with a poor clinical outcome. AQP1 was found to be a marker of a subgroup of aggressive basaloid-like squamous cell carcinomas. These findings suggest that AQP1 and AQP5 are interesting candidates for further studies on risk group classification and personalised treatment of oro-hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.