Gene Summary

Gene:CARD11; caspase recruitment domain family member 11
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family, a class of proteins that functions as molecular scaffolds for the assembly of multiprotein complexes at specialized regions of the plasma membrane. This protein is also a member of the CARD protein family, which is defined by carrying a characteristic caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD). This protein has a domain structure similar to that of CARD14 protein. The CARD domains of both proteins have been shown to specifically interact with BCL10, a protein known to function as a positive regulator of cell apoptosis and NF-kappaB activation. When expressed in cells, this protein activated NF-kappaB and induced the phosphorylation of BCL10. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (23)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Young Adult
  • Ubiquitination
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Substrate Specificity
  • MALT Lymphoma
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • NF-kappa B
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Guanylate Cyclase
  • Notch Receptors
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tumor Virus Infections
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Xenograft Models
  • p53 Protein
  • Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Translocation 1 Protein
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Triterpenes
  • BCL2 protein
  • Exome
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • B-Cell CLL-Lymphoma 10 Protein
  • Translocation
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • MYD88
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • ras Proteins
  • Caspases
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Skin Cancer
  • Chromosome 7
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CARD11 (cancer-related)

Li X, Cai Y
Methylation-Based Classification of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma into Two New Subclasses Differing in Immune-Related Gene Expression.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cervical cancer is traditionally classified into two major histological subtypes, cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and cervical adenocarcinoma (CA). However, heterogeneity exists among patients, comprising possible subpopulations with distinct molecular profiles. We applied consensus clustering to 307 methylation samples with cervical cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Fisher's exact test was used to perform transcription factors (TFs) and genomic region enrichment. Gene expression profiles were downloaded from TCGA to assess expression differences. Immune cell fraction was calculated to quantify the immune cells infiltration. Putative neo-epitopes were predicted from somatic mutations. Three subclasses were identified: Class 1 correlating with the CA subtype and Classes 2 and 3 dividing the CSCC subtype into two subclasses. We found the hypomethylated probes in Class 3 exhibited strong enrichment in promoter region as compared with Class 2. Five TFs significantly enriched in the hypomethylated promoters and their highly expressed target genes in Class 3 functionally involved in the immune pathway. Gene function analysis revealed that immune-related genes were significantly increased in Class 3, and a higher level of immune cell infiltration was estimated. High expression of 24 immune genes exhibited a better overall survival and correlated with neo-epitope burden. Additionally, we found only two immune-related driver genes,

Sekiguchi N, Nomoto J, Nagata A, et al.
Gene Expression Profile Signature of Aggressive Waldenström Macroglobulinemia with Chromosome 6q Deletion.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:6728128 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare, indolent B-cell lymphoma. Clinically, chromosome 6q deletion (6q del) including loss of the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 gene (BLIMP-1) is reported to be associated with poor prognosis. However, it remains unclear how the underlying biological mechanism contributes to the aggressiveness of WM with 6q del.
Methods: Here, we conducted oligonucleotide microarray analysis to clarify the differences in gene expression between WM with and without 6q del. Gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed to identify the main pathways underlying differences in gene expression. Eight bone marrow formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of WM were processed for interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and three were shown to have 6q del.
Results: GO analysis revealed significant terms including "lymphocyte activation" (corrected p value=6.68E-11), which included 31 probes. Moreover,
Conclusion: The present study suggested that the BCR signaling pathway and

Hallas C, Preukschas M, Tiemann M
Immunohistochemical distinction of ABC and GCB in extranodal DLBCL is not reflected in mutation patterns.
Leuk Res. 2019; 76:107-111 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene expression profiling (GEP) separated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in two different entities, i.e. activated B cell-like (ABC) and germinal center B cell-like (GCB) lymphomas with ABC lymphomas demonstrating a less favorable outcome. NF-kB pathway activating mutations in MYD88, CD79A/B and CARD11 are predominantly found in ABC type lymphomas. Targeted therapies affecting NF-kB pathways have shown therapeutic potential in this subtype. Immunohistochemistry algorithms have been developed as a tool for distinguishing these entities in routine clinical diagnostics. To test whether this immunohistochemistry classifier would detect the biological differences between the entities 147 DLBCLs were subtyped into ABC and GCB using the Visco-Young algorithm. Mutation analysis demonstrated mutations in MYD88 or CD79 A/B in 21% (10/47) of non-GCB type but only in 3% (1/31) of GCB lymphomas (p = 0.012) in nodal lymphomas. In primary extra nodal lymphomas, however, 17.5% (4/23) of GCB type and 37.5% (15/40) of non-GCB lymphomas carried mutations in MYD88 and CD79 A/B. While the Visco-Young algorithm was sufficient to detect biological differences (i.e. mutation patterns) in nodal DLBCL it did not distinguish GCB and non-GCB type lymphomas of primary extranodal sites. Here, the morphological sites of the lymphomas seem to be more important for their molecular pattern than their immunohistochemical status.

Lee SH, Singh I, Tisdale S, et al.
Widespread intronic polyadenylation inactivates tumour suppressor genes in leukaemia.
Nature. 2018; 561(7721):127-131 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA mutations are known cancer drivers. Here we investigated whether mRNA events that are upregulated in cancer can functionally mimic the outcome of genetic alterations. RNA sequencing or 3'-end sequencing techniques were applied to normal and malignant B cells from 59 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)

Juskevicius D, Jucker D, Dietsche T, et al.
Novel cell enrichment technique for robust genetic analysis of archival classical Hodgkin lymphoma tissues.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(11):1487-1499 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 15% of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) die after relapse or progressive disease. Comprehensive genetic characterization is required to better understand its molecular pathology and improve management. However, genetic information on cHL is hard to obtain mainly due to rare malignant Hodgkin- and Reed-Sternberg cells (HRSC), whose overall frequencies in the affected tissues ranges from 0.1 to 10%. Therefore, enrichment of neoplastic cells is necessary for the majority of genetic investigations. We have developed a new high-throughput method for marker-based enrichment of archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue-derived HRSC nuclei by fluorescence-assisted flow sorting (FACS) and successfully applied it on ten cHL cases. Genomic DNA extracted from sorted nuclei was used for targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 68 genes that are frequently affected in lymphomas. Chromosomal copy number aberrations were investigated by the Agilent SurePrint 180k microarray. Our method enabled HRSC nuclei enrichment to 40-90% in sorted populations. This level of enrichment was sufficient for reliable identification of tumor-specific mutations and copy number aberrations. Genetic analysis revealed that components of JAK-STAT signaling pathway were affected in all investigated tumors by frequent mutations of SOCS1 and STAT6 as well as copy number gains of JAK2. Involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway compounds was evident from recurrent gains of the locus containing the REL gene and mutations in TNFAIP3 and CARD11. Finally, genetic alterations of PD-L1 and B2M suggested immune evasion as mechanisms of oncogenesis in some patients. In this work, we present a new method for HRSC enrichment from FFPE tissue blocks by FACS and demonstrate the feasibility of a wide-scale genetic analysis by cutting-edge molecular methods. Our work opens the door to a large resource of archived clinical cHL samples and lays foundation to more complex studies aimed to answer important biological and clinical questions that are critical to improve cHL management.

Wu DM, Han XR, Wen X, et al.
Long Non-Coding RNA LINC01260 Inhibits the Proliferation, Migration and Invasion of Spinal Cord Glioma Cells by Targeting CARD11 Via the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(4):1563-1578 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spinal cord glioma is a highly aggressive malignancy that commonly results in high mortality due to metastasis, high recurrence and limited treatment regimens. This study aims to elucidate the effects of long non-coding RNA LINC01260 (LINC01260) on the proliferation, migration and invasion of spinal cord glioma cells by targeting Caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11) via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling.
METHODS: The Multi Experiment Matrix (MEM) website was used for target gene prediction, and the DAVID database was used for analysis of the relationship between CARD11 and the NF-κB pathway. In total, 60 cases of glioma tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected. Human U251 glioma cells were grouped into blank, negative control (NC), LINC01260 vector, CARD11 vector, siRNA-LINC01260, siRNA-CARD11, LINC01260 vector + CARD11 vector and LINC01260 + siRNA-CARD11 groups. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the target relationship between LINC01260 and CARD11. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis were employed to assess expression of LINC01260, E-cadherin, p53, CARD11, Ki67, N-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, NF-κBp65 and NF-κBp50. MTT, flow cytometry, wound-healing and Transwell assays were performed to examine cell viability, the cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and migration. Tumor growth was assessed through xenografts in nude mice.
RESULTS: CARD11 was confirmed to be a target gene of LINC01260 and was found to be involved in regulating the NF-κB pathway. Compared with adjacent normal tissues, glioma tissues showed reduced expression of LINC01260 and elevated expression of CARD11 and genes related to apoptosis, invasion and migration; activation of NF-κB signaling was also observed. In contrast to the blank and NC groups, an elevated number of cells arrested in G1 phase, increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation, invasion and number of cells arrested in S and G2 phases, as well as tumor growth were found for the LINC01260 vector and siRNA-CARD11 groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of LINC01260 inhibits spinal cord glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting CARD11 via NF-κB signaling suppression.

Fukumoto T, Magno E, Zhang R
SWI/SNF Complexes in Ovarian Cancer: Mechanistic Insights and Therapeutic Implications.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(12):1819-1825 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. Despite the unprecedented progress in understanding the genetics of ovarian cancer, cures remain elusive due to a lack of insight into the mechanisms that can be targeted to develop new therapies. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are genetically altered in approximately 20% of all human cancers. SWI/SNF alterations vary in different histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer, with

Farmanbar A, Firouzi S, Makałowski W, et al.
Mutational Intratumor Heterogeneity is a Complex and Early Event in the Development of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(9):883-893 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The clonal architecture of tumors plays a vital role in their pathogenesis and invasiveness; however, it is not yet clear how this clonality contributes to different malignancies. In this study we sought to address mutational intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). ATL is a malignancy with an incompletely understood molecular pathogenesis caused by infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1). To determine the clonal structure through tumor genetic diversity profiles, we investigated 142 whole-exome sequencing data of tumor and matched normal samples from 71 ATL patients. Based on SciClone analysis, the ATL samples showed a wide spectrum of modes over clonal/subclonal frequencies ranging from one to nine clusters. The average number of clusters was six across samples, but the number of clusters differed among different samples. Of these ATL samples, 94% had more than two clusters. Aggressive ATL cases had slightly more clonal clusters than indolent types, indicating the presence of ITH during earlier stages of disease. The known significantly mutated genes in ATL were frequently clustered together and possibly coexisted in the same clone. IRF4, CCR4, TP53, and PLCG1 mutations were almost clustered in subclones with a moderate variant allele frequency (VAF), whereas HLA-B, CARD11, and NOTCH1 mutations were clustered in subclones with lower VAFs. Taken together, these results show that ATL displays a high degree of ITH and a complex subclonal structure. Our findings suggest that clonal/subclonal architecture might be a useful measure for prognostic purposes and personalized assessment of the therapeutic response.

Phelan JD, Young RM, Webster DE, et al.
A multiprotein supercomplex controlling oncogenic signalling in lymphoma.
Nature. 2018; 560(7718):387-391 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
B cell receptor (BCR) signalling has emerged as a therapeutic target in B cell lymphomas, but inhibiting this pathway in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has benefited only a subset of patients

Hiemcke-Jiwa LS, Leguit RJ, Snijders TJ, et al.
Molecular analysis in liquid biopsies for diagnostics of primary central nervous system lymphoma: Review of literature and future opportunities.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2018; 127:56-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive lymphoma with a poor prognosis, for which accurate and timely diagnosis is of utmost importance. Unfortunately, diagnosis of PCNSL can be challenging and a brain biopsy (gold standard for diagnosis) is an invasive procedure with the risk of major complications. Thus, there is an urgent need for an alternative strategy to diagnose and monitor these lymphomas. Currently, liquid biopsies from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are used for cytomorphologic and flow cytometric analysis. Recently, new biomarkers such as genetic mutations and interleukins have been identified in these liquid biopsies, further expanding the diagnostic armamentarium. In this review we present an overview of genetic aberrations (>70) reported in this unique lymphoma. Of these genes, we have selected those that are reported in ≥3 studies. Half of the selected genes are implicated in the NFκB pathway (CARD11, CD79B, MYD88, TBL1XR1 and TNFAIP3), while the other half are not related to this pathway (CDKN2A, ETV6, PIM1, PRDM1 and TOX). Although this underlines the crucial role of the NFκB pathway in PCNSL, CD79B and MYD88 are at present the only genes mentioned in liquid biopsy analysis. Finally, a stepwise approach is proposed for minimally invasive liquid biopsy analysis and work-up of PCNSL, incorporating molecular analysis. Prioritization and refinements of this approach can be constructed based upon multidisciplinary collaboration as well as novel scientific insights.

Zhu L, Guo Q, Lu X, et al.
CTD-2020K17.1, a Novel Long Non-Coding RNA, Promotes Migration, Invasion, and Proliferation of Serous Ovarian Cancer Cells In Vitro.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:1329-1339 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignant tumor of the female reproductive system, and the metastasis is one of the major factors that contribute to the poor outcome of patients with OC. Accumulating evidence indicates that lncRNAs are expressed and play important regulatory roles in ovarian cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Aberrant lncRNAs in primary ovarian cancer tissues (POCTs) and paired omental metastasis tissues (OMTs) of patients with HGSOC were studied via lncRNA microarray. Real-time PCR was performed to examine CTD-2020K17.1 expression in HGSOC tissues from 38 patients, a normal ovarian surface epithelium cell line, and 4 ovarian cancer cell lines. Additionally, Transwell assays, wound healing assays, CCK-8 proliferation assays, and flow cytometry were used to explore the biological function of CTD-2020K17.1 in ovarian cancer cells. Finally, Western blot analysis was used to verify the potential target gene of CTD-2020K17.1. RESULTS A novel lncRNA named CTD-2020K17.1 was identified via microarray analysis. Expression of CTD-2020K17.1 was significantly increased in OMTs and in 4 ovarian cancer cell lines compared with POCTs (P<0.05) or normal ovarian surface epithelial cell line (P<0.05). Moreover, CTD-2020K17.1 overexpression promoted migration, invasion, and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells, and CTD-2020K17.1 regulated the expression of CARD11. CONCLUSIONS CTD-2020K17.1 is significantly upregulated in OMTs and ovarian cancer cell lines. It can promote the migration, invasion, and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells, and CARD11 is regulated by CTD-2020K17.1.

Kahl BS
Follicular lymphoma: are we ready for a risk-adapted approach?
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2017; 2017(1):358-364 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Western hemisphere. The natural history of FL appears to have been favorably impacted by the introduction of rituximab after randomized clinical trials demonstrated that the addition of rituximab to standard chemotherapy induction has improved the overall survival. Yet, the disease is biologically and clinically heterogeneous with wide variations in outcomes for individual patients. The ability to accurately risk-stratify patients and then tailor therapy to the individual is an area of ongoing research. Historically, tumor grade, tumor burden, and the FL international prognostic index (version 1 and version 2) have been used to distinguish low-risk from high-risk patients. Biologic factors such as mutations in key genes can identify patients at high risk for poor outcomes to first-line therapy (mutational status of 7 genes [EZH2, ARID1A, MEF2B, EP300, FOX01, CREBBP, and CARD11] with Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index). More recently, the quality of the response to initial therapy, as measured by either PET imaging or by remission duration, has been show to identify individuals at high risk. However, several unmet needs remain, including a better ability to identify high-risk patients at diagnosis, the development of predictive biomarkers for targeted agents, and strategies to reduce the risk of transformation.

Slattery ML, Mullany LE, Sakoda L, et al.
The NF-κB signalling pathway in colorectal cancer: associations between dysregulated gene and miRNA expression.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(2):269-283 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway is a regulator of immune response and inflammation that has been implicated in the carcinogenic process. We examined differentially expressed genes in this pathway and miRNAs to determine associations with colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: We used data from 217 CRC cases to evaluate differences in NF-κB signalling pathway gene expression between paired carcinoma and normal mucosa and identify miRNAs that are associated with these genes. Gene expression data from RNA-Seq and miRNA expression data from Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 were analysed. We evaluated genes most strongly associated and differentially expressed (fold change (FC) of > 1.5 or < 0.67) that were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: Of the 92 genes evaluated, 22 were significantly downregulated and nine genes were significantly upregulated in all tumours. Two additional genes (CD14 and CSNK2A1) were dysregulated in MSS tumours and two genes (CARD11 and VCAM1) were downregulated and six genes were upregulated (LYN, TICAM2, ICAM1, IL1B, CCL4 and PTGS2) in MSI tumours. Sixteen of the 21 dysregulated genes were associated with 40 miRNAs. There were 76 miRNA:mRNA associations of which 38 had seed-region matches. Genes were associated with multiple miRNAs, with TNFSRF11A (RANK) being associated with 15 miRNAs. Likewise several miRNAs were associated with multiple genes (miR-150-5p with eight genes, miR-195-5p with four genes, miR-203a with five genes, miR-20b-5p with four genes, miR-650 with six genes and miR-92a-3p with five genes).
CONCLUSIONS: Focusing on the genes and their associated miRNAs within the entire signalling pathway provides a comprehensive understanding of this complex pathway as it relates to CRC and offers insight into potential therapeutic agents.

Bartlett NL, Costello BA, LaPlant BR, et al.
Single-agent ibrutinib in relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma: a phase 2 consortium trial.
Blood. 2018; 131(2):182-190 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Most patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) experience multiple relapses necessitating subsequent lines of therapy. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor approved for the treatment of several B-cell malignancies, showed promising activity in FL in a phase 1 study. We report the results of a phase 2 trial evaluating ibrutinib in recurrent FL. Forty patients with recurrent FL were treated with ibrutinib 560 mg/d until progression or intolerance. The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Exploratory analyses included correlations of outcome with recurrent mutations identified in a cancer gene panel that used next-generation sequencing in pretreatment biopsies from 31 patients and results of early interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans in 20 patients. ORR was 37.5% with a complete response rate of 12.5%, median progression-free survival (PFS) of 14 months, and 2-year PFS of 20.4%. Response rates were significantly higher among patients whose disease was sensitive to rituximab (52.6%) compared with those who were rituximab refractory (16.7%) (

Ohata Y, Tatsuzawa A, Ohyama Y, et al.
A distinctive subgroup of oral EBV+ B-cell neoplasm with polymorphous features is potentially identical to EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 69:129-139 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBVMCU) is a newly recognized provisional entity included in mature B-cell neoplasm in the latest 2016 World Health Organization Classification. It has a self-limited growth potential with a high predilection for oral cavities and occurs in age-related or iatrogenic immunodeficiency with indolent clinical courses. However, it shares histological features with EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and this often leads to diagnostic challenges and controversies in patients with an oral EBV-positive B-cell neoplasm. The aim of this study was to better characterize and comprehend the pathophysiology of DLBCL and EBVMCU in the oral cavity. We conducted clinicopathologic and recurrent gene mutation analysis of 49 cases (14 EBV positive, 35 EBV negative), including cases diagnosed as DLBCL or B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with high-grade morphology in the oral cavity. All EBV-positive cases matched the criteria of EBVMCU, with significantly earlier clinical stages than the EBV-negative group (P=.0006). Besides, histological analysis showed that all EBV-positive cases presented polymorphous features, whereas 91.4% (32/35) of the EBV-negative cases showed diffuse and monotonous proliferation (P<.0001). Furthermore, EBV-positive cases presented favorable clinical outcomes without disease-related death or recurrence. Gene mutation analysis (MYD88, CD79A, CD79B, CARD11, and EZH2) revealed that 33.3% (9/27) of EBV-negative cases harbored at least 1 gene mutation, whereas no gene mutation was observed in the EBV-positive group (0/11). These results suggest that oral EBV-positive B-cell lymphoid proliferation with polymorphous features often fulfill the criteria for EBVMCU, with clinicopathologically and genetically distinctive properties.

Moody S, Escudero-Ibarz L, Wang M, et al.
Significant association between TNFAIP3 inactivation and biased immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region 4-34 usage in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.
J Pathol. 2017; 243(1):3-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both antigenic drive and genetic change play critical roles in the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, but neither alone is sufficient for malignant transformation, and lymphoma development critically depends on their cooperation. However, which of these different events concur and how they cooperate in MALT lymphomagenesis is totally unknown. To explore this, we investigated somatic mutations of 17 genes and immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) usage in 179 MALT lymphomas from various sites. We showed that: (1) there was a significant association between the biased usage of IGHV4-34 (binds to the carbohydrate I/i antigens) and inactivating mutation of TNFAIP3 [encoding a global negative regulator of the canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway] in ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma; (2) IGHV1-69 was significantly overrepresented (54%) in MALT lymphoma of the salivary gland, but was not associated with mutation in any of the 17 genes investigated; and (3) MALT lymphoma lacked mutations that are frequently seen in other B-cell lymphomas characterized by constitutive NF-κB activities, including mutations in CD79B, CARD11, MYD88, TNFRSF11A, and TRAF3. Our findings show, for the first time, a significant association between biased usage of autoreactive IGHV and somatic mutation of NF-κB regulators in MALT lymphoma, arguing for their cooperation in sustaining chronic B-cell receptor signalling and driving oncogenesis in lymphoma development. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Slattery ML, Herrick JS, Mullany LE, et al.
The co-regulatory networks of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and miRNAs in colorectal cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(11):769-787 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and oncogenes (OG) are involved in carcinogenesis. MiRNAs also contribute to cellular pathways leading to cancer. We use data from 217 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases to evaluate differences in TSGs and OGs expression between paired CRC and normal mucosa and evaluate how TSGs and OGs are associated with miRNAs. Gene expression data from RNA-Seq and miRNA expression data from Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 were used. We focus on genes most strongly associated with CRC (fold change (FC) of ≥1.5 or ≤0.67) that were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 74 TSGs evaluated, 22 were associated with carcinoma/normal mucosa differential expression. Ten TSGs were up-regulated (FAM123B, RB1, TP53, RUNX1, MSH2, BRCA1, BRCA2, SOX9, NPM1, and RNF43); six TSGs were down-regulated (PAX5, IZKF1, GATA3, PRDM1, TET2, and CYLD); four were associated with MSI tumors (MLH1, PTCH1, and CEBPA down-regulated and MSH6 up-regulated); and two were associated with MSS tumors (PHF6 and ASXL1 up-regulated). Thirteen of these TSGs were associated with 44 miRNAs. Twenty-seven of the 59 OGs evaluated were dysregulated: 14 down-regulated (KLF4, BCL2, SSETBP1, FGFR2, TSHR, MPL, KIT, PDGFRA, GNA11, GATA2, FGFR3, AR, CSF1R, and JAK3), seven up-regulated (DNMT1, EZH2, PTPN11, SKP2, CCND1, MET, and MYC); three down-regulated for MSI (FLT3, CARD11, and ALK); two up-regulated for MSI (IDH2 and HRAS); and one up-regulated with MSS tumors (CTNNB1). These findings suggest possible co-regulatory function between TSGs, OGs, and miRNAs, involving both direct and indirect associations that operate through feedback and feedforward loops.

Onaindia A, Medeiros LJ, Patel KP
Clinical utility of recently identified diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers in mature B-cell neoplasms.
Mod Pathol. 2017; 30(10):1338-1366 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic profiling studies have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of mature B-cell neoplasms and have identified markers with prognostic impact. Recurrent mutations in tumor-suppressor genes (TP53, BIRC3, ATM), and common signaling pathways, such as the B-cell receptor (CD79A, CD79B, CARD11, TCF3, ID3), Toll-like receptor (MYD88), NOTCH (NOTCH1/2), nuclear factor-κB, and mitogen activated kinase signaling, have been identified in B-cell neoplasms. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, hairy cell leukemia, and marginal zone lymphomas of splenic, nodal, and extranodal types represent examples of B-cell neoplasms in which novel molecular biomarkers have been discovered in recent years. In addition, ongoing retrospective correlative and prospective outcome studies have resulted in an enhanced understanding of the clinical utility of novel biomarkers. This progress is reflected in the 2016 update of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms, which lists as many as 41 mature B-cell neoplasms (including provisional categories). Consequently, molecular genetic studies are increasingly being applied for the clinical workup of many of these neoplasms. In this review, we focus on the diagnostic, prognostic, and/or therapeutic utility of molecular biomarkers in mature B-cell neoplasms.

Kogure Y, Kataoka K
Genetic alterations in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(9):1719-1725 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm with a dismal prognosis. It is caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) retrovirus. A long latency period from HTLV-1 infection to ATL onset suggests that not only HTLV-1 proteins, such as Tax and HBZ, but also additional genetic and/or epigenetic events are required for ATL development. Although many studies have demonstrated the biological functions of viral genes, alterations of cellular genes associated with ATL have not been fully investigated. Recently, a large-scale integrated genetic analysis revealed the entire landscape of somatic aberrations in ATL. This neoplasm is characterized by frequent gain-of-function alterations in components of the T-cell receptor/NF-κB signaling pathway, including activating mutations in the PLCG1, PRKCB, CARD11 and VAV1 genes, and CTLA4-CD28 and ICOS-CD28 fusions. Importantly, molecules associated with immune surveillance, such as HLA-A/B, CD58 and FAS, are affected recurrently. Among them, one notable lesion occurs as frequent structural variations that truncate the PD-L1 3'-untranslated region, leading to its overexpression. Other genetic targets include transcription factors (IRF4, IKZF2, and GATA3) and chemokine receptors (CCR4, CCR7 and GPR183), which are functionally relevant in normal T cells. A substantial proportion of ATL cases show widespread accumulation of repressive epigenetic changes, such as trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 and DNA hypermethylation of CpG islands, which coordinately modulate multiple pathways, including Cys2-His2 zinc finger genes involved in silencing retroelements. Here we review the current understanding of the genetic/epigenetic aberrations in ATL, focusing on their relevance in its molecular pathogenesis.

Grommes C, Pastore A, Palaskas N, et al.
Ibrutinib Unmasks Critical Role of Bruton Tyrosine Kinase in Primary CNS Lymphoma.
Cancer Discov. 2017; 7(9):1018-1029 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) links the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptors with NF-κB. The role of BTK in primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) is unknown. We performed a phase I clinical trial with ibrutinib, the first-in-class BTK inhibitor, for patients with relapsed or refractory CNS lymphoma. Clinical responses to ibrutinib occurred in 10 of 13 (77%) patients with PCNSL, including five complete responses. The only PCNSL with complete ibrutinib resistance harbored a mutation within the coiled-coil domain of CARD11, a known ibrutinib resistance mechanism. Incomplete tumor responses were associated with mutations in the B-cell antigen receptor-associated protein CD79B.

Xu PP, Zhong HJ, Huang YH, et al.
B-cell Function Gene Mutations in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
EBioMedicine. 2017; 16:106-114 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In addition to clinical and immunophenotypic characteristics, recurrent gene mutations have recently been identified in patients with DLBCL using next-generation sequencing technologies. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical relevance of B-cell function gene mutations in DLBCL. Clinical analysis was performed on 680 Chinese DLBCL patients (146 non-CR and 534 CR cases) treated with six cycles of 21-day R-CHOP (Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), alone or followed by two additional doses of rituximab consolidation on patients' own intention. Somatic mutations of B-cell function genes were further screened on 275 (71 non-CR and 204 CR) cases with available tumor samples by targeted sequencing, including genes involved in B-cell receptors (BCRs) pathway (CARD11, LYN, CD79A, and CD79B), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) pathway (MYD88), and tumor necrotic factor receptor (TNFR) pathway (TRAF2 and TNFAIP3). B-cell function gene mutations occurred in 44.0% (121/275) of DLBCL patients. The TLRs and TNFR related gene mutations were more frequently observed in non-CR patients (p=0.019 and p=0.032, respectively). BCRs related gene mutations, as well as revised IPI (R-IPI) and double BCL-2/MYC expression, were independently related to short progression-free survival in DLBCL after CR. The adverse prognostic effect of BCRs related gene mutations could be overcome by two additional doses of rituximab consolidation. These results highlight the molecular heterogeneity of DLBCL and identify a significant role of B-cell function gene mutations on lymphoma progression and response to rituximab in DLBCL.

Watanabe T
Adult T-cell leukemia: molecular basis for clonal expansion and transformation of HTLV-1-infected T cells.
Blood. 2017; 129(9):1071-1081 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) that develops through a multistep carcinogenesis process involving 5 or more genetic events. We provide a comprehensive overview of recently uncovered information on the molecular basis of leukemogenesis in ATL. Broadly, the landscape of genetic abnormalities in ATL that include alterations highly enriched in genes for T-cell receptor-NF-κB signaling such as

Takeuchi T, Yamaguchi M, Kobayashi K, et al.
MYD88, CD79B, and CARD11 gene mutations in CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Cancer. 2017; 123(7):1166-1173 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CD5-positive (CD5
METHODS: MYD88, CD79B, CD79A, and caspase recruitment domain family member 11 (CARD11) mutations were examined in samples from 40 patients with CD5
RESULTS: MYD88 and CD79B mutations were detected in 33% (13 patients) and 38% (15 patients), respectively, of the 40 patients with CD5
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of MYD88 and CD79B mutations in patients with CD5

Dai B, Grau M, Juilland M, et al.
B-cell receptor-driven MALT1 activity regulates MYC signaling in mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2017; 129(3):333-346 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell lymphoma characterized by poor clinical outcome. Recent studies revealed the importance of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in maintaining MCL survival. However, it remains unclear which role MALT1, an essential component of the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 complex that links BCR signaling to the NF-κB pathway, plays in the biology of MCL. Here we show that a subset of MCLs is addicted to MALT1, as its inhibition by either RNA or pharmacologic interference induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression profiling following MALT1 inhibition demonstrated that MALT1 controls an MYC-driven gene expression network predominantly through increasing MYC protein stability. Thus, our analyses identify a previously unappreciated regulatory mechanism of MYC expression. Investigating primary mouse splenocytes, we could demonstrate that MALT1-induced MYC regulation is not restricted to MCL, but represents a common mechanism. MYC itself is pivotal for MCL survival because its downregulation and pharmacologic inhibition induced cytotoxicity in all MCL models. Collectively, these results provide a strong mechanistic rationale to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the MALT1-MYC axis in MCL patients.

Wu C, de Miranda NF, Chen L, et al.
Genetic heterogeneity in primary and relapsed mantle cell lymphomas: Impact of recurrent CARD11 mutations.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(25):38180-38190 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
The genetic mechanisms underlying disease progression, relapse and therapy resistance in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remain largely unknown. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 27 MCL samples from 13 patients, representing the largest analyzed series of consecutive biopsies obtained at diagnosis and/or relapse for this type of lymphoma. Eighteen genes were found to be recurrently mutated in these samples, including known (ATM, MEF2B and MLL2) and novel mutation targets (S1PR1 and CARD11). CARD11, a scaffold protein required for B-cell receptor (BCR)-induced NF-κB activation, was subsequently screened in an additional 173 MCL samples and mutations were observed in 5.5% of cases. Based on in vitro cell line-based experiments, overexpression of CARD11 mutants were demonstrated to confer resistance to the BCR-inhibitor ibrutinib and NF-κB-inhibitor lenalidomide. Genetic alterations acquired in the relapse samples were found to be largely non-recurrent, in line with the branched evolutionary pattern of clonal evolution observed in most cases. In summary, this study highlights the genetic heterogeneity in MCL, in particular at relapse, and provides for the first time genetic evidence of BCR/NF-κB activation in a subset of MCL.

Vallois D, Dobay MP, Morin RD, et al.
Activating mutations in genes related to TCR signaling in angioimmunoblastic and other follicular helper T-cell-derived lymphomas.
Blood. 2016; 128(11):1490-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and other lymphomas derived from follicular T-helper cells (TFH) represent a large proportion of peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) with poorly understood pathogenesis and unfavorable treatment results. We investigated a series of 85 patients with AITL (n = 72) or other TFH-derived PTCL (n = 13) by targeted deep sequencing of a gene panel enriched in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling elements. RHOA mutations were identified in 51 of 85 cases (60%) consisting of the highly recurrent dominant negative G17V variant in most cases and a novel K18N in 3 cases, the latter showing activating properties in in vitro assays. Moreover, half of the patients carried virtually mutually exclusive mutations in other TCR-related genes, most frequently in PLCG1 (14.1%), CD28 (9.4%, exclusively in AITL), PI3K elements (7%), CTNNB1 (6%), and GTF2I (6%). Using in vitro assays in transfected cells, we demonstrated that 9 of 10 PLCG1 and 3 of 3 CARD11 variants induced MALT1 protease activity and increased transcription from NFAT or NF-κB response element reporters, respectively. Collectively, the vast majority of variants in TCR-related genes could be classified as gain-of-function. Accordingly, the samples with mutations in TCR-related genes other than RHOA had transcriptomic profiles enriched in signatures reflecting higher T-cell activation. Although no correlation with presenting clinical features nor significant impact on survival was observed, the presence of TCR-related mutations correlated with early disease progression. Thus, targeting of TCR-related events may hold promise for the treatment of TFH-derived lymphomas.

Chevret E, Merlio JP
Sézary Syndrome: Translating Genetic Diversity into Personalized Medicine.
J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136(7):1319-1324 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sézary syndrome is probably the most studied cutaneous T-cell lymphoma subtype. Beyond the consensus criteria for Sézary syndrome diagnosis, Sézary cells display heterogeneous phenotypes and differentiation profiles. In the face of SS diversity, the great hope is to develop targeted therapies based on next-generation sequencing to define the genetic landscape of Sézary syndrome. Prasad et al. report on the use of exome sequencing and RNA sequencing to study selected CD4(+) blood cells from 15 patients with erythroderma Sézary syndrome, 14 of whom fulfilled the conventional criteria for diagnosis. The most common genetic abnormality, TP53 gene deletion on chromosome arm 17p and/or mutation, was observed in 58% of patients. However, mutations affecting PLCG1, STAT5B, GLI3, and CARD11 each were detected in only one individual. Nevertheless, Prasad et al. report single point mutations or copy number alterations in several new genes and in new fusion genes, with predicted biological relevance. This information underscores the diversity of genetic alterations and of the mechanisms of alterations of single genes. At the individual level, Sézary cells may combine alterations of genes involved in T-cell signaling, NF-kB and JAK-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, apoptosis control, chromatin remodeling, and DNA damage response. The therapeutic relevance of these potential targets needs to be evaluated with tests of function.

van den Brand M, Rijntjes J, Hebeda KM, et al.
Recurrent mutations in genes involved in nuclear factor-κB signalling in nodal marginal zone lymphoma-diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
Histopathology. 2017; 70(2):174-184 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To investigate the spectrum of mutations in 20 genes involved in B-cell receptor and/or Toll-like receptor signalling resulting in activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in 20 nodal marginal zone lymphomas (NMZLs), 20 follicular lymphomas (FLs), and 11 cases of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable (BCL-u).
METHODS AND RESULTS: Nodal marginal zone lymphomas were diagnosed according to strict criteria, including the expression of at least one putative marginal zone marker (MNDA and/or IRTA1). Cases that showed features of NMZL but did not fulfil all criteria were included as BCL-u. All FLs were required to have a BCL2 rearrangement. Mutations were found in: nine NMZLs, with recurrent mutations in TNFAIP3 and CD79B; 12 FLs, with recurrent mutations in TNFRSF14, TNFAIP3, and CARD11; and five cases of BCL-u, with recurrent mutations in TNFRSF14. TNFRSF14 mutations were present in FL and BCL-u, but not in any of the NMZLs. In the BCL-u group, TNFRSF14 mutations clustered with a FL immunophenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TNFRSF14 mutations point towards a diagnosis of FL, and can be used in the sometimes difficult distinction between NMZL and FL, but to apply this in diagnostics would require confirmation in an independent cohort. In addition, the presence or absence of specific mutations in pathways converging on NF-κB could be important for decisions regarding targeted treatment.

Juilland M, Thome M
Role of the CARMA1/BCL10/MALT1 complex in lymphoid malignancies.
Curr Opin Hematol. 2016; 23(4):402-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The CARMA1/BCL10/MALT1 (CBM) complex is a multimeric signaling complex controlling several important aspects of lymphocyte activation. Gain-of-function mutations in the genes encoding CBM proteins or their upstream regulators are associated with lymphoid malignancies, whereas loss-of-function mutations lead to immunodeficiency. This review reports on recent findings advancing our understanding of how CBM proteins contribute to malignant and nonmalignant hematological diseases in humans.
RECENT FINDINGS: Somatic gain-of-function mutations of CARMA1 (also known as CARD11), originally described for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, have recently been identified in patients with acute T-cell leukemia/lymphoma or Sézary syndrome, and in patients with a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder known as BENTA. Loss-of-function mutations of CARMA1 and MALT1, on the other hand, have been reported to underlie human immunodeficiency. Lately, it has become clear that CBM-dependent signaling promotes lymphomagenesis not only via NF-κB activation, but also via the AP-1 family of transcription factors. The identification of new substrates of the protease MALT1 and the characterization of mice expressing catalytically inactive MALT1 have deepened our understanding of how the CBM complex controls lymphocyte proliferation through promoting MALT1's protease activity.
SUMMARY: The discovery of CARMA1 gain-of-function mutations in T-cell malignancies and BENTA patients, as well as the association of CARMA1 and MALT1 mutations with human immunodeficiency highlight the importance of CBM proteins in the regulation of lymphocyte functions, and suggest that the protease activity of MALT1 might be targeted to treat specific lymphoid malignancies.

Yang Y, Kelly P, Shaffer AL, et al.
Targeting Non-proteolytic Protein Ubiquitination for the Treatment of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(4):494-507 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Chronic active B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), engages the CARD11-MALT1-BCL10 (CBM) adapter complex to activate IκB kinase (IKK) and the classical NF-κB pathway. Here we show that the CBM complex includes the E3 ubiquitin ligases cIAP1 and cIAP2, which are essential mediators of BCR-dependent NF-κB activity in ABC DLBCL. cIAP1/2 attach K63-linked polyubiquitin chains on themselves and on BCL10, resulting in the recruitment of IKK and the linear ubiquitin chain ligase LUBAC, which is essential for IKK activation. SMAC mimetics target cIAP1/2 for destruction, and consequently suppress NF-κB and selectively kill BCR-dependent ABC DLBCL lines, supporting their clinical evaluation in patients with ABC DLBCL.

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