Gene Summary

Gene:CYP2C9; cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 9
Aliases: CPC9, CYP2C, CYP2C10, CYPIIC9, P450IIC9
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by rifampin. The enzyme is known to metabolize many xenobiotics, including phenytoin, tolbutamide, ibuprofen and S-warfarin. Studies identifying individuals who are poor metabolizers of phenytoin and tolbutamide suggest that this gene is polymorphic. The gene is located within a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes on chromosome 10q24. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytochrome P450 2C9
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Seizures
  • Tamoxifen
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Smoking
  • Lung Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genetic Variation
  • Warfarin
  • Glucuronosyltransferase
  • Haplotypes
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • P-Glycoproteins
  • CYP2D6
  • Isoenzymes
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Polymorphism
  • Chromosome 10
  • Genotype
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
  • Sulfotransferases
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Tetrazoles
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Adenoma
  • Alleles
  • Risk Factors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP2C9 (cancer-related)

Rodríguez-Sanz M, García-Giralt N, Prieto-Alhambra D, et al.
CYP11A1 expression in bone is associated with aromatase inhibitor-related bone loss.
J Mol Endocrinol. 2015; 55(1):69-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cause diverse musculoskeletal side effects that include bone loss and its associated fracture. About half of the 391 patients treated with AIs in the Barcelona-Aromatase induced bone loss in early breast cancer cohort suffered a significant bone loss at lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) after 2 years on AI-treatment. In contrast, up to one-third (19.6% LS, 38.6% FN) showed no decline or even increased bone density. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis for this variability. SNPs in candidate genes involved in vitamin D and estrogen hormone-response pathways (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ESR1, DHCR7, GC, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1) were genotyped for association analysis with AI-related bone loss (AIBL). After multiple testing correction, 3 tag-SNPs (rs4077581, s11632698 and rs900798) located in the CYP11A1 gene were significantly associated (P<0.005) with FN AIBL at 2 years of treatment. Next, CYP11A1 expression in human fresh bone tissue and primary osteoblasts was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Both common isoforms of human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (encoded by CYP11A1 gene) were detected in osteoblasts by western blot. In conclusion, the genetic association of CYP11A1 gene with AIBL and its expression in bone tissue reveals a potential local function of this enzyme in bone metabolism regulation, offering a new vision of the steroidogenic ability of this tissue and new understanding of AI-induced bone loss.

de Vries Schultink AH, Zwart W, Linn SC, et al.
Effects of Pharmacogenetics on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Tamoxifen.
Clin Pharmacokinet. 2015; 54(8):797-810 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer and substantially decreases recurrence and mortality rates. However, high interindividual variability in response is observed, calling for a personalized approach to tamoxifen treatment. Tamoxifen is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5, resulting in the formation of active metabolites, including 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and endoxifen. Therefore, polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes are proposed to influence tamoxifen and active tamoxifen metabolites in the serum and consequently affect patient response rates. To tailor tamoxifen treatment, multiple studies have been performed to clarify the influence of polymorphisms on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Nevertheless, personalized treatment of tamoxifen based on genotyping has not yet met consensus. This article critically reviews the published data on the effect of various genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tamoxifen, and reviews the clinical implications of its findings. For each CYP enzyme, the influence of polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcome measures is described throughout this review. No clear effects on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were seen for various polymorphisms in the CYP encoding genes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. For CYP2D6, there was a clear gene-exposure effect that was able to partially explain the interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of the pharmacologically most active metabolite endoxifen; however, a clear exposure-response effect remained controversial. These controversial findings and the partial contribution of genotype in explaining interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of, in particular, endoxifen, imply that tailored tamoxifen treatment may not be fully realized through pharmacogenetics of metabolizing enzymes alone.

Yu D, Green B, Marrone A, et al.
Suppression of CYP2C9 by microRNA hsa-miR-128-3p in human liver cells and association with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:8534 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Published studies have identified genetic variants, somatic mutations, and changes in gene expression profiles that are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly involving genes that encode drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). CYP2C9, one of the most abundant and important DMEs, is involved in the metabolism of many carcinogens and drugs and is down-regulated in HCC. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that control CYP2C9 expression, we applied integrative approaches including in silico, in vitro, and in vivo analyses to elucidate the role of microRNA hsa-miR-128-3p in the regulation of CYP2C9 expression and translation. RNA electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated a direct interaction between hsa-miR-128-3p and its cognate target, the CYP2C9 transcript. Furthermore, the expression of a luciferase reporter gene containing the 3'-UTR of CYP2C9 and the endogenous expression of CYP2C9 were suppressed by transfection of hsa-miR-128-3p. Importantly, chemically-induced up- or down-regulation of hsa-miR-128-3p correlated inversely with the expression of CYP2C9. Finally, an association analysis revealed that the expression of hsa-miR-128-3p is inversely correlated with the expression of CYP2C9 in HCC tumor tissues. Altogether, the study helped to elucidate the mechanism of CYP2C9 regulation by hsa-miR-128-3p, and the inverse association in HCC.

Rangel LB, Taraba JL, Frei CR, et al.
Pharmacogenomic diversity of tamoxifen metabolites and estrogen receptor genes in Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites with breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 148(3):571-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ethnic differences in patient genetics and breast cancer (BC) biology contribute to ethnic disparities in cancer presentation and patient outcome. We prospectively evaluated SNPs within phase I and phase II tamoxifen (TAM) metabolizing enzymes, and the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1), aiming to identify potential pharmacogenomic ethnicity patterns in an ER-positive BC cohort constituted of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White (NHW) women in South Texas. Plasma concentrations of TAM/metabolites were measured using HPLC. CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and SULT1A1 genotypes were determined by DNA sequencing/Pyrosequencing technology. ESR1 PvuII and XbaI SNPs were genotyped using Applied Biosystems Taqman Allelic Discrimination Assay. Hispanics had higher levels of TAM, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and endoxifen than NHWs. There was a higher prevalence of CYP2D6 EM within Hispanics than NHWs, which corresponded to higher endoxifen levels, but no differences were verified with regard to CYP2C9 and SULT1A1. We found a higher incidence of the wild type forms of the ESR1 in Hispanics than NHWs. The performance status, the disease stage at diagnosis, and the use of aromatase inhibitors might have overcome the overall favorable pharmacogenomics profile of Hispanics when compared to NHWs in relation to TAM therapy responsiveness. Our data strongly point to ethnical peculiarities related to pharmacogenomics and demographic features of TAM treated Hispanics and NHWs. In the era of pharmacogenomics and its ultimate goal of individualized, efficacious and safe therapy, cancer studies focused on the Hispanic population are warranted because this is the fastest growing major demographic group, and an understudied segment in the U.S.

Vulsteke C, Pfeil AM, Schwenkglenks M, et al.
Impact of genetic variability and treatment-related factors on outcome in early breast cancer patients receiving (neo-) adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 147(3):557-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
To assess the impact of patient-related factors, including genetic variability in genes involved in the metabolism of chemotherapeutic agents, on breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and recurrence-free interval (RFI). We selected early breast cancer patients treated between 2000 and 2010 with 4-6 cycles of (neo-)adjuvant 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) or 3 cycles FEC followed by 3 cycles docetaxel. Tumor stage/subtype; febrile neutropenia and patient-related factors such as selected single nucleotide polymorphisms and baseline laboratory parameters were evaluated. Multivariable Cox regression was performed. Of 991 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 152 (15.3 %) patients relapsed and 63 (6.4 %) patients died. Advanced stage and more aggressive subtype were associated with poorer BCSS and RFI in multivariable analysis (p < 0.0001). Associations with worse BCSS in multivariable analysis were: homozygous carriers of the rs1057910 variant C-allele in CYP2C9 (hazard ratio [HR] 30.4; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 6.1-151.5; p < 0.001) and higher white blood cell count (WBC) (HR 1.2; 95 % CI 1.0-1.3; p = 0.014). The GT genotype of the ABCB1 variant rs2032582 was associated with better BCSS (HR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.9, p = 0.021). Following associations with worse RFI were observed: higher WBC (HR 1.1; 95 % CI 1.0-1.2; p = 0.026), homozygous carriers of the rs1057910 variant C-allele in CYP2C9 (HR 10.9; 95 % CI 2.5-47.9; p = 0.002), CT genotype of the CYBA variant rs4673 (HR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.2-2.7; p = 0.006), and G-allele homozygosity for the UGT2B7 variant rs3924194 (HR 3.4; 95 % CI 1.2-9.7, p = 0.023). Patient-related factors including genetic variability and baseline white blood cell count, impacted on outcome in early breast cancer.

Chen H, Shen ZY, Xu W, et al.
Expression of P450 and nuclear receptors in normal and end-stage Chinese livers.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(26):8681-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the expression of P450 enzyme genes by using end-stage liver disease samples and trimmed normal Chinese donor livers.
METHODS: The end-stage liver disease samples [n = 93, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), peri-HCC tissue, hepatitis B virus cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and severe cirrhosis] and trimmed normal Chinese donor livers (n = 35) from The Institute of Organ Transplantation in Beijing, China. Total RNA was extracted, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis.
RESULTS: For cytochrome P450 enzymes 1 (CYP1) family, the expression of CYP1A2 was decreased 90% in HCC, 80% in alcoholic cirrhosis, and 65% in severe cirrhosis. For CYP2 family, the expression of CAR was decreased 50% in HCC, but increased 50% in peri-HCC tissues. Similar decreases (about 50%) of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 were observed in HCC, as compared to peri-HCC tissues and normal livers. CYP2C19 were decreased in all end-stage liver diseases and CYP2E1 also decreased in alcoholic cirrhosis and severe cirrhosis. For CYP3 family, the expression of PXR was decreased 60% in HCC, together with decreases in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. In contrast, the expression of CYP3A7 was slightly increased in HBV cirrhosis. The expression of CYP4A11 was decreased 85% in HCC, 7% in alcoholic cirrhosis and severe liver cirrhosis, along with decreases in PPARα. The 93 end-stage livers had much higher inter-individual variations in gene expression than 35 normal livers.
CONCLUSION: The expression of CYP enzyme genes and corresponding nuclear receptors was generally decreased in end-stage liver diseases, and significant differences in gene expression were evident between peri-HCC and HCC.

Tadje M
Allelic expression of phase II metabolizing enzymes and relationship to irinotecan toxicity.
Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014; 41(4):443-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many drugs are associated with variable response rates and, of the 1,200 drugs approved for use in the United States, about 15% are associated with adverse drug responses (Jorde, Carey, & Bamshad, 2010c). Often, variable response and risk for toxicity can be explained because of differences in genes and in the proteins encoded by those genes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for variable expression can be found in genes encoding for drug targets (receptors) or in genes responsible for drug disposition, including those that encode metabolizing enzymes or transporter molecules (Jorde et al., 2010c; Kuo, Lee, & Ma, 2009; Ma & Lu, 2011). Although pharmacogenetics usually refers to drug interactions based on a relatively small number of genes, pharmacogenomics is the preferred term because it refers to interactions within the entire complement of genes (Krau, 2013; Ma & Lu, 2011). This article discusses how SNPs in phase II metabolizing enzymes can influence irinotecan-induced toxicity.

Ko JM, Zhang P, Law S, et al.
Identity-by-descent approaches identify regions of importance for genetic susceptibility to hereditary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):860-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Worldwide, the highest prevalence of esophageal cancer (EC) occurs in Northern China. High-density SNP arrays allow identification of identity-by-descent (IBD) segments in genomic DNAs representative of shared common ancestral regions. We utilized IBD approaches to map susceptibility loci associated with low-penetrance SNPs in high-risk Henan hereditary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Affymetrix GeneChip Human mapping SNP array IBD analysis was performed in 32 Henan family history-positive (FH+) ESCC patients, 18 Henan healthy unrelated individuals, and 45 Chinese individuals from a CHB HapMap dataset using PLink (scoring IBD segments individually) and Beagle (scoring of shared IBD segments among case/case vs. control/control pairs) software. Both analyses identified longer IBD segment lengths associated with FH+ ESCC compared to controls. However, there was no strong evidence for a genetic founder effect. Pairing IBD analysis with BEAGLE identified 8 critical IBD segments residing at 2q32.1-q32.2, 3p22.3-p22.2, 4q21.1-q21.21, 7p22.2, 8q23.2-q23.3, 10q23.33-q24.1, 14q24.3 and 16q11.2-q12.1, which were more significantly shared among case/case compared to control/control. The shared IBD segments in FH+ ESCC samples with no overlap with control/CHB Hapmap may encompass potential cancer susceptibility loci. Selected targeted genes, PLCE1, GPT2, SIAH1 and CYP2C-18, residing within the IBD segments at 10q23.33-q24.1 and 16q11.2-q12.1, had statistically significant differential expression in primary ESCC tissues and are likely involved in ESCC carcinogenesis. The importance of these IBD segments to the etiology and development of ESCC in high-risk areas requires further study with expanded sample sizes. This is the first report employing the pairing IBD approach for elucidation of the genetic basis of hereditary ESCC in Henan by applying high throughput SNP array analysis.

Vilanova-Costa CA, Porto HK, Pereira Fde C, et al.
The ruthenium complexes cis-(dichloro)tetramineruthenium(III) chloride and cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate overcome resistance inducing apoptosis on human lung carcinoma cells (A549).
Biometals. 2014; 27(3):459-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world, and non-small cell lung carcinoma accounts for approximately 75-85 % of all lung cancers. In the present work, we studied the antitumor activity of the compound cis-(dichloro)tetramineruthenium(III) chloride {cis-[RuCl2(NH3)4]Cl} against human lung carcinoma tumor cell line A549. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of MDR1 and CYP450 genes in human lung carcinoma cell lines A549 treated with cisCarboPt, cisCRu(III) and cisDRu(III). The ruthenium-based coordinated complexes presented low cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities, with high IC50 values, 196 (±15.49), 472 (±20.29) and 175 (±1.41) for cisCarboPt, cisCRu(III) and cisDRu(III), respectively. The tested compounds induced apoptosis in A549 tumor cells as evidenced by caspase 3 activation, but only at high concentrations. Results also revealed that the amplification of P-gp gene is greater in A549 cells exposed to cisCarboPt and cisCRu(III) than cisDRu(III). Taken together all these results strongly demonstrate that MDR-1 over-expression in A549 cells could be associated to a MDR phenotype of these cells and moreover, it is also contributing to the platinum, and structurally-related compound, resistance in these cells. The identification and characterization of novel mechanisms of drug resistance will enable the development of a new generation of anti-cancer drugs that increase cancer sensitivity and/or represent more effective chemotherapeutic agents.

Tulsyan S, Agarwal G, Lal P, Mittal B
Significant role of CYP450 genetic variants in cyclophosphamide based breast cancer treatment outcomes: a multi-analytical strategy.
Clin Chim Acta. 2014; 434:21-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating chemotherapeutic drug, is catalyzed by the Phase I cytochrome P450 (CYPs) isozymes - CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Hence this study aimed to elucidate the influence of genetic variants in CYP450 metabolizing enzymes on breast cancer treatment outcomes, using multi-analytical approaches.
METHODS: Treatment response was noticed in 111 patients whereas 234 patients were followed for myelo-toxicity. Eight known functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six CYP450 genes were selected for the study on the basis of CP metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms. The possible functional effects of CYP450 polymorphisms were determined by online Web servers F-SNP. Multifactor dimensionality reductions (MDR), haplotype analysis were combined with logistic regression to characterize gene-gene interaction model with treatment outcomes.
RESULTS: Haplotype analysis revealed significant association of G(rs10509681)-*1(rs1799853)-*3(rs1057910)-G(rs4244285) on chromosome 10 with overall toxicity (P=0.024) and grade 2-4 leucopenia (P=0.03). On MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2B6*5 yielded the highest testing accuracy for treatment response (0.60) and CYP2C8*3, CYP2C9*2 for overall toxicity (0.50).
CONCLUSION: Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better clinical prediction of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients.

Mwinyi J, Vokinger K, Jetter A, et al.
Impact of variable CYP genotypes on breast cancer relapse in patients undergoing adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 73(6):1181-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is frequently used for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer (BC). Mainly CYP2D6 is responsible for the transformation to therapeutically active metabolites, but CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 also are involved. We investigated the impact of polymorphisms within the genes encoding these CYP enzymes on the relapse-free time (RFT) in patients with BC.
METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with hormone receptor positive BC, who had undergone adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, were genotyped for seventeen common variants within the genes encoding CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 using TaqMan and PCR-RFLP technology. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to elucidate the impact of genetic variants on RFT. Furthermore, CYP2D6 metabolic activity was determined in a subset of 50 patients by assessing dextromethorphan/dextrorphan urinary excretion ratios. CYP2D6 activity was compared to the CYP2D6 allelic combinations to evaluate the predictive value of the CYP2D6 genotyping results on phenotype.
RESULTS: Although a trend toward longer RFTs in carriers of CYP2D6 allele combinations encoding for extensive and ultrafast metabolizer phenotypes was observed, none of the investigated genetic variants had a statistically significant impact on RFT. The combined analysis of five major CYP2D6 variants was useful for the discrimination between poor and non-poor metabolizers.
CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive CYP2D6 genotyping has a good predictive value for CYP2D6 activity. Common variants in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2B6 did not have a significant impact on the RFT in this cohort of patients with BC.

Scherer D, Koepl LM, Poole EM, et al.
Genetic variation in UGT genes modify the associations of NSAIDs with risk of colorectal cancer: colon cancer family registry.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(7):568-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia. Previous studies have reported that polymorphisms in NSAID-metabolizing enzymes central to NSAID metabolism including UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 may modify this protective effect. We investigated whether 35 functionally relevant polymorphisms within CYP2C9 and UGT genes were associated with colorectal cancer risk or modified the protective effect of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer susceptibility, using 1,584 colorectal cancer cases and 2,516 unaffected sibling controls from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. A three-SNP genotype in UGT1A6 (G-A-A; Ala7-Thr181-Arg184) and the Asp85 variant in UGT2B15 increased the risk of colorectal cancer (OR 3.87; 95% CI 1.04-14.45 and OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63, respectively). We observed interactions between UGT1A3 Thr78Thr (A>G) and NSAID use (P-interaction = 0.02), a three-SNP genotype within UGT2B4 and ibuprofen use (P-interaction = 0.0018), as well as UGT2B15 Tyr85Asp (T>G) and aspirin use (P-interaction = 0.01). The interaction with the UGT2B4 and the UGT2B15 polymorphisms were noteworthy at the 25% FDR level. This study highlights the need for further pharmacogenetic studies to identify individuals who might benefit from NSAID use as part of developing effective strategies for prevention of colorectal neoplasia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wang H, Ren L, He Y, et al.
Association between cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer susceptibility: evidence from 16 case-control studies.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4317-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between common variations of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 (430C>T and 1075A>C) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) with conflicting results. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between these CYP2C9 polymorphisms and CRC, a meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Web of Science databases were searched. A total of 16 studies including 9,463 cases and 11,416 controls were identified. Potential sources of heterogeneity including ethnicity, sample size of study, genotyping method, diagnostic criteria, and outcome were systematically assessed. Overall, the summary odds ratio of 430T variant for CRC was 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-0.98; P = 0.012) and 1.39 (95% CI 1.07-1.81; P = 0.013) for colorectal adenomas (CRAs). As for CYP2C9 1075A>C polymorphism, no significant results were observed in overall and subgroup analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, there is evidence to indicate a significant association between CYP2C9 430C>T polymorphism and CRC/CRA risk.

Skrypnyk N, Chen X, Hu W, et al.
PPARα activation can help prevent and treat non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(2):621-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not amenable to surgical resection has a high mortality rate, due to the ineffectiveness and toxicity of chemotherapy. Thus, there remains an urgent need of efficacious drugs that can combat this disease. In this study, we show that targeting the formation of proangiogenic epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET) by the cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenases (Cyp2c) represents a new and safe mechanism to treat NSCLC growth and progression. In the transgenic murine K-Ras model and human orthotopic models of NSCLC, we found that Cyp2c44 could be downregulated by activating the transcription factor PPARα with the ligands bezafibrate and Wyeth-14,643. Notably, both treatments reduced primary and metastatic NSCLC growth, tumor angiogenesis, endothelial Cyp2c44 expression, and circulating EET levels. These beneficial effects were independent of the time of administration, whether before or after the onset of primary NSCLC, and they persisted after drug withdrawal, suggesting the benefits were durable. Our findings suggest that strategies to downregulate Cyp2c expression and/or its enzymatic activity may provide a safer and effective strategy to treat NSCLC. Moreover, as bezafibrate is a well-tolerated clinically approved drug used for managing lipidemia, our findings provide an immediate cue for clinical studies to evaluate the utility of PPARα ligands as safe agents for the treatment of lung cancer in humans.

Zhao Y, Han Y, Zhang L, et al.
Quantitative assessment of the effect of cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphism and colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60607 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CYP2C9 enzyme activity is involved in the metabolism of substances related to colorectal cancer (CRC), and it is functionally linked to a genetic polymorphism. Two allelic variants of the CYP2C9 gene, namely CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, differ from wild-type CYP2C9*1 by single amino acid substitutions. These mutated alleles encode enzymes with altered properties that are associated with impaired metabolism. In the past decade, a number of case-control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the CYP2C9 polymorphism and CRC susceptibility, but the results were conflicting. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies involving a total of 20,879 subjects for CYP2C9*2 and *3 polymorphisms to evaluate the effect of CYP2C9 on genetic susceptibility for CRC. Overall, the summary odds ratio of CRC was 0.94 (95%CI: 0.87-1.03, P = 0.18) and 1.00 (95%CI: 0.86-1.16, P = 0.99) for CYP2C9 *2 and *3 carriers, respectively. No significant results were observed in heterozygous and homozygous when compared with wild genotype for these polymorphisms. In the stratified analyses according to ethnicity, sample size, diagnostic criterion, HWE status and sex, no evidence of any gene-disease association was obtained. Our result suggest that the *2, *3 polymorphisms of CYP2C9 gene are not associated with CRC susceptibility.

Liang S, Hu J, Hu J, et al.
Meta-analysis of cytochrome P-450 2C9 polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e49134 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CYP2C9 encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes which play a central role in activating and detoxifying many carcinogens and endogenous compounds thought to be involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past decade, the relationship between CYP2C9 common polymorphisms (R144C and I359L) and CRC has been reported in various ethnic groups; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed this meta-analysis.
METHODS: Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association.
RESULTS: A total of 13 articles involving 9,463 cases and 11,416 controls were included. Overall, the summary odds ratio of CRC was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.89-1.06) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87-1.14) for CYP2C9 144C and 359L alleles, respectively. No significant results were observed using dominant or recessive genetic model for these polymorphisms. In the stratified analyses according to ethnicity and sex, no evidence of any gene-disease association was obtained.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP2C9 may not be associated with colorectal cancer development.

Seong SJ, Lim M, Sohn SK, et al.
Influence of enzyme and transporter polymorphisms on trough imatinib concentration and clinical response in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Ann Oncol. 2013; 24(3):756-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study explored the impact of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and transporters on the plasma trough concentration of imatinib mesylate (IM) and clinical response in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 82 patients with CML who had been administered 400 mg IM daily for over 6 months were genotyped for 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in nine genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, ABCB1, SLC22A1, SLC22A2 and ABCG2) using blood samples. The trough imatinib concentration and clinical responses were assessed 6 months after the initiation of IM therapy.
RESULTS: The CC, CA and AA genotypes in ABCG2 421C>A gave significantly different frequencies for the major molecular response (MMR) (P = 0.02). However, no significant differences were found between the genotypes of the CYP enzymes and transporters identified in this study and the imatinib plasma trough concentrations and clinical response frequencies, except for the correlation of ABCG2 with MMR.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study may indicate that the ABCG 421C>A genetic polymorphism influences the MMR of imatinib in patients with CML.

Barry EL, Poole EM, Baron JA, et al.
CYP2C9 variants increase risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence and modify associations with smoking but not aspirin treatment.
Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(1):47-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme (CYP2C9) is involved in metabolism of endogenous compounds, drugs, and procarcinogens. Two common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in CYP2C9 are associated with reduced enzyme activity: CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853, R144C) and CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910, I359L).
METHODS: We investigated whether CYP2C9 genotype was associated with risk of colorectal adenoma and/or modified associations with aspirin treatment or cigarette smoking in a cohort of 928 participants in a randomized trial of aspirin chemoprevention. Generalized linear regression was used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). Multiplicative interactions terms were used to assess effect modification.
RESULTS: CYP2C9 genotype was associated with increased risks for adenoma recurrence of 29 % (RR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.09-1.51) for ≥1 variant allele (CYP2C9*2 or *3) and 47 % (RR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.19-1.83) for ≥1 CYP2C9*3 allele. The risk for advanced lesions or multiple (≥3) adenomas was increased by 64 % (RR = 1.64, 95 % CI 1.18-2.28) for ≥1 variant allele (CYP2C9*2 or *3) and 79 % (RR = 1.79, 95 % CI 1.16-2.75) for ≥1 CYP2C9*3 allele. Genotype modified associations with smoking, but not aspirin treatment. The adenoma risk was increased by 26 % (RR = 1.26, 95 % CI 0.99-1.58) for former smokers and 60 % (RR = 1.60, 95 % CI 1.19-2.15) for current smokers among wild-type individuals, but there was no increased risk among individuals with ≥1 variant allele (CYP2C9*2 or *3) (p (interaction) = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of CYP2C9 variants with lower enzyme activity have increased overall risk of colorectal adenoma but reduced adenoma risk associated with cigarette smoking. These results may be due to effects on the synthesis of endogenous eicosanoids and/or reduced activation of procarcinogens in smoke by CYP2C9 variants.

Seredina TA, Goreva OB, Talaban VO, et al.
Association of cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms with neoadjuvant chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer patients.
BMC Med Genet. 2012; 13:45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYPs) play an important role in the metabolism of a great variety of anticancer agents; therefore, polymorphisms in genes encoding for metabolizing enzymes and drugs transporters can affect drug efficacy and toxicity.
METHODS: The genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 were studied in 395 patients with breast cancer by RLFP analysis.
RESULTS: Here, we studied the association of functionally significant variant alleles of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. A significant correlation was observed between the CYP2C9*2 polymorphism and chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 - 20.91), as well as between CYP2C9*2 heterozygotes and chemotherapy resistance in women with nodal forms of breast cancer and a cancer hereditary load (OR = 15.50; CI 95% = 1.08 - 826.12) when the potential combined effects were examined. No significant association between chemotherapy resistance and the other examined genotypes and the potential combined clinical and tumour-related parameters were discovered.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CYP2C9*2 was associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 - 20.91) in the population of interest.

Kaur-Knudsen D, Bojesen SE, Nordestgaard BG
Cytochrome P450 1B1 and 2C9 genotypes and risk of ischemic vascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2012; 10(4):512-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this review is to summarize present knowledge of genetic variation in cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and 2C9 (CYP2C9) genes and risk of tobacco-related cancer, female cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ischemic vascular disease. The CYP1B1 and CYP2C9 enzymes metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco smoke and thereby generate disease-causing metabolites suggested to be important in tobacco-related diseases. Furthermore, CYP1B1 also metabolizes estrogen while CYP2C9 metabolizes arachidonic acid, both creating metabolites potentially important in risk of female cancer or ischemic vascular disease. Genetic variation in genes coding for CYP1B1 and CYP2C9 enzymes have shown altered enzyme activity affecting levels of metabolites and thus potentially risk of disease. So far, however, findings have been inconsistent. Recently, large studies on the association between genetic variation in CYP1B1 and CYP2C9 and risk of disease with considerable statistical power rebutted the hypotheses that these genetic variants affect risk of tobacco-related cancer, female cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ischemic vascular disease.

Afsar NA, Ufer M, Haenisch S, et al.
Relationship of drug metabolizing enzyme genotype to plasma levels as well as myelotoxicity of cyclophosphamide in breast cancer patients.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2012; 68(4):389-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide (CP) is bioactivated into 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide (4-OH-CP) through cytochrome P450 enzymes and cleared through aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase. This prospective study analyzes the influence of drug metabolizing enzyme genotype on (1) plasma 4-OH-CP:CP ratio and (2) myelotoxicity in breast cancer patients on 500 mg/m(2) cyclophosphamide.
METHODS: Sixty-eight female breast cancer patients on FAC (fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide) were included. Genotyping of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH3A1), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTA1) was done either through RFLP or pyrosequencing. Plasma CP and 4-OH-CP were measured immediately and 1 and 2 h after the end of infusion through LC-MS. The leukocyte count was determined on day 10 and 20 after chemotherapy.
RESULTS: At CP dose of 500 mg/m(2), the 4-OH-CP:CP ratio was negatively affected by CYP2C19*2 genotype (p = 0.039) showing a gene-dose effect. Moreover ALDH3A1*2 genotype increased 4-OH-CP:CP ratio (p = 0.037). These effects did not remain significant in a univariate analysis of variance including all genotypes. GSTA1*B carriers were at increased risk of severe leucopenia (OR 6.94; 95% CI 1.75-27.6, p = 0.006).
CONCLUSION: The myelotoxicity in patients receiving FAC is related to the activity of the phase-II enzyme GSTA1 but is independent of the formation of 4-OH-CP.

Rudolph A, Sainz J, Hein R, et al.
Modification of menopausal hormone therapy-associated colorectal cancer risk by polymorphisms in sex steroid signaling, metabolism and transport related genes.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011; 18(3):371-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mechanisms underlying the association of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are unknown and the identification of genetic modifiers may yield further insight. We explored the effect modification of MHT-associated CRC risk in postmenopausal women by 47 polymorphisms with known or putative functional relevance in 16 candidate genes related to hormone metabolism (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP17A1, GSTP, and HSD17B1), transport (ABCB1), and signaling (ESR1, ESR2, SHBG, PGR, and NR1I2). A total of 685 CRC patients and 684 healthy controls from a German population-based case-control study (DACHS) were genotyped. Multiplicative statistical interaction between polymorphisms and ever MHT use as well as duration of use was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. CRC risk associated with ever MHT use as well as with duration was significantly modified by rs1202168 in the transporter gene ABCB1 (P interaction=0.04). The MHT-associated risk reduction was not significant in homozygous non-carriers (odds ratio (OR) ever use=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-1.34; OR per 5 year duration=0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.08), while homozygous carriers of the minor T allele had a 57% lower risk with ever use of MHT (95% CI 0.21-0.88) and a 22% lower risk per 5 years of MHT use (95% CI 0.62-0.97). Significant effect modification was also observed for the ESR1_rs910416 polymorphism (P interaction=0.03 for ever use and 0.07 for duration of use), whereby the decreased risk was attenuated in homozygous carriers of the minor C allele (OR ever use=0.87, 95% CI 0.48-1.60, OR per 5 year duration=0.99, 95% CI 0.83-1.18). Results of this exploratory study provide first evidence that polymorphisms in genes related to estrogen transport and signaling may modify MHT-associated CRC risk but warrant replication in an independent population.

Xu X, Zhang XA, Wang DW
The roles of CYP450 epoxygenases and metabolites, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, in cardiovascular and malignant diseases.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2011; 63(8):597-609 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to biologically active eicosanoids. The primary epoxidation products are four regioisomers of cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET): 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET. CYP2J2, CYP2C8, and CYP2C9 are the predominant epoxygenase isoforms involved in EET formation. CYP2J and CYP2C gene families in humans are abundantly expressed in the endothelium, myocardium, and kidney. The cardiovascular effects of CYP epoxygenases and EETs range from vasodilation, anti-hypertension, pro-angiogenesis, anti-atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammation to anti-injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Using transgenic animals for in vivo analyses of CYP epoxygenases revealed comprehensive and marked cardiovascular protective effects. In contrast, CYP epoxygenases and their metabolites, EETs, are upregulated in human tumors and promote tumor progression and metastasis. These biological effects result from the anti-apoptosis, pro-mitogenesis, and anti-migration roles of CYP epoxygenases and EETs at the cellular level. Importantly, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory and, therefore, protect the heart from damage, whereas the terfenadine-related, specific inhibitors of CYP2J2 exhibit strong anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CYP2J2 and arachidonic acid-derived metabolites likely play important roles in regulating cardiovascular functions and malignancy under physiological and/or pathological conditions. Moreover, although challenges remain to improving the drug-like properties of sEH inhibitors and identifying efficient ways to deliver sEH inhibitors, sEH will likely become an important therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. In addition, CYP2J2 may be a therapeutic target for treating human cancers and leukemia.

Sainz J, Rudolph A, Hein R, et al.
Association of genetic polymorphisms in ESR2, HSD17B1, ABCB1, and SHBG genes with colorectal cancer risk.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011; 18(2):265-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence rates and relative risks for colorectal cancer (CRC) are higher in men than in women. Sex steroids may play a role in this gender-associated difference in CRC risk. This study was conducted to explore the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in steroid hormone signaling (ESR1, ESR2, PGR, NR1I2, and SHBG), phase I- and II-metabolizing enzyme (COMT, HSD17B1, CYP1A1, CYP17A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and GSTP1), and hormone transporter (ABCB1) genes with the risk of CRC in German women and men, separately. From the population-based DACHS study (South Germany), 47 putatively functional SNPs were genotyped in 1798 CRC cases (746 women and 1052 men) and 1810 controls (732 women and 1078 men). Significant allele dose-response associations were observed with ESR2_rs1255998, ESR2_rs928554, HSD17B1_rs605059, and ABCB1_rs2229109 in women (P trend=0.004, 0.05, 0.03, and 0.05 respectively) and with ABCB1_rs1045642, ABCB1_rs9282564, and SHBG_rs6259 in men (P trend=0.01, 0.03, and 0.02 respectively). The ESR2_rs1255998_G allele showed the most significant association with risk for CRC in women, with a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 0.68 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.88). This finding was replicated in an independent study from North Germany including 1076 female CRC cases and 1151 controls (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71-1.04), yielding a per-allele OR of 0.80 (95% CI 0.69-0.93, P trend=0.003) in the pooled sample. These findings implicate a role of ESR2 in the risk for developing CRC in women and suggest that HSD17B1, ABCB1, and SHBG genes may contribute to sex steroid-mediated effects on CRC development.

Yamakawa Y, Hamada A, Nakashima R, et al.
Association of genetic polymorphisms in the influx transporter SLCO1B3 and the efflux transporter ABCB1 with imatinib pharmacokinetics in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Ther Drug Monit. 2011; 33(2):244-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study explored the association of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms in three genes coding for influx transporters (SLC22A1, SLCO1B1, and SLCO1B3), two genes coding for efflux transporters (ABCB1 and ABCG2), and four genes coding for enzymes (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A5) with the pharmacokinetics of imatinib in Japanese patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by a population pharmacokinetic analysis based on 622 plasma samples from 34 patients at steady state. Approximately 4.6-fold variability in individual clearance was observed (range, 3.4-15.5 L/hr). The individual estimated clearance was significantly increased in patients with the SLCO1B3 334GG genotype (median value ± standard deviation, 9.5 ± 3.1 L/hr; n = 19) compared with SLCO1B3 334TT and TG genotypes (7.0 ± 3.1 L/hr; n = 15) (P = 0.019). Patients with the ABCB1 3435CC genotype had significantly higher imatinib clearance (12.7 ± 3.0 L/hr; n = 7) compared with patients with ABCB1 3435CT and TT genotypes (7.9 ± 2.7 L/hr; n = 27) (P = 0.035). In conclusion, the present study suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms of the influx transporter SLCO1B3 and the efflux transporter ABCB1 were functionally associated with individual variability of imatinib pharmacokinetics in Japanese patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

Cleary SP, Cotterchio M, Shi E, et al.
Cigarette smoking, genetic variants in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk.
Am J Epidemiol. 2010; 172(9):1000-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The risk of colorectal cancer associated with smoking is unclear and may be influenced by genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize cigarette carcinogens. The authors examined the colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking and 26 variants in carcinogen metabolism genes in 1,174 colorectal cancer cases and 1,293 population-based controls recruited in Canada by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry from 1997 to 2001. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression. Smoking for >27 years was associated with a statistically significant increased colorectal cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.53) in all subjects. Colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking was higher in males for smoking status, duration, and intensity. The CYP1A1-3801-CC (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94) and CYP2C9-430-CT (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99) genotypes were associated with decreased risk, and the GSTM1-K173N-CG (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.25) genotype was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Statistical interactions between smoking and genetic variants were assessed by comparing logistic regression models with and without a multiplicative interaction term. Significant interactions were observed between smoking status and SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.02), NAT2-857 (P = 0.01), and CYP1B1-4390 (P = 0.04) variants and between smoking duration and NAT1-1088 (P = 0.02), SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.04), and NAT1-acetylator (P = 0.03) status. These findings support the hypothesis that prolonged cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer and that this risk may be modified by variation in carcinogen metabolism genes.

Canturk P, Caner V, Oruc N, et al.
The mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 isoforms in human gastric tissue.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2010 Mar-Apr; 57(98):372-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) comprises a multigene family of microsomal enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of xenobiotics, including drugs and carcinogens. Although the a number of CYP enzymes were also detected in epithelial cells along the gastrointestinal tract, little is known about the expression of CYP genes in gastric tissue.
METHODOLOGY: In this study, the expression patterns of CYP isoforms was investigated in a total of 14 antral biopsy tissues obtained from the patients with either chronic gastritis (n = 6) or cancer (n = 8) by gene-specific real-time reverse transcriptase -PCR analyses. We employed primer sets specific for CYPs -1A1, -1A2, -2A6, -2B6, -2C, -2D6, -2E1, and -3A5.
RESULTS: Among the isoforms CYP1A1, CYP2C and CYP2D6 gave rise to detectable mRNAs in all 14 gastric tissues while the mRNAs for the other CYPs were detected in some of the tissues. The expression patterns were compared to clinical parameters. There were no significant differences in the parameters between the two groups; however the mRNA expression of CYP2A6 was significantly higher in women than man (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that the CYP isoforms were independently expressed with respect to the pathological status in human gastric tissue.

Küblbeck J, Reinisalo M, Mustonen R, Honkakoski P
Up-regulation of CYP expression in hepatoma cells stably transfected by chimeric nuclear receptors.
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2010; 40(4):263-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most hepatoma cell lines lack proper expression and induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and this deficiency hampers their use as in vitro models for drug and xenobiotic metabolism. According to previous studies, the poor expression of CYP enzymes may be due to decreases in CYP gene transcription. Two nuclear receptors (NRs), the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), are known to regulate many genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition. Here, we studied the expression of different CYP, NR and NR co-regulator genes in hepatoma cell lines. Next, we created "chimeric NR" constructs by cloning the strong activation domain from the p65 subunit of transcription factor NF-kappaB and appending it to either N- or C-termini of the human CAR or PXR. We established that these chimeric NRs displayed enhanced trans-activation potential as compared to the unmodified NRs, and showed that transient transfection of a single chimeric NR increased the expression of several CYPs simultaneously. Finally, stable cell lines expressing a chimeric NR had elevated levels of CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 mRNAs and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism when compared to the wild-type hepatoma cells. These findings establish a proof of principle how improved metabolic cell models could be designed.

Northwood EL, Elliott F, Forman D, et al.
Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and diet influence colorectal adenoma risk.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010; 20(5):315-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We have earlier shown that diet and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genotypes influence colorectal cancer risk, and now investigate whether similar associations are seen in patients with premalignant colorectal adenomas (CRA), recruited during the pilot phase of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme.
METHODS: Nineteen polymorphisms in 13 genes [cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione S-transferase (GST), N-acetyl transferase, quinone reductase (NQ01) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes] were genotyped using multiplex PCR or Taqman-based allelic discrimination assays and analyzed in conjunction with diet, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, in a case-control study [317 CRA cases (308 cases genotyped), 296 controls]. Findings significant at a nominal 5% level are reported.
RESULTS: CRA risk was inversely associated with fruit (P=0.02, test for trend) and vegetable (P=0.001, test for trend) consumption. P450 CYP2C9*3 heterozygotes had reduced CRA risk compared with homozygotes for the reference allele [odds ratio (OR): 0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.99], whereas CYP2D6*4 homozygotes (OR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.18-6.27) and GSTM1 'null' individuals (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.04-1.98) were at increased risk. The protective effect of fruit consumption was confined to GSTP1 (Ala114Val) reference allele homozygotes (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71, P=0.03 for interaction). CRA risk was not associated with meat consumption, although a significant interaction between red meat consumption and EPHX1 (His139Arg) genotype was noted (P=0.02 for interaction).
CONCLUSION: We report the novel associations between P450 genotype and CRA risk, and highlight the risk association with GSTM1 genotype, common to our CRA and cancer case-control series. In addition, we report a novel modifying influence of GSTP1 genotype on dietary chemoprevention. These novel findings require independent confirmation.

Bray J, Sludden J, Griffin MJ, et al.
Influence of pharmacogenetics on response and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide.
Br J Cancer. 2010; 102(6):1003-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) therapy is an effective treatment for early-stage breast cancer. Doxorubicin is a substrate for ABCB1 and SLC22A16 transporters. Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug that requires oxidation to 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, which yields a cytotoxic alkylating agent. The initial oxidation is catalysed by cytochrome P450 enzymes including CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A5. Polymorphic variants of the genes coding for these enzymes and transporters have been identified, which may influence the systemic pharmacology of the two drugs. It is not known whether this genetic variation has an impact on the efficacy or toxicity of AC therapy.
METHODS: Germ line DNA samples from 230 patients with breast cancer on AC therapy were genotyped for the following SNPs: ABCB1 C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T, SLC22A16 A146G, T312C, T755C and T1226C, CYP2B6*2, *8, *9, *3, *4 and *5, CYP2C9*2 and *3, CYP3A5*3 and CYP2C19*2. Clinical data on survival, toxicity, demographics and pathology were collated.
RESULTS: A lower incidence of dose delay, indicative of less toxicity, was seen in carriers of the SLC22A16 A146G, T312C, T755C variants. In contrast, a higher incidence of dose delay was seen in carriers of the SLC22A16 1226C, CYP2B6*2 and CYP2B6*5 alleles. The ABCB1 2677A, CYP2B6*2, CYP 2B6*8, CYP 2B6*9, CYP 2B6*4 alleles were associated with a worse outcome.
CONCLUSION: Variant alleles in the ABCB1, SLC22A16 and CYP2B6 genes are associated with response to AC therapy in the treatment of breast cancer.

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