Gene Summary

Gene:SULT1A1; sulfotransferase family 1A member 1
Summary:Sulfotransferase enzymes catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs, and xenobiotic compounds. These cytosolic enzymes are different in their tissue distributions and substrate specificities. The gene structure (number and length of exons) is similar among family members. This gene encodes one of two phenol sulfotransferases with thermostable enzyme activity. Multiple alternatively spliced variants that encode two isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:sulfotransferase 1A1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
  • Logistic Models
  • Arylsulfotransferase
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Isoenzymes
  • CYP2D6
  • SULT1A1
  • Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Odds Ratio
  • Glucuronosyltransferase
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Smoking
  • Signal Transduction
  • Messenger RNA
  • Breast Cancer
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Alleles
  • Male Breast Cancer
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • Aromatase
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Risk Factors
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Diet
  • Polymorphism
  • Chromosome 16
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Registries
  • CYP1B1
  • Catechol O-Methyltransferase
  • Genotype
  • Estrogens
  • Lung Cancer
  • Haplotypes
  • Neoplasm Proteins
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerSULT1A1 and Breast Cancer
SULT1A1 is a drug and hormone metabolizing enzyme involved in the metabolism of a variety of potential mammary carcinogens and also in tamoxifen metabolism.
View Publications81
-Colorectal Cancer and SULT1A1?
Some studies have suggested a role of polymorphisms of SULT1A1 in colorectal cancer, but there have been conflicting reports on this, including negative results.
View Publications22
Male Breast CancerSULT1A1 deletions in Male Breast Cancer
Palli et al (2013) reported SULT1A1 gene deletion in 10 of 72 (14%) Male Breast Cancers (13.9%) and this correlated with BRCA2.
View Publications6

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SULT1A1 (cancer-related)

Charoenchokthavee W, Ayudhya DP, Sriuranpong V, Areepium N
Effects of SULT1A1 Copy Number Variation on Estrogen Concentration and Tamoxifen-Associated Adverse Drug Reactions in Premenopausal Thai Breast Cancer Patients: A Preliminary Study.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):1851-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen is a pharmacological estrogen inhibitor that binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cells. However, it shows an estrogenic effect in other organs, which causes adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) enzyme encoded by the SULT1A1 gene is involved in estrogen metabolism. Previous research has suggested that the SULT1A1 copy number is linked with the plasma estradiol (E2) concentration. Here, a total of 34 premenopausal breast cancer patients, selected from the Thai Tamoxifen (TTAM) Project, were screened for their SULT1A1 copy number, plasma E2 concentration and ADRs. The mean age was 44.3±11.1 years, and they were subtyped as ER+/ progesterone receptor (PR) + (28 patients), ER+/ PR- (5 patients) and ER-/PR- (1 patient). Three patients reported ADRs, which were irregular menstruation (2 patients) and vaginal discharge (1 patient). Most (33) patients had two SULT1A1 copies, with one patient having three copies. The median plasma E2 concentration was 1,575.6 (IQR 865.4) pg/ml. Patients with ADRs had significantly higher plasma E2 concentrations than those patients without ADRs (p = 0.014). The plasma E2 concentration was numerically higher in the patient with three SULT1A1 copies, but this lacked statistical significance.

Sak K, Everaus H
Sulfotransferase 1A1 as a Biomarker for Susceptibility to Carcinogenesis: From Molecular Genetics to the Role of Dietary Flavonoids.
Curr Drug Metab. 2016; 17(6):528-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A1 is a phase II metabolic enzyme that catalyzes sulfate conjugation of various phenolic compounds, including endogenous substances, such as estrogens and thyroid hormones, but also different xenobiotics. Although sulfation is classically considered as a detoxification event facilitating the excretion of more water soluble metabolites from the body, in some cases such bioconversion may also lead to bioactivation of promutagens, producing highly reactive intermediates which are capable of damaging DNA and promoting carcinogenesis. The most common polymorphism in SULT1A1 (Arg213His) has an important functional impact by affecting the capacity to sulfate diverse substrates and numerous case-control studies have shown associations between SULT1A1 variants and susceptibility to different malignancies. Several factors may significantly influence such relationships, including ethnicity, gender, parity, menopausal status, use of estrogen replacement therapy, exposure to tobacco smoke or occupational chemicals.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In this review article, we show that one more important determinant should be considered as a stratifying factor in studies of possible associations between SULT1A1 variants and cancer risk, i.e., the dietary intake of different flavonoids. As sulfation of bioactive plant polyphenols can change their potential anticancer activities and, on the other hand, these phytochemicals are capable to behave also as potent SULT1A1 inhibitors, the regular dietary exposure of humans to these compounds can make a great contribution to the impact of sulfation capacity on individual susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The effect of specific flavonoids as well as their interactions with other factors on associations between SULT1A1 alleles and cancer risk certainly needs further thorough studies.

Antonova O, Toncheva D, Grigorov E
Bladder cancer risk from the perspective of genetic polymorphisms in the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes.
J BUON. 2015 Nov-Dec; 20(6):1397-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urinary bladder cancer is a socially significant healthcare problem. A diverse array of aromatic and heterocyclic amines, derived from the chemical and transport industry, diet, and cigarette smoke are considered carcinogens for the bladder. To exert their carcinogenic effect and to initiate the carcinogenic response, the arylamines require a metabolic activation by the host enzymes to chemically reactive compounds. The aim of this article was to review the latest and basic research developments on the role of the polymorphisms in the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes N-acetyltransferase (NAT), Glutathione S-transferases (GST), and Soluble sulfotransferases (SULT), with emphasis on the susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer. A PubMed search was conducted to identify original and review articles containing information about these polymophic variants in different populations and according to their prevalence in bladder cancer patients. We noticed that some genotypes were found to be predisposing and some protective for bladder cancer development. The NAT2 slow genotype, together with GSTM1 null genotype facilitated the development of bladder cancer in almost all ethnic groups. The 213His allele of the SULT1A1 gene which is associated with lower enzyme activity and decreased mutagen activation was reported to protect from bladder cancer in almost all studies.

Høie AH, Svendsen C, Rasmussen T, et al.
Intestinal Tumor Development in C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ Mice Expressing Human Sulphotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 After Oral Exposure to 2,5-Dimethylfuran.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(2):545-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) is formed during heating of foods. Following side chain hydroxylation, DMF could be a substrate for human sulphotransferases (SULTs), which may lead to formation of a DNA reactive electrophile. Only few conflicting in vitro and no in vivo studies on DMF currently exist.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tumorigenic potential of DMF was studied in multiple intestinal neoplasia Apc(Min/+) (Min) mice that are sensitive to intestinal carcinogenesis and express hSULTs 1A1 and 1A2 (Min/hSULT). Min and Min/hSULT mice were orally exposed to DMF for six weeks.
RESULTS: The intestinal tumor development of untreated female Min/hSULT mice was significantly lower compared to that of untreated Min females. No such effects of hSULTs were seen in males. DMF had a weak tumorigenic potential in the colon of female Min/hSULT mice, but not in males. Tumor development in Min mice was not affected.
CONCLUSION: Overall, the tumorigenic potential of DMF in a metabolically competent mouse model was not convincing.

Usarek E, Graboń W, Kaźmierczak B, Barańczyk-Kuźma A
Targeting the expression of glutathione- and sulfate-dependent detoxification enzymes in HepG2 cells by oxygen in minimal and amino acid enriched medium.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2016; 100(1):82-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cells exhibit specific metabolism allowing them to survive and proliferate in various oxygen conditions and nutrients' availability. Hepatocytes are highly active metabolically and thus very sensitive to hypoxia. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oxygen on the expression of phase II detoxification enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) cultured in minimal and rich media (with nonessential amino acids and GSH). The cells were cultured at 1% hypoxia, 10% tissue normoxia, and 21% atmospheric normoxia. The total cell count was determined by trypan blue exclusion dye and the expression on mRNA level by RT-PCR. The result indicated that the expression of glutathione-dependent enzymes (GSTA, M, P, and GPX2) was sensitive to oxygen and medium type. At 1% hypoxia the enzyme expression (with the exception of GSTA) was higher in minimal compared to rich medium, whereas at 10% normoxia it was higher in the rich medium. The expression was oxygen-dependent in both types of medium. Among phenol sulfotransferase SULT1A1 was not sensitive to studied factors, whereas the expression of SULT1A3 was depended on oxygen only in minimal medium. It can be concluded that in HepG2 cells, the detoxification by conjugation with glutathione and, to a lower extent with sulfate, may be affected by hypoxia and/or limited nutrients' availability. Besides, because the data obtained at 10% oxygen significantly differ from those at 21%, the comparative studies on hypoxia should be performed in relation to 10% but not 21% oxygen.

Kalmár A, Péterfia B, Hollósi P, et al.
DNA hypermethylation and decreased mRNA expression of MAL, PRIMA1, PTGDR and SFRP1 in colorectal adenoma and cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:736 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) development is accompanied by changes in expression for several genes; but the details of the underlying regulatory procesess remain unknown. Our aims were to assess the role of epigenetic processes in tumour formation and to identify characteristic DNA methylation and miRNA alterations in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
METHODS: Whole genome expression profiling was performed on colonic biopsy samples (49 healthy normal, 49 colorectal adenoma (AD), 49 CRC); on laser capture microdissected (LCM) epithelial and stromal cells from 6 CRC-normal adjacent tissue (NAT) samples pairs, and on demethylated human CRC cell lines using HGU133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix). Methylation status of genes with gradually altering expression along the AD-CRC sequence was further analysed on 10-10 macrodissected and 5-5 LCM samples from healthy colon, from adenoma and from CRC biopsy samples using bisulfite-sequencing PCR (BS-PCR) followed by pyrosequencing. In silico miRNA prediction for the selected genes was performed with miRWALK algorithm, miRNA expression was analysed on 3 CRC-NAT sample pairs and 3 adenoma tissue samples using the Human Panel I + II (Exiqon). SFRP1 immunohistochemistry experiments were performed.
RESULTS: A set of transcripts (18 genes including MAL, SFRP1, SULT1A1, PRIMA1, PTGDR) showed decreasing expression (p < 0.01) in the biopsy samples along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Three of those (COL1A2, SFRP2, SOCS3) showed hypermethylation and THBS2 showed hypomethylation both in AD and in CRC samples compared to NAT, while BCL2, PRIMA1 and PTGDR showed hypermethylation only in the CRC group. miR-21 was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) upregulated in adenoma and tumour samples compared to the healthy colonic tissue controls and could explain the altered expression of genes for which DNA methylation changes do not appear to play role (e.g. BCL2, MAL, PTGS2). Demethylation treatment could upregulate gene expression of genes that were found to be hypermethylated in human CRC tissue samples. Decreasing protein levels of SFRP1 was also observed along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
CONCLUSION: Hypermethylation of the selected markers (MAL, PRIMA1, PTGDR and SFRP1) can result in reduced gene expression and may contribute to the formation of colorectal cancer.

Rudolph A, Fasching PA, Behrens S, et al.
A comprehensive evaluation of interaction between genetic variants and use of menopausal hormone therapy on mammographic density.
Breast Cancer Res. 2015; 17:110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density is an established breast cancer risk factor with a strong genetic component and can be increased in women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants that may modify the association between MHT use and mammographic density.
METHODS: The study comprised 6,298 postmenopausal women from the Mayo Mammography Health Study and nine studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We selected for evaluation 1327 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing the lowest P-values for interaction (P int) in a meta-analysis of genome-wide gene-environment interaction studies with MHT use on risk of breast cancer, 2541 SNPs in candidate genes (AKR1C4, CYP1A1-CYP1A2, CYP1B1, ESR2, PPARG, PRL, SULT1A1-SULT1A2 and TNF) and ten SNPs (AREG-rs10034692, PRDM6-rs186749, ESR1-rs12665607, ZNF365-rs10995190, 8p11.23-rs7816345, LSP1-rs3817198, IGF1-rs703556, 12q24-rs1265507, TMEM184B-rs7289126, and SGSM3-rs17001868) associated with mammographic density in genome-wide studies. We used multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders to evaluate interactions between SNPs and current use of MHT on mammographic density.
RESULTS: No significant interactions were identified after adjustment for multiple testing. The strongest SNP-MHT interaction (unadjusted P int <0.0004) was observed with rs9358531 6.5kb 5' of PRL. Furthermore, three SNPs in PLCG2 that had previously been shown to modify the association of MHT use with breast cancer risk were found to modify also the association of MHT use with mammographic density (unadjusted P int <0.002), but solely among cases (unadjusted P int SNP×MHT×case-status <0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: The study identified potential interactions on mammographic density between current use of MHT and SNPs near PRL and in PLCG2, which require confirmation. Given the moderate size of the interactions observed, larger studies are needed to identify genetic modifiers of the association of MHT use with mammographic density.

Lopes BA, Emerenciano M, Gonçalves BA, et al.
Polymorphisms in CYP1B1, CYP3A5, GSTT1, and SULT1A1 Are Associated with Early Age Acute Leukemia.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0127308 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Based on observational studies, early age leukemia (EAL) was associated with maternal hormone exposure during pregnancy. We studied the association between genetic polymorphisms of estrogen metabolism and EAL. Using data from the Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia (2000-2012), 350 cases and 404 age-matched controls and 134 mothers of cases and controls were genotyped to explore polymorphisms in genes of the estrogen metabolism pathway: CYP1B1 (c.1294C>G, rs1056836), CYP3A4 (c.-392A>G, rs2740574), CYP3A5 (c.219-237G>A, rs776746), GSTM1/GSTT1 deletions, and SULT1A1 (c.638G>A, rs9282861; and c.667A>G, rs1801030). Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) by ethnicity. Because of multiple testing, p values < 0.01 were significant after Bonferroni correction. SULT1A1 (c.638G>A) was associated to infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) risk in males (additive model: aOR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.95, p = 0.03; dominant model: aOR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.17-4.05, p = 0.01, respectively). CYP1B1 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of AML either for non-white or female children (additive model: OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.76, p < 0.01; additive model: aOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.89, p = 0.03, respectively). Since polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 genes presented gender-specific risk associations, we also investigated their expression. CYP1B1 was not expressed in 57.1% of EAL cases, and its expression varied by genotype, gender, and leukemia subtype. Maternal-fetal GSTT1 null genotype was associated with risk of EAL. This study shows that polymorphisms in genes of estrogen metabolism confer genetic susceptibility to EAL, mainly in males, and maternal susceptibility genes modify the risk for developing EAL in newborns.

Siamakpour-Reihani S, Owzar K, Jiang C, et al.
Genomic profiling in locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancer and its link to DCE-MRI and overall survival.
Int J Hyperthermia. 2015; 31(4):386-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have previously reported that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) perfusion patterns obtained from locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients prior to neoadjuvant therapy predicted pathologic clinical response. Genomic analyses were also independently conducted on the same patient population. This retrospective study was performed to test two hypotheses: (1) gene expression profiles are associated with DCE-MRI perfusion patterns, and (2) association between long-term overall survival data and gene expression profiles can lead to the identification of novel predictive biomarkers.
METHODS: We utilised RNA microarray and DCE-MRI data from 47 LABC patients, including 13 inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients. Association between gene expression profile and DCE-MRI perfusion patterns (centrifugal and centripetal) was determined by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Association between gene expression level and survival was assessed using a Cox rank score test. Additional genomic analysis of the IBC subset was conducted, with a period of follow-up of up to 11 years. Associations between gene expression and overall survival were further assessed in The Cancer Genome Atlas Data Portal.
RESULTS: Differences in gene expression profiles were seen between centrifugal and centripetal perfusion patterns in the sulphotransferase family, cytosolic, 1 A, phenol-preferring, members 1 and 2 (SULT1A1, SULT1A2), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, member 6 (PARP6), and metastasis tumour antigen1 (MTA1). In the IBC subset our analyses demonstrated that differential expression of 45 genes was associated with long-term survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we have demonstrated an association between DCE-MRI perfusion patterns and gene expression profiles. In addition we have reported on candidate prognostic biomarkers in IBC patients, with some of the genes being significantly associated with survival in IBC and LABC.

Boccia S, Miele L, Panic N, et al.
The effect of CYP, GST, and SULT polymorphisms and their interaction with smoking on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:179867 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aim. The aim of our study was to assess whether selected single nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and 2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and SULT1A1 influence susceptibility towards HCC, considering their interaction with cigarette smoking. Methods. We recruited HCC cases and controls among patients admitted to the hospital "Agostino Gemelli," from January 2005 until July 2010. Odds ratios (OR) of HCC were derived from unconditional multiple logistic regression. Gene-gene and gene-smoking interaction were quantified by computing the attributable proportion (AP) due to biological interaction. Results. The presence of any CYP2E1 (*) 5B variant allele (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.71) and CYP2E1 (*) 6 variant allele (OR: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.01-0.33) was inversely related to HCC. There was a borderline increased risk among carriers of combined CYP1A1 (*) 2A and SULT1A1 variant alleles (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 0.97-3.24). A significant biological interaction was observed between GSTT1 and smoking (AP = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.001-0.815), with an OR of 3.13 (95% CI: 1.69-5.82), and borderline significant interaction was observed for SULT1A1 and smoking (AP = 0.36; 95% CI: -0.021-0.747), with an OR of 3.05 (95% CI: 1.73-5.40). Conclusion. CYP2E1 (*) 5B and CYP2E1 (*) 6 polymorphisms have a favourable effect on the development of HCC, while polymorphisms of GSTT1 and SULT1A1 might play role in increasing the susceptibility among smokers.

Savukaitytė A, Ugenskienė R, Jankauskaitė R, et al.
Investigation of prognostic value of polymorphisms within estrogen metabolizing genes in Lithuanian breast cancer patients.
BMC Med Genet. 2015; 16:2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequent oncological disease among women. Estrogens are known to play an important role in breast cancer development. Recognition of the relationship between polymorphisms within estrogen metabolizing genes and conventional prognostic factors of breast cancer might improve our knowledge on individualized breast cancer prognosis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate possible associations between germline genetic polymorphisms within GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, SULT1A1 and UGT1A1 genes and breast cancer clinicopathological characteristics together with disease progression.
METHODS: Our study involved 80 young (younger than 50 years of age) breast cancer patients. PCR-based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay was used to determine GSTP1 and SULT1A1 genotypes. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were detected by multiplex PCR. UGT1A1 polymorphism was investigated with microsatellite analysis. Relationships between genotypes and breast cancer clinicopathological features along with disease progression were estimated by Pearson's Chi-square test. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratios associating different genotypes with clinicopathological characteristics and disease progression.
RESULTS: The study showed individuals with GSTT1 null genotype to have approximately 3.5 times higher risk for breast cancer progression than those with wild type genotype (OR = 3.472, 95% CI 1.043-11.559, P = 0.043). Moreover, SULT1A1 G638A AA genotype significantly increased the chances of HER2 molecular subtype breast cancer when compared to GG genotype (OR = 19.971, 95% CI 1.716-232.480, P = 0.017). Heterozygotes for GSTP1 A313G genotype were more likely to have positive lymph nodes in comparison to AA genotype carriers (OR = 2.803, 95% CI 1.049-7.487, P = 0.040). No significant correlation was determined for UGT1A1 A(TA)nTAA and GSTM1 +/- polymorphism alone or combined GTTT1 null and GSTM1 null genotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Conclusively, our findings suggest that GSTT1 null genotype and SULT1A1 G638A AA genotype could be uselful genetic markers for breast cancer prognosis. Further analyses on larger sample size are required to highlight the effect of GSTP1 G allele on breast cancer prognosis.

Hevir-Kene N, Rižner TL
The endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1A, and the control cell line HIEEC, differ in expression of estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and in androstenedione and estrone-sulfate metabolism.
Chem Biol Interact. 2015; 234:309-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens have important roles in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. They can have carcinogenic effects through stimulation of cell proliferation or formation of DNA-damaging species. To characterize model cell lines of endometrial cancer, we determined the expression profiles of the estrogen receptors (ERs) ESR1, ESR2 and GPER, and 23 estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and investigated estrogen biosynthesis in the control HIEEC cell line and the Ishikawa and HEC-1A EC cell lines. HIEEC and Ishikawa expressed all ERs to different extents, while HEC-1A cells lacked expression of ESR1. Considering the estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes, these cells showed statistically significant different gene expression profiles for SULT2B1, HSD3B2, CYP19A1, AKR1C3, HSD17B1, HSD17B7, HSD17B12, CYP1B1, CYP3A5, COMT, SULT1A1, GSTP1 and NQO2. In these cells, E2 was formed from E1S and E1, while androstenedione was not converted to estrogens. HIEEC and Ishikawa had similar profiles of androstenedione and E1 metabolism, but hydrolysis of E1S to E1 was weaker in Ishikawa cells. HEC-1A cells were less efficient for activation of E1 into the potent E2, but metabolized androstenedione to other androgenic metabolites better than HIEEC and Ishikawa cells. This study reveals that HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells can all form estrogens only via the sulfatase pathway. HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells expressed all the major genes in the production of hydroxyestrogens and estrogen quinones, and in their conjugation. Significantly higher CYP1B1 mRNA levels in Ishikawa cells compared to HEC-1A cells, together with lack of UGT2B7 expression, indicate that Ishikawa cells can accumulate more toxic estrogen-3,4-quinones than HEC-1A cells, as also for HIEEC cells. This study provides further characterization of HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells, and shows that they differ greatly in expression of the genes investigated and in their capacity for E2 formation, and thus they represent different in vitro models.

Rangel LB, Taraba JL, Frei CR, et al.
Pharmacogenomic diversity of tamoxifen metabolites and estrogen receptor genes in Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites with breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 148(3):571-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ethnic differences in patient genetics and breast cancer (BC) biology contribute to ethnic disparities in cancer presentation and patient outcome. We prospectively evaluated SNPs within phase I and phase II tamoxifen (TAM) metabolizing enzymes, and the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1), aiming to identify potential pharmacogenomic ethnicity patterns in an ER-positive BC cohort constituted of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White (NHW) women in South Texas. Plasma concentrations of TAM/metabolites were measured using HPLC. CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and SULT1A1 genotypes were determined by DNA sequencing/Pyrosequencing technology. ESR1 PvuII and XbaI SNPs were genotyped using Applied Biosystems Taqman Allelic Discrimination Assay. Hispanics had higher levels of TAM, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and endoxifen than NHWs. There was a higher prevalence of CYP2D6 EM within Hispanics than NHWs, which corresponded to higher endoxifen levels, but no differences were verified with regard to CYP2C9 and SULT1A1. We found a higher incidence of the wild type forms of the ESR1 in Hispanics than NHWs. The performance status, the disease stage at diagnosis, and the use of aromatase inhibitors might have overcome the overall favorable pharmacogenomics profile of Hispanics when compared to NHWs in relation to TAM therapy responsiveness. Our data strongly point to ethnical peculiarities related to pharmacogenomics and demographic features of TAM treated Hispanics and NHWs. In the era of pharmacogenomics and its ultimate goal of individualized, efficacious and safe therapy, cancer studies focused on the Hispanic population are warranted because this is the fastest growing major demographic group, and an understudied segment in the U.S.

Ottini L, Rizzolo P, Zanna I, et al.
Association of SULT1A1 Arg²¹³His polymorphism with male breast cancer risk: results from a multicenter study in Italy.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 148(3):623-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare and poorly understood. Like female breast cancer (FBC), MBCs are highly sensitive to hormonal changes, and hyperestrogenism, specifically, represents a major risk factor for MBC. MBC is considered similar to late-onset, post-menopausal estrogen/progesteron receptors positive FBC (ER+/PR+). Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of estrogens. Recently, SULT1A1 common functional polymorphism Arg(213)His (638G>A) variant has been found to be associated with increased breast cancer (BC) risk, particularly in post-menopausal women. For this reason, we decided to explore whether SULT1A1 Arg(213)His could exert an effect on MBC development. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the SULT1A1 Arg(213)His polymorphism on MBC risk. The secondary aim was to investigate possible associations with relevant clinical-pathologic features of MBC. A total of 394 MBC cases and 786 healthy male controls were genotyped for SULT1A1 Arg(213)His polymorphism by PCR-RFLP and high-resolution melting analysis. All MBC cases were characterized for relevant clinical-pathologic features. A significant difference in the distribution of SULT1A1 Arg(213)His genotypes was found between MBC cases and controls (P < 0.0001). The analysis of genotype-specific risk showed a significant increased MBC risk in individuals with G/A (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.59; P < 0.0001) and A/A (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.83-5.23; P < 0.0001) genotypes in comparison to wild-type genotype, under co-dominant model. A significant association between SULT1A1 risk genotypes and HER2 status emerged. Results indicate that SULT1A1 Arg(213)His may act as a low-penetrance risk allele for developing MBC and could be associated with a specific tumor subtype associated with HER2 overexpression.

Kim IW, Han N, Kim MG, et al.
Copy number variability analysis of pharmacogenes in patients with lymphoma, leukemia, hepatocellular, and lung carcinoma using The Cancer Genome Atlas data.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015; 25(1):1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Individual differences in drug efficacy and toxicity remain an important clinical concern. We investigated copy number variation (CNV) frequencies for pharmacogenes using The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two pharmacogenes were selected from liver hepatocellular carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), acute myeloid leukemia, and lymphoid neoplasm diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). The germ line and somatic CNV frequencies were analyzed.
RESULTS: We found CNVs with more than 1% frequency in drug-metabolizing enzymes including CYP2A6, CYP2D6, GSTP1, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and SULT1A1, drug transporters such as SLC19A1 and SLC28A1, and targets such as FHIT in normal tissue or blood. GSTM1 had the highest frequency for gene gain (45.45, 39.18, 31.01, and 34.77%, respectively) and for gene loss (18.18, 29.38, 20.89, and 26.68%, respectively) in DLBL, acute myeloid leukemia, liver hepatocellular carcinoma, and LUSC. P2RY12 and P2RY1 had the highest frequency for gene gain in LUSC (26.95 and 26.68%, respectively) whereas ABCB1 and ABL2 had the highest frequency for gene gain in DLBL (27.27%) in cancer tissue or blood.
CONCLUSION: Germ line and somatic CNVs of pharmacogenes may play a role in determining individual variations in drug responses. Inclusion of CNVs in pharmacogenetic variations holds promise as biomarkers that can increase the benefits and reduce the risks of drug therapy on an individual level.

Xiao J, Zheng Y, Zhou Y, et al.
Sulfotransferase SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 53 case-control studies.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e106774 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The SULT1A1 Arg213His (rs9282861) polymorphism is reported to be associated with many kinds of cancer risk. However, the findings are conflicting. For better understanding this SNP site and cancer risk, we summarized available data and performed this meta-analysis.
METHODS: Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge and CNKI. The association was assessed by odd ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI).
RESULTS: A total of 53 studies including 16733 cancer patients and 23334 controls based on the search criteria were analyzed. Overall, we found SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism can increase cancer risk under heterozygous (OR  1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.18, P = 0.040), dominant (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01-1.19, P = 0.021) and allelic (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16, P = 0.015) models. In subgroup analyses, significant associations were observed in upper aero digestive tract (UADT) cancer (heterozygous model: OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11-2.35, P = 0.012; dominant model: OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.13-2.35, P = 0.009; allelic model: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10-2.11, P = 0.012) and Indians (recessive model: OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.22-3.07, P = 0.005) subgroups. Hospital based study also showed marginally significant association. In the breast cancer subgroup, ethnicity and publication year revealed by meta-regression analysis and one study found by sensitivity analysis were the main sources of heterogeneity. The association between SULT1A1 Arg213His and breast cancer risk was not significant. No publication bias was detected.
CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism plays an important role in carcinogenesis, which may be a genetic factor affecting individual susceptibility to UADT cancer. SULT1A1 Arg213His didn't show any association with breast cancer, but the possible risk in Asian population needs further investigation.

Li W, Gu M
SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism is associated with bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Med Sci Monit. 2014; 20:1590-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The evidence of an association between the Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) Arg213His polymorphism (rs9282861) and bladder cancer risk is still conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between this polymorphism and bladder cancer risk.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, HuGE Navigator, and Web of Science databases were searched for correlative articles. The risk (odds ratio, OR) was used to estimate the association between SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and bladder cancer risk. All of the studies used either fixed-effects or random-effects models. For assessing the credibility of an association, we applied the Venice criteria.
RESULTS: Seven published case-control studies with 1688 cases and 2842 controls were included in this meta-analysis. There were 5 studies of Caucasians and 2 studies of Asians. Four studies reported data on smoking behavior. The percentage of Arg/Arg was higher in Asians and non-smokers than that in Caucasians and smokers, respectively. A significant association of this polymorphism with bladder cancer was found (OR=1.45, 95% CI 1.18-1.78, P=0.0004). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association was found among Caucasians (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.16-1.77, P=0.0008) but not among Asians (OR=1.89, 95% CI 0.68-5.26, P=0.22). In the subgroup analysis by smoking behavior, increased bladder cancer risk was found in the smokers (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.91, P=0.04) and non-smokers (OR=1.74, 95% CI 1.24-2.43, P=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism is associated with bladder cancer risk.

Tung MC, Wang YH, Yeh SD, et al.
Combined effects of GSTO1 and SULT1A1 polymorphisms and cigarette smoking on urothelial carcinoma risk in a Taiwanese population.
J Formos Med Assoc. 2014; 113(9):640-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). Glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) have been reported to be associated with the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of polymorphisms in GSTO1 and SULT1A1 genes and cigarette smoking on UCB risk in a Taiwanese population.
METHODS: A total of 300 patients with histopathologically confirmed UCB and 233 cancer-free controls were recruited from the Department of Urology of Tung's Taichung Metro Harbor Hospital and Taipei Medical University Hospital. A comprehensive interview was conducted to collect personal information, including demographic characteristics and cigarette smoking status. A multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk of UCB.
RESULTS: A significantly increased risk of UCB was observed in ever smokers [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3]. The Ala/Ala genotype of the GSTO1 gene and the Arg/Arg genotype of the SULT1A1 gene were associated with a significantly increased risk of UCB, with ORs of 1.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.6] and 2.1 (95% CI = 1.6-4.5), respectively. Significantly increased UCB risks were found in heavy smokers with the Ala/Ala genotype of the GSTO1 gene (OR = 4.2) and the Arg/Arg genotype of the SULT1A1 gene (OR = 6.8). Furthermore, a significant synergistic effect in an additive model (OR = 3.5) between the GSTO1 Ala/Ala genotype and the SULT1A1 Arg/Arg genotype on UCB risk was observed.
CONCLUSION: The present study provided epidemiological evidence for a significantly increased risk of UCB in ever smokers with the Ala/Ala genotype of the GSTO1 gene and the Arg/Arg genotype of the SULT1A1 gene.

Su CM, Chen MC, Lin IC, et al.
Association between the SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and the risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):7147-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several previous studies have investigated the association between the SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and the risk of bladder cancer in various populations. However, these results remain inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between the SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and the risk of bladder cancer. An extensive literature search was performed to identify all eligible studies regarding this association. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of risk under fixed and random effects models. We identified and included eight case-control studies including 2,036 cases and 2,273 controls. No significant association was found between the SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism and the risk of bladder cancer under the dominant model; however, those with the SULT1A1 Arg/Arg genotype had a significantly increased risk (OR = 1.218, 95 % CI = 1.067-1.392, P = 0.0044) under the recessive model. In the subgroup analysis of ethnicity, a significant association was observed in Caucasians under the recessive model (OR = 1.269, 95 % CI = 1.069-1.506, P = 0.007). Furthermore, an increased risk of bladder cancer was observed between the Arg213His polymorphism and never smokers in the recessive model (OR = 1.428, 95 % CI = 1.079-1.890, P = 0.013). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that the SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism is associated with the risk bladder cancer under a recessive model; however, a possibly higher risk for Caucasians with the Arg/Arg genotype and never smokers needs further investigation.

Daniels J, Kadlubar S
Sulfotransferase genetic variation: from cancer risk to treatment response.
Drug Metab Rev. 2013; 45(4):415-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes that are involved in the biotransformation of a wide variety of structurally diverse endo- and xenobiotics. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SULTs can alter the phenotype of the translated proteins. SNPs in some SULTs are fairly uncommon in the population, but some, most notably for SULT isoform 1A1, are commonly found and have been associated with cancer risk for a variety of tumor sites and also with response to therapeutic agents. SNPs in many SULTs vary by ethnicity, another factor that could influence SULT-associated disease risk and pharmacogenetics. This review surveys the current knowledge of SULT genetic variability in relation to cancer risk and response to therapy, focusing primarily on SULT1A1.

Sun Z, Shi S, Li H, et al.
Evaluation of resveratrol sensitivities and metabolic patterns in human and rat glioblastoma cells.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013; 72(5):965-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To further elucidate the correlation of resveratrol sensitivities with biotransformation activities of human and rat glioblastoma cells for personalized anti-glioblastoma therapy.
METHODS: Resveratrol sensitivity of human U251 and rat RG2 and C6 glioblastoma cells was evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide/MTT, flow cytometry, and TUNEL assays. The metabolic patterns of those cell lines were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrum/MS/MS, and high-resolution mass spectrometry/HRMS. Immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting were employed to check resveratrol metabolic enzyme expression.
RESULTS: Both rat RG2 and C6 and human U251 glioblastoma cells are sensitive to 100 μM resveratrol in terms of growth arrest and increased apoptotic fraction. The main resveratrol metabolite in U251 cells is monosulfate biotransformed by sulfotransferases/SULTs and in RG2 and C6 cells is monoglucuronide generated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase/UGT. Both metabolites show lesser therapeutic efficacy. Although brain-associated UGTs (UGT1A6, 2B7, and 8) and SULTs (SULT1A1, 1C2, and 4A1) are expressed in rat and human glioma cells, the overall level of UGTs is predominant in the rat and SULTs in human glioblastoma cells. In similar to SULT expression pattern, UGT1A6, 2B7, and 8 are frequently downregulated (84.6 %, 82/97; 90.7 %, 88/97; 80.4 %, 78/97) in human glioblastoma tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest (1) the decreased resveratrol biotransforming activity in rat and human resveratrol-sensitive glioblastoma cells; (2) the discrepant resveratrol metabolic patterns between human and rat glioblastoma cells; (3) the more powerful anti-glioblastoma efficacy of trans-resveratrol rather than resveratrol monoglucuronide or monosulfate; and (4) the value of RG2 and C6 cells in establishing resveratrol-based rat in vivo therapeutic model.

Fernández-Santander A, Gaibar M, Novillo A, et al.
Relationship between genotypes Sult1a2 and Cyp2d6 and tamoxifen metabolism in breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70183 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tamoxifen is a pro-drug widely used in breast cancer patients to prevent tumor recurrence. Prior work has revealed a role of cytochrome and sulfotransferase enzymes in tamoxifen metabolism. In this descriptive study, correlations were examined between concentrations of tamoxifen metabolites and genotypes for CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, SULT1A1, SULT1A2 and SULT1E1 in 135 patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Patients were genotyped using the Roche-AmpliChip® CYP450 Test, and Real-Time and conventional PCR-RFLP. Plasma tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, endoxifen and tamoxifen-N-oxide were isolated and quantified using a high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Significantly higher endoxifen levels were detected in patients with the wt/wt CYP2D6 compared to the v/v CYP2D6 genotype (p<0.001). No differences were detected in the remaining tamoxifen metabolites among CYP2D6 genotypes. Patients featuring the SULT1A2*2 and SULT1A2*3 alleles showed significantly higher plasma levels of 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and endoxifen (p = 0.025 and p = 0.006, respectively), as likely substrates of the SULT1A2 enzyme. Our observations indicate that besides the CYP2D6 genotype leading to tamoxifen conversion to potent hydroxylated metabolites in a manner consistent with a gene-dose effect, SULT1A2 also seems to play a role in maintaining optimal levels of both 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and endoxifen.

Rouprêt M
How could molecular biology modify the management of upper urinary tract tumours?
Arch Esp Urol. 2013; 66(5):536-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UCs) account for only 5-10% of urothelial carcinomas and the gold standard treatment is open radical nephroureterectomy. Strong differences exist regarding tumor behaviour between the upper and the lower urinary tract.
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how the current knowledge in molecular biology of UUT-UCs is likely to modify the management of these tumours.
ACQUISITION OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was performed on UUT-UC using the following terms: urinary tract cancer; urothelial carcinomas; upper urinary tract; molecular markers; renal pelvis; ureter; ureteroscopy; nephroureterectomy; adjuvant treatment; neoadjuvant treatment; recurrence; risk factors and survival.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Conservative surgery for low-risk UUT-UCs allows for preservation of the upper urinary renal unit, while sparing the patient the morbidity associated with open surgery. Such surgical strategy might be more appropriate in tumors displaying certain molecular markers: microsatellite instability, E-cadherin, MET, Aurora-A, and Ki-67. These markers could help to identify more candidates to nephron-sparing treatment without compromising the oncologic outcome. Susceptibility means an increase in risk conferred by one or more polymorphisms (allele types) of a given gene or genes, which expose the individual to the genotoxic effects of environmental carcinogens. The variant allele SULT1A1*2 with reduced sulfotransferase activity and the T allele of rs9642880 on chromosome 8q24 enhance the risk of UUT-UCs. If an at-risk genetic profile could be established, it might be possible to prevent urothelial carcinomas in some patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Surgical practice is gradually moving towards minimally invasive techniques which spare the functional unity of the kidney and urinary tract. The ongoing identification of distinct carcinogenic mechanisms for UUT-UCs might open the way to specific treatments adapted to the molecular pattern of each tumor. The next era might hopefully be that of chemoprevention.

Palli D, Rizzolo P, Zanna I, et al.
SULT1A1 gene deletion in BRCA2-associated male breast cancer: a link between genes and environmental exposures?
J Cell Mol Med. 2013; 17(5):605-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SULT1A1, a member of sulfotransferase superfamily, is a drug and hormone metabolizing enzyme involved in the metabolism of a variety of potential mammary carcinogens of endogenous and exogenous origin. Interestingly, the metabolic activity of SULT1A1 can be affected by variations in gene copy number. Male Breast Cancer (MBC) is a rare disease and less investigated disease compared to female BC (FBC). As in FBC, the concurrent effects of genetic risk factors, particularly BRCA2 mutations, increased exposure to estrogens and environmental carcinogens play a relevant role in MBC. By quantitative real-time PCR with TaqMan probes, we investigated the presence of SULT1A1 gene copy number variations (CNVs) in a series of 72 MBCs. SULT1A1 gene deletion was observed in 10 of the 72 MBCs (13.9%). In a multivariate analysis association between BRCA2 mutation and SULT1A1 gene deletion emerged (p = 0.0005). Based on the evidence that the level of SULT1A1 enzyme activity is correlated with CNV, our data suggest that in male breast tumors SULT1A1 activity may be decreased. Thus, it can be hypothesized that in a proportion of MBCs, particularly in BRCA2-associated MBCs, the level of estrogens and environmental carcinogens exposure might be increased suggesting a link between gene and environmental exposure in the pathogenesis of MBC.

Chung CJ, Huang CY, Pu YS, et al.
The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013; 266(2):254-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene-environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene-environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene-environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination.

Tao P, Li H, Wang Q, et al.
[A case-control study on association of SULT1A1 polymorphism, smoked meat intake with breast cancer risk].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012; 46(9):831-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of smoked meat intake, SULT1A1 polymorphism as well as their combined effects with breast cancer risk.
METHODS: A total of 400 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases from a cancer hospital in Sichuan province and 400 healthy controls from participants of physical examination in a hospital in Chengdu city were recruited from May 2007 to July 2009. A valid questionnaire was designed to collect their demographic characteristics and breast cancer risk factors. Daily intake of foods was collected using semi-quantitative frequency questionnaire and then the daily intake of smoked meat was calculated and transformed to energy-adjusted smoked meat intake by the residual method. Gene sequencing was used to analyze SULT1A1 Arg213His genotypes. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs).
RESULTS: The energy-adjusted daily intake of smoked meat (Median (P₂₅, P₇₅)) was 8.65 (3.63, 18.44) g/d in cases and 4.44 (0.19, 8.71) g/d in controls. The frequency of SULT1A1 variant allele was 14.75% (59/400) among cases and 12.75% (51/400) among controls. High energy-adjusted daily intake of smoked meat (≥ 4.44 g/d) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal (OR = 2.31, 95%CI: 1.46 - 3.66) and postmenopausal subjects (OR = 3.13, 95%CI: 1.89 - 5.17). High energy-adjusted daily intake of smoked meat combined with carrying SULT1A1 variant allele elevated breast cancer risk among premenopausal (OR = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.66 - 6.62) and postmenopausal subjects (OR = 3.81, 95%CI: 1.79 - 8.10).
CONCLUSION: High smoked meat intake contributes to high risk of breast cancer. SULT1A1 variant allele increases breast cancer risk among subjects who were exposed to high smoked meat intake.

Ellingjord-Dale M, Lee E, Couto E, et al.
Polymorphisms in hormone metabolism and growth factor genes and mammographic density in Norwegian postmenopausal hormone therapy users and non-users.
Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(5):R135 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest known breast cancer risk factors. Estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT) has been associated with increases in MD. Dense breast tissue is characterized by increased stromal tissue and (to a lesser degree) increased numbers of breast epithelial cells. It is possible that genetic factors modify the association between EPT and MD, and that certain genetic variants are particularly important in determining MD in hormone users. We evaluated the association between MD and 340 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from about 30 candidate genes in hormone metabolism/growth factor pathways among women who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in 2004.
METHODS: We assessed MD on 2,036 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 69 years using a computer-assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California) in a cross-sectional study. We used linear regression to determine the association between each SNP and MD, adjusting for potential confounders. The postmenopausal women were stratified into HT users (EPT and estrogen-only) and non-users (never HT).
RESULTS: For current EPT users, there was an association between a variant in the prolactin gene (PRL; rs10946545) and MD (dominant model, Bonferroni-adjusted P (Pb) = 0.0144). This association remained statistically significant among current users of norethisterone acetate (NETA)-based EPT, a regimen common in Nordic countries. Among current estrogen-only users (ET), there was an association between rs4670813 in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP1B1) and MD (dominant model, Pb = 0.0396). In never HT users, rs769177 in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene and rs1968752 in the region of the sulfotransferase gene (SULT1A1/SULT1A2), were significantly associated with MD (Pb = 0.0202; Pb = 0.0349).
CONCLUSIONS: We found some evidence that variants in the PRL gene were associated with MD in current EPT and NETA users. In never HT users, variants in the TNF and SULT1A1/SULT1A2 genes were significantly associated with MD. These findings may suggest that several genes in the hormone metabolism and growth factor pathways are implicated in determining MD.

Cui X, Lu X, Hiura M, et al.
Association of genotypes of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and smoking status with bladder cancer in a Japanese population.
Environ Health Prev Med. 2013; 18(2):136-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Arylamines are considered to be the primary causative agent of bladder cancer in tobacco smokers. To test the hypothesis that variation in the genes that metabolize tobacco carcinogens contribute to bladder cancer, we examined the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes of four key enzymes: cytochrome P450 1A2, N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 2, sulfotransferase 1A1, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7.
METHODS: In this study, 282 Japanese patients with transitional cell carcinoma, the most common bladder cancer, and 257 healthy controls were surveyed and compared for frequencies of the genotypes of the four enzymes. Genotypes were determined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and TaqMan assays. Smoking information was collected by personal interview. Logistic regression analysis and the chi-square test were employed as statistical methods.
RESULTS: The NAT2 slow genotype was significantly associated with the risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR) 3.41, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.68-6.87; p < 0.05). The NAT2 slow genotype also significantly increased the risk of bladder cancer in heavy smokers (OR 8.57, 95 % CI 1.82-40.25; p < 0.05). Among the different combinations of the four enzyme genotypes, the highest OR (4.20; 95 % CI 1.34-13.14; p < 0.05) was obtained with the NAT2 slow genotype when present in combination with the UGT2B7 *2/*2 or *1/*2 genotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that individuals with different genotypes for the enzymes involved in metabolizing carcinogenic arylamines have a different risk of developing bladder cancer. In particularly, the combination of the NAT2 slow genotype with UGT2B7 *1/*2 or *2/*2 genotype is a high risk factor for bladder cancer.

Kurogi K, Chen M, Lee Y, et al.
Sulfation of buprenorphine, pentazocine, and naloxone by human cytosolic sulfotransferases.
Drug Metab Lett. 2012; 6(2):109-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Buprenorphine, pentazocine, and naloxone are opioid drugs used for the treatment of pain and opioid dependence or overdose. Sulfation as catalyzed by the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) is involved in the metabolism of a variety of xenobiotics including drug compounds. Sulfation of opioid drugs has not been well investigated. The current study was designed to examine the sulfation of three opioid drugs, buprenorphine, pentazocine, and naloxone, in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and to identify the human SULT(s) responsible for their sulfation. Analysis of the spent media of HepG2 cells, metabolically labeled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of each of the three opioid drugs, showed the generation and release of their [(35)S]sulfated derivatives. A systematic analysis using eleven known human SULTs revealed SULT1A3 and SULT2A1 as the major responsible SULTs for the sulfation of, respectively, pentazocine and buprenorphine; whereas three other SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A2, and SULT1C4, were capable of sulfating naloxone. Enzymatic assays using combinations of these opioid drugs as substrates showed significant inhibitory effects in the sulfation of buprenorphine and pentazocine by naloxone. Differential sulfating activities toward the three opioid drugs were detected in cytosol or S9 fractions of human lung, liver, kidney, and small intestine. Collectively, these results imply that sulfation may play a role in the metabolism of buprenorphine, pentazocine, and naloxone in vivo.

Suzuki Y, Umemura T, Ishii Y, et al.
Possible involvement of sulfotransferase 1A1 in estragole-induced DNA modification and carcinogenesis in the livers of female mice.
Mutat Res. 2012; 749(1-2):23-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estragole (ES), a natural organic compound, is frequently used as a flavoring in food even though it is a hepatocarcinogen in mice. Although formation of ES-specific DNA adducts following conversion from ES to the nucleophilic metabolite by sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) has been reported, the modes of action underlying ES-induced hepatocarcinogenesis remain uncertain because conventional genotoxicity tests for ES yield negative results. In the present study, taking notice of the fact that there is a sex difference in SULT1A1 activity in the mouse liver, we assessed the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes and the mutant frequency (MF) of reporter genes in female gpt delta mice treated with ES at doses of 0 (corn oil), 37.5, 75, 150 or 300mg/kg body weight (bw) by gavage for 13 weeks. Results were compared with those obtained in males. Since one female was found dead at week one, the highest dose was reduced to 250mg/kg bw in females from week two. As reported previously in C57BL/6 mice, the mRNA levels of Sult1a1 in female gpt delta mice were significantly higher than those in the males. The levels of ES-specific DNA adducts in the females were higher than those in the males at all doses except the highest dose. In addition, MFs of the gpt gene were significantly increased from doses of 75mg/kg bw of females, but the increment was observed only at the highest dose in males. There were no changes in the micronucleus test among the groups. Thus, the overall data suggest that specific DNA modifications by the SULT1A1-mediated carbocation formation and the resultant genotoxicity are key events in the early stage of ES-induced hepatocarcinogenesis of mice.

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