Gene Summary

Gene:DKK3; dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3
Aliases: RIG, REIC
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression of this gene is decreased in a variety of cancer cell lines and it may function as a tumor suppressor gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:dickkopf-related protein 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Apoptosis
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • CpG Islands
  • Membrane Proteins
  • alpha-Fetoproteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Staging
  • Young Adult
  • Breast Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Western Blotting
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Lung Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA Methylation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Wnt1 Protein
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Transfection
  • Cancer RNA
  • Proteins
  • Gene Silencing
  • Chromosome 11
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Umbilical Veins
  • Adenoviridae
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Epigenetics
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DKK3 (cancer-related)

Suzawa K, Shien K, Peng H, et al.
Distant Bystander Effect of REIC/DKK3 Gene Therapy Through Immune System Stimulation in Thoracic Malignancies.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):301-307 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reduced expression in immortalized cell (REIC)/Dickkoph-3 (DKK3) is a tumor-suppressor gene, and its overexpression by adenovirus vector (Ad-REIC) exhibits a remarkable therapeutic effect on various human cancer types through a mechanism triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the direct anti-tumor effect of Ad-REIC gene therapy on lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma cell lines in vitro, and the distant bystander effect using immunocompetent mouse allograft models with bilateral flank tumors.
RESULTS: Ad-REIC treatment showed antitumor effect in many lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma cell lines in vitro. In an in vivo model, Ad-REIC treatment inhibited the growth not only of directly treated tumors but also of distant untreated tumors. By immunohistochemical analysis, infiltration of T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells and expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules were observed in bilateral tumors.
CONCLUSION: Ad-REIC treatment not only had a direct antitumor effect but also an indirect bystander effect through stimulation of the immune system.

Bahl C, Singh N, Behera D, Sharma S
Association of polymorphisms in Dickopff (DKK) gene towards modulating risk for lung cancer in north Indians.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(3):213-232 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the association between the genetic variants of DKK4 (rs2073664), DKK3 (rs2291599, rs3206824 and rs7391689) and DKK2 (rs447372, rs419558 and rs17037102) and lung cancer predisposition in north Indians.
MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 600 subjects were genotyped using PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Association analysis was carried out using logistic regression approach.
RESULTS: DKK3 rs7396187 showed a protective effect (p = 0.01). Subjects with heterozygous genotype of DKK2 rs17037102 and rs419558 showed an increased risk. The variant genotype of the genotypic combination, DKK3 rs3206824 and DKK2 rs419558 showed a twofold increased risk (p = 0.008). Lung cancer risk increased four-times in subjects with variant genotype of all the three DKK2 variants.
CONCLUSION: DKK2 is certainly playing a crucial role in modulating cancer susceptibility.

Wu J, Zhang J, Zhan Z, et al.
Genetic variations of DICKKOPF family genes might not be associated with gastric cancer susceptibility.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2016; 16(1):78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated that members of the DICKKOPF (DKK) were causally involved in large number of human cancers. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the genetic variations of DKK family genes and the risk of gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: Six SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of DKK family genes, including rs2241529 in DKK1, rs3733635, rs17037102 and rs419764 in DKK2, rs3206824 in DKK3 and rs2073664 in DKK4, were selected and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and TaqMan SNP genotyping methods in 409 GC cases and 554 cancer-free controls in the Han population in eastern China.
RESULTS: None of the six SNPs achieved significant association with the overall GC risk and stratified analysis by age, gender, smoking status, drinking status, tumor location and pathological classification confirmed these non-significant associations.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that the studied six SNPs of DKKs would not be the risk factors for GC in this Han Chinese population. Studies of larger population for different ethnicities will be needed to warrant our findings.

Al-Dhohorah T, Mashrah M, Yao Z, Huang J
Aberrant DKK3 expression in the oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis: a comparative immunohistochemical study.
Eur J Histochem. 2016; 60(2):2629 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We aimed to assess and compare the expression of Dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3), a possible tumor suppressor gene (TSG), in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) using immunohistochemistry. Seventy-five cases of normal oral mucosa (NOM), OLK, OSF, and squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were studied. DKK3 was expressed in all cases of NOM, OLK and OSCC. There was steady increases in the percentage of the positive cells progressing toward OSCC. The expression was localized in the cytoplasm and cell membrane of cell affected by OLK with mild dysplasia and OLK with severe dysplasia. No significant association was observed between DKK3 expression and dysplastic status of OLK. Loss of DKK3 expression was observed in 15 of 30 cases in the OSF group, which was significantly associated with histological grade of OSF (P<0.0001). The percentage of positive cells gradually declined with the increasing severity of epithelial atrophy. A significant difference (P<0.01) was observed when comparing DKK3 expression among different groups of OLK and OSF cases. DKK3 may have diverse expressions in oral premalignant lesions. Loss of DKK3 expression in dysplastic/advanced stage of OSF may imply a high risk of progression to oral cancer.

Wang JH, Zhang L, Ma YW, et al.
microRNA-34a-Upregulated Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I Promotes Apoptosis and Delays Cell Cycle Transition in Cervical Cancer Cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2016; 35(6):267-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
The function of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) in viral replication is well documented, but its function in carcinogenesis and malignancies as well as relationship with microRNAs (miRNAs) remain poorly understood. miR-34a is an antioncogene in multiple tumors. In our study, RIG-I and miR-34a suppressed cell growth, proliferation, migration, and invasion in cervical cancer cells in vitro. miR-34a was validated as a new regulator of RIG-I by binding to its 3' untranslated region and upregulating its expression level. Furthermore, we revealed that RIG-I and miR-34a enhanced apoptosis, delayed the G1/S/G2 transition of the cell cycle, and inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process to modulate malignancies in cervical cancer cells. Phenotypic rescue experiments indicated that RIG-I mediates the effects of miR-34a in HeLa and C33A cells. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that underlie carcinogenesis and may provide new biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of cervical cancer.

Ariyoshi Y, Watanabe M, Eikawa S, et al.
The induction of antigen-specific CTL by in situ Ad-REIC gene therapy.
Gene Ther. 2016; 23(5):408-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
An adenovirus vector carrying the human Reduced Expression in Immortalized Cell (REIC)/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC) mediates simultaneous induction of cancer-selective apoptosis and augmentation of anticancer immunity. In our preclinical and clinical studies, in situ Ad-REIC gene therapy showed remarkable direct and indirect antitumor effects to realize therapeutic cancer vaccines. We herein aimed to confirm the induction of tumor-associated antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by Ad-REIC. Using an ovalbumin (OVA), a tumor-associated antigen, expressing E.G7 tumor-bearing mouse model, we investigated the induction and expansion of OVA-specific CTLs responsible for indirect, systemic effects of Ad-REIC. The intratumoral administration of Ad-REIC mediated clear antitumor effects with the accumulation of OVA-specific CTLs in the tumor tissues and spleen. The CD86-positive dendritic cells (DCs) were upregulated in the tumor draining lymph nodes of Ad-REIC-treated mice. In a dual tumor-bearing mouse model in the left and right back, Ad-REIC injection in one side significantly suppressed the tumor growth on both sides and significant infiltration of OVA-specific CTLs into non-injected tumor was also detected. Consequently, in situ Ad-REIC gene therapy is expected to realize a new-generation cancer vaccine via anticancer immune activation with DC and tumor antigen-specific CTL expansion.

Yuen CK, Chan CP, Fung SY, et al.
Suppression of Type I Interferon Production by Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Oncoprotein Tax through Inhibition of IRF3 Phosphorylation.
J Virol. 2016; 90(8):3902-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and tropical spastic paraparesis. Type I interferons (IFNs) are key effectors of the innate antiviral response, and IFN-α combined with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine is considered the standard first-line therapy for ATL. HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax is known to suppress innate IFN production and response but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully established. In this study, we report on the suppression of type I IFN production by HTLV-1 Tax through interaction with and inhibition of TBK1 kinase that phosphorylates IRF3. Induced transcription of IFN-β was severely impaired in HTLV-1-transformed ATL cells and freshly infected T lymphocytes. The ability to suppress IRF3 activation was ascribed to Tax. The expression of Tax alone sufficiently repressed the induction of IFN production by RIG-I plus PACT, cGAMP synthase plus STING, TBK1, IKKε, IRF3, and IRF7, but not by IRF3-5D, a dominant-active phosphomimetic mutant. This suggests that Tax perturbs IFN production at the step of IRF3 phosphorylation. Tax mutants deficient for CREB or NF-κB activation were fully competent in the suppression of IFN production. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the association of Tax with TBK1, IKKε, STING, and IRF3.In vitrokinase assay indicated an inhibitory effect of Tax on TBK1-mediated phosphorylation of IRF3. Taken together, our findings suggested a new mechanism by which HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax circumvents the production of type I IFNs in infected cells. Our findings have implications in therapeutic intervention of ATL.
IMPORTANCE: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the cause of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive and fatal blood cancer, as well as another chronic disabling disease of the spinal cord. Treatments are unsatisfactory, and options are limited. A combination of antiviral cellular protein alpha interferon and zidovudine, which is an inhibitor of a viral enzyme called reverse transcriptase, has been recommended as the standard first-line therapy for ATL. Exactly how HTLV-1 interacts with the cellular machinery for interferon production and action is not well understood. Our work sheds light on the mechanism of action for the inhibition of interferon production by an HTLV-1 oncogenic protein called Tax. Our findings might help to improve interferon-based anti-HTLV-1 and anti-ATL therapy.

Bergom C, Hauser AD, Rymaszewski A, et al.
The Tumor-suppressive Small GTPase DiRas1 Binds the Noncanonical Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor SmgGDS and Antagonizes SmgGDS Interactions with Oncogenic Small GTPases.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(12):6534-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
The small GTPase DiRas1 has tumor-suppressive activities, unlike the oncogenic properties more common to small GTPases such as K-Ras and RhoA. Although DiRas1 has been found to be a tumor suppressor in gliomas and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, the mechanisms by which it inhibits malignant phenotypes have not been fully determined. In this study, we demonstrate that DiRas1 binds to SmgGDS, a protein that promotes the activation of several oncogenic GTPases. In silico docking studies predict that DiRas1 binds to SmgGDS in a manner similar to other small GTPases. SmgGDS is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RhoA, but we report here that SmgGDS does not mediate GDP/GTP exchange on DiRas1. Intriguingly, DiRas1 acts similarly to a dominant-negative small GTPase, binding to SmgGDS and inhibiting SmgGDS binding to other small GTPases, including K-Ras4B, RhoA, and Rap1A. DiRas1 is expressed in normal breast tissue, but its expression is decreased in most breast cancers, similar to its family member DiRas3 (ARHI). DiRas1 inhibits RhoA- and SmgGDS-mediated NF-κB transcriptional activity in HEK293T cells. We also report that DiRas1 suppresses basal NF-κB activation in breast cancer and glioblastoma cell lines. Taken together, our data support a model in which DiRas1 expression inhibits malignant features of cancers in part by nonproductively binding to SmgGDS and inhibiting the binding of other small GTPases to SmgGDS.

Yadav A, Gupta A, Yadav S, et al.
Association of Wnt signaling pathway genetic variants in gallbladder cancer susceptibility and survival.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8083-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract with adverse prognosis and poor survival. Wnt signaling plays an important role in embryonic development and regeneration of tissues in all the species. Deregulation of expression and mutations in this pathway may lead to disease state such as cancer. In this study, we assessed the association of common germline variants of Wnt pathway genes (SFRP2, SFRP4, DKK2, DKK3, WISP3, APC, β-catenin, AXIN-2, GLI-1) to evaluate their contribution in predisposition to GBC and treatment outcomes. The study included 564 GBC patients and 250 controls. Out of 564, 200 patients were followed up for treatment response and survival. Tumor response (RECIST 1.1) was recorded in 116 patients undergoing non-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox-proportional hazard regression. Single locus analysis showed significant association of SFRP4 rs1802073G > T [p value = 0.0001], DKK2 rs17037102C > T [p value = 0.0001], DKK3 rs3206824C > T [p value = 0.012], APC rs4595552 A/T [p value = 0.021], APC rs11954856G > T [p value = 0.047], AXIN-2 rs4791171C > T [p value = 0.001], β-catenin rs4135385A > G [p value = 0.031], and GLI-1 rs222826C > G [p value = 0.001] with increased risk of GBC. Gene-gene interaction using GMDR analysis predicted APC rs11954856 and AXIN2 rs4791171 as significant in conferring GBC susceptibility. Cox-proportional hazard model showed GLI-1 rs2228226 CG/GG and AXIN-2 rs4791171 TT genotype higher hazard ratio. In recursive partitioning, AXIN-2 rs4791171 TT genotype showed higher mortality and hazard. Most of studied genetic variants influence GBC susceptibility. APC rs11954856, GLI-1 rs2228226, and AXIN-2 rs4791171 were found to be associated with poor survival in advanced GBC patients.

Kim MS, Lee HN, Kim HJ, Myung SC
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DKK3 gene are associated with prostate cancer risk and progression.
Int Braz J Urol. 2015 Sep-Oct; 41(5):869-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
We had investigated whether sequence variants within DKK3 gene are associated with the development of prostate cancer in a Korean study cohort. We evaluated the association between 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DKK3 gene and prostate cancer risk as well as clinical characteristics (PSA, clinical stage, pathological stage and Gleason score) in Korean men (272 prostate cancer subjects and 173 benign prostate hyperplasia subjects) using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Of the 53 SNPs and 25 common haplotypes, 5 SNPs and 4 haplotypes were associated with prostate cancer risk (P=0.02-0.04); 3 SNPs and 2 haplotypes were significantly associated with susceptibility to prostate cancer, however 2 SNPs and 2 haplotypes exhibited a significant protective effect on prostate cancer. Logistic analyses of the DKK3 gene polymorphisms with several prostate cancer related factors showed that several SNPs were significant; three SNPs and two haplotypes to PSA level, three SNPs and two haplotypes to clinical stage, nine SNPs and two haplotype to pathological stage, one SNP and one haplotypes to Gleason score. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report documenting that DKK3 polymorphisms are not only associated with prostate cancer but also related to prostate cancer-related factors.

Lou YJ, Pan XR, Jia PM, et al.
RIG-G inhibits the proliferation of NB4 cells and propels ATRA-induced differentiation of APL cells.
Leuk Res. 2016; 40:83-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
RIG-G (retinoic acid-induced gene G) was originally identified in ATRA (all-trans retinoic acid)-treated NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. It was induced to expression by ATRA along with the differentiation of the cells. However, little is known about its role(s). Here, we established a RIG-G stably expression transformant of NB4 cells. By using the transformant, we showed that expression of RIG-G in NB4 cells not only arrested the cells at G1/G0 transition phase and inhibited their proliferation, but also markedly drive the maturation of NB4 cells in the presence of very low concentration of ATRA (10(-9)mol/L). What's more, by detecting the expression of RIG-G in fresh primary bone marrow mononuclear cells of APL patients in different morbid states, we found high RIG-G expression level in complete remission patients, while low level in untreated or relapsed patients. These results indicated that RIG-G level was high in maturated cells and low in blast cells, and suggested that RIG-G might play a role in the differentiation of bone marrow hemocytes in vivo.

Kumon H, Sasaki K, Ariyoshi Y, et al.
Feasibility of Neoadjuvant Ad-REIC Gene Therapy in Patients with High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.
Clin Transl Sci. 2015; 8(6):837-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
In a phase I/IIa study of in situ gene therapy using an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC), we assessed the inhibitory effects of cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP), in patients with high risk localized prostate cancer (PCa). After completing the therapeutic interventions with initially planned three escalating doses of 1.0 × 10(10) , 1.0 × 10(11) , and 1.0 × 10(12) viral particles (VP) in 1.0-1.2 mL (n = 3, 3, and 6), an additional higher dose of 3.0 × 10(12) VP in 3.6 mL (n = 6) was further studied. Patients with recurrence probability of 35% or more within 5 years after RP as calculated by Kattan's nomogram, were enrolled. They received two ultrasound-guided intratumoral injections at 2-week intervals, followed by RP 6 weeks after the second injection. Based on the findings of MRI and biopsy mapping, as a rule, one track injection to the most prominent cancer area was given to initial 12 patients and 3 track injections to multiple cancer areas in additional 6 patients. As compared to the former group, biochemical recurrence-free survival of the latter showed a significantly favorable outcome. Neoadjuvant Ad-REIC, mediating simultaneous induction of cancer selective apoptosis and augmentation of antitumor immunity, is a feasible approach in preventing cancer recurrence after RP. (199).

Sheng Y, Wang H, Liu D, et al.
Methylation of tumor suppressor gene CDH13 and SHP1 promoters and their epigenetic regulation by the UHRF1/PRMT5 complex in endometrial carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 140(1):145-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Epigenetic changes in cancer and precancerous lesions could be utilized as biomarkers for cancer early detection. This study aims to investigate the novel biomarkers in endometrial carcinoma, and explore their epigenetic regulation.
METHODS: Methylation of six tumor suppressor genes (CDH13, SHP1, HIN1, DKK3, CTNNA1 and PCDH8) was evaluated in 155 endometrium samples. Changes of methylation and mRNA expression after treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) or/and trichostatin A (TSA) were investigated by MSP and qRT-PCR respectively. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to detect the interactions between UHRF1 and PRMT5 proteins.
RESULTS: CDH13 and SHP1 promoters were highly methylated (81.36% and 86.44%, respectively) in endometrial carcinoma, while CDH13 promoter methylation was also present in complex hyperplasia and atypical hyperplasia (51.72% and 50.00%, respectively). Methylation of CDH13 and SHP1 promoters was associated with age and tumor differentiation or muscular infiltration depth. CDH13 and SHP1 promoters were completely methylated in endometrial carcinoma cell lines and were partially reversed by 5-Aza-CdR or TSA to induce mRNA levels (P<0.01). After combined treatment with these two agents, methylation of CDH13 and SHP1 promoters was completely reversed and expression of their mRNA was significantly increased (P<0.01). Moreover, PRMT5 could bind to UHRF1 and down-regulated by 5-Aza-CdR and/or TSA treatment (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate for the first time that SHP1 methylation has high specificity for diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma, while CDH13 promoter methylation plays a role in the earlier stage. Furthermore, UHRF1 could form a complex with PRMT5 to contribute to the endometrial carcinogenesis.

Liu LW, Nishikawa T, Kaneda Y
An RNA Molecule Derived From Sendai Virus DI Particles Induces Antitumor Immunity and Cancer Cell-selective Apoptosis.
Mol Ther. 2016; 24(1):135-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
Inactivated Sendai virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E) induces anticancer immunity and cancer cell-selective apoptosis through the recognition of viral RNA genome fragments by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I). Here, we discovered that the "copy-back" type of defective-interfering (DI) particles that exist in the Cantell strain of HVJ induced the human PC3 prostate cancer cell death more effectively than the Sendai/52 strain or Cantell strain, which contain fewer DI particles. DI particle genomic RNA (~550 bases) activated proapoptotic genes such as Noxa and/or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human prostate cancer cells to induce cancer cell-selective apoptosis. DI particle-derived RNA was synthesized by in vitro transcription (in vitro transcribed (IVT)-B2). IVT-B2 RNA, which has a double-stranded region in its secondary structure, promoted a stronger anticancer effect than IVT-HN RNA, which does not have a double-stranded region in its secondary structure. The intratumoral transfection of IVT-B2 significantly reduced the volume of a human prostate tumor and induced tumor cell apoptosis in the xenograft mouse model. Moreover, the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells in IVT-B2-RNA-induced anticancer effects was also suggested. These findings provide a novel nucleic acid medicine for the treatment of cancer.

Chowdhari S, Saini N
Gene expression profiling reveals the role of RIG1 like receptor signaling in p53 dependent apoptosis induced by PUVA in keratinocytes.
Cell Signal. 2016; 28(1):25-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Photochemotherapy using 8-methoxypsoralen in combination with UVA radiation (PUVA) is an effective treatment for various skin dermatosis including psoriasis however its molecular mechanism is not clear. Previously we demonstrated that PUVA differentially regulates miRNA expression profile with a significant up-regulation of hsa-miR-4516. To study in detail the molecular mechanism of PUVA in keratinocytes, we investigated the genome wide transcriptomic changes using Illumina whole genome gene expression beadchip. Microarray analysis revealed 1932 differentially expressed gene and their Insilico analysis revealed Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-1) signaling, apoptosis and p53 pathway to be associated with PUVA induced effects. We demonstrate that miR-4516 mediated down-regulation of UBE2N promotes p53 nuclear translocation and pro-apoptotic activity of PUVA is independent of IRF3 but is mediated by the RIG-I in a p53 and NFκB dependent manner. Additionally, PUVA inactivated the AKT/mTOR pathway in concert with inhibition of autophagy and suppressed cell migration. Taken together this study broadens our understanding about the mechanism of action of PUVA providing possible new strategy targeting proapoptotic function of RIG-1, a regulator of innate immune response or p53 for psoriasis therapy.

Romero D, Al-Shareef Z, Gorroño-Etxebarria I, et al.
Dickkopf-3 regulates prostate epithelial cell acinar morphogenesis and prostate cancer cell invasion by limiting TGF-β-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteases.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(1):18-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dickkopf-3 (Dkk-3) is a secreted protein whose expression is downregulated in many types of cancer. Endogenous Dkk-3 is required for formation of acini in 3D cultures of prostate epithelial cells, where it inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling. Here, we examined the effects of Dkk-3 on the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), which mediate the effects of TGF-β on extracellular matrix disassembly during tissue morphogenesis and promote invasion of tumor cells. Silencing of Dkk-3 in prostate epithelial cells resulted in increased expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Inhibition of MMP-9 partially restored normal acinar morphogenesis in Dkk-3-silenced RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells. In PC3 prostate cancer cells, Dkk-3 inhibited TGF-β-dependent migration and invasion. Inhibition was mediated by the Dkk-3 C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (Cys2), which also inhibited TGF-β-induced expression of MMP9 and MMP13. In contrast, Dkk-3, but not Cys2, increased formation of normal acini in Dkk-3-silenced prostate epithelial cells. These observations highlight a role for Dkk-3 in modulating TGF-β/MMP signals in the prostate, and suggest that the Dkk-3 Cys2 domain can be used as a basis for therapies that target the tumor promoting effects of TGF-β signaling in advanced prostate cancer.

Fang L, Cai J, Chen B, et al.
Aberrantly expressed miR-582-3p maintains lung cancer stem cell-like traits by activating Wnt/β-catenin signalling.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8640 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in tumorigenesis, tumour recurrence and therapy resistance and Wnt signalling is essential for the development of the biological traits of CSCs. In non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), unlike in colon cancer, mutations in β-catenin and APC genes are uncommon; thus, the mechanism underlying the constitutive activation of Wnt signalling in NSCLC remains unclear. Here we report that miR-582-3p expression correlates with the overall- and recurrence-free-survival of NSCLC patients, and miR-582-3p has an activating effect on Wnt/β-catenin signalling. miR-582-3p overexpression simultaneously targets multiple negative regulators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, namely, AXIN2, DKK3 and SFRP1. Consequently, miR-582-3p promotes CSC traits of NSCLC cells in vitro and tumorigenesis and tumour recurrence in vivo. Antagonizing miR-582-3p potently inhibits tumour initiation and progression in xenografted animal models. These findings suggest that miR-582-3p mediates the constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling, likely serving as a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.

Yilmaz M, Donmez G, Kacan T, et al.
Significant Association Between Polymorphisms of Wnt Antagonist Genes and Lung Cancer.
J Investig Med. 2015; 63(8):935-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying lung cancer (LC) is essential for the development of new effective therapeutic agents. Recently, involvement of Wnt antagonists in oncogenesis has been demonstrated in several cancers. The investigation of their contribution to lung carcinogenesis is still under investigation. We aimed to investigate whether there is a susceptibility or preventive effect of Wnt antagonist gene polymorphisms on the development and/or prognosis of LC. We investigated 110 LC patients and 160 controls. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of Wnt antagonist genes including DKK2 (rs17037102), DKK3 (rs3206824), DKK3 intron4 G/C (rs7396187), DKK4 (rs2073664), and sFRP4 (rs1802074) were analyzed using nested polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results showed that patients with DKK3 AA compared with controls have a decreased risk of LC (adjusted for smoking habit, body mass index, and familial history) (P = 0.02; odds ratio [OR],0.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.01-0.7). It was found that, for sFRP4 polymorphism, patients with GG and GA genotypes versus AA genotype controls showed a decreased risk for LC (P = 0.01; [OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.73 for GG genotype]; [OR = 0.18, 95% CI, 0.04-0.72 for GA genotype]). In addition, a decreased risk of LC was also found for the genotype combination of DKK3 (rs3206824) GG and sFRP4 AG + GG (P = 0.004; OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.58). We suggest that these 2 polymorphisms have a protective effect on LC in this study.

Zhao L, Zhu J, Zhou H, et al.
Identification of cellular microRNA-136 as a dual regulator of RIG-I-mediated innate immunity that antagonizes H5N1 IAV replication in A549 cells.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:14991 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory diseases and high mortality rates in animals and humans. MicroRNAs are being increasingly studied to evaluate their potential as therapeutic entities to combat viral infection. However, mechanistic studies delineating the roles of microRNAs in regulating host-H5N1 virus interactions remain scarce. Here, we performed microRNA microarray analysis using A549 human lung epithelial cells infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The microRNA expression profile of infected cells identified a small number of microRNAs being dysregulated upon H5N1 influenza A virus infection. Of the differentially expressed microRNAs, miR-136 was up-regulated 5-fold and exhibited potent antiviral activity in vitro against H5N1 influenza A virus, as well as vesicular stomatitis virus. On the one hand, 3'-untranslated region (UTR) reporter analysis revealed a miR-136 binding site in the 3' UTR of IL-6. However, on the other hand, we subsequently determined that miR-136 meanwhile acts as an immune agonist of retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), thereby causing IL-6 and IFN-β accumulation in A549 cells. Overall, this study implicates the dual role of miRNA-136 in the regulation of host antiviral innate immunity and suggests an important role for the microRNA-activated pathway in viral infection via pattern recognition receptors.

Wang L, Li G, Yao ZQ, et al.
MicroRNA regulation of viral immunity, latency, and carcinogenesis of selected tumor viruses and HIV.
Rev Med Virol. 2015; 25(5):320-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as key regulators in immune responses and cancer development. In the contexts of infection with oncogenic viruses, miRNAs are engaged in viral persistence, latency establishment and maintenance, and oncogenesis. In this review, we summarize the potential roles and mechanisms of viral and cellular miRNAs in the host-pathogen interactions during infection with selected tumor viruses and HIV, which include (i) repressing viral replication and facilitating latency establishment by targeting viral transcripts, (ii) evading innate and adaptive immune responses via toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, T-cell receptor, and B-cell receptor pathways by targeting signaling molecules such as TRAF6, IRAK1, IKKε, and MyD88, as well as downstream targets including regulatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor β, (iii) antagonizing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways by targeting pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic gene transcripts such as the Bcl-2 family and caspase-3, (iv) modulating cell proliferation and survival through regulation of the Wnt, PI3K/Akt, Erk/MAPK, and Jak/STAT signaling pathways, as well as the signaling pathways triggered by viral oncoproteins such as Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1, by targeting Wnt-inhibiting factor 1, SHIP, pTEN, and SOCSs, and (v) regulating cell cycle progression by targeting cell cycle inhibitors such as p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1. Further elucidation of the interaction between miRNAs and these key biological events will facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis of viral latency and oncogenesis and may lead to the identification of miRNAs as novel targets for developing new therapeutic or preventive interventions.

Hsu WM, Huang CC, Lee HY, et al.
MDA5 complements TLR3 in suppression of neuroblastoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):24935-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
Toll-like receptor3 (TLR3) has been confirmed to be differentially expressed in neuroblastoma (NB), and predicts a favorable prognosis with a high expression in tumor tissues. Treatment with TLR3 agonist--polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] could induce significant but limited apoptosis in TLR3-expressing NB cells, suggesting that other viral RNA sensors, including melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) in the cytosolic compartment might also be implicated in poly(I:C)-induced NB cell death. MDA5 and RIG-I were induced by poly(I:C) to express in two of six NB cell lines, SK-N-AS (AS) and SK-N-FI, which were associated with up-regulation of caspase9 and active caspase3. While knockdown of either MDA5 or RIG-I alone is ineffective to decrease caspase9 and active caspase3, simultaneously targeting MDA5 and TLR3 showed the best effect to rescue poly(I:C) induced up-regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), caspase9, active caspase3, and apoptosis in AS cells. Over-expression of MDA5 in FaDu cells resulted in significantly less colony formation and more poly(I:C)-induced cell death. Further studies in human NB tissue samples revealed that MDA5 expression in NB tissues predicted a favorable prognosis synergistically with TLR3. Our findings indicate that MDA5 may serve as a complementary role in the TLR3 activated suppression of NB.

Wang Z, Lin L, Thomas DG, et al.
The role of Dickkopf-3 overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015; 150(2):377-385.e2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Ninety percent of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma ultimately die of their disease, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic targets. The goal of this study was to define the functional significance of overexpression of Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: DKK3 expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 95 chemonaive and 21 chemoresistant esophageal adenocarcinomas. The esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line OE33 was stably transfected with DKK3 (OE33/DKK3) and evaluated using WST-1 (Roche, Basel, Switzerland), Matrigel (BD Biosciences, San Jose, Calif), endothelial tube formation, and chemosensitivity assays. Tumorigenesis was evaluated by injecting 1 × 10(6) OE33/DKK3 and vector cells in NOD/SCIDγ mice.
RESULTS: DKK3 was overexpressed (>2-fold) in 75.8% (72/95) of esophageal adenocarcinomas. DKK3 protein was present at moderate to high levels in 46.8% (29/62) of esophageal adenocarcinomas on tissue microarray. Stable transfection of DKK3 significantly increased proliferation (P < .05) and Matrigel invasion (P < .001). Levels of SMAD4, a key mediator of the transforming growth factor-ß pathway, increased after activin treatment of OE33/DKK3, and siSMAD4 significantly decreased Matrigel invasion, suggesting that DKK3 acts through the transforming growth factor-β pathway. OE33/DKK3 cells increased endothelial tube formation and were significantly more resistant to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, and DKK3 expression was significantly higher in chemoresistant esophageal adenocarcinomas (P < .005). In NOD/SCIDγ mice, OE33/DKK3 cells resulted in tumors at all sites (8/8), whereas vector cells grew in only 1 of 8 sites. Nodal metastases were also significantly increased in patients with esophageal adenocarcinomas highly overexpressing DKK3, 28 of 32 (88%) versus 42 of 63 (68%) (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that DKK3 may be important in mediating invasion in esophageal adenocarcinoma and could be a novel target in the treatment and prevention of metastatic disease.

O'Neil BH, Scott AJ, Ma WW, et al.
A phase II/III randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of rigosertib plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer.
Ann Oncol. 2015; 26(9):1923-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a first-in-class Ras mimetic and small-molecule inhibitor of multiple signaling pathways including polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), has shown efficacy in preclinical pancreatic cancer models. In this study, rigosertib was assessed in combination with gemcitabine in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were randomized in a 2:1 fashion to gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle plus rigosertib 1800 mg/m(2) via 2-h continuous IV infusions given twice weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle (RIG + GEM) versus gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) weekly for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle (GEM).
RESULTS: A total of 160 patients were enrolled globally and randomly assigned to RIG + GEM (106 patients) or GEM (54). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse events were neutropenia (8% in the RIG + GEM group versus 6% in the GEM group), hyponatremia (17% versus 4%), and anemia (8% versus 4%). The median overall survival was 6.1 months for RIG + GEM versus 6.4 months for GEM [hazard ratio (HR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-1.81]. The median progression-free survival was 3.4 months for both groups (HR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.68-1.36). The partial response rate was 19% versus 13% for RIG + GEM versus GEM, respectively. Of 64 tumor samples sent for molecular analysis, 47 were adequate for multiplex genetic testing and 41 were positive for mutations. The majority of cases had KRAS gene mutations (40 cases). Other mutations detected included TP53 (13 cases) and PIK3CA (1 case). No correlation between mutational status and efficacy was detected.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of RIG + GEM failed to demonstrate an improvement in survival or response compared with GEM in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Rigosertib showed a similar safety profile to that seen in previous trials using the IV formulation.

Kumar S, Ingle H, Mishra S, et al.
IPS-1 differentially induces TRAIL, BCL2, BIRC3 and PRKCE in type I interferons-dependent and -independent anticancer activity.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1758 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
RIG-I-like receptors are the key cytosolic sensors for RNA viruses and induce the production of type I interferons (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines through a sole adaptor IFN-β promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1) (also known as Cardif, MAVS and VISA) in antiviral innate immunity. These sensors also have a pivotal role in anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanism for their anticancer activity is poorly understood. Here, we show that anticancer vaccine adjuvant, PolyIC (primarily sensed by MDA5) and the oncolytic virus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (sensed by RIG-I), induce anticancer activity. The ectopic expression of IPS-1 into type I IFN-responsive and non-responsive cancer cells induces anticancer activity. PolyIC transfection and NDV infection upregulate pro-apoptotic gene TRAIL and downregulate the anti-apoptotic genes BCL2, BIRC3 and PRKCE. Furthermore, stable knockdown of IPS-1, IRF3 or IRF7 in IFN-non-responsive cancer cells show reduced anticancer activity by suppressing apoptosis via TRAIL and anti-apoptotic genes. Collectively, our study shows that IPS-1 induces anticancer activity through upregulation of pro-apoptotic gene TRAIL and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic genes BCL2, BIRC3 and PRKCE via IRF3 and IRF7 in type I IFN-dependent and -independent manners.

Ilkow CS, Marguerie M, Batenchuk C, et al.
Reciprocal cellular cross-talk within the tumor microenvironment promotes oncolytic virus activity.
Nat Med. 2015; 21(5):530-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumors are complex ecosystems composed of networks of interacting 'normal' and malignant cells. It is well recognized that cytokine-mediated cross-talk between normal stromal cells, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), vascular endothelial cells, immune cells, and cancer cells, influences all aspects of tumor biology. Here we demonstrate that the cross-talk between CAFs and cancer cells leads to enhanced growth of oncolytic virus (OV)-based therapeutics. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) produced by tumor cells reprogrammed CAFs, dampened their steady-state level of antiviral transcripts and rendered them sensitive to virus infection. In turn, CAFs produced high levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), initiating a signaling cascade in cancer cells that reduced retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) expression and impeded the ability of malignant cells to detect and respond to virus. In xenografts derived from individuals with pancreatic cancer, the expression of FGF2 correlated with the susceptibility of the cancer cells to OV infection, and local application of FGF2 to resistant tumor samples sensitized them to virotherapy both in vitro and in vivo. An OV engineered to express FGF2 was safe in tumor-bearing mice, showed improved therapeutic efficacy compared to parental virus and merits consideration for clinical testing.

Kinoshita R, Watanabe M, Huang P, et al.
The cysteine-rich core domain of REIC/Dkk-3 is critical for its effect on monocyte differentiation and tumor regression.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(6):2908-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reduced expression in immortalized cells (REIC)/Dickkopf (Dkk)-3 is a tumor-suppressor gene and has been studied as a promising therapeutic gene for cancer gene therapy. Intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC) elicits cancer cell-specific apoptosis and anticancer immune responses. The cytokine-like effect of secretory REIC/Dkk-3 on the induction of dendritic cell (DC)-like cell differentiation from monocytes plays a role in systemic anticancer immunity. In the present study, we generated recombinant full-length and N-terminally truncated REIC/Dkk-3 to characterize the biological activity of the protein. During the purification procedure, we identified a 17 kDa cysteine-rich stable product (C17-REIC) showing limited degradation. Further analysis showed that the C17-REIC domain was sufficient for the induction of DC-like cell differentiation from monocytes. Concomitant with the differentiation of DCs, the REIC/Dkk-3 protein induced the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) at a level comparable to that of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In a mouse model of subcutaneous renal adenocarcinoma, intraperitoneal injection of full-length and C17-REIC proteins exerted anticancer effects in parallel with the activation of immunocompetent cells such as DCs and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Taken together, our results indicate that the stable cysteine-rich core region of REIC/Dkk-3 is responsible for the induction of anticancer immune responses. Because REIC/Dkk-3 is a naturally circulating serum protein, the upregulation REIC/Dkk-3 protein expression could be a promising option for cancer therapy.

Tao L, Huang G, Chen Y, Chen L
DNA methylation of DKK3 modulates docetaxel chemoresistance in human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2015; 30(2):100-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dickkopf-related protein 3 (DKK3) gene, as a tumor suppressor gene, has been discovered in various cancers, but its relationship with tumor chemoresistance is still unclear. In this study, this laboratory detected that DNA methylation contributes to the downregulation of DKK3 in docetaxel resistance of human lung cancer cells and its possible biochemical mechanism. DKK3 has been proved to be downregulated by hypermethylation in docetaxel-resistant lung cancer cells. Upregulation of DKK3 can reverse the chemoresistance of docetaxel-resistant cell lines in vitro by growth inhibition and enhancement of apoptosis. Conversely, downregulation of DKK3 could induce parental human lung cancer cells insensitivity to docetaxel by promoting proliferative capacity and inhibiting apoptosis of cancer cells. In addition, the authors observed that overexpression of DKK3 might decrease the expression of P-glycoprotein. All results suggested that epigenetic downregulation of DKK3 leads to docetaxel resistance in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by increased expression of P-glycoprotein. DKK3 may reveal a novel molecular target for docetaxel resistance for NSCLC patients in the future.

Dupuis-Maurin V, Brinza L, Baguet J, et al.
Overexpression of the transcription factor Sp1 activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I pathway.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0118551 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen.

Duan Y, Li Z, Cheng S, et al.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression is mediated by EBER-triggered inflammation via the RIG-I pathway.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 361(1):67-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
EBERs (EBER1 and EBER2) are suggested to be involved in cellular transformation and tumor growth. Cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor-RIG-I, which is characterized by the recognition of viral dsRNAs, could efficiently trigger the downstream pathways of innate immunity. Although some previous reports have shown that EBERs and RIG-I associate with hematological malignancies, the role of EBERs-RIG-I signaling in solid tumors remains to be clarified. Here we demonstrate that EBER mediation of the inflammatory response via RIG-I contributes to NPC development in vitro and in vivo. We first verified that the expression level of RIG-I was associated with EBER transcription in a dose-dependent manner in NPC cells and specimens from NPC patients. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription and release were sharply reduced after RIG-I knockdown compared with the control shRNA group in the presence of EBERs, accompanied by an attenuation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Consequently, the tumor burden was greatly alleviated in the RIG-I knockdown group in a xenograft model. In addition, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), which promote the maturation and attraction of tumor-associated macrophages, were stimulated upon the introduction of EBERs, and this upregulation conceivably led to the tumor-promoting subset transition of the macrophages. Taken together, our results reveal that EBERs could promote NPC progression through RIG-I-mediated cancer-related inflammation.

Valdez BC, Li Y, Murray D, et al.
Comparison of the cytotoxicity of cladribine and clofarabine when combined with fludarabine and busulfan in AML cells: Enhancement of cytotoxicity with epigenetic modulators.
Exp Hematol. 2015; 43(6):448-61.e2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/03/2017 Related Publications
Clofarabine (Clo), fludarabine (Flu), and busulfan (Bu) combinations are efficacious in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myeloid leukemia. We sought to determine whether the more affordable drug cladribine (Clad) can provide a viable alternative to Clo, with or without panobinostat (Pano) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC). Both Clad+Flu+Bu and Clo+Flu+Bu combinations showed synergistic cytotoxicity in KBM3/Bu250(6), HL60, and OCI-AML3 cell lines. Cell exposure to these drug combinations resulted in 60%-80% inhibition of proliferation; activation of the ATM pathway; increase in histone modifications; decrease in HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC5 and SirT7 proteins; decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential; activation of apoptosis and stress signaling pathways; and downregulation of the AKT pathway. These drug combinations activated DNA-damage response and apoptosis in primary cell samples from AML patients. At lower concentrations of Clad/Clo, Flu, and Bu, inclusion of Pano and DAC enhanced cell killing, increased histone modifications and DNA demethylation, and increased the levels of P16/INK4a, P15/INK4b and P21/Waf1/Cip1 proteins. The observed DNA demethylating activity of Clad and Clo may complement DAC activity; increase demethylation of the gene promoters for SFRP1, DKK3, and WIF1; and cause degradation of β-catenin in cells exposed to Clad/Clo+Flu+Bu+DAC+Pano. The overlapping activities of Clad/Clo+Flu+Bu, Pano, and DAC in DNA-damage formation and repair, histone modifications, DNA demethylation, and apoptosis may underlie their synergism. Our results provide a basis for supplanting Clo with Clad and for including epigenetic modifiers in the pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation conditioning regimen for myeloid leukemia patients.

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