Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (7)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: HLA-DPB1 (cancer-related)
Xiong J, Zhao WWhat we should know about natural killer/T-cell lymphomas.
Hematol Oncol. 2019; 37 Suppl 1:75-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Natural-killer/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is the most common extranodal lymphoma with highly aggressive clinical outcome. System biology techniques provide novel insights into the pathogenesis, risk stratification, and clinical management in NKTCL. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis reveal most frequent deletion of chromosome 6q21. Whole-exome sequencing studies identify recurrent somatic gene mutations, involving RNA helicases, tumor suppressors, JAK-STAT pathway molecules, and epigenetic modifiers. Genome-wide association study reports strongest association of HLA-DPB1 rs9277378 with lymphomagenesis. Alterations of oncogenic signaling pathways as well as epigenetic dysregulation of microRNA and long non-coding RNAs are also observed in NKTCL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the major etiology of NKTCL and the pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. Different risk stratification models are proposed based on clinical parameters (IPI, PINK, and PINK-E, etc.) or biomarkers (Ki67, C-reactive protein level, and EBV DNA, etc.). Therapeutic strategies vary according to disease stage, including radiotherapy, asparaginase-based chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, targeted therapy (immune checkpoints inhibitors, and histone deacetylation inhibitors, etc.). Future investigations will be emphasized on EBV-related pathogenesis of NKTCL, prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers, as well as multi-center clinical trials, so as to optimize personalized treatment of NKTCL in the era of precision medicine.
Toffalori C, Zito L, Gambacorta V, et al.Immune signature drives leukemia escape and relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(4):603-611 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Transplantation of hematopoietic cells from a healthy individual (allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT)) demonstrates that adoptive immunotherapy can cure blood cancers: still, post-transplantation relapses remain frequent. To explain their drivers, we analyzed the genomic and gene expression profiles of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts purified from patients at serial time-points during their disease history. We identified a transcriptional signature specific for post-transplantation relapses and highly enriched in immune-related processes, including T cell costimulation and antigen presentation. In two independent patient cohorts we confirmed the deregulation of multiple costimulatory ligands on AML blasts at post-transplantation relapse (PD-L1, B7-H3, CD80, PVRL2), mirrored by concomitant changes in circulating donor T cells. Likewise, we documented the frequent loss of surface expression of HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP on leukemia cells, due to downregulation of the HLA class II regulator CIITA. We show that loss of HLA class II expression and upregulation of inhibitory checkpoint molecules represent alternative modalities to abolish AML recognition from donor-derived T cells, and can be counteracted by interferon-γ or checkpoint blockade, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the deregulation of pathways involved in T cell-mediated allorecognition is a distinctive feature and driver of AML relapses after allo-HCT, which can be rapidly translated into personalized therapies.
BACKGROUND: As consolidation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation provides a benefit in part by means of an immune-mediated graft-versus-leukemia effect. We hypothesized that the immune-mediated selective pressure imposed by allogeneic transplantation may cause distinct patterns of tumor evolution in relapsed disease.
METHODS: We performed enhanced exome sequencing on paired samples obtained at initial presentation with AML and at relapse from 15 patients who had a relapse after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (with transplants from an HLA-matched sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor, or HLA-mismatched unrelated donor) and from 20 patients who had a relapse after chemotherapy. We performed RNA sequencing and flow cytometry on a subgroup of these samples and on additional samples for validation.
RESULTS: On exome sequencing, the spectrum of gained and lost mutations observed with relapse after transplantation was similar to the spectrum observed with relapse after chemotherapy. Specifically, relapse after transplantation was not associated with the acquisition of previously unknown AML-specific mutations or structural variations in immune-related genes. In contrast, RNA sequencing of samples obtained at relapse after transplantation revealed dysregulation of pathways involved in adaptive and innate immunity, including down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes ( HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1) to levels that were 3 to 12 times lower than the levels seen in paired samples obtained at presentation. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed decreased expression of MHC class II at relapse in 17 of 34 patients who had a relapse after transplantation. Evidence suggested that interferon-γ treatment could rapidly reverse this phenotype in AML blasts in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS: AML relapse after transplantation was not associated with the acquisition of relapse-specific mutations in immune-related genes. However, it was associated with dysregulation of pathways that may influence immune function, including down-regulation of MHC class II genes, which are involved in antigen presentation. These epigenetic changes may be reversible with appropriate therapy. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).
Planelles D, Balas A, Caro JL, et al.HLA-B*56:55:01:02, -C*03:374 and -DPB1*13:01:03 characterized by next-generation sequencing.
HLA. 2018; 92(6):419-420 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The new HLA alleles HLA-B*56:55:01:02, -C*03:374 and -DPB1*13:01:03 were characterized by NGS methodology.
A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (
Moyer AM, Hashmi SK, Kroning C, et al.Does matching for SNPs in the MHC gamma block in 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor-recipient pairs undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant improve outcomes?
Hum Immunol. 2018; 79(7):532-536 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matching at the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 loci is important in donor selection for patients undergoing unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Additional matching across the MHC gamma region may further improve outcomes.
METHODS: The MHC gamma region was retrospectively genotyped in 66 adult recipients of ASCT and their 10/10 matched unrelated donors. A chart review was performed to determine whether MHC gamma matching impacted survival, relapse, or graft-versus-host disease.
RESULTS: Of 66 donor-recipient pairs, 26(39.4%) were gamma-type matches, 34(51.5%) were mismatches, and 6(9.1%) were "indeterminate." Matching status was not associated with overall survival (p = 0.43), relapse (p = 0.21), acute GVHD (p = 0.43), severe aGVHD (p = 0.31), or chronic GVHD (p = 0.23) in univariate analyses, nor in multivariate analyses (p = 0.28, 0.13, 0.29, 0.16, and 0.67, respectively), with or without adjusting for HLA-DPB1 matching status.
CONCLUSIONS: In our single institution study, gamma-type matching status was not associated with outcomes of adult ASCT recipients.
Fornaciari S, Sciarrino R, Biagini C, et al.Identification of the new HLA-DPB1 allele, DPB1*647:01, in an Italian patient with leukemia.
HLA. 2018; 91(4):311-312 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A novel HLA-DPB1 allele, named HLA-DPB1*647:01, identified in a leukemia patient.
Several susceptibility loci for classical Hodgkin lymphoma have been reported. However, much of the heritable risk is unknown. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of two existing genome-wide association studies, a new genome-wide association study, and replication totalling 5,314 cases and 16,749 controls. We identify risk loci for all classical Hodgkin lymphoma at 6q22.33 (rs9482849, P = 1.52 × 10
Qin N, Wang C, Zhu M, et al.Fine-mapping the MHC region in Asian populations identified novel variants modifying susceptibility to lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2017; 112:169-175 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a vital role in the immune system and drives predisposition to multiple cancers. A number of lung cancer-related genetic variants in the MHC have been identified in recent genome-wide association studies; however, the causal variants remain unclear.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we conducted a large-scale fine-mapping study of lung cancer in the MHC region of 13,945 unrelated Asian individuals to search for potential causal variants. We used the recently constructed Pan-Asian panel as the reference and imputed eight HLA genes (HLA-A, HLC-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPA1, and HLA-DPB1) using SNP2HLA software.
RESULTS: We identified one single nucleotide polymorphism, rs12333226 (OR=1.41, P=3.97×10
CONCLUSION: We identified seven novel bi-allelic variants and five polymorphic amino acid positions in HLA-DRβ1, HLA-DQα1, and HLA-A that confer a risk of lung cancer. This finding provides evidence for the substantial contributions of HLA class I and II molecules to lung cancer susceptibility.
Lu YC, Parker LL, Lu T, et al.Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Cancer Using a Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II-Restricted T-Cell Receptor Targeting the Cancer Germline Antigen MAGE-A3.
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(29):3322-3329 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Purpose Adoptive transfer of genetically modified T cells is being explored as a treatment for patients with metastatic cancer. Most current strategies use genes that encode major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted T-cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors to genetically modify CD8
Kakavand H, Rawson RV, Pupo GM, et al.PD-L1 Expression and Immune Escape in Melanoma Resistance to MAPK Inhibitors.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(20):6054-6061 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Yabe T, Azuma F, Kashiwase K, et al.HLA-DPB1 mismatch induces a graft-versus-leukemia effect without severe acute GVHD after single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(1):168-175 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although it is known that human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPB1 disparity has a strong impact on outcomes in unrelated hematopoietic transplantation with induction of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect, its role in unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UR-CBT) has yet to be fully clarified. Our current study is being conducted to elucidate the impact of HLA-DPB1 mismatch, along with the effect of other HLA loci mismatches at the allele level. HLA six loci alleles were retrospectively typed in 1157 Japanese donors and patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent transplantation with a single unit of cord blood. HLA-DPB1 mismatch was associated with a significant reduction in leukemia relapse (hazard ratio 0.61, P<0.001), whereas the other HLA loci allele-level mismatches did not. No significant effect of HLA-DPB1 mismatch was observed in the risk of acute GVHD, engraftment or mortality. This HLA-DPB1 GVL effect without induction of severe acute GVHD or deterioration of survival rate has not been reported in unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantations, suggesting apparent advantages of UR-CBT. Accordingly, selection of an HLA-DPB1 mismatch cord blood might be the preferable choice for single-unit UR-CBT.
Moyer AM, Hashmi SK, Kroning CM, et al.Clinical outcomes of HLA-DPB1 mismatches in 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor-recipient pairs undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant.
Eur J Haematol. 2017; 99(3):275-282 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: HLA-DPB1 matching may impact allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) outcomes; however, this locus is not in linkage disequilibrium with the remainder of the HLA genes. After classifying HLA-DPB1 mismatches based on T-cell epitope, avoiding non-permissive mismatches may impact survival. We tested this hypothesis at a single academic institution.
METHODS: Retrospective HLA-DPB1 genotyping was performed on 153 adult patients who underwent ASCT and unrelated donors matched for HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1 loci (10/10). Using the ImMunoGeneTics/HLA T-cell epitope matching algorithm, mismatch status was classified as permissive or non-permissive.
RESULTS: Of 153 donor-recipient pairs, 22 (14.4%) were HLA-DPB1 matches, 64 (42.8%) permissive mismatches, and 67 (43.8%) non-permissive mismatches. DPB1 mismatch increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD; RR 2.89 [1.19-9.53], P=.016) compared with DPB1-matched transplants, but there were no differences in overall mortality, risk of relapse, or acute GVHD (aGVHD). Combining matches and permissive mismatches and comparing to non-permissive mismatches, there was no significant difference in overall survival or relapse; however, patients receiving non-permissive mismatched transplants experienced greater risk of aGVHD overall and severe aGVHD (RR 1.66 [1.13-2.44], P=.010 and RR 1.97 [1.10-3.59], P=.024, respectively).
CONCLUSION: In this single-center study, HLA-DPB1 matching influenced outcomes of patients undergoing ASCT for hematologic malignancy.
van Balen P, van Luxemburg-Heijs SAP, van de Meent M, et al.Mismatched HLA-DRB3 Can Induce a Potent Immune Response After HLA 10/10 Matched Stem Cell Transplantation.
Transplantation. 2017; 101(12):2850-2854 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Donors for allogeneic stem cell transplantation are preferentially matched with patients for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Mismatches between donor and patient in these alleles are associated with an increased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In contrast, HLA-DRB3, 4 and 5, HLA-DQ and HLA-DP are usually assumed to be low expression loci with limited relevance, although mismatches in HLA-DQ and HLA-DP can result in alloimmune responses. Mismatches in HLA-DRB3, 4, and 5 are usually not taken into account in donor selection.
METHODS: Conversion of chimerism in the presence of GVHD after CD4 donor lymphocyte infusion was observed in a patient, HLA 10/10 matched, but mismatched for HLA-DRB3 and HLA-DPB1 compared with the donor. Alloreactive CD4 T cells were isolated from peripheral blood after CD4 donor lymphocyte infusion and recognition of donor-derived target cells transduced with the mismatched patient variant HLA-DRB3 and HLA-DPB1 molecule was tested.
RESULTS: A dominant polyclonal CD4 T cell response against patient's mismatched HLA-DRB3 molecule was found in addition to an immune response against patient's mismatched HLA-DPB1 molecule. CD4 T cells specific for these HLA class II molecules recognized both hematopoietic target cells as well as GVHD target cells.
CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the assumption that mismatches in HLA-DRB3, 4, and 5 are not of immunogenic significance after HLA 10/10 matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation, we show that in this matched setting not only mismatches in HLA-DPB1, but also mismatches in HLA-DRB3 may induce a polyclonal allo-immune response associated with conversion of chimerism and severe GVHD.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene-engineered T cell therapy holds the potential to make a meaningful difference in the lives of patients with terminal cancers. For decades, cancer therapy was based on biophysical parameters, with surgical resection to debulk, followed by radiation and chemotherapy to target the rapidly growing tumor cells, while mostly sparing quiescent normal tissues. One breakthrough occurred with allogeneic bone-marrow transplant for patients with leukemia, which provided a sometimes curative therapy. The field of adoptive cell therapy for solid tumors was established with the discovery that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes could be expanded and used to treat and even cure patients with metastatic melanoma. Tumor-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) were identified and engineered into patient peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were also found to treat tumors. However, these were limited by patient HLA-restriction. Close behind came generation of CAR, combining the exquisite recognition of an antibody with the effector function of a T cell. The advent of CD19-targeted CARs for treating patients with multiple forms of advanced B-cell malignancies met with great success, with up to 95% response rates. Applying CAR treatment to solid tumors, however, has just begun, but already certain factors have been made clear: the tumor target is of utmost importance for clinicians to do no harm; and solid tumors respond differently to CAR therapy compared with hematologic ones. Here we review the state of clinical gene-engineered T cell immunotherapy, its successes, challenges, and future.
Despite HLA allele matching, significant acute GvHD remains a major barrier to successful unrelated donor BMT. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify recipient and donor genes associated with the risk of acute GvHD. A case-control design (grade III-IV versus no acute GvHD) and pooled GWA approach was used to study European-American recipients with hematological malignancies who received myeloablative conditioning non-T-cell-depleted first transplantation from HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 allele level (10/10) matched unrelated donors. DNA samples were divided into three pools and tested in triplicate using the Affymetrix Genome-wide SNP Array 6.0. We identified three novel susceptibility loci in the HLA-DP region of recipient genomes that were associated with III-IV acute GvHD (rs9277378, P=1.58E-09; rs9277542, P=1.548E-06 and rs9277341, P=7.718E-05). Of these three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs9277378 and rs9277542 are located in non-coding regions of the HLA-DPB1 gene and the two are in strong linkage disequilibrium with two other published SNPs associated with acute GvHD, rs2281389 and rs9277535. Eighteen other recipient SNPs and 3 donor SNPs with a high level of significance (8E-07 or lower) were found. Our report contributes to emerging data showing clinical significance of the HLA-DP region genetic markers beyond structural matching of DPB1 alleles.
Herr W, Eichinger Y, Beshay J, et al.HLA-DPB1 mismatch alleles represent powerful leukemia rejection antigens in CD4 T-cell immunotherapy after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(2):434-445 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a frequent complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We show herein that primary in vitro stimulation of CD45RA-selected CD4 T cells of stem-cell donors with 10/10 HLA-matched AML blasts results in expansion of cytolytic T-lymphocytes (CTL) that almost all recognize HLA-DPB1 mismatch alleles, which clinically occur in up to 80% of donor-patient pairs. Primary AML blasts were found to strongly express HLA-DPB1, whereas fibroblasts and keratinocytes used as surrogate target cells for graft-versus-host disease did express HLA-DPB1 only upon IFN-γ pre-treatment. Since patients' AML blasts are rarely available in clinical routine, we developed a protocol based on stimulation of donor-derived CD45RA-selected CD4 T cells with autologous dendritic cells electroporated with RNA encoding patients' HLA-DPB1 mismatch alleles. Short-term stimulated T cell-lines specifically lysed HLA-DPB1 mismatch-expressing AML blasts, but not fibroblasts and keratinocytes without IFN-γ pre-treatment. Notably, these CD4 CTL efficiently eliminated AML blasts upon adoptive transfer into leukemia-engrafted NSG mice. In conclusion, we show strong immunogenicity of HLA-DPB1 mismatch alleles in CD45RA-selected CD4 T cells of stem-cell donors and introduce a novel strategy to reliably generate HLA-DPB1-specific CD4 CTL that might be powerful cellular therapeutics in relapsed or refractory AML after HSCT.
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with favorable prognosis in multiple tumor types. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) represents the largest collection of cancer molecular data, but lacks detailed information about the immune environment. Here, we show that exome reads mapping to the complementarity-determining-region 3 (CDR3) of mature T-cell receptor beta (TCRB) can be used as an immune DNA (iDNA) signature. Specifically, we propose a method to identify CDR3 reads in a breast tumor exome and validate it using deep TCRB sequencing. In 1,078 TCGA breast cancer exomes, the fraction of CDR3 reads was associated with TILs fraction, tumor purity, adaptive immunity gene expression signatures and improved survival in Her2+ patients. Only 2/839 TCRB clonotypes were shared between patients and none associated with a specific HLA allele or somatic driver mutations. The iDNA biomarker enriches the comprehensive dataset collected through TCGA, revealing associations with other molecular features and clinical outcomes.
Miura K, Mishima H, Yasunami M, et al.A significant association between rs8067378 at 17q12 and invasive cervical cancer originally identified by a genome-wide association study in Han Chinese is replicated in a Japanese population.
J Hum Genet. 2016; 61(9):793-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In this study, associations between invasive cervical cancer and four cervical cancer susceptibility loci (rs13117307 at 4q12, rs8067378 at 17q12, and rs4282438 and rs9277952 at 6p21.32) in the Han Chinese population were investigated in a Japanese population. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPB1 alleles were also investigated for their association with cervical cancer risk in the Japanese population. After receiving written informed consent, 214 unrelated Japanese women with invasive cervical cancer and 288 cancer-free Japanese women were recruited, and DNA samples were obtained (study protocol approved by Institutional Review Board of Nagasaki University). Of the four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs8067378 showed a significant association with invasive cervical cancer (P=0.0071). Under a recessive model, the minor allele G of rs8067378 contributed to the risk of invasive cervical cancer (odds ratio=2.92, 95% confidence interval=1.40-6.36; P=0.0021). No association was detected between HLA-DPB1 alleles and cervical cancer risk in the Japanese population. In conclusion, we show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that an association between increased risk of invasive cervical cancer and rs8067378 in the Han Chinese population is replicated in a Japanese population. In addition, Japanese women with the GG genotype of rs8067378 are a candidate high-risk group for invasive cervical carcinoma.
Long-term tumor regressions have been observed in patients following the adoptive transfer of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or genetically modified T cells expressing MHC class I-restricted T-cell receptors (TCRs), but clinical trials have not evaluated responses to genetically modified T cells expressing antitumor MHC class II-restricted TCRs. As studies carried out in a murine tumor model system have demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells could lead to the regression of established tumors, we plan to test the hypothesis that CD4 T cells can also induce tumor regressions in cancer patients. In this study, 2 MAGE-A3-specific TCRs were isolated from a regulatory T-cell clone (6F9) and an effector clone (R12C9), generated from the peripheral blood of 2 melanoma patients after MAGE-A3 vaccination. The results indicated that T cells transduced with 6F9 TCR mediated stronger effector functions than R12C9 TCR. The 6F9 TCR specifically recognized MAGE-A3 and the closely related MAGE-A6 gene product, but not other members of the MAGE-A family in the context of HLA-DPB1*04:01. To test the feasibility of a potential clinical trial using this TCR, a clinical-scale procedure was developed to obtain a large number of purified CD4 T cells transduced with 6F9 TCR. Because HLA-DPB1*04:01 is present in ∼60% of the Caucasian population and MAGE-A3 is frequently expressed in a variety of cancer types, this TCR immunotherapy could potentially be applicable for a significant portion of cancer patients.
Zhang X, Zheng C, Zhou ZH, et al.Relationship between HLA-DP gene polymorphisms and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):15553-63 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The association between the HLA-DP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3077 and rs9277535 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported, but results have been inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, to investigate the relationship between these HLA-DP SNPs and HCC susceptibility, a meta-analysis of studies published before January 2014 was carried out using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for HLA-DP alleles, and for co-dominant, dominant, and recessive genotype models of each SNP, based on fixed- or random-effects models. A total of nine studies from six published articles were included. The association study between rs3077 and HCC susceptibility was performed in four independent comparisons that contained 1871 cases with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC and 3207 carriers with persistent HBV. Association between rs9277535 and HCC susceptibility was examined in five separate comparisons that contained 2017 cases and 3930 carriers. Our analysis indicated a significant association of rs3077 and rs9277535 with HCC susceptibility, suggesting that rs3077 might act beneficially against HCC susceptibility (A vs G: OR = 0.884, 95%CI = 0.803-0.973, P = 0.012; GA vs GG: OR = 0.842, 95%CI = 0.733-0.967, P = 0.015; AA+GA vs GG: OR = 0.848, 95%CI = 0.744-0.968, P = 0.014), and that rs9277535 might promote HCC susceptibility (AA vs GA: OR = 1.202, 95%CI = 1.011-1.428, P = 0.037). This study suggested that HLA-DP rs3077 and rs9277535 polymorphisms are associated with HCC susceptibility in the Asian population.
Hirabayashi K, Kurata T, Horiuchi K, et al.Loss of Mismatched HLA on the Leukemic Blasts of Patients With Relapsed Lymphoid Malignancies Following Bone Marrow Transplantation From Related Donors With HLA Class II Mismatches in the Graft Versus Host Direction.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016; 63(4):709-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Mechanisms of relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remain unclear. We report two children with relapsed ALL after HSCT from related donors with HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 mismatches in the graft versus host direction. One lost HLA-DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 alleles, and the other lost one HLA haplotype of the leukemic blasts at relapse. HLA class II loss may be a triggering event for ALL relapse after partially HLA-mismatched-related HSCT. In addition, HLA typing of relapsed leukemic blasts could be vital in the selection of retransplant donors.
Delahaye-Sourdeix M, Urayama KY, Gaborieau V, et al.A Novel Risk Locus at 6p21.3 for Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015; 24(12):1838-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A proportion of the genetic variants involved in susceptibility to Hodgkin lymphoma differ by the tumor's Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status, particularly within the MHC region.
METHODS: We have conducted an SNP imputation study of the MHC region, considering tumor EBV status in 1,200 classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cases and 5,726 control subjects of European origin. Notable findings were genotyped in an independent study population of 468 cHL cases and 551 controls.
RESULTS: We identified and subsequently replicated a novel association between a common genetic variant rs6457715 and cHL. Although strongly associated with EBV-positive cHL [OR, 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.83-2.97; P = 7 × 10(-12)], there was little evidence for association between rs6457715 and the EBV-negative subgroup of cHL (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.92-1.21), indicating that this association was specific to the EBV-positive subgroup (Phet < P = 10(-8)). Furthermore, the association was limited to EBV-positive cHL subgroups within mixed cell (MCHL) and nodular sclerosis subtypes (NSHL), suggesting that the association is independent of histologic subtype of cHL.
CONCLUSIONS: rs6457715, located near the HLA-DPB1 gene, is associated with EBV-positive cHL and suggests this region as a novel susceptibility locus for cHL.
IMPACT: This expands the number of genetic variants that are associated with cHL and provides additional evidence for a critical and specific role of EBV in the etiology of this disease.
PURPOSE: We carried out this study to find out the relevance between rs2281388 T/C polymorphism of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in Chinese Han population.
METHODS: The method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to amplify the genomic DNA. Then the PCR products were sequenced to test the HLA-DP gene rs2281388T/C polymorphism of the case and control groups. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CIs) were utilized to evaluate the potential correlation between rs2281388 variants and HCC risk.
RESULTS: We analyzed the rs2281388 polymorphism distribution among the clinical pathological features. The results showed that there existed a significant statistic correlation between rs2281388T/C polymorphism of HLA-DP gene and HBsAg feature, and no significant correlation was found between rs2281388 and other clinical features. Further analysis showed that the TT genotype of rs2281388 was significantly correlated with HCC risk, and the same to T allele, but there was no significant difference of CT genotype distribution in case and control groups.
CONCLUSION: TT genotype and T allele of HLA-DP gene rs2281388 polymorphism may increase the risk of HCC.
Yang YC, Chang TY, Chen TC, et al.Genetic susceptibility to cervical squamous cell carcinoma is associated with HLA-DPB1 polymorphisms in Taiwanese women.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015; 64(9):1151-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is a multifactorial disease, and increasing evidence suggests that host immunogenetic background may contribute to its pathogenesis. Genetic variations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes may alter the efficiency of immune response to human papillomavirus (HPV) antigens and have been implicated in the risk of cervical cancer. We investigated whether polymorphisms in the HLA-DPB1 gene were associated with cervical cancer risk in a Taiwanese population. HLA-DPB1 alleles and +550 G/A polymorphism were genotyped in a case-control study of 473 women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and 676 healthy controls. The presence and genotypes of HPV in CSCC were determined. We found that the DPB1*05:01 and +550 A alleles were associated with decreased and increased risk of CSCC, respectively [odds ratio (OR) = 0.72, Pc = 0.001; OR = 1.25, Pc = 0.03]. In subgroup analysis based on HPV type 16 positivity, significant associations were shown in the DPB1*05:01 and *13:01 alleles (OR = 0.65, Pc = 0.0007; OR = 1.83, Pc = 0.004). Furthermore, the DPB1*05:01-G and *13:01-G haplotypes conferred decreased and increased risk of both CSCC and HPV-16 positive CSCC women, respectively (OR = 0.72, Pc = 0.0009; OR = 0.63, Pc = 0.0004 for DPB1*05:01-G; OR = 1.55, Pc = 0.03; OR = 1.84, Pc = 0.004 for DPB1*13:01-G). A risk haplotype DPB1*02:01-A was also observed in the HPV-16 positive CSCC women (OR = 1.51, Pc = 0.05). These findings suggest that HLA-DPB1 gene is involved in the CSCC development.
Wang L, Wei B, Hu G, et al.Screening of differentially expressed genes associated with human glioblastoma and functional analysis using a DNA microarray.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(2):1991-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant type of human glioma, and has a poor prognosis. Screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in brain tumor samples and normal brain samples is of importance for identifying GBM and to design specific-targeting drugs. The transcriptional profile of GSE30563, containing three genechips of brain tumor samples and three genechips of normal brain samples, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus to identify the DEGs. The differences in the expression of the DEGs in the two different samples were compared through hierarchical biclustering. The co-expression coefficient of the DEGs was calculated using the information from COXPRESdb, the network of the DEGs was constructed and functional enrichment and pathway analysis were performed. Finally, the transcription factors of important DEGs were predicted. A total of 1,006 DEGs, including 368 upregulated and 638 downregulated DEGs, were identified. A close correlation was demonstrated between six important genes, associated with immune response, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DPA1, HLA-B, HLA-DMA and HLA-DRA, and the immune response. Allograft rejection was selected as the most significant pathway. A total of 17 transcription factors, including nuclear factor (NF)-κB and NF-κB1, and their binding sites containing these six DEGs, were also identified. The DEGs, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, DQβ1, MHC class II, DRβ1, MHC class IB, MHC class II, DMα, MHC class II, DPα1, MHC class II, DRα, may provide novel targets for the diagnosis and treatment of GBM. The transcription factors of these six genes and their binding sites may also provide evidence and direction for identifying target-specific drugs.
HLA genotyping and genome wide association studies provide strong evidence for associations between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Analysis of these associations is complicated by the extensive linkage disequilibrium within the major histocompatibility region and recent data suggesting that associations with EBV-positive and EBV-negative cHL are largely distinct. To distinguish independent and therefore potentially causal associations from associations confounded by linkage disequilibrium, we applied a variable selection regression modeling procedure to directly typed HLA class I and II genes and selected SNPs from EBV-stratified patient subgroups. In final models, HLA-A*01:01 and B*37:01 were associated with an increased risk of EBV-positive cHL whereas DRB1*15:01 and DPB1*01:01 were associated with decreased risk. Effects were independent of a prior history of infectious mononucleosis. For EBV-negative cHL the class II SNP rs6903608 remained the strongest predictor of disease risk after adjusting for the effects of common HLA alleles. Associations with "all cHL" and differences by case EBV status reflected the subgroup analysis. In conclusion, this study extends previous findings by identifying novel HLA associations with EBV-stratified subgroups of cHL, highlighting those alleles likely to be biologically relevant and strengthening evidence implicating genetic variation associated with the SNP rs6903608.
How the genomic landscape of a tumor shapes and is shaped by anti-tumor immunity has not been systematically explored. Using large-scale genomic data sets of solid tissue tumor biopsies, we quantified the cytolytic activity of the local immune infiltrate and identified associated properties across 18 tumor types. The number of predicted MHC Class I-associated neoantigens was correlated with cytolytic activity and was lower than expected in colorectal and other tumors, suggesting immune-mediated elimination. We identified recurrently mutated genes that showed positive association with cytolytic activity, including beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), HLA-A, -B and -C and Caspase 8 (CASP8), highlighting loss of antigen presentation and blockade of extrinsic apoptosis as key strategies of resistance to cytolytic activity. Genetic amplifications were also associated with high cytolytic activity, including immunosuppressive factors such as PDL1/2 and ALOX12B/15B. Our genetic findings thus provide evidence for immunoediting in tumors and uncover mechanisms of tumor-intrinsic resistance to cytolytic activity.
Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is the third most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we perform a two-stage GWAS of 1,281 MZL cases and 7,127 controls of European ancestry and identify two independent loci near BTNL2 (rs9461741, P=3.95 × 10(-15)) and HLA-B (rs2922994, P=2.43 × 10(-9)) in the HLA region significantly associated with MZL risk. This is the first evidence that genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex influences MZL susceptibility.