Research IndicatorsGraph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: HYAL1 (cancer-related)
Nykopp TK, Pasonen-Seppänen S, Tammi MI, et al.Decreased hyaluronidase 1 expression is associated with early disease recurrence in human endometrial cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 137(1):152-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Hyaluronidases (HYAL1 and HYAL2) are key enzymes in the degradation of hyaluronan, and their expression has been altered in various cancer types. We previously showed that hyaluronan accumulation in endometrial carcinomas was correlated with decreased mRNA expression of the HYAL genes. In this study, we analyzed HYAL1 and HYAL2 protein expressions in normal and precancerous endometrial tissues and in endometrial carcinomas. We also investigated whether the protein levels were associated with clinicopathological factors, invasion, and disease recurrence.
METHODS: A total of 343 tissue specimens from normal, atrophic, hypertrophic, and neoplastic endometria were analyzed immunohistochemically for HYAL1 and HYAL2 expressions. The results were correlated with clinicopathological factors, the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker, E-cadherin, and disease recurrence.
RESULTS: Reduced HYAL1 expression was associated with the progression of endometrial carcinomas towards higher grades and also with large tumor sizes, lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion. Reduced expression of both HYAL1 and HYAL2 was associated with deep myometrial invasion. HYAL2 expression was primarily constant in neoplastic tissues, but its expression was altered in different phases of the endometrial cycle. In addition, a reduction in HYAL1 expression was associated with the depletion of E-cadherin. In a multivariate analysis, reduced HYAL1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for early disease recurrence (HR 5.13, 95% CI: 1.131-23.270, p=0.034).
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that reduced HYAL1 expression was associated with endometrial carcinoma aggressiveness, which further supported the role of hyaluronan degradation in cancer progression.
Stepanenko AA, Vassetzky YS, Kavsan VMAntagonistic functional duality of cancer genes.
Gene. 2013; 529(2):199-207 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cancer evolution is a stochastic process both at the genome and gene levels. Most of tumors contain multiple genetic subclones, evolving in either succession or in parallel, either in a linear or branching manner, with heterogeneous genome and gene alterations, extensively rewired signaling networks, and addicted to multiple oncogenes easily switching with each other during cancer progression and medical intervention. Hundreds of discovered cancer genes are classified according to whether they function in a dominant (oncogenes) or recessive (tumor suppressor genes) manner in a cancer cell. However, there are many cancer "gene-chameleons", which behave distinctly in opposite way in the different experimental settings showing antagonistic duality. In contrast to the widely accepted view that mutant NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases 1/2 (IDH1/2) and associated metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (R)-enantiomer are intrinsically "the drivers" of tumourigenesis, mutant IDH1/2 inhibited, promoted or had no effect on cell proliferation, growth and tumorigenicity in diverse experiments. Similar behavior was evidenced for dozens of cancer genes. Gene function is dependent on genetic network, which is defined by the genome context. The overall changes in karyotype can result in alterations of the role and function of the same genes and pathways. The diverse cell lines and tumor samples have been used in experiments for proving gene tumor promoting/suppressive activity. They all display heterogeneous individual karyotypes and disturbed signaling networks. Consequently, the effect and function of gene under investigation can be opposite and versatile in cells with different genomes that may explain antagonistic duality of cancer genes and the cell type- or the cellular genetic/context-dependent response to the same protein. Antagonistic duality of cancer genes might contribute to failure of chemotherapy. Instructive examples of unexpected activity of cancer genes and "paradoxical" effects of different anticancer drugs depending on the cellular genetic context/signaling network are discussed.
Epigenetic mechanisms are frequently deregulated in cancer cells and can lead to the silencing of genes with tumor suppressor activities. The isoform A of the Ras-association domain family member 1 (RASSF1A) gene is one of the most frequently silenced transcripts in human tumors, however, few studies have simultaneously investigated epigenetic abnormalities associated with the 3p21.3 tumor suppressor gene cluster flanking RASSF1 (i.e., SEMA3B, HYAL3, HYAL2, HYAL1, TUSC2, RASSF1, ZMYND10, NPRL2, TMEM115, and CACNA2D2). This study aimed to investigate the role of epigenetic changes to these genes in seventeen breast cancer cell lines and in three non-tumorigenic epithelial breast cell lines (184A1, 184B5, and MCF 10A) and to evaluate the effect on gene expression of treatment with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We report that, although the RASSF1A isoform was determined to be epigenetically silenced in 15 of the 17 breast cancer cell lines, all the cell lines expressed the RASSF1C isoform. Five breast cancer cell lines overexpressed RASSF1C, when compared to the normal epithelial cell line 184A1. Furthermore, the genes HYAL1 and CACNA2D2 were significantly overexpressed after the treatments. After the combinated treatment, RASSF1A re-expression was accompanied by an increase in expression levels of the flanking genes. The Spearman's correlation coefficient indicated a positive co-regulation of the following gene pairs: RASSF1 and TUSC2 (r=0.64, p=0.002), RASSF1 and ZMYND10 (r=0.58, p=0.07), RASSF1 and NPRL2 (r=0.48, p=0.03), ZMYND10 and NPRL2 (r=0.71; p=0,0004), and NPRL2 and TMEM115 (r=0.66, p=0.001). Interestingly, the genes TUSC2, NPRL2 and TMEM115 were found to be unmethylated in each of the untreated cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation using antibodies against the acetylated and trimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 demonstrated low levels of histone methylation in these genes, which are located closest to RASSF1. These results provide evidence that epigenetic repression is involved in the down-regulation of multiple genes at 3p21.3 in breast cancer cells.
BACKGROUND: Molecular profiling of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) may improve the distinction between oncocytoma and malignant RCC subtypes and aid in early detection of metastasis. The hyaluronic acid (HA) family includes HA synthases (HAS1, HAS2, HAS3), hyaluronidases (HYAL-1, HYAL-2, HYAL-3, HYAL-4, PH20, HYAL-P1), and HA receptors (CD44s, CD44v, RHAMM). HA family members promote tumor growth and metastasis. The authors evaluated the expression of HA family members in kidney specimens.
METHODS: By using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, mRNA levels of 12 HA family members were measured in tumor specimens obtained from 86 consecutive patients undergoing nephrectomy; 80 of them also provided normal specimens. Mean and median follow-up were 15.2 ± 8.8 and 13.8 months. RCC specimens included clear cell RCC: 65; papillary: 10; chromophobe: 5; oncocytoma: 6; metastasis positive: 17.
RESULTS: Median HAS1, CD44s, and RHAMM transcript levels were elevated 3- to 25-fold in clear cell RCC and papillary and chromophobe tumors when compared with normal tissues. HYAL-4, CD44s, and RHAMM levels were elevated 4- to 12-fold in clear cell RCC and papillary tumors when compared with oncocytomas; only HYAL-4 levels distinguished between chromophobe and oncocytoma (P = .009). CD44s and RHAMM levels were significantly higher in tumors <4 cm (510 ± 611 and 19.6 ± 20.8, respectively) when compared with oncocytoma (46.4 ± 20 and 3.8 ± 2.5; P ≤ .006). In univariate and multivariate analyses, CD44s (P < .0001), RHAMM (P < .0001), stage, tumor size, and/or renal vein involvement were significantly associated with metastasis. The combined CD44s + RHAMM marker had 82% sensitivity and 86% specificity to predict metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: CD44s and RHAMM levels distinguish between oncocytoma and RCC subtypes regardless of tumor size and are potential predictors of RCC metastasis.
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is morphologically heterogeneous being classified as serous, endometrioid, clear cell, or mucinous. Molecular genetic analysis has suggested a role for tumor suppressor genes located at chromosome 3p in serous EOC pathogenesis. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of HYAL1, located at chromosome 3p21.3, in these EOC subtypes, and to investigate its correlation with the expression of steroid hormone receptors.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the mRNA expression of HYAL1, estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ERβ and progesterone receptor (PR) in EOC tumor samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR. We also examined the expression of these genes in a publicly available microarray dataset. HYAL-1 enzyme activity was measured in EOC cell lines and in plasma samples from patients. We found that HYAL1 mRNA expression was elevated in clear cell and mucinous EOC tissue samples, but not in serous and endometrioid samples, normal ovaries or benign tumors. Similar results were obtained by two different techniques and with tissue sample cohorts from two independent institutions. Concordantly, HYAL1 mRNA levels and enzymatic activity were elevated only in EOC cell lines derived from clear cell and mucinous subtypes. We also showed that HYAL1 mRNA was inversely correlated to that of ERα specifically in clear cell and mucinous EOCs. Additionally, ectopic expression of ERα in a clear cell EOC cell line (ER- and PR-negative) induced 50% reduction of HYAL1 mRNA expression, supporting a role of ERα in HYAL1 gene regulation. Significantly, HYAL-1 activity was also high in the plasma of patients with these EOC subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report showing high HYAL-1 levels in EOC and demonstrating HYAL1 gene repression by ERα. Our results identify Hyaluronidase-1 as a potential target/biomarker for clear cell and mucinous EOCs and especially in tumors with low ERα levels.
BACKGROUND: Cancer biomarkers are the backbone for the implementation of individualized approaches to bladder cancer (BCa). Hyaluronic acid (HA) and all 7 members of the HA family, that is, HA synthases (HA1, HA2, HA3), HYAL-1 hyaluronidase, and HA receptors (CD44s, CD44v, and RHAMM), function in tumor growth and progression. However, the diagnostic and prognostic potential of these 7 HA family members has not been compared simultaneously in any cancer. We evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic potential of HA family members in BCa.
METHODS: Using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, expression of HA family members was evaluated in prospectively collected bladder tissues (n = 72); mean and median follow-up were 29.6 ± 5.3 and 24 months, respectively. Transcript levels were also measured in exfoliated urothelial cells from urine specimens (n = 148).
RESULTS: Among the HA family members, transcript levels of the HA synthases, HYAL-1, CD44v, and RHAMM were 4- to 16-fold higher in BCa tissues than in normal tissues (P < .0001); however, CD44s levels were lower. In univariate and multivariate analyses, tumor stage (P = .003), lymph node invasion (P = .033), HYAL-1 (P = .019), and HAS1 (P = .027) transcript levels, and HYAL-1 staining (P = .021) were independently associated with metastasis. Tumor stage (P = .019) and HYAL-1 (P = .046) transcript levels were also associated with disease-specific mortality. Although HA synthase and HYAL-1 transcript levels were elevated in exfoliated urothelial cells from BCa patients, the combined HAS2-HYAL-1 expression detected BCa with an overall sensitivity of 85.4% and a specificity of 79.5% and predicted BCa recurrence within 6 months (P = .004; RR = 6.7).
CONCLUSIONS: HYAL-1 and HAS1 expression predicted BCa metastasis, and HYAL-1 expression also predicted disease-specific survival. Furthermore, the combined HAS2-HYAL-1 biomarker detected BCa and significantly predicted its recurrence.
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan accumulation correlates with the degree of malignancy in many solid tumor types, including malignant endometrial carcinomas. To elucidate the mechanism of hyaluronan accumulation, we examined the expression levels of the hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) and hyaluronidases (HYAL1 and HYAL2), and correlated them with hyaluronan content and HAS1-3 immunoreactivity.
METHODS: A total of 35 endometrial tissue biopsies from 35 patients, including proliferative and secretory endometrium (n = 10), post-menopausal proliferative endometrium (n = 5), complex atypical hyperplasia (n = 4), grade 1 (n = 8) and grade 2 + 3 (n = 8) endometrioid adenocarcinomas were divided for gene expression by real-time RT-PCR, and paraffin embedded blocks for hyaluronan and HAS1-3 cytochemistry.
RESULTS: The mRNA levels of HAS1-3 were not consistently changed, while the immunoreactivity of all HAS proteins was increased in the cancer epithelium. Interestingly, HAS3 mRNA, but not HAS3 immunoreactivity, was increased in post-menopausal endometrium compared to normal endometrium (p = 0.003). The median of HYAL1 mRNA was 10-fold and 15-fold lower in both grade 1 and grade 2+3 endometrioid endometrial cancers, as compared to normal endometrium (p = 0.004-0.006), and post-menopausal endometrium (p = 0.002), respectively. HYAL2 mRNA was also reduced in cancer (p = 0.02) and correlated with HYAL1 (r = 0.8, p = 0.0001). There was an inverse correlation between HYAL1 mRNA and the epithelial hyaluronan staining intensity (r = -0.6; P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The results indicated that HYAL1 and HYAL2 were coexpressed and significantly downregulated in endometrioid endometrial cancer and correlated with the accumulation of hyaluronan. While immunoreactivity for HASs increased in the cancer cells, tumor mRNA levels for HASs were not changed, suggesting that reduced turnover of HAS protein may also have contributed to the accumulation of hyaluronan.
Nykopp TK, Rilla K, Sironen R, et al.Expression of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3) and hyaluronidases (HYAL1-2) in serous ovarian carcinomas: inverse correlation between HYAL1 and hyaluronan content.
BMC Cancer. 2009; 9:143 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan, a tumor promoting extracellular matrix polysaccharide, is elevated in malignant epithelial ovarian tumors, and associates with an unfavorable prognosis. To explore possible contributors to the accumulation of hyaluronan, we examined the expression of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3) and hyaluronidases (HYAL1 and HYAL2), correlated with hyaluronidase enzyme activity hyaluronan content and HAS1-3 immunoreactivity.
METHODS: Normal ovaries (n = 5) and 34 serous epithelial ovarian tumors, divided into 4 groups: malignant grades 1+2 (n = 10); malignant grade 3 (n = 10); borderline (n = 4) and benign epithelial tumors (n = 10), were analyzed for mRNA by real-time RT-PCR and compared to hyaluronidase activity, hyaluronan staining, and HAS1-3 immunoreactivity in tissue sections of the same specimens.
RESULTS: The levels of HAS2 and HAS3 mRNA (HAS1 was low or absent), were not consistently increased in the carcinomas, and were not significantly correlated with HAS protein or hyaluronan accumulation in individual samples. Instead, the median of HYAL1 mRNA level was 69% lower in grade 3 serous ovarian cancers compared to normal ovaries (P = 0.01). The expression of HYAL1, but not HYAL2, significantly correlated with the enzymatic activity of tissue hyaluronidases (r = 0.5; P = 0.006). An inverse correlation was noted between HYAL1 mRNA and the intensity of hyaluronan staining of the corresponding tissue sections (r = -0.4; P = 0.025).
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that in serous epithelial ovarian malignancies HAS expression is not consistently elevated but HYAL1 expression is significantly reduced and correlates with the accumulation of hyaluronan. (233 words).
BACKGROUND: We identified two 3p21.3 regions (LUCA and AP20) as most frequently affected in lung, breast and other carcinomas and reported their fine physical and gene maps. It is becoming increasingly clear that each of these two regions contains several TSGs. Until now TSGs which were isolated from AP20 and LUCA regions (e.g.G21/NPRL2, RASSF1A, RASSF1C, SEMA3B, SEMA3F, RBSP3) were shown to inhibit tumour cell growth both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of expression HYAL1 and HYAL2 was studied by colony formation inhibition, growth curve and cell proliferation tests in vitro and tumour growth assay in vivo. Very modest growth inhibition was detected in vitro in U2020 lung and KRC/Y renal carcinoma cell lines. In the in vivo experiment stably transfected KRC/Y cells expressing HYAL1 or HYAL2 were inoculated into SCID mice (10 and 12 mice respectively). Tumours grew in eight mice inoculated with HYAL1. Ectopic HYAL1 was deleted in all of them. HYAL2 was inoculated into 12 mice and only four tumours were obtained. In 3 of them the gene was deleted. In one tumour it was present but not expressed. As expected for tumour suppressor genes HYAL1 and HYAL2 were down-expressed in 15 fresh lung squamous cell carcinomas (100%) and clear cell RCC tumours (60-67%).
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the expression of either gene has led to inhibition of tumour growth in vivo without noticeable effect on growth in vitro. HYAL1 and HYAL2 thus differ in this aspect from other tumour suppressors like P53 or RASSF1A that inhibit growth both in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the microenvironment of cancer cells is one of the most promising venues of cancer therapeutics. As major hyaluronidases in human cells, HYAL1 and HYAL2 may control intercellular interactions and microenvironment of tumour cells providing excellent targets for cancer treatment.
Genitourinary cancers are the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men and the fifth most common in women. Management of disease through accurate and cost effective early diagnostic markers, as well as identification of valid prognostic indicators, has contributed significantly to improved treatment outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the function, regulation and clinical utility of hyaluronan (HA), genes encoding its metabolic enzymes and receptors that mediate its cellular effects. Specific HA synthase (HAS) and hyaluronidase (HAase) genes encode the enzymes that produce HA polymers and oligosaccharides, respectively. Differential effects of these enzymes in progression of genitourinary tumors are determined by the relative balance between HAS and HAase levels, as well as the distribution of receptors. The genes are regulated in a complex fashion at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, but also by epigenetic events, alternative mRNA splicing, and subcellular localization. Importantly, the major tumor-derived HAase enzyme, HYAL-1, either alone or together with HA, is an accurate diagnostic and prognostic marker for genitourinary tumors.
Hyaluronan is a megadalton glycosaminoglycan polymer critical for maintaining the integrity of the extracellular matrix. It can exist in a protein-bound state with aggregating proteoglycans, where it expands the extracellular matrix and modulates cell-cell interactions. It also exists in lower molecular weight forms that participate in a myriad of biological functions. It is unique in that much of it is degraded within hours of its synthesis. High molecular weight hyaluronan, a reflection of intact healthy tissues, is normally produced by hyaluronan synthases at the plasma membrane. It is catabolized by the action of an extracellular plasma membrane-tethered hyaluronidase that is coordinated with intracellular lysosomal hyaluronidases and exoglycosidases. This occurs in local tissues and lymph, with the remainder being cleared by the sinusoidal liver endothelium upon entering the vascular compartment. Elevated extracellular levels of hyaluronan and its partially catabolized oligomers are found in certain malignancies, potentially due to decoupled synthesis and degradation. Furthermore, partially depolymerized hyaluronan in the extracellular environment may have properties not found in the multivalent high molecular weight polymer in malignancies. Functional perturbations of hyaluronan synthesis and degradation have revealed active roles of the synthases and hyaluronidases in epithelial mesenchymal conversion, stroma and vascular formation, interstitial fluid pressure and chemosensitivity. While at least three confirmed hyaluronidases exist in the human genome (HYAL1, HYALl2 and PH20), functional perturbation of these genes in mice have failed to identify a simple linear catabolic circuit. The family of enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of hyaluronan are being characterized. The fragmented forms of hyaluronan, largely a sign of cellular distress, occur in abundance in many malignancies. These small hyaluronan oligomers are assumed to be largely a result of hyaluronidase activity. Precisely how particular-sized fragments are generated and maintained is not known. Presumably, hyaluronan-binding proteins, in addition to the proteoglycans, participate in this process. Hyaluronidase inhibitors are now recognized, as well as growth factors that enhance the synthetic enzymes. A complete understanding of the anabolic and catabolic systems for hyaluronan may provide new dimensions into our understanding of cancer progression, as well as new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
Poola I, Abraham J, Marshalleck JJ, et al.Molecular risk assessment for breast cancer development in patients with ductal hyperplasias.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(4):1274-80 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: It has been reported that approximately a million women are diagnosed with benign breast lesions that include ductal hyperplasias per year in the United States. Recent studies that followed women with benign lesions have established that about 8% to 9% of them will subsequently develop invasive breast cancer (IBC). However, currently, there are no means of identifying a subclass of "true precancerous tissues" in women with ductal hyperplasias who will subsequently develop cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether expression of hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1), a known tumor promoter, in hyperplastic tissues identifies a "true precancerous stage" and predicts subsequent IBC development.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted with archival benign tissues of various histologic types and clinical information on development/nondevelopment of IBC. The control group was hyperplastic tissues from women who had no prior history of IBC and did not develop cancer in 5 to 7 years after diagnosis (n = 81). The test group was hyperplastic tissues from patients who developed cancer (n = 82). HYAL1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry, and the results were statistically analyzed for significant association to develop cancer (P value), specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis of HYAL1 expression data showed very highly significant association between its expression and subsequent cancer development (P = 0) and very high sensitivity (0.83), specificity (0.84), positive predictive value (0.84), and negative predictive value (0.83).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of HYAL1 in ductal hyperplastic tissues is a strong predictor of subsequent development of IBC; therefore, it can be applied as a diagnostic marker either singly or in combination with other marker(s) to screen benign tissues to predict subsequent development of IBC. Detection at the precancerous stage and treatment could drastically cut down breast cancer incidence and deaths from it.
Bharadwaj AG, Rector K, Simpson MAInducible hyaluronan production reveals differential effects on prostate tumor cell growth and tumor angiogenesis.
J Biol Chem. 2007; 282(28):20561-72 [PubMed
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Prostate cancer progression can be predicted in human tumor biopsies by abundant hyaluronan (HA) and its processing enzyme, the hyaluronidase HYAL1. Accumulation of HA is dictated by the balance between expression levels of HA synthases, the enzymes that produce HA polymers, and hyaluronidases, which process polymers to oligosaccharides. Aggressive prostate tumor cells express 20-fold higher levels of the hyaluronan synthase HAS3, but the mechanistic relevance of this correlation has not been determined. We stably overexpressed HAS3 in prostate tumor cells. Adhesion to extracellular matrix and cellular growth kinetics in vitro were significantly reduced. Slow growth in culture was restored either by exogenous addition of hyaluronidase or by stable HYAL1 coexpression. Coexpression did not improve comparably slow growth in mice, however, suggesting that excess hyaluronan production by HAS3 may alter the balance required for induced tumor growth. To address this, we used a tetracycline-inducible HAS3 expression system in which hyaluronan production could be experimentally controlled. Adjusting temporal parameters of hyaluronan production directly affected growth rate of the cells. Relief from growth suppression in vitro but not in vivo by enzymatic removal of HA effectively uncoupled the respective roles of hyaluronan in growth and angiogenesis, suggesting that growth mediation is less critical to establishment of the tumor than early vascular development. Collectively results also imply that HA processing by elevated HYAL1 expression in invasive prostate cancer is a requirement for progression.
Klein G, Imreh S, Zabarovsky ERWhy do we not all die of cancer at an early age?
Adv Cancer Res. 2007; 98:1-16 [PubMed
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Traditionally, surveillance against cancer was thought of as mainly immunological. With the exception of tumors with a clear viral involvement, such as immunoblastomas (Epstein-Barr virus, EBV), cervical, anogenital, and skin carcinomas (HPV), and Kaposi's sarcoma (HHV-8) where the immune system is confronted with virally encoded, nonself targets, tumors with no viral involvement provide poor targets. Attempts to influence them by immunological means are akin to the breaking of tolerance. Robust nonimmunological surveillance mechanisms include DNA repair-based checkpoint functions, and the triggering of growth arrest and/or apoptosis pathways by DNA damage or by illegitimate oncogene activation (intracellular surveillance). There is emerging evidence for epigenetic surveillance, reflected in the stringency of imprinting. A fourth mechanism, intercellular surveillance, or microenvironmental control, is rapidly gaining momentum. It can be mediated by contactual controls or by differentiation-inducing signals. Somatic hybridization experiments have shown that tumorigenicity is usually suppressed in somatic hybrids between normal and malignant cells, as long as a fairly complete chromosome complement is maintained. Individual normal cell-derived chromosomes may have a similar suppressive effect. For example, genetic and molecular dissection of human 3p that shows frequent deletions in many human tumors has identified multiple tumor suppressor genes, which can inhibit both in vitro growth and in vivo tumorigenicity. In addition, five genes were found with an "asymmetric activity," capable of suppressing tumorigenicity, without affecting in vitro growth. These genes, LTF, L1MD1, HYAL1, HYAL2, and VHL, are of particular interest because they may be involved in microenvironmental control.
Li Y, Li L, Brown TJ, Heldin PSilencing of hyaluronan synthase 2 suppresses the malignant phenotype of invasive breast cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2007; 120(12):2557-67 [PubMed
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Accumulation of hyaluronan has been demonstrated in the peritumoral breast cancer stroma and nests of tumor cells. In this study, we have quantified the production of hyaluronan and the expression of mRNAs encoding hyaluronan synthesizing (HAS) and hyaluronan degrading (HYAL) enzymes in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. The analysis revealed that highly invasive breast cancer cells produce high amounts of hyaluronan and express preferentially HAS2 mRNA, whereas less invasive breast cancer cells produce low amount of hyaluronan and express HAS1 and HYAL1 mRNAs. We explored the importance of HAS2 expression for breast cancer tumorigenicity, by specifically silencing the HAS2 gene using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression in the invasive breast cancer cell line Hs578T. This led to a less aggressive phenotype of the breast tumor cells, as assessed by cell growth, both in anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent cultures. siRNA-mediated knock down of HAS2 in Hs578T breast tumor cells led to an up-regulation of HAS1, HAS3 and HYAL1 mRNAs, resulting in only a 50% decrease in the net hyaluronan production; however, the synthesized hyaluronan was of lower size and more polydisparse compared to control siRNA-treated cells. Interestingly, Hs578T cells deprived of HAS2 migrated only half as efficiently as HAS2 expressing cells through cell-free areas in a culture wounding assay and through Transwell polycarbonate membrane as well as invaded a Matrigel layer. These results imply that alterations in HAS2 expression and endogenously synthesized hyaluronan affect the malignant phenotype of Hs578T breast cancer cells.
Lokeshwar VB, Estrella V, Lopez L, et al.HYAL1-v1, an alternatively spliced variant of HYAL1 hyaluronidase: a negative regulator of bladder cancer.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(23):11219-27 [PubMed
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Tumor cells express HYAL1 hyaluronidase, which degrades hyaluronic acid. HYAL1 expression in bladder cancer cells promotes tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis. We previously described five alternatively spliced variants of HYAL1 that encode enzymatically inactive proteins. The HYAL1-v1 variant lacks a 30-amino acid sequence that is present in HYAL1. In this study, we examined whether HYAL1-v1 expression affects bladder cancer growth and invasion by stably transfecting HT1376 bladder cancer cells with a HYAL1-v1 cDNA construct. Although HYAL1-v1 transfectants expressed equivalent levels of enzymatically active HYAL1 protein when compared with vector transfectants, their conditioned medium had 4-fold less hyaluronidase activity due to a noncovalent complex formed between HYAL1 and HYAL1-v1 proteins. HYAL1-v1 transfectants grew 3- to 4-fold slower due to cell cycle arrest in the G(2)-M phase and increased apoptosis. In HYAL1-v1 transfectants, cyclin B1, cdc2/p34, and cdc25c levels were > or =2-fold lower than those in vector transfectants. The increased apoptosis in HYAL1-v1 transfectants was due to the extrinsic pathway involving Fas and Fas-associated death domain up-regulation, caspase-8 activation, and BID cleavage, leading to caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. When implanted in athymic mice, HYAL1-v1-expressing tumors grew 3- to 4-fold slower and tumor weights at day 35 were 3- to 6-fold less than the vector tumors (P < 0.001). Whereas vector tumors were infiltrating and had high mitoses and microvessel density, HYAL1-v1 tumors were necrotic, infiltrated with neutrophils, and showed low mitoses and microvessel density. Therefore, HYAL-v1 expression may negatively regulate bladder tumor growth, infiltration, and angiogenesis.
Christopoulos TA, Papageorgakopoulou N, Theocharis DA, et al.Hyaluronidase and CD44 hyaluronan receptor expression in squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006; 1760(7):1039-45 [PubMed
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Squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma undergoes significant structural-related modifications of the extracellular matrix components (ECM), the most characteristics being the presence of degraded collagen, aggrecan and hyaluronan. We examined the presence of hyaluronidase and of the cellular hyaluronan receptor CD44 during the various stages of cancer. ECM components were extracted by using PBS, 4 M GdnHCl and 4 M GdnHCl-0.1% Triton-X 100 sequentially and hyaluronidase and CD44 analyzed by zymography and immunochemistry techniques. Total RNA was also extracted and the mRNA of the various hyaluronidases and of CD44 was analyzed after amplification with RT-PCR. Hyaluronidase was detected as a double band of 45 and 55 kDa molecular mass, only in cancer samples. The analysis of mRNA indicated an aberrant expression of PH-20, the testicular-type hyaluronidase, at late stages of cancer and an overexpression of HYAL1 only at stage IV. In addition, CD44 was identified in two protein bands of 80 and 64 kDa in cancer samples. The analysis of mRNA showed that hyaluronan receptor was expressed in a stage-related order. Thus, it could be suggested that in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cancer cells migrated and proliferated under the influence of small molecular mass hyaluronan, by expressing increased amounts of its receptor.
Duh FM, Fivash M, Moody M, et al.Characterization of a new SNP c767A/T (Arg222Trp) in the candidate TSG FUS2 on human chromosome 3p21.3: prevalence in Asian populations and analysis of association with nasopharyngeal cancer.
Mol Cell Probes. 2004; 18(1):39-44 [PubMed
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The FUS2 gene, encoding a novel cytoplasmic acetyltransferase, resides in the tumor suppressor gene region on human chromosome 3p21.3 and is considered a promising candidate tumor suppressor gene. We have identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), c767A/T, in the coding region of the gene. The polymorphism leads to a non-conservative amino acid change (R222W) located between the acetyltransferase (GNAT) and the proline-rich domains of the protein. We have analyzed 254 subjects included in 14 sub-populations. The occurrence of the SNP varies with the ethnicity of the population, suggesting that this SNP could be a valuable biomarker for population genetics. It is most prevalent in various Asian populations (T allele frequency>0.54), followed by the Canadian polar Inuit (T allele frequency=0.3), African American (T allele frequency=0.17), and Caucasian population (T allele frequency=0.1). Since nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is frequent in Southern China, Taiwan, Borneo and polar Canada, we further tested for the possible association of the FUS2 SNP with this form of endemic cancer. Our analysis, albeit limited, suggests no likely association between NPC and the FUS2 gene polymorphism. Further large-scale case-control studies are necessary and warranted to prove the strength of this contention.
Tuhkanen H, Anttila M, Kosma VM, et al.Genetic alterations in the peritumoral stromal cells of malignant and borderline epithelial ovarian tumors as indicated by allelic imbalance on chromosome 3p.
Int J Cancer. 2004; 109(2):247-52 [PubMed
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Stromal accumulation of hyaluronan in epithelial ovarian cancers is an independent predictor of tumor spreading and unfavorable outcome of the disease. We started to screen for chromosomal causes of this accumulation by studying deletions in 3p21.3, a region harboring 3 hyaluronidase genes (HYAL1-3) among other potentially important tumor suppressors. Using 6 microsatellite markers from this region, allelic imbalance was found in 60-87% of the informative tumor cells microdissected from histologic sections of 58 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. However, adjacent stromal cells originally intended as controls showed allelic imbalance at a frequency almost as high as the tumor cells (52-80%). A further laser capture microdissection on 10 borderline tumors also showed a high rate of allelic imbalance, both in the epithelial and stromal cells, but with a pattern slightly different from cancers. Allelic imbalance in the tumor epithelium or stroma was not correlated with the accumulation of hyaluronan or clinicopathologic parameters, including tumor stage and grade. The results suggest that factors other than inactivation of the HYAL1-3 genes are responsible for hyaluronan accumulation in epithelial ovarian tumors. Moreover, the results indicate that the stromal cells of the epithelial ovarian cancers not only respond to the signals from malignant epithelium but also have themselves undergone genetic alterations in markers partly identical to those in the cancer epithelial cells and may actively contribute to the development of the tumor from its early stages to the late determinants of patient mortality.
Stern RDevising a pathway for hyaluronan catabolism: are we there yet?
Glycobiology. 2003; 13(12):105R-115R [PubMed
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Hyaluronan is a negatively charged, high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan found predominantly in the extracellular matrix. Intracellular locations for hyaluronan have also been documented in cytoplasm, nucleus, and nucleolus. The polymer has an extraordinarily high rate of turnover in vertebrate tissues. The focus here is to formulate a metabolic pathway for hyaluronan degradation using all available data, including the recently acquired information on the hyaluronidase gene family. Such a catabolic scheme has defied explication up to now. In somatic tissues, stepwise processing occurs, from the extracellular high molecular weight space filling, antiangiogenic approximately 107-kDa polymer, to intermediate sized highly angiogenic, inflammatory, and immune-stimulating fragments, and ultimately to tetrasaccharides that are antiapoptotic and potent inducers of heat-shock proteins. It is proposed that the high molecular weight extracellular polymer is tethered to the cell surface by the combined efforts of hyaluronan receptors and hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal-2). The hyaluronan is cleaved to a 20-kDa intermediate-sized fragment, the limit product of Hyal-2 digestion. These fragments are delivered to endosomal- and ultimately lysosomal-like structures. Further catabolism occurs there by Hyal-1, coordinated with the activity of two lysosomal beta-exoglycosidases, beta-glucuronidase and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase. A membrane-associated mini-organelle is postulated, the hyaluronasome, in which coordinated synthetic and catabolic enzyme reactions occur. The hyaluronasome can respond to the physiological states of the cell by a series of membrane-bound and soluble hyaluronan-associated receptors, binding proteins, and cofactors that trigger enzymatic events and signal transduction pathways. These in turn can be modulated by the amounts and sizes of the hyaluronan polysaccharides generated in the catabolic cascade. Most of these highly dynamic interactions remain to be determined. It is also proposed that malignant cells can commandeer some of these interactions for facilitating tumor growth and spread.
Junker N, Latini S, Petersen LN, Kristjansen PEExpression and regulation patterns of hyaluronidases in small cell lung cancer and glioma lines.
Oncol Rep. 2003 May-Jun; 10(3):609-16 [PubMed
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Hyaluronan and hyaluronidases have been proposed to be involved in tumor angiogenesis and invasion. Three hyaluronidases, HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3, are located at the chromosomal region 3p21. In most small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lines the 3p21 region is part of a homozygote or heterozygote deletion. Gliomas are known to exist in a hyaluronan rich environment and express high levels of the hyaluronan receptor CD44. In a panel of SCLC and glioma cell lines the expression of HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 mRNA was examined. It was observed that the cell lines differed in their ability to splice out a retained intron in the 5' UTR of HYAL1 mRNA. A correlation seems to exist between the ability to splice out the retained 5' end intron of HYAL1 mRNA and the general hyaluronidase activity. In one cell line a substantial part of the hyaluronidase activity was abolished by immunoprecipitation of Hyal1, which strongly indicates that Hyal1 is the principal hyaluornidase in the examined cell lines. During severe hypoxia a significant reduction in both hyaluronidase mRNA and protein activity was found. These results support the theory of involvement of hyaluronidase in the angiogenic and invasive front of tumors.
Miller ADIdentification of Hyal2 as the cell-surface receptor for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and ovine nasal adenocarcinoma virus.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2003; 275:179-99 [PubMed
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Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and ovine nasal adenocarcinoma virus (ONAV) replicate in the airway and cause epithelial cell tumors through the activity of their envelope (Env) proteins. Identification of the receptor(s) that mediate cell entry by these viruses is crucial to understanding the oncogenic activity of Env and for the development of gene therapy vectors based on these viruses that are capable of targeting airway cells. To identify the viral receptor(s) and to further study the biology of JSRV and ONAV, we developed retroviral vectors containing Moloney murine leukemia virus components and the Env proteins of JSRV or ONAV. We used a new technique involving positional cloning by phenotypic mapping in radiation hybrid cells to identify and clone the human receptor for JSRV, Hyal2, which also serves as the receptor for ONAV. Hyal2 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell-surface protein that has low hyaluronidase activity and is a member of a large family that includes sperm hyaluronidase (Spam) and serum hyaluronidase (Hyal1). Hyal2 is located in a region of human chromosome 3p21.3 that is often deleted in lung cancer, suggesting that it may be a tumor suppressor. However, its role in JSRV or ONAV tumorigenesis, if any, is still unclear. JSRV vectors are capable of transducing various human cells, and are being further evaluated for gene therapy purposes.
Ji L, Nishizaki M, Gao B, et al.Expression of several genes in the human chromosome 3p21.3 homozygous deletion region by an adenovirus vector results in tumor suppressor activities in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Res. 2002; 62(9):2715-20 [PubMed
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A group of candidate tumor suppressor genes (designated CACNA2D2, PL6, 101F6, NPRL2, BLU, RASSF1, FUS1, HYAL2, and HYAL1) has been identified in a 120-kb critical tumor homozygous deletion region (found in lung and breast cancers) of human chromosome 3p21.3. We studied the effects of six of these 3p21.3 genes (101F6, NPRL2, BLU, FUS1, HYAL2, and HYAL1) on tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in vitro and in vivo. We found that forced expression of wild-type FUS1, 101F6, and NPRL2 genes significantly inhibited tumor cell growth by induction of apoptosis and alteration of cell cycle processes in 3p21.3 120-kb region-deficient (homozygous) H1299 and A549 cells but not in the 3p21.3 120-kb region-heterozygous H358 and the normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Intratumoral injection of Ad-101F6, Ad-FUS1, Ad-NPRL2, and Ad-HYAL2 vectors or systemic administration of protamine-complexed vectors significantly suppressed growth of H1299 and A549 tumor xenografts and inhibited A549 experimental lung metastases in nu/nu mice. Together, our results, coupled with other studies demonstrating a tumor suppressor role for the RASSSF1A isoform, suggest that multiple contiguous genes in the 3p21.3 120-kb chromosomal region may exhibit tumor suppressor activity in vitro and in vivo.
Patel S, Turner PR, Stubberfield C, et al.Hyaluronidase gene profiling and role of hyal-1 overexpression in an orthotopic model of prostate cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2002; 97(4):416-24 [PubMed
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The mRNA levels of hyal-1, hyal-2, LUCA3 and PH20, the 4 hyaluronidases with demonstrated endoglucosaminidase activity, were extensively profiled in normal and tumor tissues and cell lines, using dot blot analysis and quantitative PCR. In normal tissues, hyal-1, hyal-2 and LUCA3 all showed unique patterns of mRNA expression, but were generally of widespread distribution, whereas PH20 mRNA was restricted to testes. In a small set of breast tumor samples, no elevations in hyal-1, hyal-2 or LUCA3 mRNA were seen. Hyaluronidase activity measured by a novel assay or zymography was also not elevated in sera from a number of breast cancer patients, compared to sera from normal volunteers. In ex vivo xenograft tumor cell lines, however, hyal-1 or hyal-2 mRNA levels were frequently elevated, whereas LUCA3 was only infrequently elevated and PH20 not at all. Two cell lines were engineered to overexpress hyal-1: a breast cancer line (CAL51) and a prostate cancer line (PC3M). Although the in vitro properties of the hyal-1 overexpressing cell lines were indistinguishable from the parental cells, the orthotopic growth of hyal-1 expressing PC3M cells in nu/nu mice resulted in significantly increased numbers of metastases, supportive of a role for hyal-1 in extravasation and metastatic tumor formation in this model of prostate cancer.
Csoka AB, Frost GI, Stern RThe six hyaluronidase-like genes in the human and mouse genomes.
Matrix Biol. 2001; 20(8):499-508 [PubMed
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The human genome contains six hyaluronidase-like genes. Three genes (HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3) are clustered on chromosome 3p21.3, and another two genes (HYAL4 and PH-20/SPAM1) and one expressed pseudogene (HYALP1) are similarly clustered on chromosome 7q31.3. The extensive homology between the different hyaluronidase genes suggests ancient gene duplication, followed by en masse block duplication, events that occurred before the emergence of modern mammals. Very recently we have found that the mouse genome also has six hyaluronidase-like genes that are also grouped into two clusters of three, in regions syntenic with the human genome. Surprisingly, the mouse ortholog of HYALP1 does not contain any mutations, and unlike its human counterpart may actually encode an active enzyme. Hyal-1 is the only hyaluronidase in mammalian plasma and urine, and is also found at high levels in major organs such as liver, kidney, spleen, and heart. A model is proposed suggesting that Hyal-2 and Hyal-1 are the major mammalian hyaluronidases in somatic tissues, and that they act in concert to degrade high molecular weight hyaluronan to the tetrasaccharide. Twenty-kDa hyaluronan fragments are generated at the cell surface in unique endocytic vesicles resulting from digestion by the glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol-anchored Hyal-2, transported intracellularly by an unknown process, and then further digested by Hyal-1. The two beta-exoglycosidases, beta-glucuronidase and beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, remove sugars from reducing termini of hyaluronan oligomers, and supplement the hyaluronidases in the catabolism of hyaluronan.
Rai SK, Duh FM, Vigdorovich V, et al.Candidate tumor suppressor HYAL2 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell-surface receptor for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, the envelope protein of which mediates oncogenic transformation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001; 98(8):4443-8 [PubMed
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Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) can induce rapid, multifocal lung cancer, but JSRV is a simple retrovirus having no known oncogenes. Here we show that the envelope (env) gene of JSRV has the unusual property that it can induce transformation in rat fibroblasts, and thus is likely to be responsible for oncogenesis in animals. Retrovirus entry into cells is mediated by Env interaction with particular cell-surface receptors, and we have used phenotypic screening of radiation hybrid cell lines to identify the candidate lung cancer tumor suppressor HYAL2/LUCA2 as the receptor for JSRV. HYAL2 was previously described as a lysosomal hyaluronidase, but we show that HYAL2 is actually a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell-surface protein. Furthermore, we could not detect hyaluronidase activity associated with or secreted by cells expressing HYAL2, whereas we could easily detect such activity from cells expressing the related serum hyaluronidase HYAL1. Although the function of HYAL2 is currently unknown, other GPI-anchored proteins are involved in signal transduction, and some mediate mitogenic responses, suggesting a potential role of HYAL2 in JSRV Env-mediated oncogenesis. Lung cancer induced by JSRV closely resembles human bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma, a disease that is increasing in frequency and now accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancer. The finding that JSRV env is oncogenic and the identification of HYAL2 as the JSRV receptor provide tools for further investigation of the mechanism of JSRV oncogenesis and its relationship to human bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma.
Kholodnyuk ID, Szeles A, Yang Y, et al.Inactivation of the human fragile histidine triad gene at 3p14.2 in monochromosomal human/mouse microcell hybrid-derived severe combined immunodeficient mouse tumors.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(24):7119-25 [PubMed
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We have previously shown that inoculation of human chromosome 3 (chr3)/A9 mouse fibrosarcoma microcell hybrids (MCHs) into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice was followed by the regular elimination of some 3p regions whereas a 3q region was retained even after prolonged mouse passage. Using this approach, referred to as the elimination test (Et), we have defined a common eliminated region (CER) of approximately 7 cM at 3p21.3 that was absent in all of the 27 tumors generated from five MCHs. Later, CER was reduced to a 1-Mb region, designated as CER1. Another eliminated region (ER2) at 3p21.1-p14.2 was absent in 21 of the 27 tumors. ER2 borders at but does not include the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, considered as a putative tumor suppressor gene. In the present work, two new and two previously studied MCHs, and 13 derived SCID mouse tumors were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting and by PCR, using 72 chr3p-specific and 11 chr3q-specific markers. Nine tumors generated from three MCHs that carried cytogenetically normal chr3, remained PCR-positive for all of the chr3 markers tested. Designated as "PCR+" tumors, they were examined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, together with four of six previously studied tumors derived from MCH910.7, which carried a del(3)(pter-p21.1), for the expression of 14 human genes: 5 genes within CER1 (LIMD1, CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5), 5 genes located within regions that were homozygously deleted in a variety of carcinomas (ITGA4L, LUCA1, PTPRG, FHIT, DUTT1), and 4 other genes in chr3p (VHL, MLH1, TGM4, UBE1L). We found that VHL, MLH1, ITGA4L, LIMD1, UBE1L, LUCA1, PTPRG, and DUTT1 were expressed in the MCH lines in vitro and also in the derived SCID tumors. No transcripts that originated from the four CCR genes or from TGM4 could be detected in any of the MCH lines. Alone among the 14 genes examined, FHIT showed a tumor growth-associated change. It was expressed in vitro in five of seven MCH lines. Nine of 13 derived tumors had no FHIT transcript. The remaining 4 expressed a truncated mRNA and a reduced amount of the full-length mRNA. We have previously found that FHIT was deleted at the DNA level in 17 of 21 tumors derived from four MCHs. The remaining 4 of 21 had no FHIT transcript. Our compiled data show that FHIT was either physically or functionally impaired in all 34 of the 34 analyzed tumors. Variants with deleted or down-regulated FHIT have a selective growth advantage.
Lerman MI, Minna JDThe 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region on human chromosome 3p21.3: identification and evaluation of the resident candidate tumor suppressor genes. The International Lung Cancer Chromosome 3p21.3 Tumor Suppressor Gene Consortium.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(21):6116-33 [PubMed
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We used overlapping and nested homozygous deletions, contig building, genomic sequencing, and physical and transcript mapping to further define a approximately 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region harboring one or more tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) on chromosome 3p21.3. This location was identified through somatic genetic mapping in tumors, cancer cell lines, and premalignant lesions of the lung and breast, including the discovery of several homozygous deletions. The combination of molecular manual methods and computational predictions permitted us to detect, isolate, characterize, and annotate a set of 25 genes that likely constitute the complete set of protein-coding genes residing in this approximately 630-kb sequence. A subset of 19 of these genes was found within the deleted overlap region of approximately 370-kb. This region was further subdivided by a nesting 200-kb breast cancer homozygous deletion into two gene sets: 8 genes lying in the proximal approximately 120-kb segment and 11 genes lying in the distal approximately 250-kb segment. These 19 genes were analyzed extensively by computational methods and were tested by manual methods for loss of expression and mutations in lung cancers to identify candidate TSGs from within this group. Four genes showed loss-of-expression or reduced mRNA levels in non-small cell lung cancer (CACNA2D2/alpha2delta-2, SEMA3B [formerly SEMA(V), BLU, and HYAL1] or small cell lung cancer (SEMA3B, BLU, and HYAL1) cell lines. We found six of the genes to have two or more amino acid sequence-altering mutations including BLU, NPRL2/Gene21, FUS1, HYAL1, FUS2, and SEMA3B. However, none of the 19 genes tested for mutation showed a frequent (>10%) mutation rate in lung cancer samples. This led us to exclude several of the genes in the region as classical tumor suppressors for sporadic lung cancer. On the other hand, the putative lung cancer TSG in this location may either be inactivated by tumor-acquired promoter hypermethylation or belong to the novel class of haploinsufficient genes that predispose to cancer in a hemizygous (+/-) state but do not show a second mutation in the remaining wild-type allele in the tumor. We discuss the data in the context of novel and classic cancer gene models as applied to lung carcinogenesis. Further functional testing of the critical genes by gene transfer and gene disruption strategies should permit the identification of the putative lung cancer TSG(s), LUCA, Analysis of the approximately 630-kb sequence also provides an opportunity to probe and understand the genomic structure, evolution, and functional organization of this relatively gene-rich region.
Frost GI, Mohapatra G, Wong TM, et al.HYAL1LUCA-1, a candidate tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3p21.3, is inactivated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas by aberrant splicing of pre-mRNA.
Oncogene. 2000; 19(7):870-7 [PubMed
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The hyaluronidase first isolated from human plasma, Hyal-1, is expressed in many somatic tissues. The Hyal-1 gene, HYAL1, also known as LUCA-1, maps to chromosome 3p21.3 within a candidate tumor suppressor gene locus defined by homozygous deletions and by functional tumor suppressor activity. Hemizygosity in this region occurs in many malignancies, including squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. We have investigated whether cell lines derived from such malignancies expressed Hyal-1 activity, using normal human keratinocytes as controls. Hyal-1 enzyme activity and protein were absent or markedly reduced in six of seven carcinoma cell lines examined. Comparative genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization identified chromosomal deletions of one allele of HYAL1 in six of seven cell lines. Initial RT - PCR analyses demonstrated marked discrepancies between levels of HYAL1 mRNA and protein. Despite repeated sequence analyses, no mutations were found. However, two species of transcripts were identified when primers were used that included the 5' untranslated region. The predominant mRNA species did not correlate with protein translation and contained a retained intron. A second spliced form lacking this intron was found only in cell lines that produced Hyal-1 protein. Inactivation of HYAL1 in these tumor lines is a result of incomplete splicing of its pre-mRNA that appears to be epigenetic in nature. Oncogene (2000) 19, 870 - 877.
Stair-Nawy S, Csóka AB, Stern RHyaluronidase expression in human skin fibroblasts.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999; 266(1):268-73 [PubMed
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Hyaluronidase activity has been detected for the first time in normal human dermal fibroblasts (HS27), as well as in fetal fibroblasts (FF24) and fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080). Enzymatic activity was secreted predominantly into the culture media, with minor amounts of activity associated with the cell layer. In both classes of fibroblasts, hyaluronidase expression was confluence-dependent, with highest levels of activity occurring in quiescent, post-confluent cells. However, in the fibrosarcoma cell cultures, expression was independent of cell density. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 3.7 and on hyaluronan substrate gel zymography, activity occurred as a single band corresponding to an approximate molecular size of 57 kDa. The enzyme could be immunoprecipitated in its entirety using monoclonal antibodies raised against Hyal-1, human plasma hyaluronidase. PCR confirmed that fibroblast hyaluronidase was identical to Hyal-1. The conclusion by previous investigators using earlier technologies that fibroblasts do not contain hyaluronidase activity should be reevaluated.