Gene Summary

Gene:KIF1B; kinesin family member 1B
Summary:This gene encodes a motor protein that transports mitochondria and synaptic vesicle precursors. Mutations in this gene cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2A1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:kinesin-like protein KIF1B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 26 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KIF1B (cancer-related)

Huang M, Pan Y, Liu J, et al.
A genetic variant at KIF1B predicts clinical outcome of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2014; 38(5):608-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently, a genome-wide association study conducted in Chinese reported a single nucleotide polymorphism at KIF1B, rs17401966, associated with the susceptibility of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of rs17401966 on the prognosis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients at intermediate or advanced stages.
METHODS: The SNP rs17401966 was genotyped using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay in 414 intermediate or advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analyses.
RESULTS: Previous studies have identified that the G allele of rs17401966 demonstrated protective effect for the susceptibility of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we found that subjects carrying the G allele of rs17401966 was significantly associated with a better survival compared with those carrying the A allele (adjusted hazard ratio=0.82, 95% confidence intervals=0.68-0.99, P=0.044 in an additive genetic model).
CONCLUSION: The variant G allele of rs17401966 may be a favorable biomarker for the prognosis of intermediate or advanced hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients in this Chinese population.

Bernards R
Unlikely suspects identified in neuroblastoma conspiracy.
Cancer Discov. 2014; 4(4):392-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
KIF1B is a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in neuroblastoma whose function is to mediate apoptosis when nerve growth factor becomes limiting in the developing nervous system. Chen and colleagues now provide mechanistic insight into how one of the protein products of this locus, KIF1Bβ, induces apoptosis.

Pettersson A, Lis RT, Meisner A, et al.
Modification of the association between obesity and lethal prostate cancer by TMPRSS2:ERG.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(24):1881-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: TMPRSS2:ERG is a hormonally regulated gene fusion present in about half of prostate tumors. We investigated whether obesity, which deregulates several hormonal pathways, interacts with TMPRSS2:ERG to impact prostate cancer outcomes.
METHODS: The study included 1243 participants in the prospective Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1982 and 2005. ERG overexpression (a TMPRSS2:ERG marker) was assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue from radical prostatectomy or transurethral resection of the prostate. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, measured on average 1.3 years and 5.3 years before diagnosis, respectively, were available from questionnaires. Data on BMI at baseline was also available. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.8 years, 119 men developed lethal disease (distant metastases or prostate cancer death). Among men with ERG-positive tumors, the multivariable hazard ratio for lethal prostate cancer was 1.48 (95% CI = 0.98 to 2.23) per 5-unit increase in BMI before diagnosis, 2.51 (95% CI = 1.26 to 4.99) per 8-inch increase in waist circumference before diagnosis, and 2.22 (95% CI = 1.35 to 3.63) per 5-unit increase in BMI at baseline. The corresponding hazard ratios among men with ERG-negative tumors were 1.10 (95% CI = 0.76 to1.59; P interaction = .24), 1.14 (95% CI = 0.62 to 2.10; P interaction = .09), and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.19; P interaction = .001).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that obesity is linked with poorer prostate cancer prognosis primarily in men with tumors harboring the gene fusion TMPRSS2:ERG.

Pogue-Geile KL, Kim C, Jeong JH, et al.
Predicting degree of benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab in NSABP trial B-31.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(23):1782-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trial B-31 suggested the efficacy of adjuvant trastuzumab, even in HER2-negative breast cancer. This finding prompted us to develop a predictive model for degree of benefit from trastuzumab using archived tumor blocks from B-31.
METHODS: Case subjects with tumor blocks were randomly divided into discovery (n = 588) and confirmation cohorts (n = 991). A predictive model was built from the discovery cohort through gene expression profiling of 462 genes with nCounter assay. A predefined cut point for the predictive model was tested in the confirmation cohort. Gene-by-treatment interaction was tested with Cox models, and correlations between variables were assessed with Spearman correlation. Principal component analysis was performed on the final set of selected genes. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Eight predictive genes associated with HER2 (ERBB2, c17orf37, GRB7) or ER (ESR1, NAT1, GATA3, CA12, IGF1R) were selected for model building. Three-dimensional subset treatment effect pattern plot using two principal components of these genes was used to identify a subset with no benefit from trastuzumab, characterized by intermediate-level ERBB2 and high-level ESR1 mRNA expression. In the confirmation set, the predefined cut points for this model classified patients into three subsets with differential benefit from trastuzumab with hazard ratios of 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67 to 3.69; P = .29; n = 100), 0.60 (95% CI = 0.41 to 0.89; P = .01; n = 449), and 0.28 (95% CI = 0.20 to 0.41; P < .001; n = 442; P(interaction) between the model and trastuzumab < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: We developed a gene expression-based predictive model for degree of benefit from trastuzumab and demonstrated that HER2-negative tumors belong to the moderate benefit group, thus providing justification for testing trastuzumab in HER2-negative patients (NSABP B-47).

McInerney-Leo AM, Marshall MS, Gardiner B, et al.
Whole exome sequencing is an efficient and sensitive method for detection of germline mutations in patients with phaeochromcytomas and paragangliomas.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014; 80(1):25-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic testing is recommended when the probability of a disease-associated germline mutation exceeds 10%. Germline mutations are found in approximately 25% of individuals with phaeochromcytoma (PCC) or paraganglioma (PGL); however, genetic heterogeneity for PCC/PGL means many genes may require sequencing. A phenotype-directed iterative approach may limit costs but may also delay diagnosis, and will not detect mutations in genes not previously associated with PCC/PGL.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether whole exome sequencing (WES) was efficient and sensitive for mutation detection in PCC/PGL.
METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on blinded samples from eleven individuals with PCC/PGL and known mutations. Illumina TruSeq (Illumina Inc, San Diego, CA, USA) was used for exome capture of seven samples, and NimbleGen SeqCap EZ v3.0 (Roche NimbleGen Inc, Basel, Switzerland) for five samples (one sample was repeated). Massive parallel sequencing was performed on multiplexed samples. Sequencing data were called using Genome Analysis Toolkit and annotated using annovar. Data were assessed for coding variants in RET, NF1, VHL, SDHD, SDHB, SDHC, SDHA, SDHAF2, KIF1B, TMEM127, EGLN1 and MAX. Target capture of five exome capture platforms was compared.
RESULTS: Six of seven mutations were detected using Illumina TruSeq exome capture. All five mutations were detected using NimbleGen SeqCap EZ v3.0 platform, including the mutation missed using Illumina TruSeq capture. Target capture for exons in known PCC/PGL genes differs substantially between platforms. Exome sequencing was inexpensive (<$A800 per sample for reagents) and rapid (results <5 weeks from sample reception).
CONCLUSION: Whole exome sequencing is sensitive, rapid and efficient for detection of PCC/PGL germline mutations. However, capture platform selection is critical to maximize sensitivity.

Sopipong W, Tangkijvanich P, Payungporn S, et al.
The KIF1B (rs17401966) single nucleotide polymorphism is not associated with the development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma in Thai patients.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(5):2865-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can become chronic and if left untreated can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Thailand is endemic for HBV and HCC is one of the top five cancers, causing deaths among Thai HBV-infected males. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the KIF1B gene locus, rs17401966, has been shown to be strongly associated with the development of HBV-related HCC. However, there are no Thai data on genotypic distribution and allele frequencies of rs17401966. Thai HBV patients seropositive for HBsAg (n=398) were therefore divided into two groups: a case group (chronic HBV with HCC; n=202) and a control group (HBV carriers without HCC; n=196). rs17401966 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analyzed by direct nucleotide sequencing. The genotypic distribution of rs174019660 for homozygous major genotype (AA), heterozygous minor genotype (AG) and homozygous minor genotype (GG) in the case group was 49.5% (n=100), 40.1% (n=81) and 10.4% (n=21), respectively, and in controls was 49.5% (n=97), 42.3% (n=83) and 8.2% (n=16). Binary logistic regression showed that rs17401966 was not statistically associated with the risk of HCC development in Thai chronic HBV patients (p-value=0.998, OR=1.00 and 95% CI=0.68-1.48). In conclusion, the KIF1B gene SNP (rs174019660) investigated in this study showed no significant association with HBV-related HCC in Thai patients infected with HBV, indicating that there must be other mechanisms or pathways involved in the development of HCC.

Wang ZC, Gao Q, Shi JY, et al.
Genetic polymorphism of the kinesin-like protein KIF1B gene and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e62571 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Frequent deletions of the kinesin-like protein gene 1B (KIF1B) have been reported in neural tumors. Recently, a genome-wide association study revealed an association between polymorphisms in the KIF1B gene and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and several case-control studies have further investigated this relationship. However, these studies have yielded controversial results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between the KIF1B gene polymorphisms and HCC risk.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: PubMed, EMBASE, the ISI Web of Science and the CNKI databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. A total of 5 studies containing 13 cohorts with 5,773 cases and 6,404 controls were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the associations. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on ethnicities, sample sizes and quality scores. Overall, the G allele at rs17401966 of the KIF1B gene was associated with a significantly decreased risk for HCC (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.70-0.93; P = 0.003). Furthermore, subgroup analyses showed that the G allele at rs17401966 of the KIF1B gene significantly reduced the risk for HCC in Chinese cohorts (OR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.64-0.90; P = 0.002), large-sample-size cohorts (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.73-0.88, P<0.01) and high-quality cohorts (OR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.71-0.87, P<0.01). However, no significant associations were found in small-sample-size cohorts, studies with low-quality scores and when excluding the cohorts from the study reporting the original discovery.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the presence of the G allele at rs17401966 of the KIF1B gene may decrease the risk for HCC and suggest that KIF1B may play a critical role in the development of HCC. High-quality studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnic populations will be of great value to further confirm these findings.

Henrich KO, Schwab M, Westermann F
1p36 tumor suppression--a matter of dosage?
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(23):6079-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
A broad range of human malignancies is associated with nonrandom 1p36 deletions, suggesting the existence of tumor suppressors encoded in this region. Evidence for tumor-specific inactivation of 1p36 genes in the classic "two-hit" manner is scarce; however, many tumor suppressors do not require complete inactivation but contribute to tumorigenesis by partial impairment. We discuss recent data derived from both human tumors and functional cancer models indicating that the 1p36 genes CHD5, CAMTA1, KIF1B, CASZ1, and miR-34a contribute to cancer development when reduced in dosage by genomic copy number loss or other mechanisms. We explore potential interactions among these candidates and propose a model where heterozygous 1p36 deletion impairs oncosuppressive pathways via simultaneous downregulation of several dosage-dependent tumor suppressor genes.

Galan SR, Kann PH
Genetics and molecular pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013; 78(2):165-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although most pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are sporadic, molecular genetic medicine has revealed that a considerable number of patients with apparently sporadic PCC actually have a genetic predisposition to the development of these tumors. After decades of intensive research, several genes are now known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCC. At present, these are RET proto-oncogene, von Hippel-Lindau disease tumor suppressor gene (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 tumor suppressor gene (NF1), genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex subunits SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, but also SDHA, the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for the flavination of SDHA (SDHAF2 or hSDH5), and the newly described TMEM127 and MAX tumor suppressor genes. In addition to these ten PCC susceptibility genes, two other genes, KIF1B and PHD2, have also been associated with PCC. Studying the pathogenesis and the molecular correlation of these mutations has revealed the existence of two main transcription signatures: a pseudohypoxic cluster (VHL and SDH mutations) and a cluster rich in kinase receptor signaling and their downstream pathways (RET, NF1, TMEM127, and MAX mutations). However, the general mechanism in the pathogenesis of a syndrome does not entirely apply in the particular pathogenesis of PCC as a manifestation of that syndrome. A better understanding of the complexity and high genetic diversity of PCC and PGL may lead to more efficient diagnosis and management of the disease.

Li S, Qian J, Yang Y, et al.
GWAS identifies novel susceptibility loci on 6p21.32 and 21q21.3 for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers.
PLoS Genet. 2012; 8(7):e1002791 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified KIF1B as susceptibility locus for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To further identify novel susceptibility loci associated with HBV-related HCC and replicate the previously reported association, we performed a large three-stage GWAS in the Han Chinese population. 523,663 autosomal SNPs in 1,538 HBV-positive HCC patients and 1,465 chronic HBV carriers were genotyped for the discovery stage. Top candidate SNPs were genotyped in the initial validation samples of 2,112 HBV-positive HCC cases and 2,208 HBV carriers and then in the second validation samples of 1,021 cases and 1,491 HBV carriers. We discovered two novel associations at rs9272105 (HLA-DQA1/DRB1) on 6p21.32 (OR = 1.30, P = 1.13×10⁻¹⁹) and rs455804 (GRIK1) on 21q21.3 (OR = 0.84, P = 1.86×10⁻⁸), which were further replicated in the fourth independent sample of 1,298 cases and 1,026 controls (rs9272105: OR = 1.25, P = 1.71×10⁻⁴; rs455804: OR = 0.84, P = 6.92×10⁻³). We also revealed the associations of HLA-DRB1*0405 and 0901*0602, which could partially account for the association at rs9272105. The association at rs455804 implicates GRIK1 as a novel susceptibility gene for HBV-related HCC, suggesting the involvement of glutamate signaling in the development of HBV-related HCC.

Zhong R, Tian Y, Liu L, et al.
HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility gene KIF1B is not associated with development of chronic hepatitis B.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e28839 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study has identified a new susceptibility locus, kinesin family member 1B gene (KIF1B), strongly associated with progression from chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Chinese population, this study was carried out to explore the role of the genetic variants in KIF1B in the development of chronic hepatitis B.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three KIF1B polymorphisms (rs8019, rs17401924, and rs17401966) were selected and genotyped in 473 CHB patients and 580 controls with no history of CHB. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression model. None of these three SNPs showed association with CHBs after adjusting for age and gender. Equivalence-based method analysis confirmed the absence of association. In the further haplotype analysis, three common haplotypes were observed in this study population, but no significant effect was also found for haplotypes in the progression to CHB.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed the new locus identified for HCC, KIF1B, was not associated with progression to CHB, implying distinct genetic susceptibility factor contributes to the progression from hepatitis B virus infection to HCC. Nevertheless, further comprehensive analyses are warranted to dissect the mechanism.

Zhang H, Zhai Y, Hu Z, et al.
Genome-wide association study identifies 1p36.22 as a new susceptibility locus for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers.
Nat Genet. 2010; 42(9):755-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify susceptibility variants for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we conducted a genome-wide association study by genotyping 440,794 SNPs in 355 chronic HBV carriers with HCC and 360 chronic HBV carriers without HCC, all of Chinese ancestry. We identified one intronic SNP (rs17401966) in KIF1B on chromosome 1p36.22 that was highly associated with HBV-related HCC and confirmed this association in five additional independent samples, consisting of 1,962 individuals with HCC, 1,430 control subjects and 159 family trios. Across the six studies, the association with rs17401966 was highly statistically significant (joint odds ratio = 0.61, P = 1.7 x 10(-18)). In addition to KIF1B, the association region tagged two other plausible causative genes, UBE4B and PGD. Our findings provide evidence that the 1p36.22 locus confers susceptibility to HBV-related HCC, and suggest that KIF1B-, UBE4B- or PGD-related pathways might be involved in the pathogenesis of this malignancy.

Astolfi A, Nannini M, Pantaleo MA, et al.
A molecular portrait of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: an integrative analysis of gene expression profiling and high-resolution genomic copy number.
Lab Invest. 2010; 90(9):1285-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
In addition to KIT and PDGFRA mutations, sequential accumulation of other genetic events is involved in the development and progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Until recently, the significance of these other alterations has not been thoroughly investigated. We report the first study that integrates gene expression profiling and high-resolution genomic copy number analyses in GIST. Fresh tissue specimens from 25 patients with GIST were collected, and gene expression profiling and high-resolution genomic copy number analyses were performed, using Affymetrix U133Plus and SNP array 6.0. We found that all 21 mutant GIST patients showed both macroscopic cytogenetic alterations and cryptic microdeletions or amplifications, whereas 75% (three of four) of wild-type patients with GIST did not show genomic imbalances. The most frequently observed chromosomal alterations in patients with mutant GIST included 14q complete or partial deletion (17 of 25), 1p deletion (14 of 25) and 22q deletion (10 of 25). Genetic targets of the chromosomal aberrations were selected by integrated analysis of copy number and gene expression data. We detected the involvement of known oncogenes and tumor suppressors including KRAS in chr 12p amplification and KIF1B, PPM1A, NF2 in chr 1p, 14q and 22p deletions, respectively. The genomic segment most frequently altered in mutated samples was the 14q23.1 region, which contains potentially novel tumor suppressors, including DAAM1, RTN1 and DACT1. siRNA-mediated RTN1 downregulation showed evidence for the potential role in GIST pathogenesis. The combination of gene expression profiling and high-resolution genomic copy number analysis offers a detailed molecular portrait of GISTs, providing an essential comprehensive knowledge necessary to guide the discovery of novel target genes involved in tumor development and progression.

Ochiai H, Takenobu H, Nakagawa A, et al.
Bmi1 is a MYCN target gene that regulates tumorigenesis through repression of KIF1Bbeta and TSLC1 in neuroblastoma.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(18):2681-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in neuroblastoma (NB) research addressed that epigenetic alterations such as hypermethylation of promoter sequences, with consequent silencing of tumor-suppressor genes, can have significant roles in the tumorigenesis of NB. However, the exact role of epigenetic alterations, except for DNA hypermethylation, remains to be elucidated in NB research. In this paper, we clarified the direct binding of MYCN to Bmi1 promoter and upregulation of Bmi1 transcription by MYCN. Mutation introduction into an MYCN binding site in the Bmi1 promoter suggests that MYCN has more important roles in the transcription of Bmi1 than E2F-related Bmi1 regulation. A correlation between MYCN and polycomb protein Bmi1 expression was observed in primary NB tumors. Expression of Bmi1 resulted in the acceleration of proliferation and colony formation in NB cells. Bmi1-related inhibition of NB cell differentiation was confirmed by neurite extension assay and analysis of differentiation marker molecules. Intriguingly, the above-mentioned Bmi1-related regulation of the NB cell phenotype seems not to be mediated only by p14ARF/p16INK4a in NB cells. Expression profiling analysis using a tumor-specific cDNA microarray addressed the Bmi1-dependent repression of KIF1Bbeta and TSLC1, which have important roles in predicting the prognosis of NB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that KIF1Bbeta and TSLC1 are direct targets of Bmi1 in NB cells. These findings suggest that MYCN induces Bmi1 expression, resulting in the repression of tumor suppressors through Polycomb group gene-mediated epigenetic chromosome modification. NB cell proliferation and differentiation seem to be partially dependent on the MYCN/Bmi1/tumor-suppressor pathways.

Qin Y, Buddavarapu K, Dahia PL
Pheochromocytomas: from genetic diversity to new paradigms.
Horm Metab Res. 2009; 41(9):664-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors of neural crest origin caused by germline mutations in at least six distinct genes. This genetic heterogeneity has provided a rich source for both the discovery and functional characterization of new tumor-related genes. However, the genetic repertoire of these tumors is still not fully known, and current evidence points to the existence of additional pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes. Here, the unique contributions of three hereditary models of pheochromocytoma that can advance our knowledge of the disease pathogenesis are presented. The first model, loss of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) function, illustrates how SDHB, C, or D mutations, components of the energy metabolism pathway, serve as a unique system to explore the pervasive metabolic shift of cancer cells towards glycolysis as a source of energy (also known as the Warburg effect) in contrast to the characteristic oxidative phosphorylation of normal cells. In the second model, mechanisms of tumorigenesis distinct from classical pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes are discussed in the context of a novel putative suppressor of neural crest-derived tumors, the KIF1B beta gene. Finally, NF1 loss is highlighted as a valuable study model to investigate the cell lineage selectivity of the Egln3-mediated developmental apoptotic defect of chromaffin precursor cells. Results from these studies may offer clues to understand the tissue specificity of hereditary pheochromocytoma syndromes. These distinct hereditary disease models illustrate how genetic-driven progress has the potential to narrow current gaps in our knowledge of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma pathogenesis.

Yeh IT, Lenci RE, Qin Y, et al.
A germline mutation of the KIF1B beta gene on 1p36 in a family with neural and nonneural tumors.
Hum Genet. 2008; 124(3):279-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, the KIF1B beta gene on 1p36, a region commonly deleted in neural crest cancers, was found to be a proapoptotic factor for sympathetic precursors. KIF1B beta mutations were detected in pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas, two sympathetic lineage tumors, suggesting a role for this gene in cancer. Here, we studied five individuals from a three-generation cancer-prone family with a KIF1B beta germline variant and seven of their tumors, both of neural crest and nonneural origin. Genetic studies including sequencing, copy number analysis and fluorescence in situ-hybridization (FISH) showed retention of both KIF1B beta alleles in all neural crest-derived tumors in this family, consistent with haploinsufficiency or methylation of the wild-type allele. In contrast, the lung adenocarcinoma from one mutation carrier had somatic loss of the wild-type allele in agreement with a classical two-hit inactivation. Global transcription analysis of KIF1B beta mutant pheochromocytomas revealed that these tumors are transcriptionally related to pheochromocytomas with RET and NF1 mutations but independent from SDH- and VHL-associated tumors. Furthermore, KIF1B beta-mutant tumors are uniquely enriched for pathways related to glutamate metabolism and the oxidative stress response. Our data start to delineate the signals that are disrupted by KIF1B beta dysfunction in pheochromocytomas and suggest that loss of this gene may also be permissive to the development of nonneural crest malignancies. This may imply the existence of a tissue-specific gene dosage requirement for its tumorigenesis.

Munirajan AK, Ando K, Mukai A, et al.
KIF1Bbeta functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene mapped to chromosome 1p36.2 by inducing apoptotic cell death.
J Biol Chem. 2008; 283(36):24426-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deletion of the distal region of chromosome 1 frequently occurs in a variety of human cancers, including aggressive neuroblastoma. Previously, we have identified a 500-kb homozygously deleted region at chromosome 1p36.2 harboring at least six genes in a neuroblastoma-derived cell line NB1/C201. Among them, only KIF1Bbeta, a member of the kinesin superfamily proteins, induced apoptotic cell death. These results prompted us to address whether KIF1Bbeta could be a tumor suppressor gene mapped to chromosome 1p36 in neuroblastoma. Hemizygous deletion of KIF1Bbeta in primary neuroblastomas was significantly correlated with advanced stages (p = 0.0013) and MYCN amplification (p < 0.001), whereas the mutation rate of the KIF1Bbeta gene was infrequent. Although KIF1Bbeta allelic loss was significantly associated with a decrease in KIF1Bbeta mRNA levels, its promoter region was not hypermethylated. Additionally, expression of KIF1Bbeta was markedly down-regulated in advanced stages of tumors (p < 0.001). Enforced expression of KIF1Bbeta resulted in an induction of apoptotic cell death in association with an increase in the number of cells entered into the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, whereas its knockdown by either short interfering RNA or by a genetic suppressor element led to an accelerated cell proliferation or enhanced tumor formation in nude mice, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the rod region unique to KIF1Bbeta is critical for the induction of apoptotic cell death in a p53-independent manner. Thus, KIF1Bbeta may act as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor, and its allelic loss may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma and other cancers.

Schlisio S, Kenchappa RS, Vredeveld LC, et al.
The kinesin KIF1Bbeta acts downstream from EglN3 to induce apoptosis and is a potential 1p36 tumor suppressor.
Genes Dev. 2008; 22(7):884-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
VHL, NF-1, c-Ret, and Succinate Dehydrogenase Subunits B and D act on a developmental apoptotic pathway that is activated when nerve growth factor (NGF) becomes limiting for neuronal progenitor cells and requires the EglN3 prolyl hydroxylase as a downstream effector. Germline mutations of these genes cause familial pheochromocytoma and other neural crest-derived tumors. Using an unbiased shRNA screen we found that the kinesin KIF1Bbeta acts downstream from EglN3 and is both necessary and sufficient for neuronal apoptosis when NGF becomes limiting. KIF1Bbeta maps to chromosome 1p36.2, which is frequently deleted in neural crest-derived tumors including neuroblastomas. We identified inherited loss-of-function KIF1Bbeta missense mutations in neuroblastomas and pheochromocytomas and an acquired loss-of-function mutation in a medulloblastoma, arguing that KIF1Bbeta is a pathogenic target of these deletions.

Tran N, McLean T, Zhang X, et al.
MicroRNA expression profiles in head and neck cancer cell lines.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007; 358(1):12-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-coding RNA molecules such as microRNAs (miRNAs) may play an important role in human carcinogenesis. Their expression has been profiled in many human cancers but there are few published studies in head and neck cancer. In this study, the relative expression of 261 mature miRNA genes was determined in nine head and neck cancer cell lines using an oligonucleotide array platform. Thirty-three miRNAs in the array were found to be highly expressed and 22 showed low levels of expression in all cell lines. Notable was the high expression of miR-21 and miR-205. Expression of several miRNAs was validated using Northern blot analysis. Potential targets of validated miRNAs included tumor suppressor genes, kinesin family member 1B isoform alpha (KIF1B), and hypermethylated in cancer 2 (HIC2), and pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1). This study provides the largest genomewide survey of mature miRNA transcripts in head and neck cancer cell lines.

Carén H, Ejeskär K, Fransson S, et al.
A cluster of genes located in 1p36 are down-regulated in neuroblastomas with poor prognosis, but not due to CpG island methylation.
Mol Cancer. 2005; 4(1):10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A common feature of neuroblastoma tumours are partial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p-deletions). This is indicative of a neuroblastoma tumour suppressor gene being located in the region. Several groups including our have been studying candidate neuroblastoma genes in the region, but no gene/genes have yet been found that fulfil the criteria for being a neuroblastoma tumour suppressor. Since frequent mutations have not been detected, we have now analyzed the expression and promoter CpG island methylation status of the genes UBE4B, KIF1B, PGD, APITD1, DFFA and PEX14 in the 1p36.22 region in order to find an explanation for a possible down-regulation of this region.
RESULTS: The current study shows that gene transcripts in high stage neuroblastoma tumours are significantly down-regulated compared to those in low stage tumours in the 1p36.22 region. CpG island methylation does not seem to be the mechanism of down-regulation for most of the genes tested, since no methylation was detected in the fragments analyzed. One exception is the CpG island of APITD1. Methylation of this gene is also seen in blood from control individuals and is therefore not believed to participate in tumour development.
CONCLUSION: The genes UBE4B, KIF1B, PGD, APITD1, DFFA and PEX14 are down-regulated in high stage NB tumours, a feature that can not be explained by CpG island methylation.

Alonso ME, Bello MJ, Arjona D, et al.
Mutational study of the 1p located genes p18ink4c, Patched-2, RIZ1 and KIF1B in oligodendrogliomas.
Oncol Rep. 2005; 13(3):539-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of 1p heterozygosity is one of the most characteristic events in oligodendrogliomas. Several genes located in this region have been previously studied to find the target gene implicated in the development of this tumor without success. Patched-2, RIZ1 and KIF1B are novel oncosuppressor genes located at 1p and involved in different kinds of tumors. We have studied these genes and p18(ink4c) using PCR/SSCP methods to detect sequence variations in a series of 40 oligodendrogliomas in which the allelic status at 1p was analyzed. Polymorphisms or no sequence changes were detected in all four genes analyzed. None of the genes analyzed seem to be the target-gene mapped at 1p involved by mutation in oligodendroglioma development.

Krump-Konvalinkova V, Yasuda S, Rubic T, et al.
Stable knock-down of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1P1 influences multiple functions of human endothelial cells.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005; 25(3):546-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive phospholipid acting both as a ligand for the G protein-coupled receptors S1P1-5 and as a second messenger. Because S1P1 knockout is lethal in the transgenic mouse, an alternative approach to study the function of S1P1 in endothelial cells is needed.
METHODS AND RESULTS: All human endothelial cells analyzed expressed abundant S1P1 transcripts. We permanently silenced (by RNA interference) the expression of S1P1 in the human endothelial cell lines AS-M.5 and ISO-HAS.1. The S1P1 knock-down cells manifested a distinct morphology and showed neither actin ruffles in response to S1P nor an angiogenic reaction. In addition, these cells were more sensitive to oxidant stress-mediated injury. New S1P1-dependent gene targets were identified in human endothelial cells. S1P1 silencing decreased the expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and VE-cadherin and abolished the induction of E-selectin after cell stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of further endothelial specific transcripts after S1P1 silencing.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term silencing of S1P1 enabled us for the first time to demonstrate the involvement of S1P1 in key functions of endothelial cells and to identify new S1P1-dependent gene targets.

Chen YY, Takita J, Chen YZ, et al.
Genomic structure and mutational analysis of the human KIF1Balpha gene located at 1p36.2 in neuroblastoma.
Int J Oncol. 2003; 23(3):737-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
KIF1a is a member of the kinesin superfamily proteins that are microtubule-dependent molecular motors involved in important intracellular functions such as organelle transport and cell division. We previously determined the structure of the human KIF1Bbeta gene, which was found to be a homologue of the murine Kif1bbeta, and demonstrated that the human KIF1Bbeta is a causative gene of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A although we did not prove that it is a tumor suppressor gene of neuroblastoma. Here, we identified another isoform of the human KIF1B gene, KIF1Balpha. The KIF1Balpha and KIF1Bbeta are alternative splicing products of the KIF1B gene located on 1p36.2. The KIF1Balpha is distinct from KIF1Bbeta in the C-terminal cargo-binding domain; however, they have the same N-terminal motor domain. We found that the transcript of approximately 7.8 kb of KIF1Balpha was expressed in several tissues, especially in skeletal muscle, by Northern blot analysis. To determine whether this gene is one of the candidate tumor suppressor genes for neuroblastoma (NB) or other pediatric solid tumors, we performed mutational screening of KIF1Balpha in 25 NB, 9 rhabdomyosarcoma, 12 Ewing sarcoma and 24 other pediatric solid tumor cell lines. Using RT-PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing we detected a missense mutation (M807I) in 1 NB cell line (SK-N-SH), 3 silent mutations in 2 NB cell lines and 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor cell line, respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed that KIF1Balpha was obviously expressed in almost all of the tumor cell lines examined except NB-1. Furthermore, real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that there was no significant difference in KIF1Balpha expression between 14 early-stage (stage I and II) and 14 advanced-stage (stage III and IV) NB fresh tumor specimens. These results suggest that KIF1Ba in addition to KIF1Bbeta may not be a candidate tumor suppressor gene for NB.

Krona C, Ejeskär K, Abel F, et al.
Screening for gene mutations in a 500 kb neuroblastoma tumor suppressor candidate region in chromosome 1p; mutation and stage-specific expression in UBE4B/UFD2.
Oncogene. 2003; 22(15):2343-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletion of a part of the short arm of chromosome 1 is one of the most common chromosomal rearrangements observed in neuroblastoma (NBL) tumors and it is associated with a poor prognosis. No NBL tumor suppressor gene has yet been identified in the region. Our shortest region of overlap of deletions, ranging from marker D1S80 to D1S244, was shown to partly overlap a 500 kb region that was homozygously deleted in a NBL cell line. We have screened seven genes known to reside in or very close to this overlap consensus region, UBE4B/UFD2, KIF1B, DFFA, PGD, CORT, PEX14, and ICAT, for coding mutations in NBL tumor DNA. A few deviations from the reference sequences were identified; most interestingly being a splice site mutation that was detected in UBE4B/UFD2 in a stage 3 NBL with a fatal outcome. This mutation was neither present in the patients constitutional DNA nor in any of 192 control chromosomes analysed. Also, the expression of UBE4B/UFD2 was markedly diminished in the high-stage/poor-outcome tumors as compared to the low-stage/favorable-outcome tumors. Overall, the number of amino-acid changes in the genes of the region was low, which shows that mutations in these genes are rare events in NBL development. Given the data presented here, UBE4B/UFD2 stands out as the strongest candidate NBL tumor suppressor gene in the region at this stage.

Metharom P, Ellem KA, Schmidt C, Wei MQ
Lentiviral vector-mediated tyrosinase-related protein 2 gene transfer to dendritic cells for the therapy of melanoma.
Hum Gene Ther. 2001; 12(18):2203-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which play a vital role in primary immune responses. Introducing genes into DCs will allow constitutive expression of the encoded proteins and thus prolong the presentation of the antigens derived therefrom. In addition, multiple and unidentified epitopes encoded by the entire tumor-associated antigen (TAA) gene may enhance T cell activation. This study demonstrated that an HIV-1-based lentiviral vector conferred efficient gene transfer to DCs. The transgene, murine tyrosinase-related protein 2 (mTRP-2), encodes a clinically relevant melanoma-associated antigen (MAA), which has been found to be a tumor rejection antigen for B16 melanoma. The transfer and proper processing of mTRP-2 in DCs, in terms of RNA transcription activity and protein expression, were verified by RT-PCR and specific antibody, respectively. Administration of mTRP-2 gene-modified DCs (DC-HR' CmT2) to C57BL/6 mice evoked strong protection against tumor challenge, for which the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ cells during both the priming and challenge phase was essential. In a therapy model, our results showed that four of seven mice with preestablished tumor remained tumor free for 80 days after therapeutic vaccination. Given the results shown in this study, mTRP-2 gene transfer to DCs provides a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of melanoma, especially in the early stage of the disease.

Yang HW, Chen YZ, Takita J, et al.
Genomic structure and mutational analysis of the human KIF1B gene which is homozygously deleted in neuroblastoma at chromosome 1p36.2.
Oncogene. 2001; 20(36):5075-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to clone candidate tumor suppressor genes whose loss contributes to the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma (NB), we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening using a high-density sequence tagged site-content map within a commonly deleted region (chromosome band 1p36) in 24 NB cell lines. We found a approximately 480 kb homozygously deleted region at chromosome band 1p36.2 in one of the 24 NB cell lines, NB-1, and cloned the human homologue (KIF1B-beta) of the mouseKif1B-beta gene in this region. The KIF1B-beta gene had at least 47 exons, all of which had a classic exon-intron boundary structure. Mouse Kif1B is a microtubule-based putative anterograde motor protein for the transport of mitochondria in neural cells. We performed mutational analysis of the KIF1B-beta gene in 23 cell lines using 46 sets of primers and also an allelic imbalance (AI) analysis of KIF1B-beta in 50 fresh NB samples. A missense mutation at codon 1554, GTG (Gly) to ATG (Met), silent mutations at codon 409 (ACG to ACA) and codon 1721 (ACC to ACT), and polymorphisms at codon 170, GAT (Asp) to GAA (Glu), and at codon 1087, TAT (Tyr), to TGT (Cys), were all identified, although their functional significances remain to be determined. The AI for KIF1B-beta was slightly higher (38%) than those for the other two markers (D1S244, D1S1350) (35 and 32%) within the commonly deleted region (1p36). Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of the KIF1B-beta gene revealed obvious expression in all NB cell lines except NB-1, although decreased expression of the KIF1B-beta gene was found in a subset of early- and advanced-stage NBs. These results suggest that the KIF1B-beta gene may not be a candidate for tumor suppressor gene of NB.

Neuzil J, Weber T, Terman A, et al.
Vitamin E analogues as inducers of apoptosis: implications for their potential antineoplastic role.
Redox Rep. 2001; 6(3):143-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidence suggests that vitamin E and its analogues, which have been used for many years as antioxidants, may not only protect cells from free radical damage but also induce apoptotic cell death in various cell types. While alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) is mainly known as an anti-apoptotic agent, its redox-silent analogues either have no influence on cell survival (alpha-tocopheryl acetate, alpha-TOA), or induce apoptosis (alpha-tocopheryl succinate, alpha-TOS). Although precise mechanisms of apoptosis induction by alpha-TOS remain to be elucidated, there is evidence that this process involves both the antiproliferative and membrane destabilising activities of the agent. Alpha-TOS has been shown to induce apoptosis in malignant cell lines but not, in general, in normal cells, and to inhibit tumorigenesis in vivo. These features suggest that this semi-synthetic analogue of vitamin E could be a promising antineoplastic agent.

Chen YZ, Soeda E, Yang HW, et al.
Homozygous deletion in a neuroblastoma cell line defined by a high-density STS map spanning human chromosome band 1p36.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2001; 31(4):326-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent molecular studies have shown a relatively high rate of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in neuroblastoma (NB) as well as other types of tumors in human chromosome band 1p36. To identify candidate tumor suppressor genes in NB, we searched for homozygous deletions in NB cell lines with PCR according to a high-density sequence tagged site (STS)-content map spanning 1p35-36. Among 25 NB cell lines examined, only one cell line, NB-1, showed no signal with 27 STSs in a 480 kb region in 1p36.2. The sequence analysis has revealed that the defective region included seven known genes (E4, KIF1B, SCYA5, PGD, Cortistatin, DFF45, and PEX14), nine expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and two microsatellite markers. These genes are related to apoptosis, an ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, a neuronal microtubule-associated motor molecule, and components of a common translocation machinery. The region between the DFF45 and KIF1B genes was defined as homozygous deletion by Southern blotting. The search in LOH regions with high-density STSs may be useful for the isolation and identification of tumor suppressor genes in other tumors as well as NBs.

Neuzil J, Weber T, Schröder A, et al.
Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by alpha-tocopheryl succinate: molecular pathways and structural requirements.
FASEB J. 2001; 15(2):403-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
The vitamin E analog alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS) can induce apoptosis. We show that the proapoptotic activity of alpha-TOS in hematopoietic and cancer cell lines involves inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), since phorbol myristyl acetate prevented alpha-TOS-triggered apoptosis. More selective effectors indicated that alpha-TOS reduced PKCalpha isotype activity by increasing protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. The role of PKCalpha inhibition in alpha-TOS-induced apoptosis was confirmed using antisense oligonucleotides or PKCalpha overexpression. Gain- or loss-of-function bcl-2 mutants implied modulation of bcl-2 activity by PKC/PP2A as a mitochondrial target of alpha-TOS-induced proapoptotic signals. Structural analogs revealed that alpha-tocopheryl and succinyl moieties are both required for maximizing these effects. In mice with colon cancer xenografts, alpha-TOS suppressed tumor growth by 80%. This epitomizes cancer cell killing by a pharmacologically relevant compound without known side effects.

Ohira M, Kageyama H, Mihara M, et al.
Identification and characterization of a 500-kb homozygously deleted region at 1p36.2-p36.3 in a neuroblastoma cell line.
Oncogene. 2000; 19(37):4302-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity of the distal region of chromosome 1p where tumor suppressor gene(s) might harbor is frequently observed in many human cancers including neuroblastoma (NBL) with MYCN amplification and poor prognosis. We have identified for the first time a homozygously deleted region at the marker D1S244 within the smallest region of overlap at 1p36.2-p36.3 in two NBL cell lines, NB-1 and NB-C201 (MASS-NB-SCH1), although our genotyping has suggested the possibility that both lines are derived from the same origin. The 800-kb PAC contig covering the entire region of homozygous deletion was made and partially sequenced (about 60%). The estimated length of the deleted region was 500 kb. We have, thus far, identified six genes within the region which include three known genes (DFF45, PGD, and CORT) as well as three other genes which have been reported during processing our present project for the last 3(1/2) years (HDNB1/UFD2, KIAA0591F/KIF1B-beta, and PEX14). They include the genes related to apoptosis, glucose metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, a neuronal microtubule-associated motor molecule and biogenesis of peroxisome. At least three genes (HDNB1/UFD2, KIAA0591F/KIF1B-beta, and PEX14) were differentially expressed at high levels in favorable and at low levels in unfavorable subsets of primary neuroblastoma. Since the 1p distal region is reported to be imprinted, those differentially expressed genes could be the new members of the candidate NBL suppressor, although RT-PCR-SSCP analysis has demonstrated infrequent mutation of the genes so far identified. Full-sequencing and gene prediction for the region of homozygous deletion would elucidate more detailed structure of this region and might lead to discovery of additional candidate genes. Oncogene (2000) 19, 4302 - 4307

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