Research IndicatorsGraph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: RECK (cancer-related)
Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, et al.Pembrolizumab versus Chemotherapy for PD-L1-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(19):1823-1833 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Background Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1) that has antitumor activity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with increased activity in tumors that express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Methods In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 305 patients who had previously untreated advanced NSCLC with PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells and no sensitizing mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene or translocation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene to receive either pembrolizumab (at a fixed dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks) or the investigator's choice of platinum-based chemotherapy. Crossover from the chemotherapy group to the pembrolizumab group was permitted in the event of disease progression. The primary end point, progression-free survival, was assessed by means of blinded, independent, central radiologic review. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. Results Median progression-free survival was 10.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7 to not reached) in the pembrolizumab group versus 6.0 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 6.2) in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.68; P<0.001). The estimated rate of overall survival at 6 months was 80.2% in the pembrolizumab group versus 72.4% in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for death, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.89; P=0.005). The response rate was higher in the pembrolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group (44.8% vs. 27.8%), the median duration of response was longer (not reached [range, 1.9+ to 14.5+ months] vs. 6.3 months [range, 2.1+ to 12.6+]), and treatment-related adverse events of any grade were less frequent (occurring in 73.4% vs. 90.0% of patients), as were grade 3, 4, or 5 treatment-related adverse events (26.6% vs. 53.3%). Conclusions In patients with advanced NSCLC and PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells, pembrolizumab was associated with significantly longer progression-free and overall survival and with fewer adverse events than was platinum-based chemotherapy. (Funded by Merck; KEYNOTE-024 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02142738 .).
Pramanik KK, Singh AK, Alam M, et al.Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs and its regulation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling in oral cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):15253-15264 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) are novel tumor suppressors, and emerging evidence has suggested their active role in oral cancer pathogenesis. In the present study, 112 human samples, including 55 fresh samples of 14 adjacent normal tissues, 25 noninvasive oral tumors, and 18 invasive tumors, were included. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, protein expression, and promoter methylation of the RECK gene, as well as the expression of GSK3β, phospho/total β-catenin, and c-myc, were measured by RT-PCR, bisulphate modification-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Additionally, ectopic expression of in/active GSK3β was performed in cell culture experiments. This study provided information on the progressive silencing of RECK gene expression at the protein and mRNA levels paralleled with promoter hypermethylation at various stages of oral tumor invasion. RECK expression and the hypermethylation of the RECK gene promoter were negatively and positively correlated with pS(9)GSK3β/c-myc expression, respectively. Further, a negative trend of RECK protein expression with nuclear β-catenin expression was observed. Induced expression of active GSK3β reversed the RECK silencing in SCC9 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the silencing of the RECK gene, possibly regulated by the GSK3β pathway, is an important event in oral cancer invasion and this pathway could be exploited for therapeutic interventions.
Fakhry AB, Ahmed AI, AbdelAlim MA, Ramadan DIRECK Gene Promoter rs10814325 Polymorphism in Egyptian Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma on Top of Chronic Hepatitis C Viral Infection.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(5):2383-8 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) gene is a novel transformation suppressor gene that was linked to several malignancies.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze any association between RECK gene rs10814325 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and HCC susceptibility along with it is association wiht various clinico-pathological and laboratory data.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: RECK gene rs10814325 SNP was estimated, using real-time PCR technique, in 30 HCC patients on top of chronic HCV infection, 30 HCV related cirrhotic patients and 30 healthy controls.
RESULTS: No special pattern of association could be detected on comparing the RECK gene rs10814325 genotypes(P=0.5), or alleles(P=0.49) among the studied groups. HCC patients with TT genotype had younger age (mean of 54.1±6.0 years vs 60.6±10.2 years for TC/CC genotypes, P=0.035). Abdominal distension was significantly greater in TT genotype patients (75% vs 30% of TC/CC genotypes, P=0.045). TT genotype was present in 75% of patients with lymph node metastasis. Serum GGT levels were higher in TT genotype patients [80 of (48.5-134.8) vs 40 IU/l (33-87.5) for TC/CCgenotypes], and lower limb edema was observed in 60% of TT vs 20% of TC/CCgenotypes, however, both just failed to reach significance (P=0.05 and P=0.06, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: RECK gene rs10814325 T>C could not be considered a risk factor for HCC development on top of HCV, but may be related to the disease progression and metastasis.
Petrović NmiR-21 Might be Involved in Breast Cancer Promotion and Invasion Rather than in Initial Events of Breast Cancer Development.
Mol Diagn Ther. 2016; 20(2):97-110 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease that develops into a large number of varied phenotypes. One of the features used in its classification and therapy selection is invasiveness. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is considered to be an important element of BC invasiveness, and miR-21 levels are frequently increased in different tumor types compared with normal tissue, including the breast. Experimental and literature research has highlighted that miR-21 was always significantly elevated in every study that included invasive breast carcinomas compared with healthy breast tissue. The main goal of this research was to specify the predominant role of miR-21 in the different phases of BC pathogenesis, i.e. whether it was involved in the early (initiation), later (promotion), or late (propagation, progression) phases. Our second goal was to explain the roles of miR-21 targets in BC by an in silico approach and literature review, and to associate the importance of miR-21 with particular phases of BC pathogenesis through the action of its target genes. Analysis has shown that changes in miR-21 levels might be important for the later and/or late phases of breast cancerogenesis rather than for the initial early phases. Targets of miR-21 (TIMP3, PDCD4, PTEN, TPM1 and RECK) are also primarily involved in BC promotion and progression, especially invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. miR-21 expression levels could perhaps be used in conjunction with the standard diagnostic parameters as an indicator of BC presence, and to indicate a phenotype likely to show early invasion/metastasis detection and poor prognosis.
Klughammer B, Brugger W, Cappuzzo F, et al.Examining Treatment Outcomes with Erlotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Whose Tumors Harbor Uncommon EGFR Mutations.
J Thorac Oncol. 2016; 11(4):545-55 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Exon 19 deletions and the exon 21 L858R mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) predict activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including erlotinib; however, the ability of less common EGFR mutations to predict efficacy of erlotinib is unclear.
METHODS: The efficacy of erlotinib in individual patients with rare EGFR mutations from the MERIT, SATURN, TITAN, TRUST, ATLAS, BeTa, and FASTACT-2 trials was analyzed and compared with data from the literature.
RESULTS: In the patients tested for biomarkers, the frequency of rare mutations identified here ranged from 1.7% (eight of 467) in the SATURN study to 7.4% (27 of 364) in ATLAS. Some rare mutations were associated with greater clinical benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy or improved prognosis independent of treatment, whereas others appeared to have a poorer prognosis. In particular, exon 18 G719 mutations, exon 19 K757R and E746G mutations, the exon 20 S768I mutation, and the exon 21 G836S mutation appeared to confer a good outcome with erlotinib treatment, whereas exon 18 S720I showed a particularly poor outcome. Owing to the small number of patients with each mutation, however, it is difficult to confirm whether these rare mutations do indeed confer sensitivity or resistance to erlotinib.
CONCLUSIONS: Erlotinib can have different efficacy depending on the specific EGFR mutation. More research is needed to create a central database such as the My Cancer Genome database of rare mutations to definitively confirm whether these mutations are activating, resistant, or neutral.
Gao Q, Chen CF, Dong Q, et al.Establishment of a neuroblastoma mouse model by subcutaneous xenograft transplantation and its use to study metastatic neuroblastoma.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):16297-307 [PubMed
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The aim of this study was to establish a metastatic human neuroblastoma (NB) mouse model by xenograft in order to study the metastatic mechanisms of NB. A human NB cell line was obtained from a 5-year-old patient and cultured in vitro. A suspension of these cells was subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice at the right flank next to the forelimb. The biological characteristics of the developed subcutaneous and metastatic tumors were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of the tumor marker neuron-specific enolase was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the invasive ability of metastatic tumors was examined by a Matrigel invasion assay. DNA microarray analyses were performed to examine the metastasis-related gene expression. Our results showed that tumors grew in 75% of the mice injected with NB cells and the rate of metastasis was 21%. The xenograft tumors retained the morphological and biological characteristics of the NB specimen from the pediatric patient. Neuron-specific enolase was highly expressed in both subcutaneous and metastatic tumors. The metastatic tumor cells possessed a higher invasive capability than the primary NB cells. The expression of 25 metastasis-related genes was found to be significantly altered in metastatic tumors compared to primary tumors, including RECK, MMP2, VEGF, MMP3, and CXCL12. In conclusion, we successfully established a human NB xenograft model with high tumor-bearing and metastatic rates in nude mice, providing an ideal animal model for the in vivo study of NB.
Zhou X, Shi X, Ren K, et al.Celecoxib inhibits cell growth and modulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell line.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(21):4087-97 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on the growth inhibition of osteosarcoma and its potential anticancer mechanisms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was used as a model. The inhibitory effect of celecoxib on cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis was used to detect the effects of celecoxib on cell cycle and apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of RECK, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in celecoxib-treated MG-63 cells.
RESULTS: MTT assays showed that at a range of concentrations (0-80 µg/ml), celecoxib significantly inhibited the MG-63 cell proliferation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of celecoxib was 47.5 µg/ml for 24 h-treatment and 19.2 µg/ml for 48 h-treatment. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that treatment with 20 µg/ml celecoxib led to a significant cell cycle arrest at S-phase and an enhancement of apoptosis induction in MG-63 cells at 24 or 48h. Moreover, compared with 24 h-treatment, 48 h-treatment induced more S-phase arrest and apoptosis in MG-63 cells. Western blot analyses revealed that the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was markedly down-regulated but RECK, an inhibitor of MMPs, was markedly up-regulated in MG-63 cells exposed to 20 µg/ml celecoxib for 24 or 48h. Furthermore, the effects of celecoxib on the expression of these molecules were more evident with the increase of treatment time.
CONCLUSIONS: Celecoxib inhibits the MG-63 cells proliferation through S-phase arrest and apoptosis induction. Celecoxib-induced down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and up-regulation of RECK may contribute to the apoptosis induction and an alteration in local tumor microenvironment. These findings suggest that celecoxib may exert at least in part of its anticancer effects via up-regulation of RECK to inhibit the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9.
Wu J, Zhang XX, Sun QM, et al.β-Asarone inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):3043-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
β-Asarone is the main volatile oil of Chinese herb Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii. It exhibits a wide range of biological activities in many human organs. However, few studies have investigated the effect of β-asarone on gastric cancer. The present study investigated the effect of β-asarone on the proliferation and apoptosis of three types of differentiated human gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, BGC-823 and MKN-28) in vitro as well as the related molecular mechanisms. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, Annexin V/PI double staining, immunofluorescence test and transmission electron microscopy all confirmed that β-asarone had an obvious dose-dependent inhibitive effect on the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells and induced apoptosis of the cell lines. Transwell invasion, wound-healing and matrix‑cell adhesion experiments confirmed that β-asarone inhibited the invasion, migration and adhesion of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting found that β-asarone significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, Bak and suppressed Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin activity. Moreover, β-asarone increased the expression of RECK, E-cadherin and decreased the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14 and N-cadherin. The present study demonstrated that β-asarone effectively inhibits the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells, induces their apoptosis and decreased the invasive, migratory and adhesive abilities.
BACKGROUND: The REversion-inducing Cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motif (RECK) is a well-known inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cellular invasion. Although high expression levels of RECK have already been correlated with a better clinical outcome for several tumor types, its main function, as well as its potential prognostic value for breast cancer patients, remain unclear.
METHODS: The RECK expression profile was investigated in a panel of human breast cell lines with distinct aggressiveness potential. RECK functional analysis was undertaken using RNA interference methodology. RECK protein levels were also analyzed in 1040 cases of breast cancer using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays (TMAs). The association between RECK expression and different clinico-pathological parameters, as well as the overall (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival rates, were evaluated.
RESULTS: Higher RECK protein expression levels were detected in more aggressive breast cancer cell lines (T4-2, MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T) than in non-invasive (MCF-7 and T47D) and non-tumorigenic (S1) cell lines. Indeed, silencing RECK in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in elevated levels of pro-MMP-9 and increased invasion compared with scrambled (control) cells, without any effect on cell proliferation. Surprisingly, by RECK immunoreactivity analysis on TMAs, we found no association between RECK positivity and survival (OS and DFS) in breast cancer patients. Even considering the different tumor subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, Her2 type and basal-like) or lymph node status, RECK remained ineffective for predicting the disease outcome. Moreover, by multivariate Cox regression analysis, we found that RECK has no prognostic impact for OS and DFS, relative to standard clinical variables.
CONCLUSIONS: Although it continues to serve as an invasion and MMP inhibitor in breast cancer, RECK expression analysis is not useful for prognosis of these patients.
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and lethal of the central nervous system glial-derived tumors. RECK suppresses tumor invasion by negatively regulating at least three members of the matrix metalloproteinase family: MMP-9, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP. A positive correlation has been observed between the abundance of RECK expression in tumor samples and a more favorable prognosis for patients with several types of tumors. In the present study, novel alternatively spliced variants of the RECK gene: RECK-B and RECK-I were isolated by RT-PCR and sequenced. The expression levels and profiles of these alternative RECK transcripts, as well as canonical RECK were determined in tissue samples of malignant astrocytomas of different grades and in a normal tissue RNA panel by qRT-PCR. Our results show that higher canonical RECK expression, accompanied by a higher canonical to alternative transcript expression ratio, positively correlates with higher overall survival rate after chemotherapeutic treatment of GBM patients. U87MG and T98G cells over-expressing the RECK-B alternative variant display higher anchorage-independent clonal growth and do not display modulation of, respectively, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Our findings suggest that RECK transcript variants might have opposite roles in GBM biology and the ratio of their expression levels may be informative for the prognostic outcome of GBM patients.
BACKGROUND: Although Helicobacter pylori infection is necessary for development of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC), the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. This study aimed to explore how miR-221 and miR-222 are dysregulated after H. pylori infection and how these 2 miRNAs are involved in pathological development of gastric cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: qRT-PCR analysis was performed to quantify miR-221 and miR-222 expression in patients with H. pylori - induced chronic gastritis, H. pylori-negative healthy controls, and in gastric cancer tissues and the corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Cell models were used to verify the expression profile. Dual luciferase assay was performed to verify putative binding between miR-221 or miR-222 and RECK. A loss-and-gain function study was performed to assess the miR-221/miR-222-RECK axis in gastric cancer cells.
RESULTS: H. pylori infection leads to significantly higher miR-221 and miR-222 expression. MiR-221 and miR-222 can bind the same sequence of RECK 3'UTR, thereby modulating its expression. Through simultaneous regulation over RECK, miR-221 and miR-222 can promote gastric cancer cell growth and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: The miR-221/miR-222-RECK axis might be an important path modulating H. pylori infection-related gastric cancer development.
Zhou XQ, Xu XN, Li L, et al.Epigallocatechin‑3‑gallate inhibits the invasion of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells by reversing the hypermethylation status of the RECK gene.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(4):6031-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigallocatechin‑3‑gallate (EGCG) is an active and major constituent of green tea. As a non‑nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methylation, EGCG is able to inhibit the hypermethylation of newly synthesised DNA, resulting in the reversal of hypermethylation and recovery in expression of the silenced genes. Reversion‑inducing cysteine‑rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a novel tumour suppressor gene, which negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinases, and inhibits tumour invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The present study aimed to examine the effects of EGCG on the methylation status of the RECK gene and tumour invasion in a salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cell line in vitro. Marked levels of methylated and weak levels of unmethylated RECK promoter were detected in the SACC83 cells, which was determined using methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, the treatment of SACC83 cells with EGCG partially reversed the hypermethylation status of the RECK gene. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑PCR demonstrated that EGCG significantly enhanced the protein and mRNA expression levels of RECK, and significantly reduced the invasive ability of the SACC83 cells, as determined using a Transwell assay. These results suggested that EGCG possesses novel anti‑metastatic therapeutic potential for the treatment of SACC.
Glioma is a most common type of primary brain tumors. Extracellular vesicles, in the form of exosomes, are known to mediate cell-cell communication by transporting cell-derived proteins and nucleic acids, including various microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with recurrent glioma for the levels of cancer-related miRNAs, and evaluated the values for prognosis by comparing the measures of CSF-, serum-, and exosome-contained miR-21 levels. Samples from seventy glioma patients following surgery were compared with those from brain trauma patients as a non-tumor control group. Exosomal miR-21 levels in the CSF of glioma patients were found significantly higher than in the controls; whereas no difference was detected in serum-derived exosomal miR-21 expression. The CSF-derived exosomal miR-21 levels correlated with tumor spinal/ventricle metastasis and the recurrence with anatomical site preference. From additional 198 glioma tissue samples, we verified that miR-21 levels associated with tumor grade of diagnosis and negatively correlated with the median values of patient overall survival time. We further used a lentiviral inhibitor to suppress miR-21 expression in U251 cells. The results showed that the levels of miR-21 target genes of PTEN, RECK and PDCD4 were up-regulated at protein levels. Therefore, we concluded that the exosomal miR-21 levels could be demonstrated as a promising indicator for glioma diagnosis and prognosis, particularly with values to predict tumor recurrence or metastasis.
Discacciati MG, Gimenes F, Pennacchi PC, et al.MMP-9/RECK Imbalance: A Mechanism Associated with High-Grade Cervical Lesions and Genital Infection by Human Papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015; 24(10):1539-47 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are important enzymes in the tumor microenvironment associated with progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) toward squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix. However, the role of MMPs in the inflammatory process associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection concomitant with the carcinogenic process driven by HPV has not yet been addressed. In the present study, we analyzed the state of the MMP-9-RECK axis in cervical carcinogenesis.
METHODS: The levels of MMP-9 and RECK expression were analyzed by immunocytochemistry in liquid-based cytology samples from 136 women with high-grade cervical lesions (CIN2/CIN3) and cervical SCC diagnosed by LLETZ, and in 196 women without cervical neoplasia or CIN1. Real-time qPCR was performed to analyze expression of MMP-9 and RECK in 15 cervical samples. The presence of HPV-DNA and other genital pathogens was evaluated by PCR.
RESULTS: We found a higher expression of MMP-9 [OR, 4.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.2-7.8] and lower expression of RECK (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7) in women with CIN2/CIN3/SCC when compared with women from the control group (no neoplasia/CIN1). A statistically significant association was also found between MMP-9/RECK imbalance and infection by alpha-9 HPV and C. trachomatis. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was significantly higher in women with high-grade cervical disease (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.3-11.3).
CONCLUSIONS: MMP-9/RECK imbalance in cervical smears is significantly associated with high-grade cervical diseases and infection by alpha-9 HPV and C. trachomatis.
IMPACT: MMP-9/RECK imbalance during cervical inflammation induced by C. trachomatis might play a role in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Several c-MET targeting inhibitory molecules have already shown promising results in the treatment of patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Combination of EGFR- and c-MET-specific molecules may overcome EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. The aim of this study was to allow for the identification of patients who might benefit from TKI treatments targeting MET and to narrow in on the diagnostic assessment of MET.
METHODS: 222 tumor tissues of patients with NSCLC were analyzed concerning c-MET expression and activation in terms of phosphorylation (Y1234/1235 and Y1349) using a microarray format employing immunohistochemistry (IHC). Furthermore, protein expression and MET activation was correlated with the amplification status by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH).
RESULTS: Correlation was observed between phosphorylation of c-MET at Y1234/1235 and Y1349 (spearman correlation coefficient rs = 0.41; p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was shown between MET expression and phosphorylation (p > 0.05). c-MET gene amplification was detected in eight of 214 patients (3.7%). No significant association was observed between c-MET amplification, c-MET protein expression and phosphorylation.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate, that neither expression of c-MET nor the gene amplification status might be the best way to select patients for MET targeting therapies, since no correlation with the activation status of MET was observed. We propose to take into account analyzing the phosphorylation status of MET by IHC to select patients for MET targeting therapies. Signaling of the receptor and the activation of downstream molecules might be more crucial for the benefit of therapeutics targeting MET receptor tyrosine kinases than expression levels alone.
S100P signaling through the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) contributes to colon cancer invasion and metastasis, but the mechanistic features of this process are obscure. Here, we investigate whether activation of S100P/RAGE signaling regulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21). We show that exogenous S100P up-regulates miR-21 levels in human colon cancer cells, whereas knockdown of S100P results in a decrease of miR-21. Furthermore, blockage of RAGE with anti-RAGE antibody suppresses S100P induction of miR-21. In addition, we found that S100P induction of miR-21 expression involves ERK and is suppressed by the MEK inhibitor U0126. Also, S100P treatment stimulates the enrichment of c-Fos, and AP-1 family members, at the miR-21 gene promoter.
Wang CH, Guo ZY, Chen ZT, et al.TMPRSS4 facilitates epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma and is a predictive marker for poor prognosis of patients after curative resection.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:12366 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TMPRSS4 (Transmembrane protease serine 4) is up-regulated in a broad spectrum of cancers. However, little is known about the biological effects of TMPRSS4 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the related mechanisms. In the present study, we found that overexpression of TMPRSS4 significantly promoted the invasion, migration, adhesion and metastasis of HCC. Further more, TMPRSS4 induced EMT of HCC, which was mediated via snail and slug as a result of Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 activation, and inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by its inhibitor was associated with reduced cell invasion and reversion of EMT. In addition, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 remarkably suppressed the expression of RECK, an inhibitor of angiogenesis, and drastically induced tumor angiogenesis and growth. More important, in clinical HCC specimens, TMPRSS4 expression was significantly correlated with tumor staging and was inversely correlated with E-cadherin and RECKS expression. Expression of TMPRSS4 is significantly associated with HCC progression and is an independent prognostic factor for postoperative worse survival and recurrence. In conclusion, TMPRSS4 functions as a positive regulator of Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway and promotes HCC progression by inducing EMT and angiogenesis. The increase of TMPRSS4 expression may be a key event for HCC progression and may be regarded as a potential prognostic marker for HCC.
BACKGROUND: Wilms' tumor (WT) is the most common malignant renal tumor in children. Previous studies suggested the reversion-inducing, cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) down-regulation might have a role in numerous human cancers. The current study was done to investigate the associations of RECK single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the WT susceptibility in Chinese children.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed 2 SNPs (rs10972727 and rs11788747) in a total of 97 WT children and 194 healthy matched controls (1:2 ratio) by real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis.
RESULTS: We found that the G allele of rs11788747 in the RECK gene was significantly associated with WT in Chinese children (OR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.45-0.99; P=0.042); as with another SNP rs10972727, however, no statistically significant difference was detected. Further analysis showed there was also a statistically significant difference in genotype frequencies between terminal tumor stage (P=0.026) and metastatic groups (P=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that there is a significant association between mutant G of rs11788747 in RECK and WT risk. G carriers with advanced tumor stage or with metastasis might have an increased risk of WT.
Wang L, Ge J, Ma T, et al.Promoter hypermethylation of the cysteine protease RECK may cause metastasis of osteosarcoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9511-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The present study examined the role of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) promoter hypermethylation as a causative factor in metastasis of osteosarcoma. Using human pathological samples, it is demonstrated that RECK, a cysteine protease that reversibly regulates expression of matrix metalloproteases like matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), is transcriptionally inhibited in osteosarcoma, especially metastatic variants. This result comes from its promoter hypermethylation, as evaluated in the present study by methylation-specific PCR reaction. The expression of RECK was also significantly diminished in the metastatic variants of osteosarcoma. This downregulation of RECK in advanced grades of osteosarcoma and metastatic grades was also associated with the increased expression of invadosome-specific markers like MMP9, phospho-FAK, and integrins, suggesting the complex contributions of RECK in the prevention of metastasis and its downregulation as a causative factor in osteosarcoma metastasis.
Pan Y, Wang L, Kang SG, et al.Gd-Metallofullerenol Nanomaterial Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting the Interaction of Histone Deacetylase 1 and Metastasis-Associated Protein 1.
ACS Nano. 2015; 9(7):6826-36 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The treatment of pancreatic cancer frequently fails due to local recurrence and hepatic metastasis. Our previous study found that Gd@C82(OH)22 can suppress pancreatic cancer by inhibiting MMP-2/9 expression. In this study, we further explored the epigenetic mechanism of Gd@C82(OH)22 in human pancreatic cancer metastasis. Gd@C82(OH)22 suppressed tumor metastasis through down-regulation of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), HDAC1, HIF-1α, and MMP-2/9 and up-regulation of reversion-cysteine protein with the Kazal motif (RECK). The level of acetylation was increased in the promoter region of the RECK gene after Gd@C82(OH)22 treatment. The interaction of MTA1, HDAC1, and HIF-1α was inhibited by Gd@C82(OH)22. Furthermore, large-scale molecular dynamics simulations revealed Gd@C82(OH)22 could serve as an effective HDAC inhibitor to the protein-protein association between HDAC1 and MTA1, especially through MTA1's SANT and ELM2 dimerization domains. Our findings implicate Gd@C82(OH)22 as a novel HDAC inhibitor acting to increase RECK expression by suppressing the MTA1/HDAC1 co-repressor complex. Gd@C82(OH)22 may serve as a potential HDAC1 inhibitor to suppress pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. According to computer analysis and experimental validation, Gd@C82(OH)22 activates RECK expression by inhibiting the interaction of HDAC1 and MTA1.
Zhang L, Xie Q, Shan SJ, et al.Reduced Expression of RECK Protein May Help Differentiate Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma from Melanocytic Nevus.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(6):3185-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Differentiating between vertical growth cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and predominantly intradermal benign melanocytic nevus (BMN) can be extremely challenging. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is an endogenous inhibitor of many proteins that promote tumor invasion and progression. We investigated the difference in expression of RECK between CMM and BMN to determine whether RECK could assist in their differentiation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of RECK in skin biopsies of 39 cases, including 20 cases of CMM and 19 cases of BMN, was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Two out of 20 cases (10%) of CMM were positive for RECK, and all (100%) 19 cases of BMN exhibited positivity at different levels. In 7/8 cases of CMM adjacent to benign nevus cells, malignant melanoma cells did not express RECK, but benign nevus cells stained positively.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that immunohistochemical staining for RECK could be useful in the differential diagnosis between CMM and BMN.
BACKGROUND: Mutant Ras plays multiple functions in tumorigenesis including tumor formation and metastasis. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), a metastasis inhibitor gene, suppresses matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the metastatic cascade. Clarifying the relationship between Ras and RECK and understanding the underlying molecular mechanism may lead to the development of better treatment for Ras-related tumors.
METHODS: Suppression subtractive hybridization PCR (SSH PCR) was conducted to identify Ha-ras (val12) up-regulated genes in bladder cancer cells. Stable cell lines of human breast cancer (MCF-7-ras) and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts (7-4) harboring the inducible Ha-ras (val12) oncogene, which could be induced by isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG), were used to clarify the relationship between Ras and the up-regulated genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, DNA affinity precipitation assay (DAPA) and RECK reporter gene assay were utilized to confirm the complex formation and binding with promoters.
RESULTS: Retinoblastoma binding protein-7 (RbAp46) was identified and confirmed as a Ha-ras (val12) up-regulated gene. RbAp46 could bind with histone deacetylase (HDAC1) and Sp1, followed by binding to RECK promoter at the Sp1 site resulting in repression of RECK expression. High expression of Ras protein accompanied with high RbAp46 and low RECK expression were detected in 75% (3/4) of the clinical bladder cancer tumor tissues compared to the adjacent normal parts. Ras induced RbAp46 expression increases invasion of the bladder cancer T24 cells and MMP-9 activity was increased, which was confirmed by specific lentiviral shRNAs inhibitors against Ras and RbAp46. Similarly, knockdown of RbAp46 expression in the stable NIH3T3 cells "7-4" by shRNA decreased Ras-related lung metastasis using a xenograft nude mice model.
CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that RbAp46 is a Ha-ras (val12) up-regulated gene and binds with HDAC1 and Sp1. Furthermore, RbAp46 binds to the RECK promoter at the Sp1 site via recruitment by Sp1. RECK is subsequently activated, leading to increased MMP9 activity, which may lead to increased metastasis in vivo. Our findings of Ras upregulation of RbAp46 may lead to revealing a novel mechanism of Ras-related tumor cell metastasis.
Li J, Jiang K, Zhao FIcariin regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells through microRNA-21 by targeting PTEN, RECK and Bcl-2.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(6):2829-36 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Icariin is the main active ingredient found in the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Epimedium, and exhibits various pharmacological effects such as enhanced immune function, anticancer activity, improved cardiovascular function and endocrine adjustment. However, the effect of icariin on ovarian cancer and the related mechanism have never been investigated. In the present study, we aimed to verify whether icariin inhibits the proliferation and increases the apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells, and its molecular mechanism in order to establish an association and identify potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, ovarian cancer A2780 cells were treated with various concentrations of icariin, and the cell viability was evaluated by 3,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry and caspase-3 colorimetric assay were performed to observe apoptotic changes in the A2780 cells. qPCR analysis was used to analyze miR-21 expression in the A2780 cells. Western blot analysis was used to assess PTEN, RECK and Bcl-2 protein expression. Transfection of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and anti-miR-21 was used to investigate expression of its target genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. Icariin concomitantly suppressed cell proliferation, accelerated apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activity in the A2780 cells. In the ovarian cancer A2780 cells, icariin substantially decreased the miR-21 expression level, increased PTEN and RECK protein expression levels and decreased the Bcl-2 protein expression level. Notably, miR-21 regulated the potential anticancer effects of icariin on cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting PTEN, RECK and Bcl-2 in the ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Our results demonstrated that icariin is an excellent candidate antitumor agent which exhibits an anticancer curative effect on ovarian cancer cells. miR-21 and its target genes may play a vital role in the molecular mechanism of the anticancer effects of icariin.
Pan Y, Liang H, Chen W, et al.microRNA-200b and microRNA-200c promote colorectal cancer cell proliferation via targeting the reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs.
RNA Biol. 2015; 12(3):276-89 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-200b and microRNA-200c (miR-200b/c) are 2 of the most frequently upregulated oncomiRs in colorectal cancer cells. The role of miR-200b/c during colorectal tumorigenesis, however, remains unclear. In the present study, we report that miR-200b/c can promote colorectal cancer cell proliferation via targeting the reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK). Firstly, bioinformatics analysis predicted RECK as a conserved target of miR-200b/c. By overexpressing or knocking down miR-200b/c in colorectal cancer cells, we experimentally validated that miR-200b/c are direct regulators of RECK. Secondly, an inverse correlation between the levels of miR-200b/c and RECK protein was found in human colorectal cancer tissues and cell lines. Thirdly, we demonstrated that repression of RECK by miR-200b/c consequently triggered SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2) elevation and p27(Kip1) (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B) degradation in colorectal cancer cells, which eventually promotes cancer cell proliferation. Finally, promoting tumor cell growth by miR-200b/c-targeting RECK was also observed in the xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-200b/c play a critical role in promoting colorectal tumorigenesis through inhibiting RECK expression and subsequently triggering SKP2 elevation and p27(Kip1) degradation.
Liver inflammation plays a critical role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) etiology. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP), such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and dysregulated miRNAs involved in inflammatory disease states, such as miR-21, may participate in the link between inflammation and cancer. We sought to determine the role of HMGB1 signaling in HCC tumor progression. We first document the concordant expression increase of HMGB1 and miR-21 in HCC cell lines and primary HCC tumor samples and subsequently show that HMGB1 stimulation results in overexpression of miR-21. These changes were found to be dependent on the IL6/STAT3 signaling axis. Invasion and migration of HCC cells in vitro were inhibited by both STAT3 and miR-21 antagonists, suggesting a role for this pathway in HCC tumor progression. We verified that HMGB1-induced expression of miR-21 in HCC provides a posttranscriptional repression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors RECK and TIMP3, which are known to impact HCC progression and metastases. Finally, we found that inhibition of miR-21 in murine HMGB1-overexpressing HCC xenografts led to reduced tumor MMP activity through released repression of the miR-21 targets RECK and TIMP3, which ultimately impeded tumor progression. The prototypical DAMP, HMGB1, is released during liver inflammation and provides a favorable environment for HCC growth. HMGB1 signaling increases miR-21 expression to mediate the enhanced activity of MMPs through RECK and TIMP3. These findings provide a novel mechanism for HMGB1-mediated HCC progression through the IL6/Stat3-miR-21 axis.
Zhang N, Duan WD, Leng JJ, et al.STAT3 regulates the migration and invasion of a stem‑like subpopulation through microRNA‑21 and multiple targets in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(3):1493-8 [PubMed
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Despite advances in the detection and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the prognosis remains poor partly due to recurrence or extra/intrahepatic metastasis. Stem‑like cancer cells are considered the source of malignant phenotypes including metastasis in various types of cancer. HCC side population (SP), considered as stem‑like cancer cells, plays an important role in the migration and invasion in HCC, while the mechanisms involved remain unknown. In the present study, high levels of STAT3 and phospho‑STAT3 were observed in MHCC97H SP cells compared with the main population (MP) cells. Inhibition of phospho‑STAT3 led to a reduction of miR‑21 expression, an increase of PTEN, RECK, and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) expression as well as the migration and invasion of SP cells. A set of rescue experiments was performed using different combinations of STAT3 inhibitor, miR‑21 mimics and siRNAs to observe the expression of miR‑21 targets, cell migration and invasion alterations. Data indicated that the alterations induced by STAT3 inhibition were partly reversed by the upregulation of miR‑21. Additionally, the cells migration and invasion when silencing the targets of miR‑21 were also reversed by STAT3 inhibition. In conclusion, the present study revealed the aberrant expression of STAT3 and miR‑21 in HCC SP cells. Targeting STAT3 may limit HCC migration and invasion, which is likely to involve the regulation of miR‑21 and its targets PTEN, RECK and PDCD4. Strategies directed towards STAT3 may therefore be a novel approach for the treatment of HCC.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) often localize to chromosomal fragile sites and are associated with cancer. In this study, we screened for the aberrant and functional miRNAs in the regions of copy number alterations (CNAs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and found that miR-135b was frequently amplified and upregulated in HCC tissues. The expression level of miR-135b was inversely correlated with the occurrence of tumor capsules. In addition, miR-135b promoted HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. The reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) and ecotropic viral integration site 5 (EVI5) were identified as the direct and functional targets of miR-135b in HCC. Furthermore, we observed that heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) directly activated miR-135b expression, consequently enhancing HCC cell motility and invasiveness. The newly identified HSF1/miR-135b/RECK&EVI5 axis provides novel insight into the mechanisms of HCC metastasis, which may facilitate the development of new therapeutics against HCC.
Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), a novel tumor suppressor gene that negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is expressed in various normal human tissues but downregulated in several types of human tumors. The molecular mechanism for this downregulation and its biological significance in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), on the methylation status of the RECK gene and tumor invasion in SACC cell lines. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP), Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the methylation status of the RECK gene and expression of RECK mRNA and protein in SACC cell lines. The invasive ability of SACC cells was examined by the Transwell migration assay. Promoter methylation was only found in the ACC-M cell line. Treatment of ACC-M cells with 5-aza-dC partially reversed the hypermethylation status of the RECK gene and significantly enhanced the expression of mRNA and protein, and 5-aza-dC significantly suppressed ACC-M cell invasive ability. Our findings showed that 5-aza-dC inhibited cancer cell invasion through the reversal of RECK gene hypermethylation, which might be a promising chemotherapy approach in SACC treatment.
AIM: To profile expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in gastric cancer cells and investigate the effect of miR-374b-5p on gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
METHODS: An miRNA microarray assay was performed to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in gastric cancer cell lines (MGC-803 and SGC-7901) compared with a normal gastric epithelial cell line. Upregulation of miR-374b-5p was newly identified and confirmed via quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). MGC-803 cells were transfected with a synthesized anti-miR-374b-5p sequence or a control vector using Lipofectamine reagent, or treated with transfection reagent alone or phosphate-buffered saline as controls. Rate of transfection was verified after 48 h by qRT-PCR. Cells were then subjected to transwell migration, wound scratch and cell counting kit-8 assays. A bioinformatic analysis to identify miR-374b-5p target genes was performed using miRanda, PicTar and TargetScan software. A dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to evaluate the influence of miR-374b-5p on target gene activation, and qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the levels of target mRNA and protein following transfection with miR-374b-5p antisense oligonucleotides.
RESULTS: The microarray profiling revealed downregulation of 14 (fold change < 0.667; P < 0.05) and upregulation of 12 (fold change > 1.50; P < 0.05) miRNAs in MGC-803 and SGC-7901 cells compared with GES-1 controls. The upregulation of miR-374b-5p (fold change = 1.75 and 1.64 in MGC-803 and SGC-7901, respectively; P < 0.05) was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Compared with the control groups, the restoration of miR-374b-5p expression with anti-miR-374b-5p significantly suppressed the metastasis, invasion and proliferation of MGC-803 cells. The bioinformatic analysis predicted that the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motif (RECK) contains three miR-374b-5p target sequences. RECK was verified as a target gene in a dual luciferase reporter assay showing that activation of RECK 3'UTR-pmirGLO was increased by co-transfection with miR-374b-5p. Finally, transfection of miR-374b-5p antisense oligonucleotides increased mRNA and protein levels of RECK in MGC-803 cells (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that upregulation of miR-374b-5p contributes to gastric cancer cell metastasis and invasion through inhibition of RECK expression.
Su C, Lin Y, Niu J, Cai LAssociation between polymorphisms in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in an HCC epidemic area within the Han Chinese population.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(12):356 [PubMed
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Data concerning the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an HBV-free population are currently limited. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the association between SNPs and the risk of HCC in individuals without chronic HBV infection. A total of 160 Han Chinese patients with HCC and an identical number of healthy controls were enrolled in this study. rs1042522, rs10814325, rs17401966, and rs2279744 genotypes were determined using matrix-associated laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). CG and GG genotypes in rs1042522 and heterozygote and homozygote in rs2279744 were significantly associated with an elevated risk of HCC. Homozygous mutation of rs1081432 conferred a 2.68-fold risk of HCC (95% CI 1.35-5.34); however heterozygosity was not statistically significant. rs17401966 heterozygosity or homozygosity was not significantly associated with a increased risk of HCC. Several polymorphisms associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC were identified. These may serve as biomarkers in evaluating HCC risk in the general population.