Gene Summary

Gene:LDLR; low density lipoprotein receptor
Aliases: FH, FHC, FHCL1, LDLCQ2
Summary:The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family consists of cell surface proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is normally bound at the cell membrane and taken into the cell ending up in lysosomes where the protein is degraded and the cholesterol is made available for repression of microsomal enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. At the same time, a reciprocal stimulation of cholesterol ester synthesis takes place. Mutations in this gene cause the autosomal dominant disorder, familial hypercholesterolemia. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:low-density lipoprotein receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (40)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LDLR (cancer-related)

Xie JJ, Li WH, Li X, et al.
LncRNA MALAT1 promotes colorectal cancer development by sponging miR-363-3p to regulate EZH2 expression.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 Mar-Apr; 33(2):331-343 [PubMed] Related Publications
LncRNA MALAT1 is reported to play a potential role in human cancers. Hence, we investigated the effects of MALAT1 on colorectal cancer

Liu T, Zhang X, Du L, et al.
Exosome-transmitted miR-128-3p increase chemosensitivity of oxaliplatin-resistant colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin resistance is a major challenge for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). Both acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppressed drug accumulation in cancer cells contributes to development of oxaliplatin resistance. Aberrant expression of small noncoding RNA, miR-128-3p, has been shown to be a key regulator in tumorigenesis and cancer development. However, its roles in the progression of CRC and oxaliplatin-resistance are largely unknown.
METHODS: Oxaliplatin-resistant CRC and normal intestinal FHC cells were transfected with a miR-128-3p expression lentivirus. After transfection, FHC-derived exosomes were isolated and co-cultured with CRC cells. miR-128-3p expression in resistant CRC cells, FHC cells, and exosomes was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The mRNA and protein levels of miR-128-3p target genes in resistant CRC cells were quantified by RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. The effects of miR-128-3p on CRC cell viability, apoptosis, EMT, motility and drug efflux were evaluated by CCK8, flow cytometry, Transwell and wound healing assays, immunofluorescence, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Xenograft models were used to determine whether miR-128-3p loaded exosomes can re-sensitize CRC cells to oxaliplatin in vivo.
RESULTS: In our established stable oxaliplatin-resistant CRC cell lines, in vitro and vivo studies revealed miR-128-3p suppressed EMT and increased intracellular oxaliplatin accumulation. Importantly, our results indicated that lower miR-128-3p expression was associated with poor oxaliplatin response in advanced human CRC patients. Moreover, data showed that miR-128-3p-transfected FHC cells effectively packaged miR-128-3p into secreted exosomes and mediated miR-128-3p delivery to oxaliplatin-resistant cells, improving oxaliplatin response in CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, miR-128-3p overexpression up-regulated E-cadherin levels and inhibited oxaliplatin-induced EMT by suppressing Bmi1 expression in resistant cells. Meanwhile, it also decreased oxaliplatin efflux through suppressed expression of the drug transporter MRP5.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that miR-128-3p delivery via exosomes represents a novel strategy enhancing chemosensitivity in CRC through negative regulation of Bmi1 and MRP5. Moreover, miR-128-3p may be a promising diagnostic and prognostic marker for oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.

Shabani A, Foroozanfard F, Kavossian E, et al.
Effects of melatonin administration on mental health parameters, metabolic and genetic profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
J Affect Disord. 2019; 250:51-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin supplementation on mental health parameters, metabolic and genetic parameters in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 58 subjects, aged 18-40 years old. Subjects were randomly allocated to take either 10 mg melatonin (2 melatonin capsules, 5 mg each) (n = 29) or placebo (n = 29) once a day 1 h before bedtime for 12 weeks. Glycemic control and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. Using RT-PCR method, gene expression related to insulin and lipid metabolism was conducted on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of PCOS women.
RESULTS: Melatonin supplementation significantly decreased Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (β -2.15; 95% CI, -3.62, -0.68; P = 0.005), Beck Depression Inventory index (β -3.62; 95% CI, -5.53, -1.78; P<0.001) and Beck Anxiety Inventory index (β -1.95; 95% CI, -3.41, -0.48; P = 0.01) compared with the placebo. In addition, melatonin administration, compared with the placebo, significantly reduced serum insulin (β -1.20 µIU/mL; 95% CI, -2.14, -0.26; P = 0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β -0.28; 95% CI, -0.50, -0.05; P = 0.01), serum total- (β -7.96 mg/dL; 95% CI, -13.75, -2.17; P = 0.008) and LDL-cholesterol levels (β -5.88 mg/dL; 95% CI, -11.42, -0.33; P = 0.03), and significantly increased the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (β 0.008; 95% CI, 0.002, 0.014; P = 0.007). Moreover, melatonin supplementation upregulated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) (P = 0.004) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (P = 0.01) compared with the placebo.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, melatonin administration for 12 weeks had beneficial effects on mental health parameters, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, QUICKI, total- and LDL-cholesterol levels, and gene expression of PPAR-γ and LDLR among women with PCOS.

Kinslechner K, Schütz B, Pistek M, et al.
Loss of SR-BI Down-Regulates MITF and Suppresses Extracellular Vesicle Release in Human Melanoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is a skin tumor with a high tendency for metastasis and thus is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Here, we investigated the expression of the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, and tested for its role in melanoma pigmentation as well as extracellular vesicle release. We first analyzed the expression of

Manchanda R, Gaba F
A commentary on population genetic testing for primary prevention: changing landscape and the need to change paradigm.
BJOG. 2019; 126(6):686-689 [PubMed] Related Publications
BRCA1/BRCA2 genes were discovered in early 1990s and clinical testing for these has been available since the mid-1990s. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and other international guidelines recommend genetic-testing at a ~10% probability threshold of carrying a BRCA-mutation. A detailed three generation family-history (FH) of cancer is used within complex mathematical models (e.g. BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, Manchester-Scoring-System) or through standardized clinical-criteria to identify individuals who fulfil this probability threshold and can be offered genetic-testing. Identification of unaffected carriers is important given the high risk of cancer in these women and the effective options available for clinical management which can reduce cancer risk, improve outcomes and minimise burden of disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Seeboeck R, Sarne V, Haybaeck J
Current Coverage of the mTOR Pathway by Next-Generation Sequencing Oncology Panels.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mTOR pathway is in the process of establishing itself as a key access-point of novel oncological drugs and targeted therapies. This is also reflected by the growing number of mTOR pathway genes included in commercially available next-generation sequencing (NGS) oncology panels. This review summarizes the portfolio of medium sized diagnostic, as well as research destined NGS panels and their coverage of the mTOR pathway, including 16 DNA-based panels and the current gene list of Foundation One as a major reference entity. In addition, we give an overview of interesting, mTOR-associated somatic mutations that are not yet incorporated. Especially eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs), a group of mTOR downstream proteins, are on the rise as far as diagnostics and drug targeting in precision medicine are concerned. This review aims to raise awareness for the true coverage of NGS panels, which should be valuable in selecting the ideal platform for diagnostics and research.

Liu Y, Ide Y, Inuzuka M, et al.
BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Japanese women with ductal carcinoma in situ.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(3):e493 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is considered a component of the clinical spectrum of breast cancer even in those with BRCA1/2 mutation. The aim of this study was to report the feature of DCIS raised in Japanese women with BRCA1/2 mutations.
METHODS: A total of 325 Japanese women with breast cancer (BC) (with or without invasive cancer) were referred for genetic counseling and underwent genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Showa University Hospital between December 2011 and August 2016. And 49 of them who were pathologically diagnosed as DCIS were included in this study. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the associations between potential predictive factors and BRCA status. A Cox proportional hazards model is used to predictive value of parameters for Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and contralateral breast tumor recurrence (CBTR).
RESULTS: (a) Of 325 patients (with or without invasive cancer), 19.1% (62/325) tested positive for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. And 18.4% (9/49) was positive for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in DCIS, compared with 19.2% (53/276) in IDC (p = 1.000). Among BRCA mutations, 14.5% (9/62) had DCIS compared with nonmutations (15.2%, 40/263). Incidence of DCIS was 3.0% (1/33) of BRCA1 mutations and 27.5% (8/29) of BRCA2 mutation (p = 0.009). (b) Median age of diagnosis in BRCA mutation carriers was 39 years, compared with 46 years in noncarriers. Age, Family history (FH) of BC, FH of first or second BC and total number of relatives with BC diagnosis (DX) has significant difference between BRCA mutation carriers and noncarriers in univariate analysis. In a multivariate logistic model, total relatives with BC DX ≥ 2 (odds ratio [OR], 5.128; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.266-20.763; p = 0.022), age at diagnosis ≤35 years (OR 0.149, 95% CI 0.023-0.954, p = 0.045) and ER+/HER2+ status (OR 5.034, 95% CI 1.092-23.210, p = 0.038) remained as independent significant predictors for BRCA mutation. Ki67 index (cut off by 14% or 30%) did not differ between BRCA mutation carriers and noncarriers (p = 0.459 and p = 0.651). (c) There was a significant difference in ER-positive tumors among BRCA2 carriers and noncarriers (p = 0.042). Subgroup analysis showed BRCA2 carriers tend to be of higher grade (Grade 2 and 3), more frequently ER+/PR+ (p = 0.041) and lower proliferation (Ki67 index) than noncarriers, whereas differences in nuclear grade and ki67 index were not found significantly in our study. (d) BRCA mutation was not associated with an increased risk of IBTR and CBTR.
CONCLUSION: DCIS is equally as prevalent in patients who were BRCA mutation carriers as in high familial-risk women who were noncarriers, but occurs at earlier age. BRCA2 carriers have higher incidence in DCIS than that of BRCA1 carriers, and tend to be higher grade and more frequently ER positive and lower proliferation. Total relatives with BC DX ≥2, age at diagnosis ≤35 years and ER+/HER2+ might be independent predictors for BRCA mutation in Japanese women with DCIS and patients of these risk factors should be recommended to receive genetic counseling and BRCA testing.

Hahn EC, Bittar CM, Vianna FSL, et al.
TP53 p.Arg337His germline mutation prevalence in Southern Brazil: Further evidence for mutation testing in young breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Premenopausal breast cancer (BC) is a core tumor of Li-Fraumeni (LFS) and Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) Syndromes, predisposition disorders caused by germline mutations in TP53 gene. In the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil, a specific TP53 germline mutation, c.1010G>A (p.Arg337His), was identified at a population frequency of 0.3%, the highest value ever described for a TP53 germline variation. In Brazilian BC patients, carrier frequency can vary from 0.5% to 8.7%. The current study assessed carrier frequency by genotyping TP53 c.1010G>A in 2 BC groups: 1) 315 patients unselected for age of diagnosis and family history (FH) and 2) 239 patients diagnosed before 46 years and without Chompret criteria for LFS or LFL. One carrier was identified in group 1 (0.3%; CI 95% 0.1-1.76%) and six carriers in group 2 (2.5%; CI 95% 0.93-5.39%). The frequencies differed significantly between groups (p = 0.04). The mutation carrier frequency observed in group 2 could justify mutation testing in BC patients diagnosed before 46 years and without Chompret criteria for LFS or LFL. Further studies in larger samples of BC patients of different ages and regions of the country are necessary to provide more definitive TP53 p.Arg337His carrier frequencies in different scenarios.

Shi J, Zhong X, Song Y, et al.
Long non-coding RNA RUNX1-IT1 plays a tumour-suppressive role in colorectal cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and migration.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2019; 37(1):11-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in the progression of various cancers. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of lncRNA RUNX1-IT1 in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression levels of lncRNA RUNX1-IT1 were measured using quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction(qRT-PCR). CCK8 proliferation assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate the effect of lncRNA RUNX1-IT1 on CRC cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. The proliferation markers (PCNA, Ki67), apoptosis markers (cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase3), and MMP9 are detected by western blotting. Significant down regulation of lncRNA RUNX1-IT1 was measured in CRC tissues and three CRC cell lines (HCT116, HT29, and RKO) compared with paired nontumorous adjacent tissues (P < 0.01) or the normal colonic epithelial cell line FHC (P < 0.05), respectively. Moreover, the proliferative and migration potential of CRC cells were inhibited by overexpressing lncRNA RUNX1-IT1, which could be obviously improved by knocking down lncRNA RUNX1-IT1. The protein levels of PCNA, Ki67, and MMP9 were upregulated by overexpressing lncRNA RUNX1-IT1 and down regulated in si-RUNX1-IT1 cells. Besides, lncRNA RUNX1-IT1 could also promote the apoptosis of CRC cells. In conclusion, lncRNA RUNX1-IT1 is downregulated in CRC and plays a tumour-suppressive role due to the regulatory of cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: We demonstrated that lncRNA RUNX1-IT1 was down regulated both in CRC tissues and cell lines. Besides, lncRNA RUNX1-IT1 could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and play a tumour-suppressive role owing to its good diagnostic efficacy and inhibition of CRC cell proliferation and migration.

Mello JBH, Barros-Filho MC, Abreu FB, et al.
MicroRNAs involved in the HMGA2 deregulation and its co-occurrence with MED12 mutation in uterine leiomyoma.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2018; 24(11):556-563 [PubMed] Related Publications
STUDY QUESTION: Can the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) mutation and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression co-occurrence be explained by the alternative mechanism of HMGA2 dysregulation in uterine leiomyomas (UL)?
SUMMARY ANSWER: The co-occurrence of MED12 mutation and HMGA2 overexpression, and a negative correlation of five validated or predicted microRNAs that target HMGA2 were reported.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The recent stratification of UL, according to recurrent and mutually exclusive genomic alterations affecting HMGA2, MED12, fumarate hydratase (FH) and collagen type IV alpha 5-alpha 6 (COL4A5-COL4A6) pointed out the involvement of distinct molecular pathways. However, the mechanisms of regulation involving these drivers are poorly explored.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 78 UL and 34 adjacent normal myometrium (NM) tissues was collected from 56 patients who underwent hysterectomies at a single institution. The patients were treated at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, SP, Brazil, from October 1995 to February 2004.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Gene expression profiling was evaluated from fresh frozen tissues and compared with MED12 mutations at exon 2. In addition, RT-qPCR was applied to evaluate the expression levels of HMGA2 and their predictive miRNA regulators: hsa-let-7a, miR-26a, miR-26b, mir-93 and mir-106b.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: An unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed two main clusters with one of them (26 of 42 UL) showing an enrichment of MED12 mutated cases (18 of 26 UL). Increased expression levels of HMGA2 were observed in both clusters, including cases with MED12 mutation (cluster 1:18 UL). A significant HMGA2 overexpression (P < 0.001) in UL in comparison with NM was found. Five miRNAs predicted to regulate HMGA2 were significantly downregulated (P < 0.001) and negatively correlated to HMGA2 expression levels (P < 0.05) in UL.
LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: An in vivo functional study was not performed to validate the microRNAs and HMGA2 interaction due to technical limitations.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: HMGA2 overexpression was detected in a significant number of MED12 mutated ULs, suggesting that these alterations coexist. Furthermore, five miRNAs were described as potential regulators of HMGA2 expression in UL.
LARGE-SCALE DATA: Data available in the Gene Expression Omnibus GSE42939.
STUDY FUNDING AND COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by grants from Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (# 2008/58835-2) and Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (# 485032/2007-4), Brazil. The authors declared having no conflicts of interest.

Skala SL, Dhanasekaran SM, Mehra R
Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (HLRCC): A Contemporary Review and Practical Discussion of the Differential Diagnosis for HLRCC-Associated Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2018; 142(10):1202-1215 [PubMed] Related Publications

Bian L, Zhi X, Ma L, et al.
Hsa_circRNA_103809 regulated the cell proliferation and migration in colorectal cancer via miR-532-3p / FOXO4 axis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 505(2):346-352 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circular RNAs(circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that are widely expressed in a variety of cell species. The role they play in cancers is poorly understood, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC). Hsa_circRNA_103809 (hsa_circ_0072088, circZFR)has been demonstrated to be lowly expressed in colorectal cancer tissues and is associated with stage and lymph node metastasis of cancer tissues. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the relationship of hsa_circRNA_103809 between colorectal cancer and paired adjacent tissue in clinical tissue samples. Then, the proliferative capacity, migration ability, cell cycle, and apoptosis were measured using wound-healing assay, CCK8, transwell assay, flow cytometry, and the like, when hsa_circRNA_103809 expression in SW620 and COCA-2. The qRT-PCR, western bolt and other experiments verify that the expression of hsa_circRNA_103809 can regulate the expression of miR-532-3P and FOXO4. Hsa_circRNA_103809 was found to be significantly down regulated in CRC tissues and cell lines and compared with paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues and normal FHC cells. Hsa_circRNA_103809 participates in the regulation of biological functions through the miR-532-3P/FOXO4 axis in the CRC. Hsa_circRNA_103809 may be a potential novel gene target for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC.

Pattanayak SP, Bose P, Sunita P, et al.
Bergapten inhibits liver carcinogenesis by modulating LXR/PI3K/Akt and IDOL/LDLR pathways.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 108:297-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxysterol receptors LXRs (α and β) are recently reported to be one of the novel and potential therapeutic targets in reducing cell proliferation and tumor growth in different system model. Activation of LXRs is correlated with modification of PI3K/Akt pathway. LXRs are also found to play a critical role in maintaining lipid homeostatais by regulating ABCA1, IDOL, SREBP1, LDLR and also certain lipogenic genes such as FASN and SCD1. In the present study a potential furanocoumarin, Bergapten (BeG) has been evaluated for its anticancer property on Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) on LXR axis. The molecular docking analysis was carried out for BeG on LXR (α & β) using Maestro tool and compared with reference ligands. This was followed by in vitro (HepG2 cell lines) and in vivo (on NDEA induced HCC in Wistar albino rats) anticancer evaluation of BeG. The docking results revealed polar and hydrophobic interactions of BeG with LXR (α,β). The in vitro studies revealed the potential of BeG in lowering the accumulation of lipid droplets in HepG2 cells which was correlated with increase in LXR (α,β) protein expressions. Furthermore, the in vivo studies demonstrated the potential of BeG in ameliorating the cancer induced alterations in body weight, liver weight and significant restoration of the changes in mRNA and protein expressions of LXR(α,β), ABCA1, IDOL, SREBP1 and LDLR. BeG also modulated the expressions of PI3K, Akt and certain lipogenic genes like FASN and SCD1 and reduced the lipid droplets level in liver cancer cells. These results provide evidence and validates the critical role of BeG in maintaining the lipid homeostasis and justifies its anticancer potential against NDEA-induced HCC.

da Cunha IW, da Costa WH, Morini MA, et al.
Expanding morphological and clinical aspects of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC): a case report in a patient with unusual morphology and clinical presentation.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(6):775-779 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 2-3% of all malignant disease in adults. Hereditary RCC represents 5 to 8% of kidney tumors. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) represents an autosomal dominant syndrome that results from a germline mutation in fumarate hydratase gene (FH). HLRCC patients typically present with skin or uterine leiomyomas and renal neoplasms. HLRCC was recently recognized as a distinct renal tumor subtype by the WHO 2016 classification. Many morphological patterns such as papillary, solid, tubular, and cystic had been described as part of morphological aspects of HLRCC. In this study, we describe a case of a patient that had a history of persistence of ductus arteriosus (PDA) and cryptorchidism. In addition, the renal tumor showed a very unusual hystiocytoid morphological aspect. We confirmed the presence of a FH germline mutation both in the patient and his mother.

Shim SH, Sur S, Steele R, et al.
Disrupting cholesterol esterification by bitter melon suppresses triple-negative breast cancer cell growth.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(11):1599-1607 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is aggressive with a worse prognosis. We have recently shown that bitter melon extract (BME) treatment was more effective in inhibition of TNBC tumor growth in mouse models as compared to ER positive breast tumor growth. Aberrant dysregulation of lipid metabolism is associated with breast cancer progression, however, anti-cancer mechanism of BME linking lipid metabolism in breast cancer growth remains unexplored. Here, we observed that accumulation of esterified cholesterol was reduced in BME treated TNBC cell lines as compared to control cells. We next evaluated expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT-1) in TNBC cells treated with BME. Our results demonstrated that BME treatment inhibited ACAT-1 expression in TNBC cells. Subsequently, we found that sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1 and -2, and FASN was significantly reduced in BME treated TNBC cell lines. Low-density lipoprotein receptor was also downregulated in BME treated TNBC cells as compared to control cells. We further demonstrated that BME feeding reduced tumor growth in TNBC mammospheres implanted into NSG mice, and inhibits ACAT-1 expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating BME suppresses TNBC cell growth through ACAT-1 inhibition, and have potential for additional therapeutic regimen against human breast cancer.

Richter S, Gieldon L, Pang Y, et al.
Metabolome-guided genomics to identify pathogenic variants in isocitrate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, and succinate dehydrogenase genes in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
Genet Med. 2019; 21(3):705-717 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Metabolic aberrations have been described in neoplasms with pathogenic variants (PV) in the Krebs cycle genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). In turn, accumulation of oncometabolites succinate, fumarate, and 2-hydroxyglutarate can be employed to identify tumors with those PV . Additionally, such metabolic readouts may aid in genetic variant interpretation and improve diagnostics.
METHODS: Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, 395 pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) from 391 patients were screened for metabolites to indicate Krebs cycle aberrations. Multigene panel sequencing was applied to detect driver PV in cases with indicative metabolite profiles but undetermined genetic drivers.
RESULTS: Aberrant Krebs cycle metabolomes identified rare cases of PPGLs with germline PV in FH and somatic PV in IDHx and SDHx, including the first case of a somatic IDH2 PV in PPGL. Metabolomics also reliably identified PPGLs with SDHx loss-of-function (LOF) PV. Therefore we utilized tumor metabolite profiles to further classify variants of unknown significance in SDHx, thereby enabling missense variants associated with SDHx LOF to be distinguished from benign variants.
CONCLUSION: We propose incorporation of metabolome data into the diagnostics algorithm in PPGLs to guide genetic testing and variant interpretation and to help identify rare cases with PV in FH and IDHx.

Jiménez-Morales S, Pérez-Amado CJ, Langley E, Hidalgo-Miranda A
Overview of mitochondrial germline variants and mutations in human disease: Focus on breast cancer (Review).
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):923-936 [PubMed] Related Publications
High lactate production in cells during growth under oxygen-rich conditions (aerobic glycolysis) is a hallmark of tumor cells, indicating the role of mitochondrial function in tumorigenesis. In fact, enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and impaired quality control are frequently observed in cancer cells. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes 13 subunits of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), is present in thousands of copies per cell, and has a very high mutation rate. Mutations in mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes encoding proteins that are important players in mitochondrial biogenesis and function are involved in oncogenic processes. A wide range of germline mtDNA polymorphisms, as well as tumor mtDNA somatic mutations have been identified in diverse cancer types. Approximately 72% of supposed tumor-specific somatic mtDNA mutations reported, have also been found as polymorphisms in the general population. The ATPase 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit genes of mtDNA are the most commonly mutated genes in breast cancer (BC). Furthermore, nuclear genes playing a role in mitochondrial biogenesis and function, such as peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1), fumarate hydratase (FH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are frequently mutated in cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the mitochondrial germline variants and mutations in cancer, with particular focus on those found in BC.

Vasudevan S, Flashner-Abramson E, Remacle F, et al.
Personalized disease signatures through information-theoretic compaction of big cancer data.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(30):7694-7699 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Every individual cancer develops and grows in its own specific way, giving rise to a recognized need for the development of personalized cancer diagnostics. This suggested that the identification of patient-specific oncogene markers would be an effective diagnostics approach. However, tumors that are classified as similar according to the expression levels of certain oncogenes can eventually demonstrate divergent responses to treatment. This implies that the information gained from the identification of tumor-specific biomarkers is still not sufficient. We present a method to quantitatively transform heterogeneous big cancer data to patient-specific transcription networks. These networks characterize the unbalanced molecular processes that deviate the tissue from the normal state. We study a number of datasets spanning five different cancer types, aiming to capture the extensive interpatient heterogeneity that exists within a specific cancer type as well as between cancers of different origins. We show that a relatively small number of altered molecular processes suffices to accurately characterize over 500 tumors, showing extreme compaction of the data. Every patient is characterized by a small specific subset of unbalanced processes. We validate the result by verifying that the processes identified characterize other cancer patients as well. We show that different patients may display similar oncogene expression levels, albeit carrying biologically distinct tumors that harbor different sets of unbalanced molecular processes. Thus, tumors may be inaccurately classified and addressed as similar. These findings highlight the need to expand the notion of tumor-specific oncogenic biomarkers to patient-specific, comprehensive transcriptional networks for improved patient-tailored diagnostics.

Mori H, Kubo M, Kai M, et al.
BRCAness Combined With a Family History of Cancer Is Associated With a Poor Prognosis for Breast Cancer Patients With a High Risk of BRCA Mutations.
Clin Breast Cancer. 2018; 18(5):e1217-e1227 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The inexpensive prediction of the characteristics of BRCA-mutated breast cancer as "BRCAness" using the somatic cells of patients with breast cancer could be useful for developing a therapeutic strategy. Our objective was to correlate BRCAness with the clinicopathologic features, including a family history (FH) of cancer, in breast cancer patients with a high risk of BRCA mutations.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study included 124 patients, including 55 with early-onset and 77 with triple-negative breast cancer, who had undergone resection at Kyushu University Hospital from 2005 to 2014. Early-onset breast cancer is defined as an onset in patients aged ≤ 40 years. BRCAness was performed using multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. The patients' FH of cancer was surveyed from first- to third-degree relatives.
RESULTS: Of the 124 patients, the multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification assay results indicated that 59 tumors (47.6%) had BRCAness and 27 patients (21.8%) had a positive FH for cancer. The patients with BRCAness experienced significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with those without. Patients with FH had shorter RFS and OS compared to those without BRCAness. The patients were divided into those with and without BRCAness and those with and without a positive FH. The BRCAness with FH subgroup experienced significantly shorter RFS and OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that BRCAness and a positive FH were independent negative prognostic factors.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that BRCAness tumors with a positive FH of cancer were associated with a poor prognosis in the BRCA-mutation high-risk group. We propose that BRCAness and a positive FH will serve to predict patients' prognosis.

Kerins MJ, Milligan J, Wohlschlegel JA, Ooi A
Fumarate hydratase inactivation in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer is synthetic lethal with ferroptosis induction.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(9):2757-2766 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a hereditary cancer syndrome characterized by inactivation of the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH). HLRCC patients are at high risk of developing kidney cancer of type 2 papillary morphology that is refractory to current radiotherapy, immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Hence, an effective therapy for this deadly form of cancer is urgently needed. Here, we show that FH inactivation (FH

Fuchs R, Stracke A, Holzmann V, et al.
Prazosin induced lysosomal tubulation interferes with cytokinesis and the endocytic sorting of the tumour antigen CD98hc.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018; 1865(9):1211-1229 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
The quinazoline based drug prazosin (PRZ) is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human cancer cells. We recently reported that PRZ enters cells via endocytosis and induces tubulation of the endolysosomal system. In a proteomics approach aimed at identifying potential membrane proteins with binding affinity to quinazolines, we detected the oncoprotein CD98hc. We confirmed shuttling of CD98hc towards lysosomes and upregulation of CD98hc expression in PRZ treated cells. Gene knockout (KO) experiments revealed that endocytosis of PRZ still occurs in the absence of CD98hc - suggesting that PRZ does not enter the cell via CD98hc but misroutes the protein towards tubular lysosomes. Lysosomal tubulation interfered with completion of cytokinesis and provoked endoreplication. CD98hc KO cells showed reduced endoreplication capacity and lower sensitivity towards PRZ induced apoptosis than wild type cells. Thus, loss of CD98hc does not affect endocytosis of PRZ and lysosomal tubulation, but the ability for endoreplication and survival of cells. Furthermore, we found that glutamine, lysomototropic agents - namely chloroquine and NH

Kumar MS, Adki KM
Marine natural products for multi-targeted cancer treatment: A future insight.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 105:233-245 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is world's second largest alarming disease, which involves abnormal cell growth and have potential to spread to other parts of the body. Most of the available anticancer drugs are designed to act on specific targets by altering the activity of involved transporters and genes. As cancer cells exhibit complex cellular machinery, the regeneration of cancer tissues and chemo resistance towards the therapy has been the main obstacle in cancer treatment. This fact encourages the researchers to explore the multitargeted use of existing medicines to overcome the shortcomings of chemotherapy for alternative and safer treatment strategies. Recent developments in genomics-proteomics and an understanding of the molecular pharmacology of cancer have also challenged researchers to come up with target-based drugs. The literature supports the evidence of natural compounds exhibiting antioxidant, antimitotic, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic as well as anticancer activity. In this review, we have selected marine sponges as a prolific source of bioactive compounds which can be explored for their possible use in cancer and have tried to link their role in cancer pathway. To prove this, we revisited the literature for the selection of cancer genes for the multitargeted use of existing drugs and natural products. We used Cytoscape network analysis and Search tool for retrieval of interacting genes/ proteins (STRING) to study the possible interactions to show the links between the antioxidants, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and antimitotic agents and their targets for their possible use in cancer. We included total 78 pathways, their genes and natural compounds from the above four pharmacological classes used in cancer treatment for multitargeted approach. Based on the Cytoscape network analysis results, we shortlist 22 genes based on their average shortest path length connecting one node to all other nodes in a network. These selected genes are CDKN2A, FH, VHL, STK11, SUFU, RB1, MEN1, HRPT2, EXT1, 2, CDK4, p14, p16, TSC1, 2, AXIN2, SDBH C, D, NF1, 2, BHD, PTCH, GPC3, CYLD and WT1. The selected genes were analysed using STRING for their protein-protein interactions. Based on the above findings, we propose the selected genes to be considered as major targets and are suggested to be studied for discovering marine natural products as drug lead in cancer treatment.

Xie J, Ubango J, Ban Y, et al.
Comparative analysis of AKT and the related biomarkers in uterine leiomyomas with MED12, HMGA2, and FH mutations.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(10):485-494 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Uterine leiomyomas (ULM) are histologically and molecularly heterogeneous and clinically they grow at vastly different rates. Several driver gene mutations have been identified in ULM, including MED12 mutations, HMGA2 overexpression, and biallelic FH inactivation. ULM with different driver mutant genes may use different molecular pathways, but currently no clear correlation between gene mutations and growth related pathways has been established. To better define this relationship, we collected ULM with MED12 (n = 25), HMGA2 (n = 15), and FH (n = 27) mutations and examined the sex steroid hormone, cell cycle, and AKT pathway genes by immunohistochemistry. While ER and PR were highly expressed in all types of ULM, FH ULM showed lower ER expression and higher PR expression. HMGA2 tumors had significantly higher levels of AKT signaling and mitogenic activity than other ULM types. HMGA2 activated AKT signaling through upregulation of IGF2BP2. Silencing HMGA2 in ULM cells resulted in downregulation of AKT and upregulation of p16 and p21, which eventually led to cell senescence. HMGA2 overexpression in ULM is not only related to tumor development but also plays a role in controlling cellular proliferation through the AKT pathway.

Nakayama R, Togashi Y, Baba S, et al.
Epithelioid cell histiocytoma with SQSTM1-ALK fusion: a case report.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid cell histiocytoma (ECH), which is also known as epithelioid benign fibrous histiocytoma, has been classified as a rare variant of fibrous histiocytoma (FH). However, the recent detection of ALK protein expression and/or ALK gene rearrangement in ECH suggests that it might be biologically different from conventional FH.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old male presented with nodule on his left foot, which had been present for 5 years. A macroscopic examination revealed an exophytic, hyperkeratotic nodule on the dorsum of the left foot. Tumorectomy was performed, and a microscopic examination showed a subepidermal lesion composed of sheets of tumor cells with oval to round nuclei and ill-defined eosinophilic cytoplasm. The tumor cells were diffusely positive for factor XIIIa and ALK, but were negative for AE1/AE3 keratin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, CD30, CD34, CD68, PU.1, melan A, MITF, and S-100 protein. ALK immunostaining showed a diffuse cytoplasmic staining pattern. ALK fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated break-apart signals, which was suggestive of ALK rearrangement. A 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay detected SQSTM1-ALK fusion, in which exon 5 of the SQSTM1 gene was fused to exon 20 of the ALK gene. The patient was free from recurrence and distant metastasis at the 1-year of follow-up.
CONCLUSION: We were able to demonstrate the SQSTM1-ALK fusion gene in ECH. Practically, detecting immunopositivity for ALK and appropriate cell-lineage markers are the key to diagnosing ECH.

Wang S, Mou J, Cui L, et al.
Astragaloside IV inhibits cell proliferation of colorectal cancer cell lines through down-regulation of B7-H3.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 102:1037-1044 [PubMed] Related Publications
Astragaloside IV showed a pivotal anti-cancer efficacy in multiple types of cancers and reversed chemoresistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it remained unknown whether and how Astragaloside IV suppressed the progression of CRC. In the present study, we found that Astragaloside IV treatment significantly and dose-dependently reduced cell proliferation of CRC cell lines (SW620 and HCT116), whereas it showed no significant influence on the cell proliferation of normal colonic cells (FHC). Flow cytometry (FCM) analysis indicated that there was a significant cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of SW620 cells and HCT116 cells which were treated with Astragaloside IV. The mRNA levels and protein levels of several key cell cycle relative proteins (cyclin D1 and CDK4) were also dramatically decreased during the process of G0/G1 arrest after the administration of Astragaloside IV. In addition, we observed an obvious decrease of B7-H3 protein level upon Astragaloside IV treatment, which was a result of mRNA reduction that was verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and CHX chase. We further identified that Astragaloside IV suppressed B7-H3 expression by elevating the expression of miR-29c level. Inhibition of miR-29c could dramatically reverse Astragaloside IV-induced B7-H3 decrease and cell growth arrest. This study suggests that Astragaloside IV is a promising anti-cancer drug in CRC.

Agaimy A, Amin MB, Gill AJ, et al.
SWI/SNF protein expression status in fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma: immunohistochemical analysis of 32 tumors from 28 patients.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 77:139-146 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma (FH-RCC) is a rare, aggressive RCC type, originally described in the setting of hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, which is defined by germline FH gene inactivation. Inactivation of components of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex is involved in renal medullary carcinoma (SMARCB1/INI1 loss), clear cell RCC (PBRM1 loss), and subsets of dedifferentiated RCC of clear cell, chromophobe, and papillary types (loss of different SWI/SNF components). FH-RCC and SWI/SNF-deficient RCC share anaplastic nuclear features and highly aggressive course. We analyzed 32 FH-RCCs from 28 patients using 7 commercially available SWI/SNF antibodies (SMARCB1/INI1, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCC1, SMARCC2, PBRM1, and ARID1A). Variable loss of SMARCB1, ARID1A, and SMARCC1 was observed in 1 of 31, 2 of 31, and 1 of 29 evaluable cases, respectively; 3 of these 4 SWI/SNF-deficient tumors had confirmed FH mutations. No correlation of SWI/SNF loss with solid or sarcomatoid features was observed. Two tumors with SMARCB1 and ARID1A deficiency had available SWI/SNF molecular data; both lacked SMARCB1 and ARID1A mutations. The remaining 5 SWI/SNF components were intact in all cases. Especially PBRM1 seems not to be involved in the pathogenesis or progression of FH-RCC. Our data showed that a subset of FH-RCC (12%) have a variable loss of SWI/SNF complex subunits, likely as secondary genetic events. This should not be confused with SWI/SNF-deficient RCC of other types. Evaluation of FH and SWI/SNF together with comprehensive molecular genetic profiling is needed to explore possible prognostic implications of FH/SWI-SNF double deficiency and to better understand the somatic mutation landscape in high-grade RCC.

Mondal K, Chakraborty P, Kabir SN
Hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperandrogenemia share PCSK9-LDLR pathway to disrupt lipid homeostasis in PCOS.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(1):8-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD); however, the independent role of PCOS in the incident CVD remains unknown. There are reports that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), a potential cause of CVD, is frequently associated with PCOS. The present study investigates the independent attributes of hyperandrogenemia (HA), the integral associate of PCOS, and HHcy in causing atherogenic dyslipidemia. Twenty-five-day old rats were treated with homocysteine (Hcy) at 50 mg/kg/day dose level for 12 weeks. The HepG2 cell lines transfected with siRNA directed to PCSK9 were challenged with Hcy, homocysteine thiolactone (HTL), testosterone, 5α-dihydroxytestosterone (5α-DHT), or estradiol for 24 h. Rats administered with Hcy developed HHcy and displayed PCOS-like phenotypes with adversely altered lipid homeostasis and attenuated PI3K-AKT and Wnt signalling cascade. Overexpression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and down-regulated expression of Aromatase together with elevated testosterone level marked the state of HA. In culture, the HepG2 cells responded independently to Hcy, HTL, testosterone, and 5α-DHT by an overt expression of PCSK9 and down-regulated expression of LDLR. The effect was magnified under the combined influence of Hcy and androgen(s). Estradiol, by contrast, exhibited the reverse effect. The findings suggest that HA may independently attribute to an increased cardiovascular risk in PCOS; however, the coexistence of HHcy catalyzes the risk further.

Gong L, Ren M, Lv Z, et al.
miR-92b-3p Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Proliferation, Invasion, and Migration by Inhibiting FBXW7 In Vitro and In Vivo.
DNA Cell Biol. 2018; 37(5):501-511 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNA (miR)-92b is an oncogenic miRNA. F-box and WD-40 domain protein 7 (FBXW7/hCdc4) is a tumor suppressor and a target of miR-92b-3p. This study was designed to investigate the effect of miR-92b-3p on colorectal carcinoma (CRC) invasion. The expression levels of miR-92b-3p in human HT29, HCT116, and human fetal colon (FHC) normal cells were detected. HT29 and HCT116 cells were transfected with either miR-92b-3p inhibitor or FBXW7 expression plasmids (pcDNA-FBXW7) and combination of miR-92b-3p and siRNA-FBXW7. Cell viability, migration, invasion, colony formation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in transfected cells were detected using corresponding methods. Moreover, the target relationship between miR-92b-3p and FBXW7 was verified using dual-luciferase reporter assay. miR-92b-3p was upregulated in CRC cells in comparison with FHC cells. Then, we transfected HT29 and HCT116 cells with miR-92b-3p inhibitor or pcDNA-FBXW7 and found decreased cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation ability, as well as the number of upregulated cells at G1 phase of cell cycle and cell apoptosis. With the cotransfection of miR-92b-3p inhibitor and siRNA-FBXW7, we determined that siRNA-FBXW7 partially attenuated the effect of miR-92b-3p inhibitor on cell behaviors. SiRNA-FBXW7 administration to miR-92b-3p inhibitor-treated cells rebooted cell proliferation, cell migration, invasion, and colony formation. miR-92b-3p inhibition prevented CRC proliferation, invasion, and migration by upregulating FBXW7, which might suggest the potential role of miR-92b-3p in colorectal carcinogenesis and metastasis.

Singh G, Sankanagoudar S, Dogra P, Chandra NC
Interlink between cholesterol & cell cycle in prostate carcinoma.
Indian J Med Res. 2017; 146(Suppl):S38-S44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Background & objectives: Earlier reports have shown hypocholesterolaemia in cancer patients and high number of lipid rafts in cancer cells. The primary objective of this study was to compare the intracellular cholesterol turnover in non-cancerous (benign) prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and carcinoma prostate (CAP) with normal prostate cells obtained from patients undergoing radical cystectomy for carcinoma bladder (sham control).
Methods: ELISA-based estimation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), evaluation of expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and cyclin E, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, measurement of integrated optical density of the diaminobenzidine (DAB)-stained immunohistograms, isolation of nucleus and cell cytoplasm from prostate tissue by ultracentrifugation followed by estimation of cholesterol spectrophotometrically in isolated nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions were performed.
Results: Seventy five individuals, 25 for each group (BPH n=25; CAP n=25 and sham control n=25), were included in the study. Cholesterol was increased in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the prostate cancer cells along with elevated expression of LDLR. Increased cholesterol concentration in the cell nucleus was found comparable with the increased expression of cholesterol transporter viz. PBR in the prostate tumour tissues as compared to its expression in normal prostate cells obtained from individuals undergoing radical cystectomy for carcinoma bladder. Cell cycle protein cyclin E was also highly expressed in cancer tissues.
Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings along with increased expression of cell cycle protein cyclin E in the cell nucleus of the tumour tissue suggested the possibility of an intriguing role of cholesterol in the mechanism of cell cycle process of prostate cell proliferation.

Yang X, Zhang J, Chen L, et al.
Chitosan oligosaccharides enhance lipid droplets via down-regulation of PCSK9 gene expression in HepG2 cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 366(2):152-160 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), linear polymers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and deacetylated glucosamine, exhibit diverse pharmacological effects such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we explored their hypocholesterolemic effects in vivo and the molecular mechanisms of COS in hepatic cells. Our in vivo study of dyslipidemic ApoE

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. LDLR, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/LDLR.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 30 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999