Gene Summary

Gene:POU1F1; POU class 1 homeobox 1
Aliases: PIT1, CPHD1, GHF-1, Pit-1, POU1F1a
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the POU family of transcription factors that regulate mammalian development. The protein regulates expression of several genes involved in pituitary development and hormone expression. Mutations in this genes result in combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 02 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Transcription Factors
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • DNA Primers
  • Pituitary Tumors
  • Transcription
  • Breast Cancer
  • Pituitary Hormones
  • Translocation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Prolactin
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Survival
  • Promoter Regions
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Gene Expression
  • Base Sequence
  • Growth Hormone
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Adenoma
  • Prolactinoma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Transcription Factor Pit-1
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Young Adult
  • Chromosome 3
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • siRNA
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Messenger RNA
  • Adolescents
  • Signal Transduction
  • beta Catenin
  • Northern Blotting
  • Apoptosis
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: POU1F1 (cancer-related)

Martinez-Ordoñez A, Seoane S, Cabezas P, et al.
Breast cancer metastasis to liver and lung is facilitated by Pit-1-CXCL12-CXCR4 axis.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(11):1430-1444 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development of human tumors is driven by accumulation of alterations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in cells. The POU1F1 transcription factor (also known Pit-1) is expressed in the mammary gland and its overexpression induces profound phenotypic changes in proteins involved in breast cancer progression. Patients with breast cancer and elevated expression of Pit-1 show a positive correlation with the occurrence of distant metastasis and poor overall survival. However, some mediators of Pit-1 actions are still unknown. Here, we show that CXCR4 chemokine receptor and its ligand CXCL12 play a critical role in the pro-tumoral process induced by Pit-1. We found that Pit-1 increases mRNA and protein in both CXCR4 and CXCL12. Knock-down of CXCR4 reduces tumor growth and spread of Pit-1 overexpressing cells in a zebrafish xenograft model. Furthermore, we described for the first time pro-angiogenic effects of Pit-1 through the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis, and that extravasation of Pit-1 overexpressing breast cancer cells is strongly reduced in CXCL12-deprived target tissues. Finally, in breast cancer patients, expression of Pit-1 in primary tumors was found to be positively correlated with CXCR4 and CXCL12, with specific metastasis in liver and lung, and with clinical outcome. Our results suggest that Pit-1-CXCL12-CXCR4 axis could be involved in chemotaxis guidance during the metastatic process, and may represent prognostic and/or therapeutic targets in breast tumors.

Takiguchi T, Koide H, Nagano H, et al.
Multihormonal pituitary adenoma concomitant with Pit-1 and Tpit lineage cells causing acromegaly associated with subclinical Cushing's disease: a case report.
BMC Endocr Disord. 2017; 17(1):54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A functional pituitary adenoma can produce multiple anterior-pituitary hormones, such as growth hormone (GH) -producing adenomas (GHoma) with prolactin or thyrotropin stimulating hormone production in the same lineage. However, it is very rare that acromegaly shows subclinical Cushing's disease (SCD) beyond the lineage. Here we describe the involvement of intratumoral coexistence with 2 types of hormone-producing cells associated with different lineage in acromegaly concomitant with SCD.
CASE PRESENTATION: In our study, we performed clinical evaluation of the patient showing acromegaly with SCD. To elucidate the mechanisms of this pathology, we analyzed immunohistochemistry and gene expression of anterior-pituitary hormones and transcriptional factors in the resected pituitary tumor. On immunohistochemical staining, most of the tumor cells were strongly stained for GH antibody, while some cells were strongly positive for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Gene expression analysis of a transsphenoidal surgery sample of the pituitary gland revealed that ACTH-related genes, such as POMC, Tpit, and NeuroD1 mRNA, had higher expression in the tumor tissue than the nonfunctional adenoma but lower expression compared to an adenoma of typical Cushing's disease. Further, double-labeling detection methods with a fluorescent stain for ACTH and GH demonstrated the coexistence of ACTH-positive cells (GH-negative) among the GH-positive cells in the tumor. Additionally, Pit-1 expression was reduced in the ACTH-positive cells from tumor tissue primary culture.
CONCLUSION: Here we described a case of a pituitary tumor diagnosed with acromegaly associated with SCD. We performed quantitative-expression analyses of transcriptional factors of the tumor tissue and immunohistochemistry analysis of tumor-derived primary culture cells, which suggested that the multihormonal pituitary adenoma concomitant with Pit-1 and Tpit lineage cells caused acromegaly associated with SCD.

Takase N, Inden M, Sekine SI, et al.
Neuroprotective effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid against low inorganic phosphate in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):5768 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PiT-1 (encoded by SLC20A1) and PiT-2 (encoded by SLC20A2) are type-III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters (NaPiTs). Recently, SLC20A2 mutations have been found in patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), and were predicted to bring about an inability to transport Pi from the extracellular environment. Here we investigated the effect of low Pi loading on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and the human glioblastoma A172 cell lines. The results show a different sensitivity to low Pi loading and differential regulation of type-III NaPiTs in these cells. We also examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) inhibited low Pi loading-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Concomitant application of 5-ALA with low Pi loading markedly attenuated low Pi-induced cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction via the induction of HO-1 by p38 MAPK. The findings provide us with novel viewpoints to understand the pathophysiology of IBGC, and give a new insight into the clinical prevention and treatment of IBGC.

Wu W, Fan X, Yu Y, et al.
Alteration of ghrelin/obestatin ratio in adolescence with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2018; 34(1):36-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ghrelin, an endoggenous for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to participate in the regulation of energy homeostasis and pituitary hormone secretion. Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, is described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. Ghrelin and obestatin are altered in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by insulin resistance and pituitary hormone secretion disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate ghrelin/obestatin imbalance in relation to insulin resistance and pituitary hormone in adolescence with PCOS. This restrospective case-control study included 33 adolescence with PCOS and 38 control adolescence. Ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in serum were determined by RIA, and the serum fasting glucose and Insulin were determined by the glucose oxidase color method and INS-EASIA. The serum LH and FSH were measured by highly specific hemiluminescence immunoassays. We found that the serum ghrelin levels and ghrelin/obestatin ratio were significant lower in PCOS group than in control group, and the serum obestatin levels were significant higher in PCOS group than in control group. The ghrelin/obestatin ratios were negatively correlation with LH/FSH ratio and insulin resistant index in PCOS group. The findings of this study suggest that ghrelin/obestatin imbalance may play a role in pathogenesis of adolescent PCOS.

Gao Z, Xue K, Zhang L, Wei M
Over-Expression of POU Class 1 Homeobox 1 Transcription Factor (Pit-1) Predicts Poor Prognosis for Breast Cancer Patients.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:4121-4125 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The POU class 1 homeobox 1 transcription factor (POU1F1, also known as Pit-1) was reported to be associated with tumor progression and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of Pit-1 in breast cancer patients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The relative expression levels of Pit-1 in breast cancer patients were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the association between Pit-1 expression and clinical features. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the overall survival of the patients and Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the prognostic value of Pit-1.
RESULTS: Increased expression of Pit-1 was detected in the tumor tissues compared with the normal tissues (1.086 vs. 0.541) and the abnormal expression was associated with tumor size, clinical stage, tumor grade, and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). High expression level of Pit-1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival of the patients (P=0.001) and Cox regression analysis indicated that Pit-1 might be a prognostic factor for breast cancer prognosis (HR=1.955, 95% CI=1.295-3.035, P=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Pit-1 may be a potential prognostic biomarker for breast cancer patients and it is associated with tumor progression.

Vujovic S, Vujosevic S, Kavaric S, et al.
Cancerous leptomeningitis and familial congenital hypopituitarism.
Endocrine. 2016; 52(2):231-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
People are at higher risk of cancer as they get older or have a strong family history of cancer. The potential influence of environmental and behavioral factors remains poorly understood. Earlier population and case control studies reported that upper quartile of circulating IGF-I is associated with a higher risk of developing cancer suggesting possible involvement of the growth hormone (GH)/IGF system in initiation or progression of cancer. Since GH therapy increases IGF-1 levels, there have been concerns that GH therapy in hypopituitarism might increase the risk of cancer. We report a 42-year-old female patient who presented with subacute onset of symptoms of meningitis and with the absence of fever which resulted in death 70 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient together with her younger brother was diagnosed at the age of 5 years with familial congenital hypopituitarism, due to homozygous mutation c.150delA in PROP1 gene. Due to evolving hypopituitarism, she was replaced with thyroxine (from age 5), hydrocortisone (from age 13), GH (from age 13 until 17), and sex steroids in adolescence and adulthood. Her consanguineous family has a prominent history of malignant diseases. Six close relatives had malignant disease including her late maternal aunt with breast cancer. BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutational analysis in the patient's mother was negative. Histology after autopsy disclosed advanced ovarian cancer with multiple metastases to the brain, leptomeninges, lungs, heart, and adrenals. Low circulating IGF-1 did not seem to protect this patient from cancer initiation and progression in the context of strong family history of malignancies.

Matsunaga H, Sasaki S, Suzuki S, et al.
Essential Role of GATA2 in the Negative Regulation of Type 2 Deiodinase Gene by Liganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor β2 in Thyrotroph.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0142400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The inhibition of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone; TSH) by thyroid hormone (T3) and its receptor (TR) is the central mechanism of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Two transcription factors, GATA2 and Pit-1, determine thyrotroph differentiation and maintain the expression of the β subunit of TSH (TSHβ). We previously reported that T3-dependent repression of the TSHβ gene is mediated by GATA2 but not by the reported negative T3-responsive element (nTRE). In thyrotrophs, T3 also represses mRNA of the type-2 deiodinase (D2) gene, where no nTRE has been identified. Here, the human D2 promoter fused to the CAT or modified Renilla luciferase gene was co-transfected with Pit-1 and/or GATA2 expression plasmids into cell lines including CV1 and thyrotroph-derived TαT1. GATA2 but not Pit-1 activated the D2 promoter. Two GATA responsive elements (GATA-REs) were identified close to cAMP responsive element. The protein kinase A activator, forskolin, synergistically enhanced GATA2-dependent activity. Gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with TαT1 cells indicated that GATA2 binds to these GATA-REs. T3 repressed the GATA2-induced activity of the D2 promoter in the presence of the pituitary-specific TR, TRβ2. The inhibition by T3-bound TRβ2 was dominant over the synergism between GATA2 and forskolin. The D2 promoter is also stimulated by GATA4, the major GATA in cardiomyocytes, and this activity was repressed by T3 in the presence of TRα1. These data indicate that the GATA-induced activity of the D2 promoter is suppressed by T3-bound TRs via a tethering mechanism, as in the case of the TSHβ gene.

Seoane S, Arias E, Sigueiro R, et al.
Pit-1 inhibits BRCA1 and sensitizes human breast tumors to cisplatin and vitamin D treatment.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(16):14456-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The POU class 1 homeobox 1 (POU1F1, also known as Pit-1), pertaining to the Pit-Oct-Unc (POU) family of transcription factors, has been related to tumor growth and metastasis in breast. However, its role in response to breast cancer therapy is unknown. We found that Pit-1 down-regulated DNA-damage and repair genes, and specifically inhibited BRCA1 gene expression, sensitizing breast cancer cells to DNA-damage agents. Administration of 1α, 25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin D3 (3-Epi, an endogenous low calcemic vitamin D metabolite) reduced Pit-1 expression, and synergized with cisplatin, thus, decreasing cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro, and reducing tumor growth in vivo. In addition, fifteen primary cultures of human breast tumors showed significantly decreased proliferation when treated with 3-Epi+cisplatin, compared to cisplatin alone. This response positively correlated with Pit-1 levels. Our findings demonstrate that high levels of Pit-1 and reduced BRCA1 levels increase breast cancer cell susceptibility to 3-Epi+cisplatin therapy.

Huang YL, Chou WC, Hsiung CN, et al.
FGFR2 regulates Mre11 expression and double-strand break repair via the MEK-ERK-POU1F1 pathway in breast tumorigenesis.
Hum Mol Genet. 2015; 24(12):3506-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
The association between breast cancer risk and genetic variants of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) has been identified and repeatedly confirmed; however, the mechanism underlying FGFR2 in breast tumorigenesis remains obscure. Given that breast tumorigenesis is particularly related to DNA double-strand-break-repair (DSBR), we examined the hypothesis that FGFR2 is involved in DSBR. Our results show that expression of Mre11, a vital exonuclease in DSBR, is downregulated by FGFR2, which is further linked to decreased DSBR. Analysis of the Mre11 promoter revealed that POU1F1 mediates FGFR2-induced Mre11 downregulation. Furthermore, ERK, downstream of FGFR2, directly interacts with and phosphorylates POU1F1, increasing POU1F1 binding capacity to the Mre11 promoter and repressing Mre11 expression, which consequently affects DSBR and sensitizes breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic treatments. The importance of the FGFR2-Mre11-DSBR link in cancer progression is suggested by the finding that genotypes of FGFR2 and Mre11 are associated with survival of breast cancer patients and that FGFR2 expression correlates with cancer prognosis specifically in patients receiving chemotherapy. This study yields important insight into the role of FGFR2 in breast tumorigenesis and may facilitate development of a useful therapeutic approach for breast cancer.

Sendon-Lago J, Seoane S, Eiro N, et al.
Cancer progression by breast tumors with Pit-1-overexpression is blocked by inhibition of metalloproteinase (MMP)-13.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(6):505 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The POU class 1 homeobox 1 transcription factor (POU1F1, also known as Pit-1) is expressed in the mammary gland and its overexpression induces profound phenotypic changes in proteins involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Patients with breast cancer and elevated expression of Pit-1 show a positive correlation with the occurrence of distant metastasis. In this study we evaluate the relationship between Pit-1 and two collagenases: matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), which have been related to metastasis in breast cancer.
METHODS: We began by transfecting the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines with the Pit-1 overexpression vector (pRSV-hPit-1). Afterward, the mRNA, protein, and transcriptional regulation of both MMP-1 and MMP-13 were evaluated by real-time PCR, Western blot, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and luciferase reporter assays. We also evaluated Pit-1 overexpression with MMP-1 and MMP-13 knockdown in a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse tumor xenograft model. Finally, by immunohistochemistry we correlated Pit-1 with MMP-1 and MMP-13 protein expression in 110 human breast tumors samples.
RESULTS: Our data show that Pit-1 increases mRNA and protein of both MMP-1 and MMP-13 through direct transcriptional regulation. In SCID mice, knockdown of MMP-13 completely blocked lung metastasis in Pit-1-overexpressing MCF-7 cells injected into the mammary fat pad. In breast cancer patients, expression of Pit-1 was found to be positively correlated with the presence of both MMP-1 and MMP-13.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates that Pit-1 regulates MMP-1 and MMP-13, and that inhibition of MMP-13 blocked invasiveness to lung in Pit-1-overexpressed breast cancer cells.

Orciani M, Davis S, Appolloni G, et al.
Isolation and characterization of progenitor mesenchymal cells in human pituitary tumors.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2015; 22(1):9-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) theory suggests that genetic alterations in stem cells are the direct cause for cancer. The evidence for a CSC population that results in pituitary tumors is poor. Some studies report the isolation of CSCs, but a deep characterization of the stemness of these cells is lacking. Here, we report the isolation and detailed characterization of progenitor mesenchymal cells (PMCs) from both growth hormone-secreting (GH(+)) and non-secreting (NS) pituitary adenomas, determining the immunophenotype, the expression of genes related to stemness or to pituitary hormone cell types, and the differentiative potential towards osteo-, chondro- and adipogenic lineages. Finally, the expression of CD133, known as a marker for CSCs in other tumors, was analyzed. Isolated cells, both from GH(+) and NS tumors, satisfy all the criteria for the identification of PMCs and express known stem cell markers (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, NANOG), but do not express markers of pituitary hormone cell types (PITX2, PROP1, PIT1). Finally, PMCs express CD133. We demonstrated that pituitary tumors contain a stem cell population that can generate cell types characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, and express CD133, which is associated with CSCs in other tumors.

Diaz-Rodriguez E, Garcia-Rendueles AR, Ibáñez-Costa A, et al.
Somatotropinomas, but not nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, maintain a functional apoptotic RET/Pit1/ARF/p53 pathway that is blocked by excess GDNF.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(11):4329-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acromegaly is caused by somatotroph cell adenomas (somatotropinomas [ACROs]), which secrete GH. Human and rodent somatotroph cells express the RET receptor. In rodents, when normal somatotrophs are deprived of the RET ligand, GDNF (Glial Cell Derived Neurotrophic Factor), RET is processed intracellularly to induce overexpression of Pit1 [Transcription factor (gene : POUF1) essential for transcription of Pituitary hormones GH, PRL and TSHb], which in turn leads to p19Arf/p53-dependent apoptosis. Our purpose was to ascertain whether human ACROs maintain the RET/Pit1/p14ARF/p53/apoptosis pathway, relative to nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Apoptosis in the absence and presence of GDNF was studied in primary cultures of 8 ACROs and 3 NFPAs. Parallel protein extracts were analyzed for expression of RET, Pit1, p19Arf, p53, and phospho-Akt. When GDNF deprived, ACRO cells, but not NFPAs, presented marked level of apoptosis that was prevented in the presence of GDNF. Apoptosis was accompanied by RET processing, Pit1 accumulation, and p14ARF and p53 induction. GDNF prevented all these effects via activation of phospho-AKT. Overexpression of human Pit1 (hPit1) directly induced p19Arf/p53 and apoptosis in a pituitary cell line. Using in silico studies, 2 CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (cEBPα) consensus-binding sites were found to be 100% conserved in mouse, rat, and hPit1 promoters. Deletion of 1 cEBPα site prevented the RET-induced increase in hPit1 promoter expression. TaqMan qRT-PCR (real time RT-PCR) for RET, Pit1, Arf, TP53, GDNF, steroidogenic factor 1, and GH was performed in RNA from whole ACRO and NFPA tumors. ACRO but not NFPA adenomas express RET and Pit1. GDNF expression in the tumors was positively correlated with RET and negatively correlated with p53. In conclusion, ACROs maintain an active RET/Pit1/p14Arf/p53/apoptosis pathway that is inhibited by GDNF. Disruption of GDNF's survival function might constitute a new therapeutic route in acromegaly.

Kubo S, Takagi-Kimura M, Logg CR, Kasahara N
Highly efficient tumor transduction and antitumor efficacy in experimental human malignant mesothelioma using replicating gibbon ape leukemia virus.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2013; 20(12):671-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retroviral replicating vectors (RRVs) have been shown to achieve efficient tumor transduction and enhanced therapeutic benefit in a wide variety of cancer models. Here we evaluated two different RRVs derived from amphotropic murine leukemia virus (AMLV) and gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), in human malignant mesothelioma cells. In vitro, both RRVs expressing the green fluorescent protein gene efficiently replicated in most mesothelioma cell lines tested, but not in normal mesothelial cells. Notably, in ACC-MESO-1 mesothelioma cells that were not permissive for AMLV-RRV, the GALV-RRV could spread efficiently in culture and in mice with subcutaneous xenografts by in vivo fluorescence imaging. Next, GALV-RRV expressing the cytosine deaminase prodrug activator gene showed efficient killing of ACC-MESO-1 cells in a prodrug 5-fluorocytosine dose-dependent manner, compared with AMLV-RRV. GALV-RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy achieved significant inhibition of subcutaneous ACC-MESO-1 tumor growth in nude mice. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that ACC-MESO-1 cells express higher PiT-1 (GALV receptor) and lower PiT-2 (AMLV receptor) compared with normal mesothelial cells and other mesothelioma cells, presumably accounting for the distinctive finding that GALV-RRV replicates much more robustly than AMLV-RRV in these cells. These data indicate the potential utility of GALV-RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy in the treatment of mesothelioma.

Akcay A, Ulucan K, Taskin N, et al.
Suprasellar mass mimicking a hypothalamic glioma in a patient with a complete PROP1 deletion.
Eur J Med Genet. 2013; 56(8):445-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in PROP1 are the most frequent defect detected in patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (MIM #262600), characterized by a clinical phenotype of proportionate growth deficit due to impaired production of growth hormone in combination with deficiency of one or more of the additional anterior pituitary hormones. Approximately one third of patients with PROP1 inactivating mutations present with abnormal development of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland as revealed by MRI. We report on the clinical and molecular characterization of the fourth complete PROP1 deletion in a girl with proportional short stature, combined pituitary hormone deficiency and a suprasellar mass mimicking a hypothalamic glioma. The proband, born to consanguineous parents, presented with proportional growth failure (height 108.8 cm, -3.48 SDS), combined pituitary hormone deficiency (GH, TSH, PRL and gonadotropins) and a suprasellar mass with optic chiasm invasion, compatible with a diagnosis of chiasmatic hypothalamic glioma, as revealed by MRI. PROP1 mutation screening by PCR and MLPA detected a homozygous deletion of the entire PROP1. The deletion was delimited to at least 7.7 kb upstream of PROP1 and more finely to ∼541-74 bp downstream from PROP1 by aCGH and PCR mapping. We describe the fourth case with a complete PROP1 deletion in homozygosis. The apparent location of the respective 5' (within a highly repetitive region, rich in Alu sequences) and 3' (within an Alu sequence) breakpoints, suggests that the deletion may have arisen through homologous recombination. The differentiation between PROP1 mutation associated pituitary enlargements from craniopharyngioma, pituitary adenoma, dys-germinoma, or Rathke's pouch cyst, is critical for the correct patient management. It is important to recognize that PROP1 mutations can present associated with evolving pituitary masses and/or other MRI alterations of the pituitary during early childhood and that surgery is not indicated in these patients. Therefore, in the presence of combined pituitary hormone deficiency and a pituitary or hypothalamic mass, PROP1 analysis should be considered before referring the patient to a neurosurgeon.

Xu W, Stadler CK, Gorman K, et al.
An exogenous retrovirus isolated from koalas with malignant neoplasias in a US zoo.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(28):11547-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Leukemia and lymphoma account for more than 60% of deaths in captive koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in northeastern Australia. Although the endogenizing gammaretrovirus koala endogenous retrovirus (KoRV) was isolated from these koalas, KoRV has not been definitively associated with leukemogenesis. We performed KoRV screening in koalas from the San Diego Zoo, maintained for more than 45 y with very limited outbreeding, and the Los Angeles Zoo, maintained by continuously assimilating captive-born Australian koalas. San Diego Zoo koalas are currently free of malignant neoplasias and were infected with only endogenous KoRV, which we now term subtype "KoRV-A," whereas Los Angeles Zoo koalas with lymphomas/leukemias are infected in addition to KoRV-A by a unique KoRV we term subtype "KoRV-B." KoRV-B is most divergent in the envelope protein and uses a host receptor distinct from KoRV-A. KoRV-B also has duplicated enhancer regions in the LTR associated with increased pathology in gammaretroviruses. Whereas KoRV-A uses the sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1 (PiT1) as a receptor, KoRV-B employs a different receptor, the thiamine transporter 1 (THTR1), to infect cells. KoRV-B is transmitted from dam to offspring through de novo infection, rather than via genetic inheritance like KoRV-A. Detection of KoRV-B in native Australian koalas should provide a history, and a mode for remediation, of leukemia/lymphoma currently endemic in this population.

Araujo RV, Chang CV, Cescato VA, et al.
PROP1 overexpression in corticotrophinomas: evidence for the role of PROP1 in the maintenance of cells committed to corticotrophic differentiation.
Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2013; 68(6):887-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The expression of transcription factors involved in early pituitary development, such as PROP1 and POU1F1, has been detected in pituitary adenoma tissues. In this study, we sought to characterize the transcriptional profiles of PROP1, POU1F1, and TBX19 in functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas in an attempt to identify their roles in tumorigenesis and hormone hypersecretion.
METHODS: RT-qPCR analyses were performed to assess the transcriptional pattern of PROP1, POU1F1, TBX19, and hormone-producing genes in tissue samples of corticotrophinomas (n=10), somatotrophinomas (n=8), and nonfunctioning adenomas (n=6).
RESULTS: Compared with normal pituitary tissue, POU1F1 was overexpressed in somatotrophinomas by 3-fold. PROP1 expression was 18-fold higher in corticotrophinomas, 10-fold higher in somatotrophinomas, and 3-fold higher in nonfunctioning adenomas. TBX19 expression was 27-fold higher in corticotrophinomas. Additionally, the level of TBX19 mRNA positively correlated with that of pro-opiomelanocortin (r=0.49, p=0.014).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that PROP1 is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas, mainly in corticotrophinomas. Together with previously published data showing that patients who harbor PROP1 loss-of-function mutations present a progressive decline in corticotrope function, our results support a role for PROP1 in pituitary tumor development and in the maintenance of cell lineages committed to corticotrophic differentiation.

Layman LC
The genetic basis of female reproductive disorders: etiology and clinical testing.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013; 370(1-2):138-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
With the advent of improved molecular biology techniques, the genetic basis of an increasing number of reproductive disorders has been elucidated. Mutations in at least 20 genes cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism including Kallmann syndrome in about 35-40% of patients. The two most commonly involved genes are FGFR1 and CHD7. When combined pituitary hormone deficiency includes hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a feature, PROP1 mutations are the most common of the six genes involved. For hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, mutations in 14 genes cause gonadal failure in 15% of affected females, most commonly in FMR1. In eugonadal disorders, activating FSHR mutations have been identified for spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome; and WNT4 mutations have been described in mullerian aplasia. For other eugonadal disorders, such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, and leiomyomata, specific germline gene mutations have not been identified, but some chromosomal regions are associated with the corresponding phenotype. Practical genetic testing is possible to perform in both hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. However, clinical testing for endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, and leiomyomata is not currently practical for the clinician.

Lisboa S, Cerveira N, Bizarro S, et al.
POU1F1 is a novel fusion partner of NUP98 in acute myeloid leukemia with t(3;11)(p11;p15).
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12:5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NUP98 gene rearrangements have been reported in acute myeloid leukemia, giving rise to fusion proteins that seem to function as aberrant transcription factors, and are thought to be associated with poor prognosis.
FINDINGS: A patient with treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia presented a t(3;11)(p11;p15) as the only cytogenetic abnormality. FISH and molecular genetic analyses identified a class 1 homeobox gene, POU1F1, located on chromosome 3p11, as the fusion partner of NUP98. In addition, we have found that the patient harbored an FLT3-ITD mutation, which most likely collaborated with the NUP98-POU1F1 fusion gene in malignant transformation.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified POU1F1 as the NUP98 fusion partner in therapy-related AML with a t(3;11)(p11;p15). This is the first POU family member identified as a fusion partner in human cancer.

Doknic M, Pekic S, Civcic M, Popovic V
Clinical Case Seminar. Peculiar prolactinomas in patients with pituitary developmental gene mutations: from an adult endocrinologist perspective.
Hormones (Athens). 2012 Apr-Jun; 11(2):189-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Congenital hypopituitarism is a syndrome which is associated with single or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Mutations in a number of developmental genes have been linked to combined pituitary hormone deficiencies, the most common being mutation in the pituitary homeobox protein prophet of the Pit 1 gene (PROP1). PROP1 exhibits DNA-binding and transcriptional activities. On magnetic resonance imaging, most patients with PROP1 mutation have a hypoplastic pituitary gland. Occasionally, transient pituitary enlargement before definite involution is reported. Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a human developmental genetic disorder which is a clinically (isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism-IHH) and genetically heterogeneous disease. Routine neuroimaging in classical IHH is thought to be of limited clinical value and normal anatomy of the hypothalamic-pituitary region is often reported. For neither disorder are there many reports on imaging during adulthood. Nor are there any guidelines concerning long-term imaging follow-up in patients with developmental pituitary disorders.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to present unusual endocrine and imaging abnormalities which developed in adulthood in two patients with developmental pituitary disorders.
CASES: We report a female with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies (GH, TSH, gonadotropin and ACTH), except for prolactin, as a consequence of PROP1 mutation, and a male with KS (anosmia and IHH) due to Kal 2 gene (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1- FGFR1) mutation, both of whom in adulthood presented with prolactinomas.
CONCLUSION: Both patients with developmental gene mutations, after long-term correction of their sex steroid status, developed prolactinomas. Although the exact mechanism of pituitary tumorigenesis is not known, we speculate that sex steroids may have facilitated prolactinoma development from the prolactin cell pool which underwent uncontrolled proliferation in the setting of a developmental disorder.

Palmieri D, Valentino T, De Martino I, et al.
PIT1 upregulation by HMGA proteins has a role in pituitary tumorigenesis.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012; 19(2):123-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated that HMGA1B and HMGA2 overexpression in mice induces the development of GH and prolactin (PRL) pituitary adenomas mainly by increasing E2F1 transcriptional activity. Interestingly, these adenomas showed very high expression levels of PIT1, a transcriptional factor that regulates the gene expression of Gh, Prl, Ghrhr and Pit1 itself, playing a key role in pituitary gland development and physiology. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify the role of Pit1 overexpression in pituitary tumour development induced by HMGA1B and HMGA2. First, we demonstrated that HMGA1B and HMGA2 directly interact with both PIT1 and its gene promoter in vivo, and that these proteins positively regulate Pit1 promoter activity, also co-operating with PIT1 itself. Subsequently, we showed, by colony-forming assays on two different pituitary adenoma cell lines, GH3 and αT3, that Pit1 overexpression increases pituitary cell proliferation. Finally, the expression analysis of HMGA1, HMGA2 and PIT1 in human pituitary adenomas of different histological types revealed a direct correlation between PIT1 and HMGA expression levels. Taken together, our data indicate a role of Pit1 upregulation by HMGA proteins in pituitary tumours.

Cani CM, Matushita H, Carvalho LR, et al.
PROP1 and CTNNB1 expression in adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas with or without β-catenin mutations.
Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011; 66(11):1849-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Activating mutations in exon 3 of the β-catenin gene are involved in the pathogenesis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas. Recently, the interaction between β-catenin and PROP1 has been shown to be responsible for pituitary cell lineage determination. We hypothesized that dysregulated PROP1 expression could also be involved in the pathogenesis of craniopharyngiomas
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether dysregulated gene expression was responsible for tumor pathogenesis in adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas, the β-catenin gene was screened for mutations, and the expression of the β-catenin gene and PROP1 was evaluated. β-catenin gene was amplified and sequenced from 14 samples of adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas. PROP1 and β-catenin gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR from 12 samples, and β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on 11 samples.
RESULTS: Mutations in the β-catenin gene were identified in 64% of the adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas samples. Evidence of β-catenin gene overexpression was found in 71% of the tumors with β-catenin mutations and in 40% of the tumors without mutations, and β-catenin immunohistochemistry revealed a nuclear staining pattern for each of the analyzed samples. PROP1 expression was undetectable in all of the tumor samples.
CONCLUSION: We found evidence of β-catenin gene overexpression in the majority of adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas, and we also detected a nuclear β-catenin staining pattern regardless of the presence of a β-catenin gene mutation. These results suggest that WNT signaling activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas. Additionally, this study was the first to evaluate PROP1 expression in adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas, and the absence of PROP1 expression indicates that this gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of this tumor, at least in this cohort.

Roche C, Rasolonjanahary R, Thirion S, et al.
Inactivation of transcription factor pit-1 to target tumoral somatolactotroph cells.
Hum Gene Ther. 2012; 23(1):104-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment of growth hormone (GH)- and prolactin (PRL)-secreting tumors resistant to current therapeutic molecules (somatostatin and dopamine analogues) remains challenging. To target these tumors specifically, we chose to inactivate a gene coding for a crucial factor in cell proliferation and hormonal regulation, specifically expressed in pituitary, by using a dominant-negative form of this gene involved in human pituitary deficiencies: transcription factor Pit-1 (POU1F1) mutated on arginine 271 to tryptophan (R271W). After lentiviral transfer, the effect of R271W was studied in vitro on human tumoral somatotroph and lactotroph cells and on the murine mammosomatotroph cell line GH4C1 and in vivo on GH4C1 subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. R271W induced a decrease in GH and PRL hypersecretion by controlling the transcription of the corresponding hormones. This mutant decreased cell viability by an apoptotic mechanism and in vivo blocked the tumoral growth and GH secretion of xenografts obtained after transplantation of GH4C1 expressing mutant R271W. The strategy of using a dominant-negative form of a main factor controlling cell proliferation and hormonal secretion, and exclusively expressed in pituitary, seems promising for the gene therapy of human pituitary tumors and may be translated to other types of tumors maintaining some differentiation features.

Ben-Batalla I, Seoane S, Garcia-Caballero T, et al.
Deregulation of the Pit-1 transcription factor in human breast cancer cells promotes tumor growth and metastasis.
J Clin Invest. 2010; 120(12):4289-302 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Pit-1 transcription factor (also know as POU1F1) plays a critical role in cell differentiation during organogenesis of the anterior pituitary in mammals and is a transcriptional activator for pituitary gene transcription. Increased expression of Pit-1 has been reported in human tumorigenic breast cells. Here, we found that Pit-1 overexpression or knockdown in human breast cancer cell lines induced profound phenotypic changes in the expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Some of these protumorigenic effects of Pit-1 were mediated by upregulation of Snai1, an inductor of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In immunodeficient mice, Pit-1 overexpression induced tumoral growth and promoted metastasis in lung. In patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and node-positive tumor, high expression of Pit-1 was significantly correlated with Snai1 positivity. Notably, in these patients elevated expression of Pit-1 was significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of distant metastasis. These findings suggest that Pit-1 could help to make a more accurate prognosis in patients with node-positive breast cancer and may represent a new therapeutic target.

Kirschner LS
PRKAR1A and the evolution of pituitary tumors.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010; 326(1-2):3-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Carney complex (CNC) is an inherited tumor predisposition associated with pituitary tumors, including GH-producing pituitary adenomas and rare reports of prolactinomas. This disease is caused by mutations in PRKAR1A, which encodes the type 1A regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced PKA signaling, which leads to pituitary tumorigenesis. Mutations in the gene have not been detected in sporadic pituitary tumors, but there is some data to suggest that non-genomic mechanisms may cause loss of protein expression. Unlike CNC patients, mice heterozygous for Prkar1a mutations do not develop pituitary tumors, although complete knockout of the gene in the Pit1 lineage of the pituitary produces GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. These data indicate that complete loss of Prkar1a/PRKAR1A is able to cause pituitary tumors in mice and men. The pattern of tumors is likely related to the signaling pathways employed in specific pituitary cell types.

Chang H, Rha SY, Jeung HC, et al.
Identification of genes related to a synergistic effect of taxane and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid combination treatment in gastric cancer cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010; 136(12):1901-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of combining suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, with taxanes in human gastric cancer cell lines and assessed the pre-treatment difference of gene expression to identify genes that could potentially mediate the cytotoxic response.
METHODS: Gastric cancer cell lines were treated with SAHA and paclitaxel or docetaxel, and the synergistic interaction between the drugs was evaluated in vitro using the combination index (CI) method. We performed significance analysis of microarray (SAM) to identify chemosensitivity-related genes in gastric cancer cell lines that were concomitantly treated with SAHA and taxane. We generated a correlation matrix between gene expression and CI values to identify genes whose expression correlated with a combined effect of taxanes and SAHA.
RESULTS: Combination treatment with taxane and SAHA had a synergistic cytotoxic effect against taxane-resistant gastric cancer cells. We identified 49 chemosensitivity-related genes via SAM analysis. Among them, nine common genes (SLIT2, REEP2, EFEMP2, CDC42SE1, FSD1, POU1F1, ZNF79, ETNK1, and DOCK5) were extracted from the subsequent correlation matrix analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of taxane and SAHA could be efficacious for the treatment of gastric cancer. The genes that were related to the synergistic response to taxane and SAHA could serve as surrogate biomarkers to predict the therapeutic response in gastric cancer patients.

Campanini ML, Colli LM, Paixao BM, et al.
CTNNB1 gene mutations, pituitary transcription factors, and MicroRNA expression involvement in the pathogenesis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas.
Horm Cancer. 2010; 1(4):187-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genes involved in formation/development of the adenohypophysis, CTNNB1 gene, and microRNAs might be implicated in the craniopharyngioma pathogenesis. The objective of this study is to perform the molecular analysis of HESX1, PROP1, POU1F1, and CTNNB1 genes and evaluate a panel of miRNA expression in craniopharyngioma. We also verified whether the presence of CTNNB1 mutation is associated with clinical findings and miRNA expression. The study included 16 patients with adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (nine children and seven adults; eight females and eight males; 6-55 years, median 15.5 years). DNA, RNA, and cDNA were obtained from craniopharyngioma and normal pituitaries. DNA was also extracted from peripheral blood of healthy subjects. All genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequenced. Relative quantification of miRNA expression was calculated using the 2(-ΔΔCt) method. We found no mutations in HESX1, PROP1, and POU1F1 genes and four polymorphisms in PROP1 gene which were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and had similar allelic frequencies in craniopharyngioma and controls. We found seven different mutations in CTNNB1 in eight of 16 patients. Younger patients presented more frequently CTNNB1 mutation than adults. We observed hyperexpression of miR-150 (1.7-fold); no different expression of miR-16-1, miR-21, and miR23a; and an underexpression of miR-141, let-7a, miR-16, miR-449, miR-145, miR-143, miR-23b, miR-15a, and miR-24-2 (ranging from -7.5 to -2.5-fold; p = 0.02) in craniopharyngioma. There was no association between tumor size or the recurrence and the presence of CTNNB1mutations. miR-16 and miR-141 were underexpressed in craniopharyngioma presenting CTNNB1 mutations. miR-23a and miR24-2 were hyperexpressed in patients who underwent only one surgery. Mutations or polymorphisms in pituitary transcription factors are unlikely to contribute to the adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma pathogenesis, differently of CTNNB1 mutations. Our data suggest the potential involvement of the deregulation of miRNA expression in the craniopharyngioma pathogenesis and outcome and also that the miRNA could modulate the Wnt signaling pathway in craniopharyngioma tumorigenesis.

Ben-Batalla I, Seoane S, Macia M, et al.
The Pit-1/Pou1f1 transcription factor regulates and correlates with prolactin expression in human breast cell lines and tumors.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010; 17(1):73-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor Pit-1/Pou1f1 regulates GH and prolactin (PRL) secretion in the pituitary gland. Pit-1 expression and GH regulation by Pit-1 have also been demonstrated in mammary gland. However, no data are available on the role of Pit-1 on breast PRL. To evaluate this role, several human breast cancer cell lines were transfected with either the Pit-1 expression vector or a Pit-1 small interference RNA construct, followed by PRL mRNA and protein evaluation. In addition, transient transfection of MCF-7 cells by a reporter construct containing the proximal PRL promoter, and ChIP assays were performed. Our data indicate that Pit-1 regulates mammary PRL at transcriptional level by binding to the proximal PRL promoter. We also found that Pit-1 raises cyclin D1 expression before increasing PRL levels, suggesting a PRL-independent effect of Pit-1 on cell proliferation. By using immunohistochemistry, we found a significant correlation between Pit-1 and PRL expression in 94 human breast invasive ductal carcinomas. Considering the possible role of PRL in breast cancer disorders, the function of Pit-1 in breast should be the focus of further research.

Zygmunt-Górska A, Starzyk J, Adamek D, et al.
Pituitary enlargement in patients with PROP1 gene inactivating mutation represents cystic hyperplasia of the intermediate pituitary lobe. Histopathology and over 10 years follow-up of two patients.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 22(7):653-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with a PROP1 inactivating mutation present combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) and pituitary maldevelopment. A retrospective analysis of 31 CPHD patients with a PROP1 mutation revealed two individuals, aged 18 and 4.5 years, who had undergone subtotal surgery to remove pituitary tumors, 16.8 x 12 mm and 9 x 10 x 12 mm in size. Histological reassessment of tissue samples revealed epithelial cells, partially oxyphilic, forming gland-like microcystic structures, most of them filled with eosinophilic colloid. These structures were directly linked with fragments of the posterior lobe. Neither atypia nor any traces of proliferation activity (Ki-67 LI=0%) were noted. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of all hormonal phenotypes of cells. These findings corresponded to the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. For this type of pathology we propose the term 'cystic hyperplasia of the intermediate pituitary lobe' and suggest PROP1 gene assessment in patients with CPHD in order to avoid unnecessary neurosurgical interventions.

McKee Alderman J, DePetrillo MA, Gluesenkamp AM, et al.
Calorie restriction and dwarf mice in gerontological research.
Gerontology. 2010; 56(4):404-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
What aging process is delayed by calorie restriction (CR) and mutations that produce long-lived dwarf mice? From 1935 until 1996, CR was the only option for increasing the maximum lifespan of laboratory rodents. In 1996, the mutation producing the Ames dwarf mouse (Prop-1(-/-)) was reported to increase lifespan. Since 1996, other gene mutations that cause dwarfism or lower body weight have been reported to increase the lifespan of mice. The recent discovery of long-lived mutant dwarf mice provides an opportunity to investigate common features between CR and dwarf models. Both CR and dwarf mutations increase insulin sensitivity. Elevated insulin sensitivity reduces oxidative stress, a potential cause of aging. The elevation of liver insulin sensitivity by the hormone adiponectin in CR and long-lived dwarf mice can lower endogenous glucose production and raise fatty acid oxidation. Adiponectin reduction of plasma glucose in CR and long-lived dwarf mice can thereby lower age-related increases in oxidative damage and cancer.

Schittenhelm J, Psaras T, Honegger J, et al.
No evidence for WT1 involvement in a beta-catenin-independent activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in pituitary adenomas.
Endocr Pathol. 2009; 20(3):158-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The overexpression of Wilms' tumor gene product WT1, which acts as a tumor suppressor or oncogene, has been reported in various malignancies. Recent studies have shown that the interaction partner Wnt-4 is upregulated in pituitary adenomas dependent on the Pit-1 lineage (somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and thyrotrophs). However, no data on WT1 expression in nontumorous pituitary tissue or pituitary adenomas is available to date. We investigated WT1 expression in 90 paraffin-embedded pituitary adenomas, including eight atypical adenomas, and in 28 nontumorous pituitary glands by immunohistochemistry. WT1 is absent in epithelial cells of all nontumorous pituitary glands and in 87 out of 90 pituitary adenomas. Only two GHomas (including one atypical adenoma) and one gonadotropin-producing adenoma expressed WT1 in the cytoplasm of single tumor cells without nuclear staining. There is no evidence that WT1 does regulate the Wnt-4/beta-catenin-independent pathway which is activated in the Pit-1-expressing subset of pituitary adenomas.

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