SOCS2

Gene Summary

Gene:SOCS2; suppressor of cytokine signaling 2
Aliases: CIS2, SSI2, Cish2, SSI-2, SOCS-2, STATI2
Location:12q22
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family. SOCS family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine receptor signaling via the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activation of transcription pathway (the JAK/STAT pathway). SOCS family proteins interact with major molecules of signaling complexes to block further signal transduction, in part, by proteasomal depletion of receptors or signal-transducing proteins via ubiquitination. The expression of this gene can be induced by a subset of cytokines, including erythropoietin, GM-CSF, IL10, interferon (IFN)-gamma and by cytokine receptors such as growth horomone receptor. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and is thought to be involved in the regulation of IGF1R mediated cell signaling. This gene has pseudogenes on chromosomes 20 and 22. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:suppressor of cytokine signaling 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 10 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Drug Resistance
  • Apoptosis
  • JAK2
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein
  • MicroRNAs
  • Staging
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Wound Healing
  • Skin Cancer
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Young Adult
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • RTPCR
  • Up-Regulation
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
  • Chromosome 12
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Translocation
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Western Blotting
  • Tumor Burden
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cytokines
  • Disease Progression
  • ras Proteins
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Signal Transduction
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Transcription
  • TYK2 Kinase
  • DNA Methylation
Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOCS2 (cancer-related)

Chahal MS, Ku HT, Zhang Z, et al.
Differential Expression of Ccn4 and Other Genes Between Metastatic and Non-metastatic EL4 Mouse Lymphoma Cells.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2016 11-12; 13(6):437-442 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous work characterized variants of the EL4 murine lymphoma cell line. Some are non-metastatic, and others metastatic, in syngenic mice. In addition, metastatic EL4 cells were stably transfected with phospholipase D2 (PLD2), which further enhanced metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microarray analyses of mRNA expression was performed for non-metastatic, metastatic, and PLD2-expressing metastatic EL4 cells.
RESULTS: Many differences were observed between non-metastatic and metastatic cell lines. One of the most striking new findings was up-regulation of mRNA for the matricellular protein WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (CCN4) in metastatic cells; increased protein expression was verified by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Other differentially expressed genes included those for reproductive homeobox 5 (Rhox5; increased in metastatic) and cystatin 7 (Cst7; decreased in metastatic). Differences between PLD2-expressing and parental cell lines were limited but included the signaling proteins Ras guanyl releasing protein 1 (RGS18; increased with PLD2) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2; decreased with PLD2).
CONCLUSION: The results provide insights into signaling pathways potentially involved in conferring metastatic ability on lymphoma cells.

Cui M, Sun J, Hou J, et al.
The suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) inhibits tumor metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13521-13531 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and its incidence continues to increase. However, the mechanism underlying the development and progression of HCC remains unknown. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) is a member of the SOCS family and influences the carcinogenesis of multiple types of tumors, but the biological roles of SOCS2 in HCC remain unclear. In this study, we found that SOCS2 expression was reduced in HCC tissues compared with matched noncancerous liver tissues. Moreover, decreased SOCS2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of intrahepatic metastasis and high histological grade in HCC patients. Colony formation assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays demonstrated that overexpression of SOCS2 or knockdown of endogenous SOCS2 did not significantly affect cell proliferation and tumorigenicity in HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. However, SOCS2 overexpression significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and inhibited metastasis in vivo. Consistent with these findings, the knockdown of endogenous SOCS2 enhanced migration and invasion in HCC cells in vitro. Our study demonstrated that SOCS2 inhibited human HCC metastasis, and SOCS2 might provide a new potential therapeutic strategy for treating HCC.

Lee H, Hwang SJ, Kim HR, et al.
Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) controls the invasiveness of glioblastoma through YAP-dependent expression of CYR61/CCN1 and miR-296-3p.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1859(4):599-611 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor derived from non-neuronal glial cells. Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) protein, also termed as merlin, is a well-known tumor suppressor; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this effect has not yet been fully defined. To investigate the role of NF2 in the invasiveness of GBM, we used two GBM cell lines: NF2-expressing T98G cells and NF2-deficient A172 cells. Knockdown of NF2 increased the invasiveness of T98G cells, whereas NF2-overexpressing A172 cells showed decreased invasive activity. Moreover, re-expression of NF2 reversed the high invasiveness of NF2-silenced T98G cells, indicating that NF2 negatively regulates GBM invasiveness. We further found that the NF2-mediated regulation of invasiveness was dependent on YAP and TEAD2 expression levels. NF2 also controlled the expression of YAP targets, including cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61/CCN1), by regulating the nuclear localization of YAP. Silencing of CYR61/CCN1 blocked the increased invasiveness of T98G cells, suggesting that CYR61/CCN1 is required for NF2-mediated invasiveness. Through microRNA microarray analysis, we found that NF2 negatively regulates the expression of miR-296-3p. Overexpression of miR-296-3p suppressed the expression of STAT5A, induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 by downregulating SOCS2, and increased the invasiveness of T98G cells. Taken together, we demonstrate that NF2 negatively controls the invasiveness of GBM through YAP-dependent induction of CYR61/CCN1 and miR-296-3p.

Lee YS, Hwang SG, Kim JK, et al.
Identification of novel therapeutic target genes in acquired lapatinib-resistant breast cancer by integrative meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):2285-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acquired resistance to lapatinib is a highly problematic clinical barrier that has to be overcome for a successful cancer treatment. Despite efforts to determine the mechanisms underlying acquired lapatinib resistance (ALR), no definitive genetic factors have been reported to be solely responsible for the acquired resistance in breast cancer. Therefore, we performed a cross-platform meta-analysis of three publically available microarray datasets related to breast cancer with ALR, using the R-based RankProd package. From the meta-analysis, we were able to identify a total of 990 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, 406 upregulated, 584 downregulated) that are potentially associated with ALR. Gene ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs showed that "response to organic substance" and "p53 signaling pathway" may be largely involved in ALR process. Of these, many of the top 50 upregulated and downregulated DEGs were found in oncogenesis of various tumors and cancers. For the top 50 DEGs, we constructed the gene coexpression and protein-protein interaction networks from a huge database of well-known molecular interactions. By integrative analysis of two systemic networks, we condensed the total number of DEGs to six common genes (LGALS1, PRSS23, PTRF, FHL2, TOB1, and SOCS2). Furthermore, these genes were confirmed in functional module eigens obtained from the weighted gene correlation network analysis of total DEGs in the microarray datasets ("GSE16179" and "GSE52707"). Our integrative meta-analysis could provide a comprehensive perspective into complex mechanisms underlying ALR in breast cancer and a theoretical support for further chemotherapeutic studies.

Hochberg I, Tran QT, Barkan AL, et al.
Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129359 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly.

Vitali C, Bassani C, Chiodoni C, et al.
SOCS2 Controls Proliferation and Stemness of Hematopoietic Cells under Stress Conditions and Its Deregulation Marks Unfavorable Acute Leukemias.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(11):2387-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) promptly adapt hematopoiesis to stress conditions, such as infection and cancer, replenishing bone marrow-derived circulating populations, while preserving the stem cell reservoir. SOCS2, a feedback inhibitor of JAK-STAT pathways, is expressed in most primitive HSC and is upregulated in response to STAT5-inducing cytokines. We demonstrate that Socs2 deficiency unleashes HSC proliferation in vitro, sustaining STAT5 phosphorylation in response to IL3, thrombopoietin, and GM-CSF. In vivo, SOCS2 deficiency leads to unrestricted myelopoietic response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and, in turn, induces exhaustion of long-term HSC function along serial bone marrow transplantations. The emerging role of SOCS2 in HSC under stress conditions prompted the investigation of malignant hematopoiesis. High levels of SOCS2 characterize unfavorable subsets of acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemias, such as those with MLL and BCR/ABL abnormalities, and correlate with the enrichment of genes belonging to hematopoietic and leukemic stemness signatures. In this setting, SOCS2 and its correlated genes are part of regulatory networks fronted by IKZF1/Ikaros and MEF2C, two transcriptional regulators involved in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis that have never been linked to SOCS2. Accordingly, a comparison of murine wt and Socs2(-/-) HSC gene expression in response to 5-FU revealed a significant overlap with the molecular programs that correlate with SOCS2 expression in leukemias, particularly with the oncogenic pathways and with the IKZF1/Ikaros and MEF2C-predicted targets. Lentiviral gene transduction of murine hematopoietic precursors with Mef2c, but not with Ikzf1, induces Socs2 upregulation, unveiling a direct control exerted by Mef2c over Socs2 expression.

Wang NN, Li ZH, Zhao H, et al.
Molecular targeting of the oncoprotein PLK1 in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: RO3280, a novel PLK1 inhibitor, induces apoptosis in leukemia cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(1):1266-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is highly expressed in many cancers and therefore a biomarker of transformation and potential target for the development of cancer-specific small molecule drugs. RO3280 was recently identified as a novel PLK1 inhibitor; however its therapeutic effects in leukemia treatment are still unknown. We found that the PLK1 protein was highly expressed in leukemia cell lines as well as 73.3% (11/15) of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples. PLK1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in AML samples compared with control samples (82.95 ± 110.28 vs. 6.36 ± 6.35; p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that shorter survival time correlated with high tumor PLK1 expression (p = 0.002). The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RO3280 for acute leukemia cells was between 74 and 797 nM. The IC50 of RO3280 in primary acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and AML cells was between 35.49 and 110.76 nM and 52.80 and 147.50 nM, respectively. RO3280 induced apoptosis and cell cycle disorder in leukemia cells. RO3280 treatment regulated several apoptosis-associated genes. The regulation of DCC, CDKN1A, BTK, and SOCS2 was verified by western blot. These results provide insights into the potential use of RO3280 for AML therapy; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined.

Zhou X, Xia Y, Li L, Zhang G
MiR-101 inhibits cell growth and tumorigenesis of Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer by repression of SOCS2.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(1):160-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several microRNAs (miRNA) have been implicated in H. pylori related gastric cancer (GC). However, the molecular mechanism of miRNAs in gastric cancer has not been fully understood. In this study, we reported that miR-101 is significantly down-regulated in H. pylori positive tissues and cells and in tumor tissues with important functional consequences. Ectopic expression of miR-101 dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation by inducing G1-phase cell-cycle arrest. We found that miR-101 strongly reduced the expression of SOCS2 oncogene in GC cells. Similar to the restoring miR-26 expression, SOCS2 down-regulation inhibited cell growth and cell-cycle progression, whereas SOCS2 over-expression rescued the suppressive effect of miR-101. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-101 suppressed the expression of c-myc, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, CCND2, CCND3, and CCNE2, while promoted tumor suppressor p14, p16, p21 and p27 expression. In clinical specimens, SOCS2 was over-expressed in tumors and H. pylori positive tissues and its mRNA levels were inversely correlated with miR-101 expression. Taken together, our results indicated that miR-101 functions as a growth-suppressive miRNA in H. pylori related GC, and that its suppressive effects are mediated mainly by repressing SOCS2 expression.

Sonkin D, Palmer M, Rong X, et al.
The identification and characterization of a STAT5 gene signature in hematologic malignancies.
Cancer Biomark. 2015; 15(1):79-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The JAK-STAT pathway is an important signaling pathway downstream of multiple cytokine and growth factor receptors. Dysregulated JAK-STAT signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human malignancies.
OBJECTIVE: Given this pivotal role of JAK-STAT dysregulation, it is important to identify patients with an overactive JAK-STAT pathway for possible treatment with JAK inhibitors.
METHODS: We developed a gene signature assay to detect overactive JAK-STAT signaling. The cancer cell line encyclopedia and associated gene-expression data were used to correlate the activation status of STAT5 with the induction of a set of STAT5 target genes.
RESULTS: Four target genes were identified (PIM1, CISH, SOCS2, and ID1), the expression of which correlated significantly with pSTAT5 status in 40 hematologic tumor cell lines. In pSTAT5-positive models, the expression of the gene signature genes decreased following ruxolitinib treatment, which corresponded to pSTAT5 downmodulation. In pSTAT5-negative cell lines, neither pSTAT5 modulation nor a change in signature gene expression was observed following ruxolitinib treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: The gene signature can potentially be used to stratify or enrich for patient populations with activated JAK-STAT5 signaling that might benefit from treatments targeting JAK-STAT signaling. Furthermore, the 4-gene signature is a predictor of the pharmacodynamic effects of ruxolitinib.

Slattery ML, Lundgreen A, Hines LM, et al.
Genetic variation in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway influences breast cancer-specific mortality through interaction with cigarette smoking and use of aspirin/NSAIDs: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 147(1):145-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is involved in immune function and cell growth; genetic variation in this pathway could influence breast cancer risk. We examined 12 genes in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway with breast cancer risk and mortality in an admixed population of Hispanic (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (1,481 cases, 1,585 controls) women. Associations were assessed by Indigenous American (IA) ancestry. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, JAK1 (three of ten SNPs) and JAK2 (4 of 11 SNPs) interacted with body mass index (BMI) among pre-menopausal women, while STAT3 (four of five SNPs) interacted significantly with BMI among post-menopausal women to alter breast cancer risk. STAT6 rs3024979 and TYK2 rs280519 altered breast cancer-specific mortality among all women. Associations with breast cancer-specific mortality differed by IA ancestry; SOCS1 rs193779, STAT3 rs1026916, and STAT4 rs11685878 associations were limited to women with low IA ancestry, and associations with JAK1 rs2780890, rs2254002, and rs310245 and STAT1 rs11887698 were observed among women with high IA ancestry. JAK2 (5 of 11 SNPs), SOCS2 (one of three SNPs), and STAT4 (2 of 20 SNPs) interacted with cigarette smoking status to alter breast cancer-specific mortality. SOCS2 (one of three SNPs) and all STAT3, STAT5A, and STAT5B SNPs significantly interacted with use of aspirin/NSAIDs to alter breast cancer-specific mortality. Genetic variation in the JAK/STAT/SOCS pathway was associated with breast cancer-specific mortality. The proportion of SNPs within a gene that significantly interacted with lifestyle factors lends support for the observed associations.

Letellier E, Schmitz M, Baig K, et al.
Identification of SOCS2 and SOCS6 as biomarkers in human colorectal cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(4):726-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Over the past years, some members of the family of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins have emerged as potential tumour suppressors. This study aimed at investigating the clinical significance of SOCS proteins in colorectal carcinoma (CRC).
METHODS: We integrated publicly available microarray expression data on CRC in humans, analysed the expression pattern of SOCSs and assessed the predictive power of SOCS2 and SOCS6 for diagnostic purposes by generating receiver operating characteristic curves. Using laser microdissected patient material we assessed SOCS expression on RNA and protein levels as well as their methylation status in an independent CRC patient cohort. Finally, we investigated the prognostic value of SOCS2 and SOCS6.
RESULTS: The meta-analysis as well as the independent patient cohort analysis reveal a stage-independent downregulation of SOCS2 and SOCS6 and identify both molecules as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. We demonstrate a different methylation pattern within the SOCS2 promoter between tumour tissue and normal control tissue in 25% of CRC patients. Furthermore, early CRC stage patients with low expression of SOCS2 display significantly shorter disease-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data offers evidence that SOCS2 and SOCS6 levels are reduced in CRC and may serve as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC patients.

Janke H, Pastore F, Schumacher D, et al.
Activating FLT3 mutants show distinct gain-of-function phenotypes in vitro and a characteristic signaling pathway profile associated with prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e89560 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD) and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70%) compared to FLT3-TKD (30%). In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations--including two novel mutations--showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

Laszlo GS, Ries RE, Gudgeon CJ, et al.
High expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 predicts poor outcome in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(12):2817-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulated cytokine signaling is a characteristic feature of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and expression signatures of cytokines and chemokines have been identified as a significant prognostic factor in this disease. Given this aberrant signaling, we hypothesized that expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 (SOCS2), a negative regulator of cytokine signaling, might be altered in AML and could provide predictive information. Among 188 participants of the Children's Oncology Group AAML03P1 trial, SOCS2 mRNA levels varied > 6000-fold. Higher (> median) SOCS2 expression was associated with inferior overall (60 ± 10% vs. 75 ± 9%, p = 0.026) and event-free (44 ± 10% vs. 59 ± 10%, p = 0.031) survival. However, these differences were accounted for by higher prevalence of high-risk and lower prevalence of low-risk disease among patients with higher SOCS2 expression, limiting the clinical utility of SOCS2 as a predictive marker. It remains untested whether high SOCS2 expression identifies a subset of leukemias with deregulated cytokine signaling that could be amenable to therapeutic intervention.

Brecqueville M, Rey J, Devillier R, et al.
Array comparative genomic hybridization and sequencing of 23 genes in 80 patients with myelofibrosis at chronic or acute phase.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(1):37-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm that occurs de novo (primary myelofibrosis) or results from the progression of polycythemia vera or essential thrombocytemia (hereafter designated as secondary myelofibrosis or post-polycythemia vera/ essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis). To progress in the understanding of myelofibrosis and to find molecular prognostic markers we studied 104 samples of primary and secondary myelofibrosis at chronic (n=68) and acute phases (n=12) from 80 patients, by using array-comparative genomic hybridization and sequencing of 23 genes (ASXL1, BMI1, CBL, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1/2, JAK2, K/NRAS, LNK, MPL, NF1, PPP1R16B, PTPN11, RCOR1, SF3B1, SOCS2, SRSF2, SUZ12, TET2, TP53, TRPS1). We found copy number aberrations in 54% of samples, often involving genes with a known or potential role in leukemogenesis. We show that cases carrying a del(20q), del(17) or del(12p) evolve in acute myeloid leukemia (P=0.03). We found that 88% of the cases were mutated, mainly in signaling pathway (JAK2 69%, NF1 6%) and epigenetic genes (ASXL1 26%, TET2 14%, EZH2 8%). Overall survival was poor in patients with more than one mutation (P=0.001) and in patients with JAK2/ASXL1 mutations (P=0.02). Our study highlights the heterogeneity of myelofibrosis, and points to several interesting copy number aberrations and genes with diagnostic and prognostic impact.

Zhang X, Wang J, Cheng J, et al.
An integrated analysis of SOCS1 down-regulation in HBV infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Viral Hepat. 2014; 21(4):264-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Persistent inflammation together with genetic/epigenetic aberrations is strongly associated with chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-related hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the alterations of the suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) family genes in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 116 patients with HCC were enrolled in this study. The methylation statuses of SOCS1-7 and CISH genes were quantitatively measured and clinicopathological significance of SOCS1 methylation was statistically analysed. The gene copy number variation was assayed by aCGH. Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot were used to detect the involvement of SOCS1 in p53 signalling. We found high frequencies of SOCS1 gene hypermethylation in both tumour (56.03%) and adjacent nontumour tissues (54.31%), but tumour tissues exhibited increased methylation intensity (24.01% vs 13.11%, P < 0.0001), particularly in patients with larger tumour size or cirrhosis background (P < 0.0001). In addition, the frequency and intensity of SOCS1 hypermethylation in tumour tissues were both significantly higher than those in nontumour tissues in male gender patients and in patients ≥45 years old (P = 0.0214 and P < 0.0001, P = 0.0232 and P < 0.0001, respectively). SOCS1 gene deletion was found in 8 of 25 aCGH assayed tumour specimens, which was associated with lower SOCS1 mRNA expression (P = 0.0448). Furthermore, ectopic SOCS1 overexpression could activate the p53 signalling pathway in HCC cell lines. Hypermethylation of SOCS2-7 and CISH genes was seldom found in HCC. Our results suggested that the gene loss and epigenetic silencing of SOCS1 were strongly associated with HBV-related HCC.

Zhu JG, Dai QS, Han ZD, et al.
Expression of SOCSs in human prostate cancer and their association in prognosis.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013; 381(1-2):51-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins have been identified as negative feedback regulators of cytokine-mediated signaling in various tissues, and demonstrated to play critical roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development of different cancers. The involvement of SOCSs in human prostate cancer (PCa) has not been fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the expression patterns and the clinical significance of SOCSs in PCa. The expression changes of SOCSs at mRNA and protein levels in human PCa tissues compared with adjacent benign prostate tissues were, respectively, detected by using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry analyses. The associations of SOCSs expression with clinicopathological features and clinical outcome of PCa patients were further statistically analyzed. Among SOCSs, both QRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses found that SOCS2 expression was upregulated (at mRNA level: change ratio = 1.98, P = 0.031; at protein level: 5.12 ± 0.60 vs. 2.68 ± 0.37, P = 0.016) and SOCS6 expression was downregulated (at mRNA level: change ratio = -1.65, P = 0.008; at protein level: 3.03 ± 0.32 vs. 4.0.72 ± 0.39, P = 0.004) in PCa tissues compared with those in non-cancerous prostate tissues. In addition, the upregulation of SOCS2 in PCa tissues was correlated with the lower Gleason score (P < 0.001), the absence of metastasis (P < 0.001) and the negative PSA failure (P = 0.009); the downregulation of SOCS6 tended to be found in PCa tissues with the higher Gleason score (P = 0.016), the advanced pathological stage (P = 0.007), the positive metastasis (P = 0.020), and the positive PSA failure (P = 0.032). Furthermore, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the downregulation of SOCS2 was an independent predictor of shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival. Our data offer the convincing evidence for the first time that the dysregulation of SOCS2 and SOCS6 may be associated with the aggressive progression of PCa. SOCS2 may be potential markers for prognosis in PCa patients.

Kazi JU, Rönnstrand L
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) associates with FLT3 and negatively regulates downstream signaling.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):693-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
The suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) is a member of the SOCS family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. SOCS2 is known to regulate signal transduction by cytokine receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. The receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 is of importance for proliferation, survival and differentiation of hematopoietic cells and is frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia. We observed that SOCS2 associates with activated FLT3 through phosphotyrosine residues 589 and 919, and co-localizes with FLT3 in the cell membrane. SOCS2 increases FLT3 ubiquitination and accelerates receptor degradation in proteasomes. SOCS2 negatively regulates FLT3 signaling by blocking activation of Erk 1/2 and STAT5. Furthermore, SOCS2 expression leads to a decrease in FLT3-ITD-mediated cell proliferation and colony formation. Thus, we suggest that SOCS2 associates with activated FLT3 and negatively regulates the FLT3 signaling pathways.

Nagpal N, Ahmad HM, Molparia B, Kulshreshtha R
MicroRNA-191, an estrogen-responsive microRNA, functions as an oncogenic regulator in human breast cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(8):1889-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen- and microRNA-mediated gene regulation play a crucial role in breast cancer biology. However, a functional link between the two major players remains unclear. This study reveals miR-191 as an estrogen-inducible onco-miR in breast cancer, which promotes several hallmarks of cancer including enhanced cell proliferation, migration, chemoresistance and survival in tumor microenvironment. miR-191 is a direct estrogen receptor (ER) target and our results suggest existence of a positive regulatory feedback loop. We show miR-191 as critical mediator of estrogen-mediated cell proliferation. Investigations of mechanistic details of miR-191 functions identify several cancer-related genes like BDNF, CDK6 and SATB1 as miR-191 targets. miR-191 and SATB1 show inverse correlation of expression. miR-191-mediated enhanced cell proliferation and migration are partly dependent on targeted downregulation of SATB1. Further, functional validation of estrogen:miR-191:SATB1 link suggests a cascade initiated by estrogen that induces miR-191 in ER-dependent manner to target SATB1, a global chromatin remodeler, thereby contributing to estrogen-specific gene signature to regulate genes like ANXA1, PIWIL2, CASP4, ESR1/ESR2, PLAC1 and SOCS2 involved in breast cancer progression and migration. Overall, the identification of estrogen/ER/miR-191/SATB1 cascade seems to be a significant pathway in estrogen signaling in breast cancer with miR-191 as oncogenic player.

Qiu X, Zheng J, Guo X, et al.
Reduced expression of SOCS2 and SOCS6 in hepatocellular carcinoma correlates with aggressive tumor progression and poor prognosis.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013; 378(1-2):99-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the clinical significance of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-2 and SOCS6 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression levels of SOCS2 and SOCS6 mRNA and protein in tumor, para-tumor and normal liver tissues were detected in 106 HCC patients by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. According to qRT-PCR and western blot analyses, we first found that both the expression levels of SOCS2 and SOCS6 mRNA and protein in HCC were significantly lower than those in para-tumor (both P < 0.001) and normal liver tissues (both P < 0.001). Then, the correlation analysis showed that both SOCS2 and SOCS6 protein downregulation were significantly correlated with advanced TNM stage (both P < 0.001) and high serum AFP (P = 0.008 and 0.01, respectively). Especially, the reduced expression of SOCS2 more frequently occurred in HCC patients with vascular invasion (P = 0.03), and that of SOCS6 was also associated with tumor recurrence (P = 0.01). Moreover, HCC patients with low expression of SOCS2 and SOCS6 had significantly shorter overall (P = 0.008 and 0.01, respectively) and disease-free survival (both P = 0.01). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that both SOCS2 and SOCS6 downregulation were independent prognostic factors of overall (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively) and disease-free survival (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively) in HCC. Our data demonstrate for the first time that SOCS2 and SOCS6 expression were remarkably reduced in HCC and may be served as potential prognostic markers for patients with this deadly disease.

Ehrentraut S, Nagel S, Scherr ME, et al.
t(8;9)(p22;p24)/PCM1-JAK2 activates SOCS2 and SOCS3 via STAT5.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53767 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fusions of the tyrosine kinase domain of JAK2 with multiple partners occur in leukemia/lymphoma where they reportedly promote JAK2-oligomerization and autonomous signalling, Affected entities are promising candidates for therapy with JAK2 signalling inhibitors. While JAK2-translocations occur in myeloid, B-cell and T-cell lymphoid neoplasms, our findings suggest their incidence among the last group is low. Here we describe the genomic, transcriptional and signalling characteristics of PCM1-JAK2 formed by t(8;9)(p22;p24) in a trio of cell lines established at indolent (MAC-1) and aggressive (MAC-2A/2B) phases of a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). To investigate signalling, PCM1-JAK2 was subjected to lentiviral knockdown which inhibited 7 top upregulated genes in t(8;9) cells, notably SOCS2/3. SOCS3, but not SOCS2, was also upregulated in a chronic eosinophilic leukemia bearing PCM1-JAK2, highlighting its role as a central signalling target of JAK2 translocation neoplasia. Conversely, expression of GATA3, a key T-cell developmental gene silenced in aggressive lymphoma cells, was partially restored by PCM1-JAK2 knockdown. Treatment with a selective JAK2 inhibitor (TG101348) to which MAC-1/2A/2B cells were conspicuously sensitive confirmed knockdown results and highlighted JAK2 as the active moiety. PCM1-JAK2 signalling required pSTAT5, supporting a general paradigm of STAT5 activation by JAK2 alterations in lymphoid malignancies. MAC-1/2A/2B--the first JAK2-translocation leukemia/lymphoma cell lines described--display conspicuous JAK/STAT signalling accompanied by T-cell developmental and autoimmune disease gene expression signatures, confirming their fitness as CTCL disease models. Our data support further investigation of SOCS2/3 as signalling effectors, prognostic indicators and potential therapeutic targets in cancers with JAK2 rearrangements.

Mountzios G, Kostopoulos I, Kotoula V, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) expression and survival in operable squamous-cell laryngeal cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54048 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Prognosis of patients with operable laryngeal cancer is highly variable and therefore potent prognostic biomarkers are warranted. The insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR) signaling pathway plays a critical role in laryngeal carcinogenesis and progression.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients with localized TNM stage I-III laryngeal cancer managed with potentially curative surgery between 1985 and 2008. Immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of IGF1R-alpha, IGF1R-beta and IGF2R was evaluated using the immunoreactive score (IRS) and mRNA levels of important effectors of the IGFR pathway were assessed, including IGF1R, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) and members of the MAP-kinase (MAP2K1, MAPK9) and phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PIK3CA, PIK3R1) families. Cox-regression models were applied to assess the predictive value of biomarkers on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Among 289 eligible patients, 95.2% were current or ex smokers, 75.4% were alcohol abusers, 15.6% had node-positive disease and 32.2% had received post-operative irradiation. After a median follow-up of 74.5 months, median DFS was 94.5 months and median OS was 106.3 months. Using the median IRS as the pre-defined cut-off, patients whose tumors had increased IGF1R-alpha cytoplasm or membrane expression experienced marginally shorter DFS and significantly shorter OS compared to those whose tumors had low IGF1R-alpha expression (91.1 vs 106.2 months, p = 0.0538 and 100.3 vs 118.6 months, p = 0.0157, respectively). Increased mRNA levels of MAPK9 were associated with prolonged DFS (p = 0.0655) and OS (p = 0.0344). In multivariate analysis, IGF1R-alpha overexpression was associated with a 46.6% increase in the probability for relapse (p = 0.0374). Independent predictors for poor OS included node-positive disease (HR = 2.569, p<0.0001), subglottic/transglottic localization (HR = 1.756, p = 0.0438) and IGF1R-alpha protein overexpression (HR = 1.475, p = 0.0504).
CONCLUSION: IGF1R-alpha protein overexpression may serve as an independent predictor of relapse and survival in operable laryngeal cancer. Prospective evaluation of the IGF1R-alpha prognostic utility is warranted.

Mutlu P, Ural AU, Gündüz U
Differential oncogene-related gene expressions in myeloma cells resistant to prednisone and vincristine.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2012; 66(7):506-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance in cancer may arise due to alterations in gene expression. In this study, sublines of drug-resistant multiple myeloma (MM) cells, namely RPMI-8226 and U-266, were examined for their differential oncogene-related gene expression levels and the relations to drug resistance were analyzed. Drug resistance was induced by application of the prednisone or vincristine using stepwise dose increments. XTT cytotoxicity assay was used for determination of resistance levels. Microarray analysis was carried out and the genes up- or downregulated more than two-folds were considered as significantly changed. Different types of oncogenes were altered in different drug-resistant RPMI-8226 and U-266 multiple myeloma sublines. The oncogenes which belong to Ras superfamily, especially Rho family of GTPases, were upregulated in prednisone-resistant MM cell lines whereas they were either downregulated or not changed in vincristine resistance. ETS and NF-κB2 are among transcription factors which were downregulated in prednisone-resistant cells. Transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFß) was downregulated in prednisone-resistant MM cell lines while it was upregulated in vincristine-resistant cell lines. Different types of interleukin gene expressions were seen to be altered in resistant MM sublines whereas suppressors of cytokine signalling genes such as SOCS2, SOCS4 and WSB2 were all downregulated. In conclusion, it is seen that different drugs can induce totally different pathways leading to resistance in the same cancer cell lines. Every drug resistance should be evaluated separately. These facts must be considered in cancer chemotherapy and reversal of drug resistance.

Wang W, Corrigan-Cummins M, Hudson J, et al.
MicroRNA profiling of follicular lymphoma identifies microRNAs related to cell proliferation and tumor response.
Haematologica. 2012; 97(4):586-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs can play an important role in tumorigenesis through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and are not well characterized in follicular lymphoma.
DESIGN AND METHODS: MicroRNA profiles of enriched follicular lymphoma tumor cells from 16 patients were generated by assaying 851 human microRNAs. Tandem gene expression profiles were obtained for predicting microRNA targets.
RESULTS: The expression of 133 microRNAs was significantly different (> 2-fold; P<0.05) between follicular lymphoma and follicular hyperplasia. Forty-four microRNAs in three groups generated a unique follicular lymphoma signature. Of these, ten microRNAs were increased (miR-193a-5p, -193b*, -345, -513b, -574-3p, -584, -663, -1287, -1295, and -1471), 11 microRNAs were decreased (miR-17*, -30a, -33a, -106a*, -141, -202, -205, -222, -301b, -431*, and -570), and 23 microRNAs formed a group that was increased in most cases of follicular lymphoma but showed lower expression in a subset of cases (let-7a, let-7f, miR-7-1*, -9, -9*, -20a, -20b, -30b, -96, -98, -194, -195, -221*, -374a, -374b, -451, -454, -502-3p, -532-3p, -664*, -1274a, -1274b, and -1260). Higher expression of this last group was associated with improved response to chemotherapy. Gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of MAPK1, AKT1, PRKCE, IL4R and DROSHA and decreased expression of CDKN1A/p21, SOCS2, CHEK1, RAD51, KLF4, BLIMP1 and IRF4 in follicular lymphoma. Functional studies indicated that CDKN1A/p21 and SOCS2 expression is directly regulated by miR-20a/-20b and miR-194, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Follicular lymphoma is characterized by a unique microRNA signature, containing a subset of microRNAs whose expression correlate with response to chemotherapy. miR-20a/b and miR-194 target CDKN1A and SOCS2 in follicular lymphoma, potentially contributing to tumor cell proliferation and survival.

Zhao Z, Liu Y, He H, et al.
Candidate genes influencing sensitivity and resistance of human glioblastoma to Semustine.
Brain Res Bull. 2011; 86(3-4):189-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) is poor. The therapeutic outcome of conventional surgical and adjuvant treatments remains unsatisfactory, and therefore individualized adjuvant chemotherapy has aroused more attention. Microarrays have been applied to study mechanism of GBM development and progression but it has difficulty in determining responsible genes from the plethora of genes on microarrays unrelated to outcome. The present study was attempted to use bioinformatics method to investigate candidate genes that may influence chemosensitivity of GBM to Semustine (Me-CCNU).
METHODS: Clinical data of 4 GBM patients in Affymetrix microarray were perfected through long-term follow-up study. Differential expression genes between the long- and short-survival groups were picked out, GO-analysis and pathway-analysis of the differential expression genes were performed. Me-CCNU-related signal transduction networks were constructed. The methods combined three steps before were used to screen core genes that influenced Me-CCNU chemosensitivity in GBM.
RESULTS: In Affymetrix microarray there were altogether 2018 differential expression genes that influenced survival duration of GBM. Of them, 934 genes were up-regulated and 1084 down-regulated. They mainly participated in 94 pathways. Me-CCNU-related signal transduction networks were constructed. The total number of genes in the networks was 466, of which 66 were also found in survival duration-related differential expression genes. Studied key genes through GO-analysis, pathway-analysis and in the Me-CCNU-related signal transduction networks, 25 core genes that influenced chemosensitivity of GBM to Me-CCNU were obtained, including TP53, MAP2K2, EP300, PRKCA, TNF, CCND1, AKT2, RBL1, CDC2, ID2, RAF1, CDKN2C, FGFR1, SP1, CDK6, IGFBP3, MDM4, PDGFD, SOCS2, CCNG2, CDK2, SDC2, STMN1, TCF7L1, TUBB.
CONCLUSION: Bioinformatics may help excavate and analyze large amounts of data in microarrays by means of rigorous experimental planning, scientific statistical analysis and collection of complete data about survival of GBM patients. In the present study, a novel differential gene expression pattern was constructed and advanced study will provide new targets for chemosensitivity of GBM.

Colas E, Perez C, Cabrera S, et al.
Molecular markers of endometrial carcinoma detected in uterine aspirates.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 129(10):2435-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent of the invasive tumors of the female genital tract. Although usually detected in its initial stages, a 20% of the patients present with advanced disease. To date, no characterized molecular marker has been validated for the diagnosis of EC. In addition, new methods for prognosis and classification of EC are needed to combat this deadly disease. We thus aimed to identify new molecular markers of EC and to evaluate their validity on endometrial aspirates. Gene expression screening on 52 carcinoma samples and series of real-time quantitative PCR validation on 19 paired carcinomas and normal tissue samples and on 50 carcinoma and noncarcinoma uterine aspirates were performed to identify and validate potential biomarkers of EC. Candidate markers were further confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We identified ACAA1, AP1M2, CGN, DDR1, EPS8L2, FASTKD1, GMIP, IKBKE, P2RX4, P4HB, PHKG2, PPFIBP2, PPP1R16A, RASSF7, RNF183, SIRT6, TJP3, EFEMP2, SOCS2 and DCN as differentially expressed in ECs. Furthermore, the differential expression of these biomarkers in primary endometrial tumors is correlated to their expression level in corresponding uterine fluid samples. Finally, these biomarkers significantly identified EC with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic values ranging from 0.74 to 0.95 in uterine aspirates. Interestingly, analogous values were found among initial stages. We present the discovery of molecular biomarkers of EC and describe their utility in uterine aspirates. These findings represent the basis for the development of a highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive method for screening ECs.

Daigeler A, Chromik AM, Haendschke K, et al.
Synergistic effects of sonoporation and taurolidin/TRAIL on apoptosis in human fibrosarcoma.
Ultrasound Med Biol. 2010; 36(11):1893-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sonodynamic therapy, in combination with ultrasound contrast agents, proved to enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutics in malignant cells. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells were treated in vitro with a combination of ultrasound SonoVue™-microbubbles and taurolidine (TRD) plus tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Apoptosis was measured by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Gene expression was analysed by RNA-microarray. The apoptotic effects of TRD and TRAIL on human fibrosarcoma are enhanced by sonodynamic therapy and additional application of contrast agents, such as SonoVue™ by 25%. A broad change in the expression of genes related to apoptotic pathways is observed when ultrasound and microbubbles act synchronously in combination with the chemotherapeutics (e.g. BIRC3, NFKBIA and TNFAIP3). Some of these genes have already been proven to play a role in programmed cell death in human fibrosarcoma (HSPA1A/HSPA1B, APAF1, PAWR, SOCS2) or were associated with sonication induced apoptosis (CD44). Further studies are needed to explore the options of sonodynamic therapy on soft tissue sarcoma and its molecular mechanisms.

Uchino M, Kojima H, Wada K, et al.
Nuclear beta-catenin and CD44 upregulation characterize invasive cell populations in non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:414 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In breast cancer cells, the metastatic cell state is strongly correlated to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the CD44+/CD24- stem cell phenotype. However, the MCF-7 cell line, which has a luminal epithelial-like phenotype and lacks a CD44+/CD24- subpopulation, has rare cell populations with higher Matrigel invasive ability. Thus, what are the potentially important differences between invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cells, and are the differences related to EMT or CD44/CD24 expression?
METHODS: Throughout the sequential selection process using Matrigel, we obtained MCF-7-14 cells of opposite migratory and invasive capabilities from MCF-7 cells. Comparative analysis of epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was performed between parental MCF-7, selected MCF-7-14, and aggressive mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, using microarray expression profiles of these cells, we selected differentially expressed genes for their invasive potential, and performed pathway and network analysis to identify a set of interesting genes, which were evaluated by RT-PCR, flow cytometry or function-blocking antibody treatment.
RESULTS: MCF-7-14 cells had enhanced migratory and invasive ability compared with MCF-7 cells. Although MCF-7-14 cells, similar to MCF-7 cells, expressed E-cadherin but neither vimentin nor fibronectin, beta-catenin was expressed not only on the cell membrane but also in the nucleus. Furthermore, using gene expression profiles of MCF-7, MCF-7-14 and MDA-MB-231 cells, we demonstrated that MCF-7-14 cells have alterations in signaling pathways regulating cell migration and identified a set of genes (PIK3R1, SOCS2, BMP7, CD44 and CD24). Interestingly, MCF-7-14 and its invasive clone CL6 cells displayed increased CD44 expression and downregulated CD24 expression compared with MCF-7 cells. Anti-CD44 antibody treatment significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in both MCF-7-14 and MCF-7-14 CL6 cells as well as MDA-MB-231 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: MCF-7-14 cells are a novel model for breast cancer metastasis without requiring constitutive EMT and are categorized as a "metastable phenotype", which can be distinguished from both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The alterations and characteristics of MCF-7-14 cells, especially nuclear beta-catenin and CD44 upregulation, may characterize invasive cell populations in breast cancer.

Sasi W, Jiang WG, Sharma A, Mokbel K
Higher expression levels of SOCS 1,3,4,7 are associated with earlier tumour stage and better clinical outcome in human breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:178 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are important negative feedback regulators of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, and have been recently investigated for their role in the development of different cancers. In this study, we examined the expression of SOCS1-7 genes in normal and breast cancer tissue and correlated this with several clinico-pathological and prognostic factors.
METHODS: SOCS1-7 mRNA extraction and reverse transcription were performed on fresh frozen breast cancer tissue samples (n = 127) and normal background breast tissue (n = 31). Transcript levels of expression were determined using real-time PCR and analyzed against TNM stage, tumour grade and clinical outcome over a 10 year follow-up period.
RESULTS: SOCS1,4,5,6 and 7 expression decreased with increased TNM stage (TNM1 vs. TNM3 p = 0.039, TNM1 vs. TNM4 p = 0.016, TNM2 vs. TNM4 p = 0.025, TNM1 vs. TNM3 p = 0.012, and TNM1 vs. TNM3 p = 0.044 respectively). SOCS2 and 3 expression decreased with increased Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) (NPI1 vs. NPI3 p = 0.033, and NPI2 vs. NPI3 p = 0.041 respectively). SOCS7 expression decreased with higher tumour grade (Grade 3 vs. Grade 2 p = 0.037). After a median follow up period of 10 years, we found higher levels of SOCS1,2 and 7 expression among those patients who remained disease-free compared to those who developed local recurrence (p = 0.0073, p = 0.021, and p = 0.039 respectively). Similarly, we found higher levels of SOCS 2,4, and 7 expression in those who remained disease-free compared to those who developed distant recurrence (p = 0.022, p = 0.024, and p = 0.033 respectively). Patients who remained disease-free had higher levels of SOCS1 and 2 expression compared to those who died from breast cancer (p = 0.02 and p = 0.033 respectively). The disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) curves showed that higher levels of SOCS1, 3 and 7 were significant predictors of higher DFS (p = 0.015, p = 0.024 and 0.03 respectively) and OS (p = 0.005, p = 0.013 and p = 0.035 respectively). Higher levels of SOCS 4 were significant in predicting better OS (p = 0.007) but not DFS. Immunohistochemical staining of representative samples showed a correlation between SOCS1, 3, 7 protein staining and the SOCS1, 3, 7 mRNA expression.
CONCLUSION: Higher mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, 3, 4 and 7 are significantly associated with earlier tumour stage and better clinical outcome in human breast cancer.

Zhou J, Bi C, Janakakumara JV, et al.
Enhanced activation of STAT pathways and overexpression of survivin confer resistance to FLT3 inhibitors and could be therapeutic targets in AML.
Blood. 2009; 113(17):4052-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
To further investigate potential mechanisms of resistance to FLT3 inhibitors, we developed a resistant cell line by long-term culture of MV4-11 cells with ABT-869, designated as MV4-11-R. Gene profiling reveals up-regulation of FLT3LG (FLT3 ligand) and BIRC5 (survivin), but down-regulation of SOCS1, SOCS2, and SOCS3 in MV4-11-R cells. Hypermethylation of these SOCS genes leads to their transcriptional silencing. Survivin is directly regulated by STAT3. Stimulation of the parental MV4-11 cells with FLT3 ligand increases the expression of survivin and phosphorylated protein STAT1, STAT3, STAT5. Targeting survivin by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) in MV4-11-R cells induces apoptosis and augments ABT-869-mediated cytotoxicity. Overexpression of survivin protects MV4-11 from apoptosis. Subtoxic dose of indirubin derivative (IDR) E804 resensitizes MV4-11-R to ABT-869 treatment by inhibiting STAT signaling activity and abolishing survivin expression. Combining IDR E804 with ABT-869 shows potent in vivo efficacy in the MV4-11-R xenograft model. Taken together, these results demonstrate that enhanced activation of STAT pathways and overexpression of survivin are important mechanisms of resistance to ABT-869, suggesting that the STAT pathways and survivin could be potential targets for reducing resistance developed in patients receiving FLT3 inhibitors.

Chu CY, Cha ST, Lin WC, et al.
Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha/CXCL12)-enhanced angiogenesis of human basal cell carcinoma cells involves ERK1/2-NF-kappaB/interleukin-6 pathway.
Carcinogenesis. 2009; 30(2):205-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha) (CXCL12) has been observed to enhance tumor angiogenesis. However, the comprehensive role of SDF-1alpha (CXCL12)-CXCR4 interaction, exerted during angiogenesis, has not been well understood. We have previously demonstrated that human basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissues and a BCC cell line (BCC-1/KMC) had significant expression of CXCR4, whose level was higher in invasive than in the non-invasive BCC types. Here, we observed that human BCC tissues with high expression levels of CXCR4 had higher vascularity. Further, among the 71 BCCs diagnosed between the years 2004-2005, BCCs with high CXCR4 expression had concomitantly higher microvessel density, as compared with those with low CXCR4 expression (P < 0.001). We found that SDF-1alpha induced angiogenic activity in human BCC cells, both in vitro and in vivo. SDF-1alpha significantly upregulated several angiogenesis-associated genes such as interferon-alpha-inducible protein 27, interleukin (IL)-6, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6, SOCS2 and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX)-2 in human BCC cells. Among them, IL-6 was the earliest and highest upregulated gene whose induction was observed within 6 h of the commencement of SDF-1alpha-CXCR4 interaction. The mechanisms behind the SDF-1alpha-induced time and dose-dependent upregulation of messenger RNA expression and protein secretion of IL-6 were investigated. The transcriptional regulation of IL-6 by SDF-1alpha was mediated by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 and activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB complex. The identification of the angiogenic profiles induced through SDF-1alpha-CXCR4 interactions in human BCC cells may contribute further insights into the mechanisms involved in the angiogenic potential of SDF-1alpha (CXCL12).

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