Gene Summary

Gene:SYK; spleen associated tyrosine kinase
Aliases: p72-Syk
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the family of non-receptor type Tyr protein kinases. This protein is widely expressed in hematopoietic cells and is involved in coupling activated immunoreceptors to downstream signaling events that mediate diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis. It is thought to be a modulator of epithelial cell growth and a potential tumour suppressor in human breast carcinomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase SYK
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (59)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Survival Rate
  • TNF
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • DNA Methylation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Mutation
  • Enzyme Precursors
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transfection
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Messenger RNA
  • Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
  • Chromosome 9
  • Phosphorylation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Breast Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • RT-PCR
  • Vanadates
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Base Sequence
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Viral Proteins
  • Transcription
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Promoter Regions
  • p53 Protein
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Apoptosis
  • B-Lymphocytes
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SYK (cancer-related)

Chuanliang P, Yunpeng Z, Yingtao H, et al.
Syk expression in non-small-cell lung cancer and its relation with angiogenesis.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2016 Apr-Jun; 12(2):663-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of spleentyrosine kinase (Syk) gene in non--small--cell lung cancer and the relationship between Syk mRNA and microvessel density (MVD) in the tumor cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of Syk gene in 70 cases of lung tumor tissues, adjacent tissues, and normal lung tissues were examined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT--PCR). The expression of MVD was examined with immunohistochemical streptavidin--biotin complex (SABC). The relation between them was analyzed.
RESULTS: Syk mRNA expression rates were 5.7, 95.7, and 100% in tumor, adjacent lung cells, and normal lung cells, respectively. The expression rate in tumor cells was significantly lower compared with those in normal lung tissue and adjacent lung tissue (P < 0.05), expression rate among different pathologic types, differentiation and clinical stages did not reveal any statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). The positive rate of CD34 in tumor was higher than that in adjacent tissues and normal lung tissues. The expression of Syk mRNA and MVD were negatively correlated.
CONCLUSIONS: The lack of Syk mRNA expression in lung cancer play an important role in angiogenesis.

Sun Q, Peng C, Cong B, et al.
Involvement of syk and VEGF-C in invasion of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2016 Apr-Jun; 12(2):640-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lung cancer has become one of the most dangerous malignant tumors in the world nowadays, whose pathogenesis is complex involving multi-genes and multi-elements. This study aims to investigate the values of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) in lymphangiogenesis and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pcDNA3.1-VEGF-C and pLNCX-syk were constructed and transfected into A549 cells. After cells with stable expression were sorted, the level of VEGF-C was tested by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and the mRNA of syk was tested by RT-PCR. The cell invasion assay was investigated by transwell chamber in vitro. Restriction enzyme digestion and gel electrophoresis demonstrated successful construction of the pcDNA3.1-VEGF-C.
RESULTS: RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed higher expression of VEGF-C in VEGFC-construct-transfected A549 cells than that in controls (P < 0.05). Successful construction of the pLNCX-syk was demonstrated by restriction enzyme electrophoresis and sequencing. RT-PCR revealed Syk expression higher in syk-construct-transfected cells than in controls (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a potential link between the upregulation of Syk and VEGF-C expression and lung adenocarcinoma.

Faryal R, Ishfaq M, Hayat T, et al.
Novel SYK gene variations and changes in binding sites of miRs in breast cancer patients.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(3):319-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK) belongs to non-receptor tyrosine Kinase family, which normally expresses in epithelial breast tissues and acts as a tumor suppressor gene.
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of mutations in the SYK gene and deregulation of SYK transcripts by miRNA in breast cancer was studied.
METHODS: All exons and exon/intron boundaries of SYK gene were amplified and sequenced in blood samples of 207 breast cancer cases and 200 matched controls using PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism method.
RESULTS: Sequence analysis revealed 10 novel mutations in breast cancer patients. Among these 6 mutations (Ala 161Pro, His162Tyr, Phe191Tyr, Val 535Gly, Ser 556lIe and Lys536Gln) were found in exonic region and 4 (26249 T>A, 63941 G>A, 63981G>C and 86548T>A) were found in intronic region. All of these mutations are associated with ∼ 5 folds (p< 0.0001) increase in breast cancer risk in present study cohort. Regulation of SYK transcripts by miRNA was also analyzed using in silico bioinformatics tools, exon 6's mutation (Phe191Tyr) was found to have altered interaction with miR-873.
CONCLUSION: Overall novel mutations in SYK gene and in silico analysis revealed that these mutations are crucial and might be responsible for altered expression of SYK.

Li Z, Cai Z, Tao B, Jin Q
Full-length spleen tyrosine kinase inhibits the invasion and metastasis of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(12):15786-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate correlation between full-length spleen tyrosine kinase [SYK (L)] expression and clinical characteristics of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), and explore effects of SYK (L) on invasion and metastasis of LSCC.
METHODS: The human laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cells with low SYK (L) expression were transfected with pIRES2-EGFP-SYK (L) vector and empty vector pIRES2-EGFP to generate Hep-2-SYK (L) cells and Hep-2-neo cells. The cell invasion and migration abilities were determined.
RESULTS: The SYK (L) positive expression rate in LSCC tissues was significantly lower than in vocal cord dysplasia tissues and normal laryngeal tissues (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between SYK (L) expression and LSCC T stage, histopathological grade and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of SYK (L) in Hep-2-SYK (L) cells was significantly higher than in Hep-2-neo cells and Hep-2 cells (P < 0.01). The protein expression of SYK (L) in Hep-2-SYK (L) cells was markedly higher than in Hep-2-neo cells and Hep-2 cells (P < 0.01). The number of invasive cells was significantly lower in Hep-2-SYK (L) group than in Hep-2-neo group and Hep-2 group (P < 0.01). The average number of migrating cells in Hep-2-SYK (L) group also markedly reduced as compared to Hep-2-neo group and Hep-2 group (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The SYK (L) expression was down-regulated in LSCC, which was closely correlated with cancer growth and lymph node metastasis. SYK (L) up-regulation was able to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of LSCC, therefore suppressing tumor development. Thus, SYK (L) may be a potential target for the LSCC treatment.

Kanderova V, Kuzilkova D, Stuchly J, et al.
High-resolution Antibody Array Analysis of Childhood Acute Leukemia Cells.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016; 15(4):1246-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Acute leukemia is a disease pathologically manifested at both genomic and proteomic levels. Molecular genetic technologies are currently widely used in clinical research. In contrast, sensitive and high-throughput proteomic techniques for performing protein analyses in patient samples are still lacking. Here, we used a technology based on size exclusion chromatography followed by immunoprecipitation of target proteins with an antibody bead array (Size Exclusion Chromatography-Microsphere-based Affinity Proteomics, SEC-MAP) to detect hundreds of proteins from a single sample. In addition, we developed semi-automatic bioinformatics tools to adapt this technology for high-content proteomic screening of pediatric acute leukemia patients.To confirm the utility of SEC-MAP in leukemia immunophenotyping, we tested 31 leukemia diagnostic markers in parallel by SEC-MAP and flow cytometry. We identified 28 antibodies suitable for both techniques. Eighteen of them provided excellent quantitative correlation between SEC-MAP and flow cytometry (p< 0.05). Next, SEC-MAP was applied to examine 57 diagnostic samples from patients with acute leukemia. In this assay, we used 632 different antibodies and detected 501 targets. Of those, 47 targets were differentially expressed between at least two of the three acute leukemia subgroups. The CD markers correlated with immunophenotypic categories as expected. From non-CD markers, we found DBN1, PAX5, or PTK2 overexpressed in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias, LAT, SH2D1A, or STAT5A overexpressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and HCK, GLUD1, or SYK overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemias. In addition, OPAL1 overexpression corresponded to ETV6-RUNX1 chromosomal translocation.In summary, we demonstrated that SEC-MAP technology is a powerful tool for detecting hundreds of proteins in clinical samples obtained from pediatric acute leukemia patients. It provides information about protein size and reveals differences in protein expression between particular leukemia subgroups. Forty-seven of SEC-MAP identified targets were validated by other conventional method in this study.

Yamagishi M, Katano H, Hishima T, et al.
Coordinated loss of microRNA group causes defenseless signaling in malignant lymphoma.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:17868 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Biological robustness is exposed to stochastic perturbations, which should be controlled by intrinsic mechanisms; the promiscuous signaling network without appropriate alleviation is the true nature of cancer cells. B cell receptor (BCR) signaling is a major source of gene expression signature important for B cell. It is still unclear the mechanism by which the expression of functionally important genes is continuously deregulated in malignant lymphomas. Using RISC-capture assay, we reveal that multiple BCR signaling factors are persistently regulated by microRNA (miRNA) in human B cells. Clinical samples from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n = 83) show loss of an essential miRNA set (miR-200c, miR-203, miR-31). Conventional screening and RISC profiling identify multiple targets (CD79B, SYK, PKCβII, PLCγ1, IKKβ, NIK, MYD88, PI3K class I (α/β/δ/γ), RasGRP3); signaling network habitually faces interference composed by miRNA group in normal B cells. We demonstrate that simultaneous depletion of the key miRNAs enhances translation of the multiple targets and causes chronic activation of NF-κB, PI3K-Akt, and Ras-Erk cascades, leading to B cell transformation. This study suggests that compensatory actions by multiple miRNAs rather than by a single miRNA ensure robustness of biological processes.

Blum KA
B-cell receptor pathway modulators in NHL.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2015; 2015:82-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
With the recent success of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib, and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, idelalisib, in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), a number of new agents targeting the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway are in clinical development. In addition, multiple trials combining these agents with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunomodulatory agents, monoclonal antibodies, or other kinase inhibitors are underway. This review will summarize the current data with the use of single agent and combination therapy with BCR inhibitors in NHL. In addition, commonly encountered as well as serious toxicities and hypothesized resistance mechanisms will be discussed. Lastly, this review will examine the future of these agents and opportunities to maneuver them into the front-line setting in selected NHL subtypes.

Szydlowski M, Kiliszek P, Sewastianik T, et al.
FOXO1 activation is an effector of SYK and AKT inhibition in tonic BCR signal-dependent diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Blood. 2016; 127(6):739-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) in tonic B-cell receptor (BCR) signal-dependent diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) inhibits cellular proliferation, decreases cholesterol biosynthesis, and triggers apoptosis, at least in part via a mechanism involving decreased activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT axis. Because forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) is a major effector of this pathway, we investigated the role of FOXO1 in toxicity of BCR pathway inhibition. Inhibition of SYK in DLBCL cells with tonic BCR signaling decreased phospho-AKT and phospho-FOXO1 levels and triggered FOXO1-driven gene expression. Introduction of constitutively active FOXO1 mutant triggered cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, indicating that increased FOXO1 activity is toxic to these DLBCL cells. Depletion of FOXO1 with short hairpin RNA led to almost complete resistance to chemical SYK inhibitor R406, demonstrating that FOXO1 is also required for R406-induced cell death. FOXO1 in these cells is also involved in regulation of expression of the critical master regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, SREBP1. Because HRK is the key effector of SYK inhibition, we characterized a mechanism linking FOXO1 activation and HRK induction that involves caspase-dependent cleavage of HRK's transcriptional repressor DREAM. Because AKT in lymphoma cells can be regulated by other signals than BCR, we assessed the combined effects of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 with R406 and found markedly synergistic FOXO1-dependent toxicity. In primary DLBCLs, FOXO1 expression was present in 80% of tumors, correlated with SYK activity, and was associated with longer overall survival. These results demonstrate that FOXO1 is required for SYK and AKT inhibitor-induced toxicity.

Yeomans A, Thirdborough SM, Valle-Argos B, et al.
Engagement of the B-cell receptor of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells drives global and MYC-specific mRNA translation.
Blood. 2016; 127(4):449-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antigenic stimulation via the B-cell receptor (BCR) is a major driver of the proliferation and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. However, the precise mechanisms by which BCR stimulation leads to accumulation of malignant cells remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the ability of BCR stimulation to increase messenger RNA (mRNA) translation, which can promote carcinogenesis by effects on both global mRNA translation and upregulated expression of specific oncoproteins. Re-analysis of gene expression profiles revealed striking upregulation of pathways linked to mRNA translation both in CLL cells derived from lymph nodes, the major site of antigen stimulation in vivo, and after BCR stimulation in vitro. Anti-IgM significantly increased mRNA translation in primary CLL cells, measured using bulk metabolic labeling and a novel flow cytometry assay to quantify responses at a single-cell level. These translational responses were suppressed by inhibitors of BTK (ibrutinib) and SYK (tamatinib). Anti-IgM-induced mRNA translation was associated with increased expression of translation initiation factors eIF4A and eIF4GI, and reduced expression of the eIF4A inhibitor, PDCD4. Anti-IgM also increased mRNA translation in normal blood B cells, but without clear modulatory effects on these factors. In addition, anti-IgM increased translation of mRNA-encoding MYC, a major driver of disease progression. mRNA translation is likely to be an important mediator of the growth-promoting effects of antigen stimulation acting, at least in part, via translational induction of MYC. Differences in mechanisms of translational regulation in CLL and normal B cells may provide opportunities for selective therapeutic attack.

Sclafani F, Kim TY, Cunningham D, et al.
A Randomized Phase II/III Study of Dalotuzumab in Combination With Cetuximab and Irinotecan in Chemorefractory, KRAS Wild-Type, Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(12):djv258 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) mediates resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition and may represent a therapeutic target. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double blind, phase II/III trial of dalotuzumab, an anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody, with standard therapy in chemo-refractory, KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.
METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to dalotuzumab 10mg/kg weekly (arm A), dalotuzumab 7.5mg/kg every alternate week (arm B), or placebo (arm C) in combination with cetuximab and irinotecan. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included exploratory biomarker analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: The trial was prematurely discontinued for futility after 344 eligible KRAS wild-type patients were included in the primary efficacy population (arm A = 116, arm B = 117, arm C = 111). Median PFS was 3.9 months in arm A (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98 to 1.83, P = .07) and 5.4 months in arm B (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.55, P = .44) compared with 5.6 months in arm C. Median OS was 10.8 months in arm A (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.99 to 2.00, P = .06) and 11.6 months in arm B (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.79, P = .18) compared with 14.0 months in arm C. Grade 3 or higher asthenia and hyperglycaemia occurred more frequently with dalotuzumab compared with placebo. In exploratory biomarker analyses, patients with high IGF-1 mRNA tumors in arm A had numerically better PFS (5.6 vs 3.6 months, HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.28 to 1.23, P = .16) and OS (17.9 vs 9.4 months, HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.31 to 1.45, P = .31) compared with those with high IGF-1 mRNA tumors in arm C. In contrast, in arm C high IGF-1 mRNA expression predicted lower response rate (17.6% vs 37.3%, P = .04), shorter PFS (3.6 vs 6.6 months, HR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.15 to 4.02, P = .02), and shorter OS (9.4 vs 15.5 months, HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.21 to 4.82, P = .01).
CONCLUSIONS: Adding dalotuzumab to irinotecan and cetuximab was feasible but did not improve survival outcome. IGF-1R ligands are promising biomarkers for differential response to anti-EGFR and anti-IGF-1R therapies.

Uckun FM, Myers DE, Cheng J, Qazi S
Liposomal Nanoparticles of a Spleen Tyrosine Kinase P-Site Inhibitor Amplify the Potency of Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Against Aggressive B-Precursor Leukemia and Yield Superior Survival Outcomes in Mice.
EBioMedicine. 2015; 2(6):554-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
This study was designed to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy against radiation-resistant leukemia. We report that the potency of low dose radiation therapy against B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL) can be markedly enhanced by combining radiation with a liposomal nanoparticle (LNP) formulation of the SYK-P-site inhibitor C61 ("C61-LNP"). C61-LNP plus low dose total body irradiation (TBI) was substantially more effective than TBI alone or C61-LNP alone in improving the event-free survival outcome NOD/SCID mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of human ALL xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients. C61-LNP plus low dose TBI also yielded progression-free survival, tumor-free survival and overall survival outcomes in CD22ΔE12 × BCR-ABL double transgenic mice with advanced stage, radiation-resistant BPL with lymphomatous features that were significantly superior to those of mice treated with TBI alone or C61-LNP alone.

Vu HL, Rosenbaum S, Purwin TJ, et al.
RAC1 P29S regulates PD-L1 expression in melanoma.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015; 28(5):590-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Whole exome sequencing of cutaneous melanoma has led to the detection of P29 mutations in RAC1 in 5-9% of samples, but the role of RAC1 P29 mutations in melanoma biology remains unclear. Using reverse phase protein array analysis to examine the changes in protein/phospho-protein expression, we identified cyclin B1, PD-L1, Ets-1, and Syk as being selectively upregulated with RAC1 P29S expression and downregulated with RAC1 P29S depletion. Using the melanoma patient samples in TCGA, we found PD-L1 expression to be significantly increased in RAC1 P29S patients compared to RAC1 WT as well as other RAC1 mutants. The finding that PD-L1 is upregulated suggests that oncogenic RAC1 P29S may promote suppression of the antitumor immune response. This is a new insight into the biological function of RAC1 P29S mutations with potential clinical implications as PD-L1 is a candidate biomarker for increased benefit from treatment with anti-PD1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies.

Wu T, Wang X, Li J, et al.
Identification of Personalized Chemoresistance Genes in Subtypes of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Based on Functional Differences Using Pathway Analysis.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0131183 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease that is clinically classified into several subtypes. Among these subtypes, basal-like breast cancer largely overlaps with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and these two groups are generally studied together as a single entity. Differences in the molecular makeup of breast cancers can result in different treatment strategies and prognoses for patients with different breast cancer subtypes. Compared with other subtypes, basal-like and other ER+ breast cancer subtypes exhibit marked differences in etiologic factors, clinical characteristics and therapeutic potential. Anthracycline drugs are typically used as the first-line clinical treatment for basal-like breast cancer subtypes. However, certain patients develop drug resistance following chemotherapy, which can lead to disease relapse and death. Even among patients with basal-like breast cancer, there can be significant molecular differences, and it is difficult to identify specific drug resistance proteins in any given patient using conventional variance testing methods. Therefore, we designed a new method for identifying drug resistance genes. Subgroups, personalized biomarkers, and therapy targets were identified using cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes. We found that basal-like breast cancer could be further divided into at least four distinct subgroups, including two groups at risk for drug resistance and two groups characterized by sensitivity to pharmacotherapy. Based on functional differences among these subgroups, we identified nine biomarkers related to drug resistance: SYK, LCK, GAB2, PAWR, PPARG, MDFI, ZAP70, CIITA and ACTA1. Finally, based on the deviation scores of the examined pathways, 16 pathways were shown to exhibit varying degrees of abnormality in the various subgroups, indicating that patients with different subtypes of basal-like breast cancer can be characterized by differences in the functional status of these pathways. Therefore, these nine differentially expressed genes and their associated functional pathways should provide the basis for novel personalized clinical treatments of basal-like breast cancer.

Yu Y, Gaillard S, Phillip JM, et al.
Inhibition of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Potentiates Paclitaxel-Induced Cytotoxicity in Ovarian Cancer Cells by Stabilizing Microtubules.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 28(1):82-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Resistance to chemotherapy represents a major obstacle for long-term remission, and effective strategies to overcome drug resistance would have significant clinical impact. We report that recurrent ovarian carcinomas after paclitaxel/carboplatin treatment have higher levels of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and phospho-SYK. In vitro, paclitaxel-resistant cells expressed higher SYK, and the ratio of phospho-SYK/SYK positively associated with paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Inactivation of SYK by inhibitors or gene knockdown sensitized paclitaxel cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the phosphotyrosine proteome in paclitaxel-resistant tumor cells revealed that SYK phosphorylates tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins. Inhibition of SYK enhanced microtubule stability in paclitaxel-resistant tumor cells that were otherwise insensitive. Thus, targeting SYK pathway is a promising strategy to enhance paclitaxel response.

Sun L, Li J, Yan B
Gene expression profiling analysis of osteosarcoma cell lines.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(3):4266-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of primary bone malignancy and has a poor prognosis. To investigate the mechanisms of osteosarcoma, the present analyzed the GSE28424 microarray. GSE28424 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and included a collective of 19 OS cell lines and four normal bone cell lines, which were used as controls. Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the Limma package in Bioconductor. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, interactions between the proteins encoded by the DEGs were identified using STRING, and the protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized using Cytoscape. In addition, modular analysis of the PPI network was performed using the Clique Percolation Method (CPM) in CFinder. A total of 1,170 DEGs were screened, including 530 upreguated and 640 downregulated genes. The enriched functions included organelle fission, immune response and response to wounding. In addition, RPL8 was observed to be involved with the ribosomal pathway in module A of the PPI network of the DEGs. PLCG1, SYK and PLCG2 were also involved in the B‑cell receptor signaling pathway in module B and the Fc‑epsilon RI signaling pathway in module C. In addition, AURKA (degree=39), MAD2L1 (degree=38), CDCA8 (degree=38), BUB1 (degree=37) and MELK (degree=37) exhibited higher degrees of connectivity in module F. The results of the present study suggested that the RPL8, PLCG1, PLCG2, SYK, MAD2L1, AURKA, CDCA8, BUB1 and MELK genes may be involved in OS.

Liu Y, Wang P, Li S, et al.
Interaction of key pathways in sorafenib-treated hepatocellular carcinoma based on a PCR-array.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(3):3027-35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
This study aimed to identify the key pathways and to explore the mechanism of sorafenib in inhibiting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The gene expression profile of GSE33621, including 6 sorafenib treated group and 6 control samples, was downloaded from the GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HCC samples were screened using the ΔΔCt method with the homogenized internal GAPDH. Also, the functions and pathways of DEGs were analyzed using the DAVID. Moreover, the significant pathways of DEGs that involved in HCC were analyzed based on the Latent pathway identification analysis (LPIA). A total of 44 down-regulated DEGs were selected in HCC samples. Also, there were 84 biological pathways that these 44 DEGs involved in. Also, LPIA showed that Osteoclast differentiation and hsa04664-Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway was the most significant interaction pathways. Moreover, Apoptosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Chagas disease, and T cell receptor signaling pathway were the significant pathways that interacted with hsa04664. In addition, DEGs such as AKT1 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1), TNF (tumor necrosis factor), SYK (spleen tyrosine kinase), and PIK3R1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha)) were the common genes that involved in the significant pathways. Several pathway interaction pairs that caused by several downregulated genes such as SYK, PI3K, AKT1, and TNF, were identified play curial role in sorafenib treated HCC. Sorafenib played important inhibition roles in HCC by affecting a complicate pathway interaction network.

Long X, Yu Y, Perlaky L, et al.
Stromal CYR61 Confers Resistance to Mitoxantrone via Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Activation in Human Acute Myeloid Leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 170(5):704-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 50% of children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relapse, despite aggressive chemotherapy. The bone marrow stromal environment protects leukaemia cells from chemotherapy (i.e., stroma-induced chemoresistance), eventually leading to recurrence. Our goal is to delineate the mechanisms underlying stroma-mediated chemoresistance in AML. We used two human bone marrow stromal cell lines, HS-5 and HS-27A, which are equally effective in protecting AML cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in AML-stromal co-cultures. We found that CYR61 was highly expressed by stromal cells, and was upregulated in AML cells by both stromal cell lines. CYR61 is a secreted matricellular protein and is associated with cell-intrinsic chemoresistance in other malignancies. Here, we show that blocking stromal CYR61 activity, by neutralization or RNAi, increased mitoxantrone-induced apoptosis in AML cells in AML-stromal co-cultures, providing functional evidence for its role in stroma-mediated chemoresistance. Further, we found that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) mediates CYR61 signalling. Exposure to stroma increased SYK expression and activation in AML cells, and this increase required CYR61. SYK inhibition reduced stroma-dependent mitoxantrone resistance in the presence of CYR61, but not in its absence. Therefore, SYK is downstream of CYR61 and contributes to CYR61-mediated mitoxantrone resistance. The CYR61-SYK pathway represents a potential target for reducing stroma-induced chemoresistance.

Gioia R, Trégoat C, Dumas PY, et al.
CBL controls a tyrosine kinase network involving AXL, SYK and LYN in nilotinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia.
J Pathol. 2015; 237(1):14-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
A tyrosine kinase network composed of the TAM receptor AXL and the cytoplasmic kinases LYN and SYK is involved in nilotinib-resistance of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cells. Here, we show that the E3-ubiquitin ligase CBL down-regulation occurring during prolonged drug treatment plays a critical role in this process. Depletion of CBL in K562 cells increases AXL and LYN protein levels, promoting cell resistance to nilotinib. Conversely, forced expression of CBL in nilotinib-resistant K562 cells (K562-rn) dramatically reduces AXL and LYN expression and resensitizes K562-rn cells to nilotinib. A similar mechanism was found to operate in primary CML CD34(+) cells. Mechanistically, the E3-ligase CBL counteracts AXL/SYK signalling, promoting LYN transcription by controlling AXL protein stability. Surprisingly, the role of AXL in resistance was independent of its ligand GAS6 binding and its TK activity, in accordance with a scaffold activity for this receptor being involved in this cellular process. Collectively, our results demonstrate a pivotal role for CBL in the control of a tyrosine kinase network mediating resistance to nilotinib treatment in CML cells.

Peng H, Huang J, Hu Y, et al.
Associations between polymorphisms in the SYK promoter and susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer in a Southern Han Chinese population - a short report.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2015; 38(2):165-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Down-regulated expression of the putative tumor suppressor gene spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is strongly associated with the development of various cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). SYK gene promoter polymorphisms have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple malignant tumors. In this study, we investigated associations of SYK gene promoter polymorphisms with the susceptibility to colorectal cancer development in a Southern Han Chinese population.
METHODS: SNPs in the promoter region of the human SYK gene were identified using in silico analysis tools, linkage disequilibrium analysis, and a search for likely transcription factor binding sites via TFSEARCH in the NCBI SNP database (gene ID: 6850). Based on this information, -803A>T and -534T>C were selected as candidates for further analysis. TaqMan-MGB probe analyses were performed in 567 CRC patients and 569 age- and gender-matched healthy controls for SYK gene promoter genotyping. Associations between CRC risk and SNPs were estimated using an unconditional logistic regression model, and environmental risk factors were included in a multivariate logistic regression model for correction.
RESULTS: The frequencies of the TA and TT genotypes and the T allele of the -803A>T SNP were found to be significantly higher in the CRC patients compared to the healthy individuals of the control group (P=0.020, 0.023, and 0.013, respectively). Synergistic effects between -803A>T genotypes (i.e., TA+TT) and age (≤60 years; P=0.039), male gender (P=0.011), smoking (P=0.005), drinking alcohol (P=0.002), and high BMI (≥24.0 kg/m2; P=0.009) were found to increase the risk to develop CRC by stratified analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: The SYK -803 A>T genotypes TA and TT are independent risk factors for CRC development in Han Chinese in Southern China, and an association with TA+TT genotypes appears predominant among younger patients, male patients, patients with a high BMI, and patients who smoke or drink alcohol.

Chen Z, Shojaee S, Buchner M, et al.
Signalling thresholds and negative B-cell selection in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Nature. 2015; 521(7552):357-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
B cells are selected for an intermediate level of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signalling strength: attenuation below minimum (for example, non-functional BCR) or hyperactivation above maximum (for example, self-reactive BCR) thresholds of signalling strength causes negative selection. In ∼25% of cases, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells carry the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase (Philadelphia chromosome positive), which mimics constitutively active pre-BCR signalling. Current therapeutic approaches are largely focused on the development of more potent tyrosine kinase inhibitors to suppress oncogenic signalling below a minimum threshold for survival. We tested the hypothesis that targeted hyperactivation--above a maximum threshold--will engage a deletional checkpoint for removal of self-reactive B cells and selectively kill ALL cells. Here we find, by testing various components of proximal pre-BCR signalling in mouse BCR-ABL1 cells, that an incremental increase of Syk tyrosine kinase activity was required and sufficient to induce cell death. Hyperactive Syk was functionally equivalent to acute activation of a self-reactive BCR on ALL cells. Despite oncogenic transformation, this basic mechanism of negative selection was still functional in ALL cells. Unlike normal pre-B cells, patient-derived ALL cells express the inhibitory receptors PECAM1, CD300A and LAIR1 at high levels. Genetic studies revealed that Pecam1, Cd300a and Lair1 are critical to calibrate oncogenic signalling strength through recruitment of the inhibitory phosphatases Ptpn6 (ref. 7) and Inpp5d (ref. 8). Using a novel small-molecule inhibitor of INPP5D (also known as SHIP1), we demonstrated that pharmacological hyperactivation of SYK and engagement of negative B-cell selection represents a promising new strategy to overcome drug resistance in human ALL.

Geng H, Hurtz C, Lenz KB, et al.
Self-enforcing feedback activation between BCL6 and pre-B cell receptor signaling defines a distinct subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(3):409-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Studying 830 pre-B ALL cases from four clinical trials, we found that human ALL can be divided into two fundamentally distinct subtypes based on pre-BCR function. While absent in the majority of ALL cases, tonic pre-BCR signaling was found in 112 cases (13.5%). In these cases, tonic pre-BCR signaling induced activation of BCL6, which in turn increased pre-BCR signaling output at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, inhibition of pre-BCR-related tyrosine kinases reduced constitutive BCL6 expression and selectively killed patient-derived pre-BCR(+) ALL cells. These findings identify a genetically and phenotypically distinct subset of human ALL that critically depends on tonic pre-BCR signaling. In vivo treatment studies suggested that pre-BCR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are useful for the treatment of patients with pre-BCR(+) ALL.

Kuiatse I, Baladandayuthapani V, Lin HY, et al.
Targeting the Spleen Tyrosine Kinase with Fostamatinib as a Strategy against Waldenström Macroglobulinemia.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(11):2538-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WMG) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by good initial responses to standard therapeutics, but only a minority of patients achieve complete remissions, and most inevitably relapse, indicating a need for novel agents. B-cell receptor signaling has been linked to clonal evolution in WMG, and Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is overexpressed in primary cells, suggesting that it could be a novel and rational target.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We studied the impact of the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib on BCWM.1 and MWCL-1 WMG-derived cell lines both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on primary patient cells.
RESULTS: In WMG-derived cell lines, fostamatinib induced a time- and dose-dependent reduction in viability, associated with activation of apoptosis. At the molecular level, fostamatinib reduced activation of Syk and Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and also downstream signaling through MAPK kinase (MEK), p44/42 MAPK, and protein kinase B/Akt. As a single agent, fostamatinib induced tumor growth delay in an in vivo model of WMG, and reduced viability of primary WMG cells, along with inhibition of p44/42 MAPK signaling. Finally, fostamatinib in combination with other agents, including dexamethasone, bortezomib, and rituximab, showed enhanced activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data support the translation of approaches targeting Syk with fostamatinib to the clinic for patients with relapsed and possibly even newly diagnosed WMG.

Hansmann L, Blum L, Ju CH, et al.
Mass cytometry analysis shows that a novel memory phenotype B cell is expanded in multiple myeloma.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(6):650-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
It would be very beneficial if the status of cancers could be determined from a blood specimen. However, peripheral blood leukocytes are very heterogeneous between individuals, and thus high-resolution technologies are likely required. We used cytometry by time-of-flight and next-generation sequencing to ask whether a plasma cell cancer (multiple myeloma) and related precancerous states had any consistent effect on the peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotypes of patients. Analysis of peripheral blood samples from 13 cancer patients, 9 precancer patients, and 9 healthy individuals revealed significant differences in the frequencies of the T-cell, B-cell, and natural killer-cell compartments. Most strikingly, we identified a novel B-cell population that normally accounts for 4.0% ± 0.7% (mean ± SD) of total B cells and is up to 13-fold expanded in multiple myeloma patients with active disease. This population expressed markers previously associated with both memory (CD27(+)) and naïve (CD24(lo)CD38(+)) phenotypes. Single-cell immunoglobulin gene sequencing showed polyclonality, indicating that these cells are not precursors to the myeloma, and somatic mutations, a characteristic of memory cells. SYK, ERK, and p38 phosphorylation responses, and the fact that most of these cells expressed isotypes other than IgM or IgD, confirmed the memory character of this population, defining it as a novel type of memory B cells.

Muellner MK, Mair B, Ibrahim Y, et al.
Targeting a cell state common to triple-negative breast cancers.
Mol Syst Biol. 2015; 11(1):789 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Some mutations in cancer cells can be exploited for therapeutic intervention. However, for many cancer subtypes, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), no frequently recurring aberrations could be identified to make such an approach clinically feasible. Characterized by a highly heterogeneous mutational landscape with few common features, many TNBCs cluster together based on their 'basal-like' transcriptional profiles. We therefore hypothesized that targeting TNBC cells on a systems level by exploiting the transcriptional cell state might be a viable strategy to find novel therapies for this highly aggressive disease. We performed a large-scale chemical genetic screen and identified a group of compounds related to the drug PKC412 (midostaurin). PKC412 induced apoptosis in a subset of TNBC cells enriched for the basal-like subtype and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. We employed a multi-omics approach and computational modeling to address the mechanism of action and identified spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) as a novel and unexpected target in TNBC. Quantitative phosphoproteomics revealed that SYK inhibition abrogates signaling to STAT3, explaining the selectivity for basal-like breast cancer cells. This non-oncogene addiction suggests that chemical SYK inhibition may be beneficial for a specific subset of TNBC patients and demonstrates that targeting cell states could be a viable strategy to discover novel treatment strategies.

Grzywnowicz M, Karabon L, Karczmarczyk A, et al.
The function of a novel immunophenotype candidate molecule PD-1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(10):2908-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a negative receptor expressed on lymphocytes including malignant B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this work, we found that patients with CLL had a higher expression of PD-1 transcript (PDCD1) than healthy volunteers (p < 0.0001). PDCD1 expression was comparable between CLL cells from accumulation (peripheral blood) and proliferation (bone marrow) disease compartments. In blood samples of patients with mutated IGHV genes PDCD1 expression was higher than with unmutated IGHV (p = 0.0299). We demonstrated that phosphorylation of SYK and LYN, key B-cell receptor signaling kinases, was independent of PD-1 expression in patients with CLL, while ZAP-70 phosphorylation in negative tyrosine residue 292 showed strong inverse correlation (r = - 0.8, p = 0.0019). No associations between five single nucleotide polymorphisms of PDCD1, their expressions and susceptibility to CLL were found. In conclusion, PD-1 might be an independent, universal marker of CLL cells and a part of their activated phenotype, and subsequently might modulate the function of ZAP-70.

Till KJ, Pettitt AR, Slupsky JR
Expression of functional sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor-1 is reduced by B cell receptor signaling and increased by inhibition of PI3 kinase δ but not SYK or BTK in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(5):2439-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BCR signaling pathway inhibitors such as ibrutinib, idelalisib, and fostamatinib (respective inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, PI3Kδ, and spleen tyrosine kinase) represent a significant therapeutic advance in B cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These drugs are distinctive in increasing blood lymphocytes while simultaneously shrinking enlarged lymph nodes, suggesting anatomical redistribution of CLL cells from lymph nodes into the blood. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are incompletely understood. In this study, we showed that the egress receptor, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1PR1), was expressed at low levels in normal germinal centers and CLL lymph nodes in vivo but became upregulated on normal B cells and, to a variable and lesser extent, CLL cells following in vitro incubation in S1P-free medium. Spontaneous recovery of S1PR1 expression on normal B and CLL cells was prevented by BCR cross-linking, whereas treatment of CLL cells with idelalisib increased S1PR1 expression and migration toward S1P, the greatest increase occurring in cases with unmutated IgH V region genes. Intriguingly, ibrutinib and fostamatinib had no effect on S1PR1 expression or function. Conversely, chemokine-induced migration, which requires integrin activation and is essential for the entry of lymphocytes into lymph nodes as well as their retention, was blocked by ibrutinib and fostamatinib, but not idelalisib. In summary, our results suggest that different BCR signaling inhibitors redistribute CLL cells from lymph nodes into the blood through distinct mechanisms: idelalisib actively promotes egress by upregulating S1PR1, whereas fostamatinib and ibrutinib may reduce CLL cell entry and retention by suppressing chemokine-induced integrin activation.

Lin JH, Lin JY, Chou YC, et al.
Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A suppresses MHC class II expression by regulating the B-cell transcription factors E47 and PU.1.
Blood. 2015; 125(14):2228-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) uses various approaches to escape host immune responses and persist in B cells. Such persistent infections may provide the opportunity for this virus to initiate tumor formation. Using EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as a model, we found that the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD74 in B cells is repressed after EBV infection. Class II transactivator (CIITA) is the master regulator of MHC class II-related genes. As expected, CIITA was downregulated in LCLs. We showed that downregulation of CIITA is caused by EBV latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) and driven by the CIITA-PIII promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LMP2A-mediated E47 and PU.1 reduction resulted in CIITA suppression. Mechanistically, the LMP2A immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif was critical for the repression of E47 and PU.1 promoter activity via Syk, Src, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Elimination of LMP2A in LCLs using a shLMP2A approach showed that the expression levels of E47, PU.1, CIITA, MHC class II, and CD74 are reversed. These data indicated that the LMP2A may reduce MHC class II expression through interference with the E47/PU.1-CIITA pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that MHC class II may be detected in tonsils and EBV-negative Hodgkin disease but not in EBV-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and Hodgkin disease.

Delas A, Gaulard P, Plat G, et al.
Follicular variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma with mediastinal involvement in a child: a case report.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(3):351-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peripheral T cell lymphomas are rare in young patients. We report the first case of a follicular variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified in an 11-year-old boy, who presented with a large mediastinal mass. Microscopic examination of the mediastinal biopsy revealed nodular infiltration of medium- to large-sized atypical lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of follicular helper T cell markers (CD10, PD1, CXCL13, and BCL6) in tumor T cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was not detected by an in situ hybridization assay for EBV-encoded RNA. Interestingly, fluorescence in situ hybridization detected the presence in the tumor cells of the t(5;9)(q33;q22) translocation, involving ITK and SYK rearrangement. T cell clonality was detected by multiplex PCR analysis of TRG and TRD gene rearrangements. After 4 cycles of systemic chemotherapy, the patient was in complete remission. Although this entity is very rare, our observations show that lymphomas arising from T follicular helper cells may occur in children and that this should be distinguished from other lymphomas, such T-lymphoblastic lymphomas, which require a specific therapeutic approach.

Lee WS, Kim HY, Seok JY, et al.
Genomic profiling of patient-derived colon cancer xenograft models.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(28):e298 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Recent evidence suggests that patient derived xenograft (PDX) models can maintain certain pathological and molecular features of the original disease. However, these characterizations are limited to immunohistochemistry or by tissue microarray analysis. We conducted a high-throughput sequencing of primary colon tumor and PDX has not been reported yet. Fresh primary colon cancer tissues that originate from surgery were implanted into the subcutaneous space of 6- to 8-week-old female BALB/c nu/nu or NOD/SCID mice and serially passaged in vivo. Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (Ion Torrent) was used to detect frequent somatic mutations and similarity of molecular characteristics between the 10 patient tumors and matched PDX. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a high degree of pathologic similarity including histologic architecture and expression of CEA, CK7, and CD20 between the patient and xenograft tumors. In 80% cases, all of the somatic mutations detected in primary tumor were concordantly detected in PDX models. However, 2 PDX models showed gained mutations such as PIK3CA or FBWX7 mutation. Ten patient-derived advanced colon cancer xenograft models were established. These models maintained the key characteristic features of the original tumors, suggesting useful tool for preclinical personalized medicine platform.

Isayeva T, Xu J, Ragin C, et al.
The protective effect of p16(INK4a) in oral cavity carcinomas: p16(Ink4A) dampens tumor invasion-integrated analysis of expression and kinomics pathways.
Mod Pathol. 2015; 28(5):631-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
A large body of evidence shows that p16(INK4a) overexpression predicts improved survival and increased radiosensitivity in HPV-mediated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.(OPSCC). Here we demonstrate that the presence of transcriptionally active HPV16 in oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas does not correlate with p16(INK4a) overexpression, enhanced local tumor immunity, or improved outcome. It is interesting that HPV-mediated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas can be categorized as having a 'nonaggressive' invasion phenotype, whereas aggressive invasion phenotypes are more common in HPV-negative squamous cell carcinomas. We have developed primary cancer cell lines from resections with known pattern of invasion as determined by our validated risk model. Given that cell lines derived from HPV-mediated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas are less invasive than their HPV-negative counterparts, we tested the hypothesis that viral oncoproteins E6, E7, and p16(INK4a) can affect tumor invasion. Here we demonstrate that p16(INK4a) overexpression in two cancer cell lines (UAB-3 and UAB-4), derived from oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas with the most aggressive invasive phenotype (worst pattern of invasion type 5 (WPOI-5)), dramatically decreases tumor invasiveness by altering expression of extracellular matrix remodeling genes. Pathway analysis integrating changes in RNA expression and kinase activities reveals different potential p16(INK4a)-sensitive pathways. Overexpressing p16(INK4a) in UAB-3 increases EGFR activity and increases MMP1 and MMP3 expression, possibly through STAT3 activation. Overexpressing p16(INK4a) in UAB-4 decreases PDGFR gene expression and reduces MMP1 and MMP3, possibly through STAT3 inactivation. Alternatively, ZAP70/Syk might increase MUC1 phosphorylation, leading to the observed decreased MMP1 expression.

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