Gene Summary

Gene:TEP1; telomerase associated protein 1
Aliases: TP1, TLP1, p240, TROVE1, VAULT2
Summary:This gene product is a component of the ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for telomerase activity which catalyzes the addition of new telomeres on the chromosome ends. The telomerase-associated proteins are conserved from ciliates to humans. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:telomerase protein component 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Division
  • AKT1
  • RNA
  • Cancer DNA
  • Urine
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Cowdon Syndrome
  • Telomerase
  • Survival Rate
  • Gene Expression
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Mutation
  • Phosphorylation
  • Telomere-Binding Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Genotype
  • Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • PTEN
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Chromosome 14
  • Telomere
  • Messenger RNA
  • TEP1
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Chromosome 10
  • Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TEP1 (cancer-related)

Cazzaniga G, De Lorenzo P, Alten J, et al.
Predictive value of minimal residual disease in Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with imatinib in the European intergroup study of post-induction treatment of Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, based on immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor and BCR/ABL1 methodologies.
Haematologica. 2018; 103(1):107-115 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) in Philadelphia-chromosome-positive (Ph+) childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is not fully established. We detected MRD by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) of rearranged immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor genes (IG/TR) and/or BCR/ABL1 fusion transcript to investigate its predictive value in patients receiving Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) high-risk (HR) therapy and post-induction intermittent imatinib (the European intergroup study of post-induction treatment of Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (EsPhALL) study). MRD was monitored after induction (time point (TP)1), consolidation Phase IB (TP2), HR Blocks, reinductions, and at the end of therapy. MRD negativity progressively increased over time, both by IG/TR and BCR/ABL1. Of 90 patients with IG/TR MRD at TP1, nine were negative and none relapsed, while 11 with MRD<5×10

Bredemeier M, Edimiris P, Mach P, et al.
Gene Expression Signatures in Circulating Tumor Cells Correlate with Response to Therapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Clin Chem. 2017; 63(10):1585-1593 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are thought to be an ideal surrogate marker to monitor disease progression in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We investigated the prediction of treatment response in CTCs of MBC patients on the basis of the expression of 46 genes.
METHODS: From 45 MBC patients and 20 healthy donors (HD), 2 × 5 mL of blood was collected at the time of disease progression (TP0) and at 2 consecutive clinical staging time points (TP1 and TP2) to proceed with the AdnaTest
RESULTS: The CTC positivity was defined by the four-gene signature (

Lee DJ, Kessel E, Lehto T, et al.
Systemic Delivery of Folate-PEG siRNA Lipopolyplexes with Enhanced Intracellular Stability for In Vivo Gene Silencing in Leukemia.
Bioconjug Chem. 2017; 28(9):2393-2409 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against degradation and targeted delivery across the plasma and endosomal membranes to the final site of RNA interference (RNAi) are major aims for the development of siRNA therapeutics. Targeting for folate receptor (FR)-expressing tumors, we optimized siRNA polyplexes by coformulating a folate-PEG-oligoaminoamide (for surface shielding and targeting) with one of three lipo-oligoaminoamides (optionally tyrosine-modified, for optimizing stability and size) to generate ∼100 nm targeted lipopolyplexes (TLPs), which self-stabilize by cysteine disulfide cross-links. To better understand parameters for improved tumor-directed gene silencing, we analyzed intracellular distribution and siRNA release kinetics. FR-mediated endocytosis and endosomal escape of TLPs was confirmed by immuno-TEM. We monitored colocalization of TLPs with endosomes and lysosomes, and onset of siRNA release by time-lapse confocal microscopy; analyzed intracellular stability by FRET using double-labeled siRNA; and correlated results with knockdown of eGFPLuc protein and EG5 mRNA expression. The most potent formulation, TLP1, containing lipopolyplex-stabilizing tyrosine trimers, was found to unpack siRNA in sustained manner with up to 5-fold higher intracellular siRNA stability after 4 h compared to other TLPs. Unexpectedly, data indicated that intracellular siRNA stability instead of an early endosomal exit dominate as a deciding factor for silencing efficiency of TLPs. After i.v. administration in a subcutaneous leukemia mouse model, TLP1 exhibited ligand-dependent tumoral siRNA retention, resulting in 65% EG5 gene silencing at mRNA level without detectable adverse effects. In sum, tyrosine-modified TLP1 conveys superior protection of siRNA for an effective tumor-targeted delivery and RNAi in vivo.

Cimino-Reale G, Gandellini P, Santambrogio F, et al.
miR-380-5p-mediated repression of TEP1 and TSPYL5 interferes with telomerase activity and favours the emergence of an "ALT-like" phenotype in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cells.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):140 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular/cellular underpinnings of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM), a fatal malignancy with limited therapeutic options, is of utmost importance for the fruitful management of the disease. In this context, we previously found that telomerase activity (TA), which accounts for the limitless proliferative potential of cancer cells, is prognostic for disease relapse and cancer-related death in DMPM patients. Consequently, the identification of factors involved in telomerase activation/regulation may pave the way towards the development of novel therapeutic interventions for the disease. Here, the capability of miR-380-5p, a microRNA negligibly expressed in telomerase-positive DMPM clinical specimens, to interfere with telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance and, hence, with cancer cell growth was assessed on preclinical models of DMPM.
METHODS: DMPM cells were transfected with a miR-380-5p synthetic precursor, and the effects of miRNA replacement were evaluated in terms of growing capability, induction of apoptosis and interference with TA. Reiterated weekly transfections were also performed in order to analyse the phenotype arising upon prolonged miR-380-5p reconstitution in DMPM cells.
RESULTS: The ectopic expression of miR-380-5p elicited a remarkable inhibition of TA and resulted in DMPM cell growth impairment and apoptosis induction. In particular, we demonstrated for the first time that these effects were the result of a molecular circuitry converging on telomerase associated protein 1 (TEP1), where the miRNA was able to target the gene both directly in unconventional targeting modality and indirectly via p53 accumulation consequent to miRNA-mediated downregulation of testis-specific protein, Y-encoded-like 5 gene. Moreover, miR-380-5p did not cause telomere attrition and cell growth arrest in long-term DMPM transfectants, which in turn showed slightly elongated telomeres and molecular features (e.g. c-circle DNA and reduced expression levels of chromatin remodeler ATRX) resembling an alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) phenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-380-5p interferes with TA in DMPM cells by targeting TEP1. Notably, in the long-term setting, miR-380-5p-mediated impairment of TA did not result in telomere attrition. Instead, a phenotype reminiscent of ALT emerged in DMPM cells as possible compensatory pathway that safeguards DMPM cell growth, an event that may be regarded as a potential resistance mechanism to anticancer therapies based on telomerase inhibitors.

Joye I, Debucquoy A, Deroose CM, et al.
Quantitative imaging outperforms molecular markers when predicting response to chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer.
Radiother Oncol. 2017; 124(1):104-109 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To explore the integration of imaging and molecular data for response prediction to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-five rectal cancer patients underwent preoperative CRT.
RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (26%) achieved ypT0-1N0 response.

Sun Y, Tao W, Huang M, et al.
Genetic variants in telomere-maintenance genes are associated with ovarian cancer risk and outcome.
J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(3):510-518 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most ovarian cancer patients present at an advanced stage with poor prognosis. Telomeres play a critical role in protecting chromosomes stability. The associations of genetic variants in telomere maintenance genes and ovarian cancer risk and outcome are unclear. We genotyped 137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in telomere-maintenance genes in 417 ovarian cancer cases and 417 matched healthy controls to evaluate their associations with cancer risk, survival and therapeutic response. False discovery rate Q-value was calculated to account for multiple testing. Eleven SNPs from two genes showed nominally significant associations with the risks of ovarian cancer. The most significant SNP was TEP1: rs2228026 with participants carrying at least one variant allele exhibiting a 3.28-fold (95% CI: 1.72-6.29; P < 0.001, Q = 0.028) increased ovarian cancer risk, which remained significant after multiple testing adjusting. There was also suggested evidence for the associations of SNPs with outcome, although none of the associations had a Q < 0.05. Seven SNPs from two genes showed associations with ovarian cancer survival (P < 0.05). The strongest association was found in TNKS gene (rs10093972, hazard ratio = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.20-2.92; P = 0.006, Q = 0.076). Five SNPs from four genes showed suggestive associations with therapeutic response (P < 0.05). In a survival tree analysis, TEP1:rs10143407 was the primary factor contributing to overall survival. Unfavourable genotype analysis showed a cumulative effect of significant SNPs on ovarian cancer risk, survival and therapeutic response. Genetic variations in telomere-maintenance genes may be associated with ovarian cancer risk and outcome.

Jin DH, Kim S, Kim DH, Park J
Two genetic variants in telomerase-associated protein 1 are associated with stomach cancer risk.
J Hum Genet. 2016; 61(10):885-889 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study examined the impact of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1) gene on the risk of breast, colorectal, hepatocellular, lung and stomach cancer. A significantly increased stomach cancer risk associated with the GG genotype at rs1760893 (odds ratio (OR)=1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.23-2.20, P=0.004) or CC genotype at rs1713423 (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.88-3.07, P<0.0001) was observed, compared with their wild-type counterpart. The GG genotype at rs1760893 was also associated with enhanced hepatocellular cancer susceptibility (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.05-2.03, P=0.02). In classification and regression tree analysis, individuals carrying the CC genotype at rs1713423 had 2.69-fold increased risk of stomach cancer (95% CI=2.18-3.32, P<0.0001) compared with the TT and TC genotypes. The current results suggested that genetic variants at TEP1 SNPs rs1760893 and rs1713423 may be associated significantly with increased risk of stomach cancer.

Bredemeier M, Edimiris P, Tewes M, et al.
Establishment of a multimarker qPCR panel for the molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in blood samples of metastatic breast cancer patients during the course of palliative treatment.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(27):41677-41690 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are discussed to be an ideal surrogate marker for individualized treatment in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) since metastatic tissue is often difficult to obtain for repeated analysis. We established a nine gene qPCR panel to characterize the heterogeneous CTC population in MBC patients including epithelial CTC, their receptors (EPCAM, ERBB2, ERBB3, EGFR) CTC in Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition [(EMT); PIK3CA, AKT2), stem cell-like CTC (ALDH1) as well as resistant CTC (ERCC1, AURKA] to identify individual therapeutic targets.
RESULTS: At TP0, at least one marker was detected in 84%, at TP1 in 74% and at TP2 in 79% of the patients, respectively. The expression of ERBB2, ERBB3 and ERCC1 alone or in combination with AURKA was significantly associated with therapy failure. ERBB2 + CTC were only detected in patients not receiving ERBB2 targeted therapies which correlated with no response. Furthermore, patients responding at TP2 had a significantly prolonged overall-survival than patients never responding (p = 0.0090).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 2 × 5 ml blood of 62 MBC patients was collected at the time of disease progression (TP0) and at two clinical staging time points (TP1 and TP2) after 8-12 weeks of chemo-, hormone or antibody therapy for the detection of CTC (AdnaTest EMT-2/StemCell Select™, QIAGEN Hannover GmbH, Germany). After pre-amplification, multiplex qPCR was performed. Establishment was performed using various cancer cell lines. PTPRC (Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C) and GAPDH served as controls.
CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring MBC patients using a multimarker qPCR panel for the characterization of CTC might help to treat patients accordingly in the future.

Sriprapun M, Chuaypen N, Khlaiphuengsin A, et al.
Association of PINX1 but not TEP1 Polymorphisms with Progression to Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):2019-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is major health problem with high mortality rates, especially in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Telomerase function is one of common mechanisms affecting genome stability and cancer development. Recent studies demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms of telomerase associated genes such as telomerase associated protein 1 (TEP1) rs1713449 and PIN2/TERF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PINX1) rs1469557 may be associated with risk of HCC and other cancers. In this study, 325 patients with HCC and 539 non-HCC groups [193 healthy controls, 80 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) and 266 patients with HBV-related chronic hepatitis (CH)] were enrolled to explore genetic polymorphisms of both SNPs using the allelic discrimination method based on MGB probe TaqMan real time PCR. We demonstrated that all genotypes of both genes were in Hardy-Wienberg equilibrium (>0.05). Moreover, there was no significant association between rs1713449 genotypes and HCC risk, HCC progression and overall survival (>0.05). Interestingly, we observed positive association of rs1469557 with risk of HCC when compared with the LC group under dominant (CC versus CT+TT, OR=1.89, 95% CI= 1.06-3.40, P=0.031) and allelic (C versus T alleles, OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.04-2.94, P=0.033) models, respectively. Moreover, overall survival of HCC patients with CC genotype of rs1469557 was significantly higher than non-CC genotype (Log-rank P=0.015). These findings suggest that PINX1 rs1469557 but not TEP1 rs1469557 might play a role in HCC progression in Thai patients with LC and be used as the prognosis marker to predict overall survival in HCC patients.

Hu YX, Lu J, He HL, et al.
A prospective evaluation of minimal residual disease as risk stratification for CCLG-ALL-2008 treatment protocol in pediatric B precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(9):1680-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the cut-off value of minimal residual disease (MRD) in predicting the efficacy of CCLG-ALL-2008 or CCLG-2008 treatment protocol on pediatric B-precursor ALL (BP-ALL).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-nine Chinese pediatric BP-ALL were enrolled in this study between Dec 2008 and Sep 2013 in two stratified cohorts. One hundred and fifty-three patients enrolled between Dec 2008 and Oct 2010 as the first cohort, and 196 patients enrolled from Nov 2010 to Sep 2013 as the second cohort. Clinical and biological characteristics and 5 years EFS, RFS, and OS were analyzed.
RESULTS: Patients with E2A-PBX1 showed a favorable treatment response with a lower minimal residual disease (MRD) level (< 10-4) at the time point 1 (TP1, p = 0.039) and the highest proportion of the 5-year EFS, RFS, and OS. A high level of MRD was associated with high WBC counts, increased age, BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, MLL rearrangements and adverse karyotypes. In comparison with the first cohort, the second cohort with the MRD assay incorporated prospectively, the standard risk (SR) and the intermediate risk (IR) patients showed a better RFS, EFS, and OS while the high-risk (HR) patients displayed worse RFS, EFS, and OS than those of the first cohort, respectively. Patients with MRD level at either 10-4 or 10-3 showed a similar OS at TP1 or TP2, and patients with MRD level above 10-2 had the worst OS.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that the levels of MRD to be an adequate guide in risk-adapted treatment under the CCLG-ALL-2008 protocol and can be adapted to the future development of advanced clinical protocols.

Lim B, Kim C, Kim JH, et al.
Genetic alterations and their clinical implications in gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis revealed by whole-exome sequencing of malignant ascites.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(7):8055-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by malignant ascites is a major cause of death of advanced gastric cancer (GC). To comprehensively characterize the underlying genomic events involved in GC peritoneal carcinomatosis, we analyzed whole-exome sequences of normal gastric tissues, primary tumors, and malignant ascites from eight GC patients. We identified a unique mutational signature biased toward C-to-A substitutions in malignant ascites. In contrast, the patients who received treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy showed a high rate of C-to-T substitutions along with hypermutation in malignant ascites. Comparative analysis revealed several candidate mutations for GC peritoneal carcinomatosis: recurrent mutations in COL4A6, INTS2, and PTPN13; mutations in druggable genes including TEP1, PRKCD, BRAF, ERBB4, PIK3CA, HDAC9, FYN, FASN, BIRC2, FLT3, ROCK1, CD22, and PIK3C2B; and mutations in metastasis-associated genes including TNFSF12, L1CAM, DIAPH3, ROCK1, TGFBR1, MYO9B, NR4A1, and RHOA. Notably, gene ontology analysis revealed the significant enrichment of mutations in the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway-associated biological processes in malignant ascites. At least four of the eight patients acquired somatic mutations in the Rho-ROCK pathway components, suggesting the possible relevance of this pathway to GC peritoneal carcinomatosis. These results provide a genome-wide molecular understanding of GC peritoneal carcinomatosis and its clinical implications, thereby facilitating the development of effective therapeutics.

Gu C, Li Q, Zhu Y, et al.
Genetic variants in the TEP1 gene are associated with prostate cancer risk and recurrence.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2015; 18(4):310-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Telomere-related genes play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). It is not fully understood whether genetic variations in telomere-related genes are associated with development and progression in PCa patients.
METHODS: Six potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of three key telomere-related genes were evaluated in 1015 PCa cases and 1052 cancer-free controls, to test their associations with risk of PCa. Among 426 PCa patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), the prognostic significance of the studied SNPs on biochemical recurrence (BCR) was also assessed using the Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model. The relative telomere lengths (RTLs) were measured in peripheral blood leukocytes using real-time PCR in the RP patients.
RESULTS: TEP1 rs1760904 AG/AA genotypes were significantly associated with a decreased risk of PCa (odds ratio (OR): 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.93, P=0.005) compared with the GG genotype. By using median RTL as a cutoff level, RP patients with TEP1 rs1760904 AG/AA genotypes tended to have a longer RTL than those with the GG genotype (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.04-2.30, P=0.031). A significant interaction between TEP1 rs1713418 and age in modifying PCa risk was observed (P=0.005). After adjustment for clinicopathologic risk factors, the presence of heterozygotes or rare homozygotes of TEP1 rs1760904 and TNKS2 rs1539042 were associated with BCR in the RP cohorts (hazard ratio: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.79, P=0.002 and hazard ratio: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.07-2.48, P=0.017, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that genetic variations in the TEP1 gene may be biomarkers for risk of PCa and BCR after RP.

Kamada M, Mitsui Y, Matsuo T, Takahashi T
Reversible transformation and de-differentiation of human cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cell teratomas.
Hum Cell. 2016; 29(1):1-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We first aimed to generate transformed cell lines from a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-teratoma, and then examined the tumorigenic risks of the differentiated cells from hiPSC explant, because hiPSC-derivatives give rise to tumors in immune-deficient mice when transplanted. The colonies isolated from sparse cultures of hiPSC-teratoma cells expressed NANOG and OCT3/4 strongly, and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) weakly. However, soft agar assay demonstrated that only one of them generated colonies in the gel, though hiPSCs, hTERT-transfected immortal cells, and its oncogene-transfected cells did not form any colonies. Furthermore, none of colonies isolated from the soft agar gel on primary culture (passage 0) of teratoma cells, expressed NANOG and OCT3/4 in the expanded cultures. The second soft agar assay on the colony-derived cells was unexpectedly negative. The cumulative growth curve, telomere shortening, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) staining confirmed the mortality of these cells, suggesting their reversible transformation. By using medium for embryonic stem cell (ESC medium) after MCDB 131 (MCDB) medium, the differentiated culture cells derived from hiPSC-teratoma converted into the cells expressing undifferentiated marker proteins, which lost afterwords even in ESC medium with feeder SNL76/7. The reversibility of transformation and de-differentiation suggest that tumorigenic risks of differentiated cells arise when they are exposed to suitable niches in vivo. Thus, removal of only the undifferentiated cells from iPSC-derivatives before transplantation does not solve the problem. Elucidation of mechanisms of reversibility and control of epigenetic changes is discussed as a safety bottleneck for hiPSC therapy.

Kamada M, Mitsui Y, Kumazaki T, et al.
Tumorigenic risk of human induced pluripotent stem cell explants cultured on mouse SNL76/7 feeder cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 453(3):668-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The potential for tumor formation from transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derivatives represents a high risk in their application to regenerative medicine. We examined the genetic origin and characteristics of tumors, that were formed when 13 hiPSC lines, established by ourselves, and 201B7 hiPSC from Kyoto University were transplanted into severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice. Though teratomas formed in 58% of mice, five angiosarcomas, one malignant solitary fibrous tumor and one undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma formed in the remaining mice. Three malignant cell lines were established from the tumors, which were derived from mitomycin C (MMC)-treated SNL76/7 (MMC-SNL) feeder cells, as tumor development from fusion cells between MMC-SNL and hiPSCs was negative by genetic analysis. While parent SNL76/7 cells produced malignant tumors, neither MMC-SNL nor MMC-treated mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) produced malignant tumors. When MMC-SNL feeder cells were co-cultured with hiPSCs, growing cell lines were generated, that expressed genes similar to the parent SNL76/7 cells. Thus, hiPSCs grown on MMC-SNL feeder cells have a high risk of generating feeder-derived malignant tumors. The possible mechanism(s) of growth restoration and the formation of multiple tumor types are discussed with respect of the interactions between MMC-SNL and hiPSC.

Grzybowska-Szatkowska L, Slaska B, Rzymowska J, et al.
Novel mitochondrial mutations in the ATP6 and ATP8 genes in patients with breast cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(4):1772-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of the mitochondria in the process of carcinogenesis, mainly oxidative phosphorylation, mostly concerns their participation in the production of free radicals and ATP and in the process of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to detect potential changes in the genes encoding the subunits 6 and 8 of the ATP synthase and their impact on the enzyme's biochemical properties, structure and function in patients with breast tumors. The tested material was mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) isolated from specimens of ductal carcinoma (carcinoma ductale) Tp1-2Np0-1Mp0, blood and non-cancerous tissue of mammary gland (control), sampled from 50 patients who had been operated for breast cancer. In the case of missense-type changes in the mtDNA, protein prediction software was used to assess their effect on the biochemical properties of the protein, its structure and function. We identified 8 changes in the ATP6 gene in 36/50 examined breast cancer cell samples and 5 changes in the ATP8 gene (10/50). Most of them were homoplasmic changes of missense type. Four of the changes (A8439C, G8858C, C9130G and T9119G) had not been described in the literature before. The identified mutations and polymorphisms, especially those of missense type, can affect mitochondrial functions, especially if the conservative domain of the protein is concerned. Replacement of 'wild-type' mtDNA by mutated mtDNA can be an important event in carcinogenesis.

Jung SW, Park NH, Shin JW, et al.
Prognostic impact of telomere maintenance gene polymorphisms on hepatocellular carcinoma patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(5):1912-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Our goal was to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of telomere maintenance genes influence the development and clinical outcomes of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated 20 SNPs of five telomere maintenance genes in 702 patients with HCC and 351 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive controls without HCC. Significant SNPs were then validated in an independent cohort of 857 HCC patients and 429 controls. We assessed the association of each SNP with the development of HCC and overall survival through a multivariate Cox proportional analysis. A significantly increased risk of HCC development was identified for the telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1) rs1713449 SNP in both the discovery and replication phases (combined odds ratio = 1.42, P = 9.378 × 10(-5) ). In addition, the TEP1 rs1713449, TEP1 rs872072, protection of telomeres 1 homolog rs7784168, telomerase reverse transcriptase rs13167280, and telomeric repeat binding factor 1 rs2306494 SNPs had a significant effect on the overall survival, and a similar survival effect was validated in the replication cohort. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent association between the number of putatively high-risk genotypes of the five aforementioned SNPs and overall survival. The median survival time was significantly prolonged for patients with HCC with two or fewer putatively high-risk genotypes versus those with three or more high-risk genotypes (85 versus 44 months, log-rank P = 4.483 × 10(-5) ), and this was demonstrated in the replication cohort (52 versus 37 months, log-rank P = 0.026).
CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that the SNPs of telomere maintenance genes play a potential role in the development of HCC and the survival of HCC patients with chronic HBV infections.

Szaflarski W, Sujka-Kordowska P, Pula B, et al.
Expression profiles of vault components MVP, TEP1 and vPARP and their correlation to other multidrug resistance proteins in ovarian cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(2):513-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vaults are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles composed of three proteins (MVP, TEP1, vPARP) and vault‑associated RNAs (vRNAs). Although the cellular functions of vaults remain unclear, vaults are strongly linked to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), the major obstacle to the efficient treatment of cancers. Available published data suggest that vaults and their components are frequently upregulated in broad variety of multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and tumors of different histological origin. Here, we provide detailed analysis of vault protein expression in post-surgery ovarian cancer samples from patients that were not exposed to chemotherapy. Our analysis suggests that vault proteins are expressed in the ovaries of healthy individuals but their expression in cancer patients is changed. Specifically, MVP, TEP1 and vPARP mRNA levels are significantly decreased in cancer samples with tendency of lower expression in higher-grade tumors. The pattern of vault protein mRNA expression is strongly correlated with the expression of other MDR-associated proteins such as MDR1, MRP1 and BCRP. Surprisingly, the protein levels of MVP, TEP1 and vPARP are actually increased in the higher‑grade tumors suggesting existence of post-transcriptional regulation of vault component production.

Rubis B, Holysz H, Gladych M, et al.
Telomerase downregulation induces proapoptotic genes expression and initializes breast cancer cells apoptosis followed by DNA fragmentation in a cell type dependent manner.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(8):4995-5004 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the study was to analyze the consequence of silencing genes coding for the key subunits of the telomerase complex, i.e. TERT, TERC and TP1 in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231cells. The transfection was performed using Lipofectamine2000 and pooled siRNAs. The cytotoxic and/or antiproliferative effect of siRNA was measured by the SRB assay, the cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation by TUNEL analysis. Telomerase activity was assessed by TRAP, followed by PAGE and ELISA assays. Telomerase downregulation was also assessed using qPCR in order to estimate the changes in the expression profile of genes engaged in apoptosis. It was revealed that treatment of breast cancer cells with different siRNAs (100 nM) resulted in a cell type and time-dependent effects. The downregulation of telomerase subunits was followed by reduction of telomerase activity down to almost 60% compared to control cells. However, a significant effect was only observed when the TERT subunit was downregulated. Its silencing resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase of apoptosis (over 10% in MCF7 and about 5% in MDA-MB-231 cells, corresponding to the Annexin V assay) and DNA fragmentation (almost 30% in MCF7 and over 25% in MDA-MB-231 cells). Interestingly, also several proapoptotic genes were induced after the downregulation of the key telomerase subunit, including Bax, Bik or caspase-1 and caspase-14, as well as NGFR and TNFSF10 which were upregulated twice and more.

Pellatt AJ, Wolff RK, Torres-Mejia G, et al.
Telomere length, telomere-related genes, and breast cancer risk: the breast cancer health disparities study.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(7):595-609 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomeres are involved in maintaining genomic stability. Previous studies have linked both telomere length (TL) and telomere-related genes with cancer. We evaluated associations between telomere-related genes, TL, and breast cancer risk in an admixed population of US non-Hispanic white (1,481 cases, 1,586 controls) and U.S. Hispanic and Mexican women (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) from the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. TL was assessed in 1,500 women based on their genetic ancestry. TL-related genes assessed were MEN1, MRE11A, RECQL5, TEP1, TERC, TERF2, TERT, TNKS, and TNKS2. Longer TL was associated with increased breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38, 2.55], with the highest risk (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.74, 5.67 p interaction 0.02) among women with high Indigenous American ancestry. Several TL-related single nucleotide polymorphisms had modest association with breast cancer risk overall, including TEP1 rs93886 (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70,0.95); TERF2 rs3785074 (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03,1.24); TERT rs4246742 (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77,0.93); TERT rs10069690 (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03,1.24); TERT rs2242652 (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.11,2.04); and TNKS rs6990300 (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81,0.97). Several differences in association were detected by hormone receptor status of tumors. Most notable were associations with TERT rs2736118 (ORadj 6.18, 95% CI 2.90, 13.19) with estrogen receptor negative/progesterone receptor positive (ER-/PR+) tumors and TERT rs2735940 (ORadj 0.73, 95% CI 0.59, 0.91) with ER-/PR- tumors. These data provide support for an association between TL and TL-related genes and risk of breast cancer. The association may be modified by hormone receptor status and genetic ancestry.

Chang J, Dinney CP, Huang M, et al.
Genetic variants in telomere-maintenance genes and bladder cancer risk.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e30665 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomeres are critical in maintaining genomic stability. Genetic variants in telomere pathway genes may affect telomere and telomerase function, and subsequently cancer risk. We evaluated 126 SNPs from 10 genes related to telomere regulation in relation to bladder cancer risk. Five SNPs, 4 from TEP1 gene and 1 from PINX1 gene, were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). Out of these, the most significant association was found in rs2228041 of TEP1 (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19-2.31) while rs1469557 of PINX1 had a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93). Haplotype analysis showed that a TEP1 haplotype consisting of the variant alleles of 7 SNPs exhibited a 2.28 fold increased risk (95% CI 1.13-4.60). We then performed cumulative analysis of multiple risk variants, as well as Classification and Regression Tree (CART) to look for gene-gene interactions. In cumulative effect analysis, the group with 4-5 risk variants had an OR of 2.57 (95% CI = 1.62-4.09) versus the reference group with 0 risk variants. The CART analysis categorized individuals into five subgroups with different bladder cancer risk profiles based on their distinct genotype background. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest, most comprehensive studies on bladder cancer risk concerning telomere-regulating pathway gene SNPs and our results support that genetic variations of telomere maintenance modulate bladder cancer risk individually and jointly.

Schrappe M, Valsecchi MG, Bartram CR, et al.
Late MRD response determines relapse risk overall and in subsets of childhood T-cell ALL: results of the AIEOP-BFM-ALL 2000 study.
Blood. 2011; 118(8):2077-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognostic value of MRD in large series of childhood T-ALL has not yet been established. Trial AIEOP-BFM-ALL 2000 introduced standardized quantitative assessment of MRD for stratification, based on immunoglobulin and TCR gene rearrangements as polymerase chain reaction targets: Patients were considered MRD standard risk (MRD-SR) if MRD was negative at day 33 (time point 1 [TP1]) and day 78 (TP2), analyzed by at least 2 sensitive markers; MRD intermediate risk (MRD-IR) if positive either at day 33 or 78 and < 10(-3) at day 78; and MRD high risk (MRD-HR) if ≥ 10(-3) at day 78. A total of 464 patients with T-ALL were stratified by MRD: 16% of them were MRD-SR, 63% MRD-IR, and 21% MRD-HR. Their 7-year event-free-survival (SE) was 91.1% (3.5%), 80.6% (2.3%), and 49.8% (5.1%) (P < .001), respectively. Negativity of MRD at TP1 was the most favorable prognostic factor. An excellent outcome was also obtained in 32% of patients turning MRD negative only at TP2, indicating that early (TP1) MRD levels were irrelevant if MRD at TP2 was negative (48% of all patients). MRD ≥ 10(-3) at TP2 constitutes the most important predictive factor for relapse in childhood T-ALL. The study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; "Combination Chemotherapy Based on Risk of Relapse in Treating Young Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia," protocol identification #NCT00430118 for BFM and #NCT00613457 for AIEOP.

Si SY, Song SJ, Zhang JZ, et al.
Cloning of mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase gene promoter and identification of proximal core promoter sequences essential for the expression of transgenes in cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 26(2):377-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex, whose function is to add motif-specific nucleotides to the end of chromosomes. Telomerase consists of three major subunits, the telomerase RNA template (hTR), the telomerase-associated protein (TEP1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). TERT is the most important component responsible for the catalytic activity of telomerase and a rate-limiting determinant of the activity. Telomerase activities were at high levels in approximately 90% of mouse cancers or tumor-derived cell lines through TERT transcriptional up-regulation. Unlike human telomerase, telomerase activity exists in colon, liver, ovary and testis but not in brain, heart, stomach and muscle in normal mouse tissues. In this study, we prepared 5' truncations of 1086 bp fragments upstream of the initiating ATG codon of the mTERT gene to construct luciferase reporter gene plasmids, and transfected these plasmids into a normal mouse cell line and several cancer lines to identify the core promoter region essential for transcriptional activation in cancer cells by a luciferase assay. We constructed a eukaryotic expression vector of membrane-expressing staphylococcal endotoxin A (SEA) gene driven by the core promoter region of the mTERT gene and observed if the core promoter region could express the SEA gene in these cancer cells, but not in normal cells following transfection with the construct. The results showed that the transcriptional activities of each fragment of the mTERT gene promoter in the cancer cell lines Hepa1-6, B16 and CT26 were higher than those in NIH3T3 cells, and the proximal 333-bp fragment was the core promoter of the mTERT gene in the cancer cells. The proximal 333-bp fragment was able to make the SEA express on the surface of the cancer cells, but not in NIH3T3 cells. It provides a foundation for cancer targeting gene therapy by using the mTERT gene promoter.

Gyenge EB, Hiestand S, Graefe S, et al.
Cellular and molecular effects of the liposomal mTHPC derivative Foslipos in prostate carcinoma cells in vitro.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2011; 8(2):86-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Meso-tetra-hydroxyphenyl-chlorine (mTHPC) is among the most powerful photosensitizers available for photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the mechanisms leading to cell death are poorly understood. We here focused on changes at DNA and RNA levels after treatment with the liposomal mTHPC derivative Foslipos in vitro.
METHODS: After determination of darktoxicity, laser conditions and uptake kinetics, PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells were subjected to PDT with Foslipos, followed by assessment of cell numbers directly (TP0) or 1h (TP1), 2h (TP2), 5h (TP5) and 24h (TP24) after illumination. Nucleic acids had been extracted for evaluation of RNA amounts and integrity as well as for estimation of abasic sites as a measure for DNA damage. Furthermore, expression changes of 84 genes related to oxidative stress were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Already at TP0, the number of dead cells was significantly higher after PDT versus controls and at TP24 more than 90% of cells had been destroyed. PDT resulted in a severe damage of both RNA and DNA. Gene expression analyses revealed an impact of PDT on pathways for oxidative and metabolic stress, heat shock, proliferation and carcinogenesis, growth arrest, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: Mechanisms of Foslipos-mediated PDT comprise a combination of acute and delayed lethal effects in PC-3 cells. The latter may include death processes initiated by nucleic acid damage, activation of stress and growth arrest genes in combination with a reduced capability to adequately cope with oxidative toxicity. Our results will help to better understand molecular photodynamic effects.

Yamaji K, Okamoto T, Yokota S, et al.
Minimal residual disease-based augmented therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Japanese Childhood Cancer and Leukemia Study Group.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010; 55(7):1287-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The majority of minimal residual disease (MRD)-positive patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have poor outcomes. The ALL2000 study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of augmented chemotherapy based on MRD-restratification in childhood ALL.
PROCEDURE: Between 2000 and 2004, 305 eligible patients with precursor B or T-cell ALL were enrolled in the ALL2000 study. The ALL941-based therapy protocol utilized PCR MRD assays using Immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. They were initially stratified into three risk-groups according to leukocyte count and age, and MRD levels were measured at weeks 5 (TP1) and 12 (TP2) for a second stratification. From week 14, patients with MRD levels ≥ 10(-3) received an increase in therapy (one risk group higher), while the remainder continued to receive the initial risk-adapted therapy.
RESULTS: The overall 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate for ALL2000 was 79.7 ± 2.4%. MRD stratification was feasible for 234 of 301 patients (77%) who achieved complete remission. The EFS rate of the MRD stratifiable (MRD) group was 82.5 ± 2.6%, considerably superior to the 74.7 ± 5.7% of MRD non-stratifiable (Non-MRD) group (P = 0.084) and the 74.4 ± 2.1% for ALL 941 (P = 0.012). MRD-positive patients at TP2 showed inferior outcomes as compared with MRD-negative cases, but the difference did not reach a statistically significant level in any risk groups or immunophenotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that augmented therapy for MRD-positive patients at TP2 contributed to better outcomes of the ALL2000 study.

Sadeq V, Isar N, Manoochehr T
Association of sporadic breast cancer with PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 promoter hypermethylation.
Med Oncol. 2011; 28(2):420-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 encodes a tumor suppressor protein, which regulates cell cycle progression, translation, and apoptosis by blocking the activation of Akt/PKB. The loss of PTEN function increases cell survival and induces tumor invasion. In this study, PTEN promoter status and its correlation with genetic and pathologic parameters were analyzed in genomic DNA from Iranian patients with breast cancer. DNA methylation patterns in the CpG islands were determined by a methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay. PTEN promoter methylation was found to be present in 37 of 53(70%) tumor tissues and none in 20 normal counterparts. Moreover, promoter methylation was found in patients with heterozygote mutation in the PTEN gene. The pathological history of cancerous tissue sections showed that PTEN gene could be inactivated at the stages III and IV in sporadic breast cancer. These findings suggested that promoter hypermethylation of PTEN might contribute to the progression of sporadic breast cancer in human.

Cui L, Li Z, Wu M, et al.
Combined analysis of minimal residual disease at two time points and its value for risk stratification in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2010; 34(10):1314-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study was aimed to explore the value of minimal residual disease (MRD) for risk stratification in childhood precursor-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia. MRD was monitored at two time points (TP1, after induction and TP2, before consolidation therapy) by quantitative detection of monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements. This study stratified 105 patients into three MRD risk groups: standard-risk, MRD<10(-4) at both TP1 and TP2; high-risk, TP1>or=10(-2) or TP2>or=10(-3); and others were classified as intermediate-risk. We incorporated this MRD risk information to refine risk stratification among these patients and developed a new classification system that predicted the treatment outcomes more successfully than did the traditional risk classification criteria.

Varadi V, Brendle A, Brandt A, et al.
Polymorphisms in telomere-associated genes, breast cancer susceptibility and prognosis.
Eur J Cancer. 2009; 45(17):3008-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Telomeres are essential structures for maintaining chromosomal stability and their length has been reported to correlate with cancer risk and clinical outcome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding telomere-associated proteins could affect telomere length and chromosomal stability by influencing gene expression or protein configuration in the telomeres. Here, we report the results of the first association study on genetic variation in telomere-associated genes and their effect on telomere length, breast cancer (BC) susceptibility and prognosis. We genotyped 14 potentially functional and most informative SNPs in nine telomere-associated genes (TERT, TEP1, TERF1, TERF2, TERF2IP, ACD, POT1, TNKS and TNKS2) in 782 incident BC cases and 1559 matched controls. Relative telomere length (RTL) varied statistically significantly between the genotypes of the SNPs rs446977 (TEP1, p=0.04), rs938886 (TEP1, p=0.04) and rs6990097 (TNKS, p=0.04). However, none of them was associated with BC susceptibility and only rs6990097 correlated with regional lymph node metastasis (odds ratio (OR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.77). The strongest association with BC susceptibility was observed for rs3785074 (TERF2, OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.83) and rs10509637 (TNKS2, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.62). Haplotype and diplotype analysis confirmed the association of the TNKS2 gene with BC susceptibility. rs3785074 (TERF2) was additionally associated with histologic grade (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08-1.92) and negative oestrogen receptor status (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.13-7.58). None of the SNPs showed a significant correlation with survival of the breast cancer patients. With these results, none of the SNPs represents any valuable prognostic marker for BC.

Andrew AS, Gui J, Sanderson AC, et al.
Bladder cancer SNP panel predicts susceptibility and survival.
Hum Genet. 2009; 125(5-6):527-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in men and the eighth most common in women in western countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that regulate telomere maintenance, mitosis, inflammation, and apoptosis have not been assessed extensively for this disease. Using a population-based study with 832 bladder cancer cases and 1,191 controls, we assessed genetic variation in relation to cancer susceptibility or survival. Findings included an increased risk associated with variants in the methyl-metabolism gene, MTHFD2 (OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.3), the telomerase TEP1 (OR 1.8 95% CI 1.2-2.6) and decreased risk associated with the inflammatory response gene variant IL8RB (OR 0.6 95% CI 0.5-0.9) compared to wild-type. Shorter survival was associated with apoptotic gene variants, including CASP9 (HR 1.8 95% CI 1.1-3.0). Variants in the detoxification gene EPHX1 experienced longer survival (HR 0.4 (95% CI 0.2-0.8). These genes can now be assessed in multiple study populations to identify and validate SNPs appropriate for clinical use.

Yang SM, Fang DC, Yang JL, et al.
Antisense human telomerase reverse transcriptase could partially reverse malignant phenotypes of gastric carcinoma cell line in vitro.
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008; 17(3):209-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Telomerase activity is detected in more than 90% of examined tumors but not in most normal somatic cells. Among three subunits of human telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the rate-limiting component for telomerase activity. Therefore, targeting hTERT represents a promising approach for diminishing telomerase function that will probably not cause substantial side effects on telomerase negative somatic cells. To explore the effects of antisense hTERT (ahTERT) on the malignant phenotypes of human SGC-7901 gastric cancer cell line in vitro, an antisense eukaryotic expression vector of hTERT was constructed by gene recombinant technology. Telomerase activity by telomeric repeat amplification protocol-ELISA, mRNA of telomerase subunits, c-myc and bcl-2 by reverse transcript-PCR, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) by Southern blot, cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry and protein expression of hTERT, c-myc and bcl-2 by Western blot were analyzed in SGC-7901 cells before and after transfection. Cloning efficiency assay in soft agar and tumorigenesis in nude mice were also examined and evaluated in the above cells. The results demonstrated that after ahTERT transfection, the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells was significantly inhibited. Further study showed that telomerase activity, telomere length, the mRNA and protein expression of hTERT, bcl-2 and c-myc were decreased in ahTERT-transfected cells. There were, however, no obvious effects on transcription of human telomerase RNA (hTR) and human telomerase associated protein1 (TP1) in both transfected and untransfected cells. Flow cytometric analysis displayed an accumulation of G0/G1 phase and a decreasing proliferation index (PI) in ahTERT-transfected cells. Moreover, no tumorigenicity was found after subcutaneous injection of ahTERT-transfected cells in nude mice, whereas palpable tumors were observed in mice injected with control cells. Our study indicates that exogenous ahTERT can inhibit proliferation and partially reverse malignant phenotypes of SGC-7901 cells via the suppression of telomerase activity, hTERT, c-myc and bcl-2 expression. Antisense technology targeted hTERT strategy might be a potential approach for gastric cancer therapy.

Flohr T, Schrauder A, Cazzaniga G, et al.
Minimal residual disease-directed risk stratification using real-time quantitative PCR analysis of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in the international multicenter trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2008; 22(4):771-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) is the most sensitive method to evaluate treatment response and one of the strongest predictors of outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The 10-year update on the I-BFM-SG MRD study 91 demonstrates stable results (event-free survival), that is, standard risk group (MRD-SR) 93%, intermediate risk group (MRD-IR) 74%, and high risk group (MRD-HR) 16%. In multicenter trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000, patients were stratified by MRD detection using quantitative PCR after induction (TP1) and consolidation treatment (TP2). From 1 July 2000 to 31 October 2004, PCR target identification was performed in 3341 patients: 2365 (71%) patients had two or more sensitive targets (< or =10(-4)), 671 (20%) patients revealed only one sensitive target, 217 (6%) patients had targets with lower sensitivity, and 88 (3%) patients had no targets. MRD-based risk group assignment was feasible in 2594 (78%) patients: 40% were classified as MRD-SR (two sensitive targets, MRD negativity at both time points), 8% as MRD-HR (MRD > or =10(-3) at TP2), and 52% as MRD-IR. The remaining 823 patients were stratified according to clinical risk features: HR (n=108) and IR (n=715). In conclusion, MRD-PCR-based stratification using stringent criteria is feasible in almost 80% of patients in an international multicenter trial.

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