Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
TICdb, Universidad de Navarra
Search the database of Translocation breakpoints In Cancer for "TRA"
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: TRA (cancer-related)
Mori E, Fujikura J, Noguchi M, et al.Impaired adipogenic capacity in induced pluripotent stem cells from lipodystrophic patients with BSCL2 mutations.
Metabolism. 2016; 65(4):543-56 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by marked scarcity of adipose tissue, extreme insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis and early-onset diabetes. Mutation of the BSCL2/SEIPIN gene causes the most severe form of CGL. The aim of this study was to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from patients with CGL harboring BSCL2/SEIPIN mutations.
METHODS: Skin biopsies were obtained from two Japanese patients with CGL harboring different nonsense mutations (E189X and R275X) in BSCL2/SEIPIN. The fibroblasts thus obtained were infected with retroviruses encoding OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC, and KLF4. The generated iPS cells were evaluated for pluripotency by examining the expression of pluripotency markers (alkaline phosphatase, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and NANOG) and their ability to differentiate to three germ layers in vitro by forming embryoid bodies, and to form teratomas in vivo. Adipogenic capacity of differentiated BSCL2-iPS cells was determined by oil red O and adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) staining. Rescue experiments were also performed using stable expression of wild-type BSCL2. A coimmunoprecipitation assay was conducted to investigate the interaction of SEIPIN with ADRP.
RESULTS: iPS cells were generated from fibroblasts of the two patients with CGL. Each of the patient-derived iPS (BSCL2-iPS) clones showed all of the hallmarks of pluripotency and could differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro by forming embryoid bodies, and form teratomas after injection into mouse testes. BSCL2-iPS cells maintained the mutations in BSCL2 and lacked intact BSCL2. Upon adipogenic differentiation, BSCL2-iPS cells exhibited marked reduction of lipid droplet formation concomitant with diffuse cytoplasmic distribution of ADRP, compared with iPS cells from healthy individuals. Forced expression of BSCL2 not only rescued the lipid accumulation defects, but also restored cytoplasmic punctate localization of ADRP in BSCL2-iPS cells. Coimmunoprecipitation indicated SEIPIN interacted with ADRP.
CONCLUSION: BSCL2-iPS cells that recapitulate the lipodystrophic phenotypes in vitro could provide valuable models with which to study the physiology of lipid accumulation and the pathology of human lipodystrophy. We found that BSCL2 defines the localization of ADRP, which has a role in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation.
Goscinski MA, Hole KH, Tønne E, et al.Fibromatosis in vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap imitating tumor recurrence after surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer: case report.
World J Surg Oncol. 2016; 14:63 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Abdominoperineal excision is performed in patients with locally advanced, low rectal carcinoma. Reconstruction of the dorsal vagina and perineum using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap following extensive surgery results in favorable surgical outcome and quality of life. However, the rectus abdominis muscle, as part of the anterior abdominal wall, may develop fibrous lesions also as a transplant.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old female patient with low rectal cancer and extensive colorectal polyposis was treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by colectomy and abdominoperineal excision with resection of the dorsal vaginal wall and subsequent reconstruction of the perineum using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. At the 6-month follow-up, a suspected 2 × 2 cm tumor recurrence was detected in the transposed tissue and was subsequently surgically removed. Histologic examination concluded with fibromatosis. Genetic testing revealed a known disease-causing mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene, confirming the diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis.
CONCLUSIONS: Fibromatosis may affect the anterior abdominal wall, that is the rectus abdominis muscle, at the primary site or may develop in the muscle after its transposition into the perineum at pelvic reconstruction. Fibromatosis in the muscle flap after pelvic reconstruction may present a difficult diagnostic challenge for the multidisciplinary team.
López C, Bergmann AK, Paul U, et al.Genes encoding members of the JAK-STAT pathway or epigenetic regulators are recurrently mutated in T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 173(2):265-73 [PubMed
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T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is an aggressive leukaemia. The primary genetic alteration in T-PLL are the inv(14)(q11q32)/t(14;14)(q11;q32) leading to TRD/TRA-TCL1A fusion, or the t(X;14)(q28;q11) associated with TRD/TRA-MTCP1 fusion. However, additional cooperating abnormalities are necessary for emergence of the full neoplastic phenotype. Though the pattern of secondary chromosomal aberrations is remarkably conserved, targets of the changes are largely unknown. We analysed a cohort of 43 well-characterized T-PLL for hotspot mutations in the genes JAK3, STAT5B and RHOA. Additionally, we selected a subset of 23 T-PLL cases for mutational screening of 54 genes known to be recurrently mutated in T-cell and other haematological neoplasms. Activating mutations in the investigated regions of the JAK3 and STAT5B genes were detected in 30% (13/43) and 21% (8/39) of the cases, respectively, and were mutually exclusive. Further, we identified mutations in the genes encoding the epigenetic regulators EZH2 in 13% (3/23), TET2 in 17% (4/23) and BCOR in 9% (2/23) of the cases. We confirmed that the JAK-STAT pathway is a major mutational target, and identified epigenetic regulators recurrently mutated in T-PLL. These findings complement the mutational spectrum of secondary aberrations in T-PLL and underscore the potential therapeutical relevance of epigenetic regulators in T-PLL.
BACKGROUND: Genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the risk of developing pain in individuals with cancer. As a complex trait, multiple genes underlie this susceptibility. We used gene network analyses to identify novel target genes associated with pain in patients newly diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC).
RESULTS: We first identified 36 cancer pain-related genes (i.e., focus genes) from 36 publications based on a literature search. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) analysis identified additional genes that are functionally related to the 36 focus genes through pathway relationships yielding a total of 82 genes. Subsequently, 800 SNPs within the 82 IPA-selected genes on the Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12v1 platform were selected from a large-scale genotyping effort. Association analyses between the 800 candidate SNPs (covering 82 genes) and pain in a patient cohort of 1368 patients with HNSCC (206 patients with severe pain vs. 1162 with non-severe pain) showed the highest significance for MAPK1/ERK2, a gene belonging to the MAP kinase family (rs8136867, p value = 8.92 × 10(-4); odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.58). Other top genes were PIK3C2G (a member of PI3K [complex], rs10770367, p value = 1.10 × 10(-3); OR = 1.46, 95 % CI: 1.16-1.82), TCRA (the alpha chain of T-cell receptor, rs6572493, p value = 2.84 × 10(-3); OR = 0.70, 95 % CI: 0.55-0.88), PDGFC (platelet-derived growth factor C, rs6845322, p value = 4.88 × 10(-3); OR = 1.32, 95 % CI: 1.09-1.60), and CD247 (a member of CD3, rs2995082, p value = 7.79 × 10(-3); OR = 0.76, 95 % CI: 0.62-0.93).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide novel candidate genes and biological pathways underlying pain in cancer patients. Further study of the variations of these candidate genes could inform clinical decision making when treating cancer pain.
Ishida M, Kagawa S, Shimoyama K, et al.Trastuzumab-Based Photoimmunotherapy Integrated with Viral HER2 Transduction Inhibits Peritoneally Disseminated HER2-Negative Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(3):402-11 [PubMed
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Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent metastasis in gastric cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. The lack of particular target antigens in gastric cancer other than HER2 has hampered the development of treatments for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. We hypothesized that HER2-extracellular domain (HER2-ECD) gene transduction combined with trastuzumab-based photoimmunotherapy (PIT) might provide excellent and selective antitumor effects for peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. In vitro, adenovirus/HER2-ECD (Ad/HER2-ECD) efficiently transduced HER2-ECD into HER2-negative gastric cancer cells. Trastuzumab-IR700 (Tra-IR700)-mediated PIT induced selective cell death of HER2-ECD-transduced tumor cells. Ad/HER2-ECD also induced homogenous expression of HER2 in heterogeneous gastric cancer cells, resulting in uniform sensitivity of the cells to Tra-IR700-mediated PIT. Anti-HER2 PIT integrated with adenoviral HER2-ECD gene transfer was applied in mice bearing peritoneal dissemination of HER2-negative gastric cancer. Intraperitoneal administration of Ad/HER2-ECD and Tra-IR700 with PIT inhibited peritoneal metastasis and prolonged the survival of mice bearing MKN45. Furthermore, minimal side effects allowed the integrated therapy to be used repeatedly, providing better control of peritoneal dissemination. In conclusion, the novel therapy of molecular-targeted PIT integrated with gene transfer technology is a promising approach for the treatment of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer.
Martínez-Iglesias OA, Alonso-Merino E, Gómez-Rey S, et al.Autoregulatory loop of nuclear corepressor 1 expression controls invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(3):E328-37 [PubMed
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Nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR) associates with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors leading to transcriptional repression. We show here that NCoR depletion enhances cancer cell invasion and increases tumor growth and metastatic potential in nude mice. These changes are related to repressed transcription of genes associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in patients. Strikingly, transient NCoR silencing leads to heterochromatinization and stable silencing of the NCoR gene, suggesting that NCoR loss can be propagated, contributing to tumor progression even in the absence of NCoR gene mutations. Down-regulation of the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ) appears to be associated with cancer onset and progression. We found that expression of TRβ increases NCoR levels and that this induction is essential in mediating inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by this receptor. Moreover, NCoR is down-regulated in human hepatocarcinomas and in the more aggressive breast cancer tumors, and its expression correlates positively with that of TRβ. These data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer actions of this corepressor and identify NCoR as a potential molecular target for development of novel cancer therapies.
Stengel A, Kern W, Zenger M, et al.Genetic characterization of T-PLL reveals two major biologic subgroups and JAK3 mutations as prognostic marker.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(1):82-94 [PubMed
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T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare post-thymic T-cell neoplasm with aggressive clinical course and short overall survival. So far, due to the rareness of this disease, genetic data are available only from individual cases or small cohorts. In our study, we aimed at performing a comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular genetic characterization of T-PLL comprising the largest cohort of patients with T-PLL analyzed so far, including correlations between the respective markers and their impact on prognosis. Genetic abnormalities were found in all 51 cases with T-PLL, most frequently involving the TCRA/D locus (86%). Deletions were detected for ATM (69%) and TP53 (31%), whereas i(8)(q10) was observed in 61% of cases. Mutations in ATM, TP53, JAK1, and JAK3 were detected in 73, 14, 6, and 21% of patients, respectively. Additionally, BCOR mutations were observed for the first time in a lymphoid malignancy (8%). Two distinct genetic subgroups of T-PLL were identified: A large subset (86% of patients) showed abnormalities involving the TCRA/D locus activating the proto-oncogenes TCL1 or MTCP1, while the second group was characterized by a high frequency of TP53 mutations (4/7 cases). Further, analyses of overall survival identified JAK3 mutations as important prognostic marker, showing a significant negative impact.
The function of imprinted H19 long non-coding RNA is still controversial. It is highly expressed in early embryogenesis and decreases after birth and re-expressed in cancer. To study the role of H19 in oncogenesis and pluripotency, we down-regulated H19 expression in vitro and in vivo in pluripotent human embryonic carcinoma (hEC) and embryonic stem (hES) cells. H19 knockdown resulted in a decrease in the expression of the pluripotency markers Oct4, Nanog, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, and in the up-regulation of SSEA1; it further attenuated cell proliferation, decreased cell-matrix attachment, and up-regulated E-Cadherin expression. SCID-Beige mice transplanted with H19 down-regulated hEC cells exhibited slower kinetics of tumor formation, resulting in an increased animal survival. Tumors derived from H19 down-regulated cells showed a decrease in the expression of pluripotency markers and up-regulation of SSEA-1 and E-cadherin. Our results suggest that H19 oncogenicity in hEC cells is mediated through the regulation of the pluripotency state.
Arafat W, Zhou T, Naoum GE, Buchsbaum DJTargeted radiotherapy potentiates the cytotoxicity of a novel anti-human DR5 monoclonal antibody and the adenovirus encoding soluble TRAIL in prostate cancer.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2015; 27(4):205-15 [PubMed
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TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces a death signal following binding to death receptors (DR4, DR5). We have developed a novel anti-human DR-5 monoclonal antibody (TRA-8) and adenoviral encoding TRAIL (Ad/TRAIL). Herein, we are testing the combined effect of radiotherapy and TRA-8 or Ad TRAIL in prostate cancer cells. Human prostate cancer cell lines LnCap, PC-3 and DU145 were used in this study. Cells were treated either with TRA-8 alone or Ad/TRAIL, radiation alone, or a combination of each at different doses and intervals. Cell survival using the MTS assay and colony forming assay were used to determine radiosensitization. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect bax and bcl-2. Real-time PCR was performed on mRNA of treated prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, a murine model of subcutaneous prostate cancer was used to evaluate the in vivo effect. Cell survival assays detected by MTS assay showed that prostate cell lines treated with a combination of radiation and TRA-8 showed significantly lower survival than cells treated with either radiation or TRA-8 alone. Colony forming assay and cell proliferation assays showed increased killing after combination treatment with TRA-8 or Ad/TRAIL and radiation, than either single agent alone. Mechanistic studies showed that the killing effect was due to induction of apoptosis mostly by increased expression of bax in TRA-8 or Ad/TRAIL treated cells. Additionally, RT-PCR showed an increased copy number of bax in most cells treated with TRA-8 and radiation. It is concluded that radiation and TRA-8 or Ad/TRAIL produced a synergistic effect in refractory prostrate cancer.
Pancreatic cancer is highly malignant with limited therapy and a poor prognosis. TRAIL-activating therapy has been promising, however, clinical trials have shown resistance and limited responses of pancreatic cancers. We investigated the effects of calmodulin(CaM) antagonists, trifluoperazine(TFP) and tamoxifen(TMX), on TRA-8-induced apoptosis and tumorigenesis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells, and underlying mechanisms. TFP or TMX alone did not induce apoptosis of resistant PANC-1 cells, while they dose-dependently enhanced TRA-8-induced apoptosis. TMX treatment enhanced efficacy of TRA-8 therapy on tumorigenesis in vivo. Analysis of TRA-8-induced death-inducing-signaling-complex (DISC) identified recruitment of survival signals, CaM/Src, into DR5-associated DISC, which was inhibited by TMX/TFP. In contrast, TMX/TFP increased TRA-8-induced DISC recruitment/activation of caspase-8. Consistently, caspase-8 inhibition blocked the effects of TFP/TMX on TRA-8-induced apoptosis. Moreover, TFP/TMX induced DR5 expression. With a series of deletion/point mutants, we identified CaM antagonist-responsive region in the putative Sp1-binding domain between -295 to -300 base pairs of DR5 gene. Altogether, we have demonstrated that CaM antagonists enhance TRA-8-induced apoptosis of TRA-8-resistant pancreatic cancer cells by increasing DR5 expression and enhancing recruitment of apoptotic signal while decreasing survival signals in DR5-associated DISC. Our studies support the use of these readily available CaM antagonists combined with TRAIL-activating agents for pancreatic cancer therapy.
Glycoprotein nonmetastatic B (GPNMB) is a potential oncogene that is particularly expressed in melanoma and breast cancer (BC). To clarify its clinical significance in BC, we measured serum GPNMB in vivo and investigated its cross talk with human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2). GPNMB was expressed in four of six breast cell lines (SK-BR-3, BT-474, MDA-MD-231, and MDA-MD-157), two of six colorectal cell lines, and two of four gastric cancer (GC) cell lines. We established a GPNMB quantification system using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for these cell lines. We measured serum GPNMB in vivo in 162 consecutive BC patients and in 88 controls (50 colorectal cancer [CC] and 38 GC patients). The GPNMB concentration in BC, CC and GC was 8.163, 5.751 and 6.55 ng/mL, respectively. The GPNMB level was significantly higher in BC patients than in CC patients (P = 0.021). The HER2-rich subtype of BC patients had significantly higher GPNMB levels than other subtypes (vs. Luminal; P = 0.038; vs. DCIS; P = 0.0195). These high GPNMB levels decreased after treatment (surgery/chemotherapy). Next, we examined the relationship between GPNMB and HER2 in vitro using SK-BR3 and BT-474 (HER2-positive/GPNMB-positive) cells. GPNMB depletion by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased both HER2 expression and phosphorylation. Trastuzumab (Tra) in combination with docetaxel promoted cell growth inhibition, and treatment with Tra or an Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) inhibitor enhanced GPNMB expression. These results indicate that GPNMB might be a surrogate marker for BC and may cross talk with the HER2 signal pathway. GPNMB may therefore emerge as an important player in anti-HER2 therapy.
Iskender B, Izgi K, Karaca H, Canatan HMyrtucommulone-A treatment decreases pluripotency- and multipotency-associated marker expression in bladder cancer cell line HTB-9.
J Nat Med. 2015; 69(4):543-54 [PubMed
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Cancer and stem cells exhibit similar features, including self-renewal, differentiation and immortality. The expression of stem-cell-related genes in cancer cells is demonstrated to be potentially correlated with cancer cell behaviour, affecting both drug response and tumor recurrence. There is an emerging body of evidence that subpopulations of tumors carry a distinct molecular sign and are selectively resistant to chemotherapy. Therefore, it is important to find novel therapeutic agents that could suppress the stem-like features of cancer cells while inhibiting their proliferation. Myrtucommulone-A (MC-A) is an active compound of a nonprenylated acylphloroglucinol isolated from the leaves of myrtle. Here we have investigated the potential of MC-A in inhibiting the expression of self-renewal regulatory factors and cancer stem cell markers in a bladder cancer cell line HTB-9. We used RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and western blotting to examine the expression of pluripotency- and multipotency-associated markers with or without treatment with MC-A. Treatment with MC-A not only decreased cancer cell viability and proliferation but also resulted in a decrease in the expression of pluripotency- and multipotency-associated markers such as NANOG, OCT-4, SOX-2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, CD90, CD73 and CD44. MC-A treatment was also observed to decrease the sphere-forming ability of HTB-9 cells. In summary, this study provides valuable information on the presence of stem-cell marker expression in HTB-9 cells and our results imply that MC-A could be utilized to target cancer cells with stem-like characteristics.
BACKGROUND: The Notch signaling pathway is constitutively activated in human cutaneous melanoma to promote growth and aggressive metastatic potential of primary melanoma cells. Therefore, genetic variants in Notch pathway genes may affect the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma patients.
METHODS: We identified 6,256 SNPs in 48 Notch genes in 858 cutaneous melanoma patients included in a previously published cutaneous melanoma genome-wide association study dataset. Multivariate and stepwise Cox proportional hazards regression and false-positive report probability corrections were performed to evaluate associations between putative functional SNPs and cutaneous melanoma disease-specific survival. Receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed, and area under the curve was used to assess the classification performance of the model.
RESULTS: Four putative functional SNPs of Notch pathway genes had independent and joint predictive roles in survival of cutaneous melanoma patients. The most significant variant was NCOR2 rs2342924 T>C (adjusted HR, 2.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-4.23; Ptrend = 9.62 × 10(-7)), followed by NCSTN rs1124379 G>A, NCOR2 rs10846684 G>A, and MAML2 rs7953425 G>A (Ptrend = 0.005, 0.005, and 0.013, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that area under the curve was significantly increased after adding the combined unfavorable genotype score to the model containing the known clinicopathologic factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SNPs in Notch pathway genes may be predictors of cutaneous melanoma disease-specific survival.
IMPACT: Our discovery offers a translational potential for using genetic variants in Notch pathway genes as a genotype score of biomarkers for developing an improved prognostic assessment and personalized management of cutaneous melanoma patients.
BACKGROUND: Many epidemiology studies report that atopic conditions such as allergies are associated with reduced pancreas cancer risk. The reason for this relationship is not yet understood. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between variants in atopy-related candidate genes and pancreatic cancer risk.
METHODS: A population-based case-control study of pancreas cancer cases diagnosed during 2011-2012 (via Ontario Cancer Registry), and controls recruited using random digit dialing utilized DNA from 179 cases and 566 controls. Following an exhaustive literature review, SNPs in 180 candidate genes were pre-screened using dbGaP pancreas cancer GWAS data; 147 SNPs in 56 allergy-related immunologic genes were retained and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odd ratio (AOR) for each variant and false discovery rate was used to adjust Wald p-values for multiple testing. Subsequently, a risk allele score was derived based on statistically significant variants.
RESULTS: 18 SNPs in 14 candidate genes (CSF2, DENND1B, DPP10, FLG, IL13, IL13RA2, LRP1B, NOD1, NPSR1, ORMDL3, RORA, STAT4, TLR6, TRA) were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two LRP1B SNPs remained statistically significant; for example, LRP1B rs1449477 (AA vs. CC: AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; p (adjusted)=0.04). Furthermore, the risk allele score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreas cancer risk (p=0.0007).
CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings suggest certain atopy-related variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk. Further studies are needed to replicate this, and to elucidate the biology behind the growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggesting allergies may reduce pancreatic cancer risk.
Shao H, Lin Y, Wang T, et al.Identification of peptide-specific TCR genes by in vitro peptide stimulation and CDR3 length polymorphism analysis.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 363(1):83-91 [PubMed
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Identification of TCR genes specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is necessary for TCR gene modification of T cells, which is applied in anti-tumor adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). The usual identification methods are based on isolating single peptide-responding T cells and cloning the TCR gene by in vitro expansion or by single-cell RT-PCR. However, the long and exacting in vitro culture period and demanding operational requirements restrict the application of these methods. Immunoscope is an effective tool that profiles a repertoire of TCRs and identifies significantly expanded clones through CDR3 length analysis. In this study, a survivin-derived mutant peptide optimized for HLA-A2 binding was selected to load DCs and activate T cells. The monoclonal expansion of TCRA and TCRB genes was separately identified by Immunoscope analysis and following sequence identification, the properly paired TCR genes were transferred into T cells. Peptide recognition and cytotoxicity assays indicated that TCR-modified PBMCs could respond to both the mutant and wild type peptides and lyse target cells. These results show that combining Immunoscope with in vitro peptide stimulation provides an alternative and superior method for identifying specific TCR genes, which represents a significant advance for the application of TCR gene-modified T cells.
Caxaria S, Arthold S, Nathwani AC, Goh PAGeneration of Integration-Free Patient Specific iPS Cells Using Episomal Plasmids Under Feeder Free Conditions.
Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1353:355-66 [PubMed
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Reprogramming somatic cells into a pluripotent state involves the overexpression of transcription factors leading to a series of changes that end in the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These iPSCs have a wide range of potential uses from drug testing and in vitro disease modelling to personalized cell therapies for patients. While viral methods for reprogramming factor delivery have been traditionally preferred due to their high efficiency, it is now possible to generate iPSCs using nonviral methods at similar efficiencies. We developed a robust reprogramming strategy that combines episomal plasmids and the use of commercially available animal free reagents that can be easily adapted for the GMP manufacture of clinical grade cells.
Ehrlich LA, Yang-Iott K, Bassing CHTcrδ translocations that delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene promote atm-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(19):3076-82 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ATM is the master regulator of the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Deficiency of ATM predisposes humans and mice to αβ T lymphoid cancers with clonal translocations between the T cell receptor (TCR) α/δ locus and a 450 kb region of synteny on human chromosome 14 and mouse chromosome 12. While these translocations target and activate the TCL1 oncogene at 14q32 to cause T cell pro-lymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), the TCRα/δ;14q32 translocations in ATM-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) have not been characterized and their role in cancer pathogenesis remains unknown. The corresponding lesion in Atm-deficient mouse T-ALLs is a chromosome t(12;14) translocation with Tcrδ genes fused to sequences on chromosome 12; although these translocations do not activate Tcl1, they delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. To assess whether Tcrδ translocations that inactivate one copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient cells, we analyzed Atm(-/-) mice with mono-allelic Bcl11b deletion initiating in thymocytes concomitant with Tcrδ recombination. Inactivation of one Bcl11b copy had no effect on the predisposition of Atm(-/-) mice to clonal T-ALLs. Yet, none of these T-ALLs had a clonal chromosome t(12;14) translocation that deleted Bcl11b indicating that Tcrδ translocations that inactivate a copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient thymocytes. Our data demonstrate that antigen receptor locus translocations can cause cancer by deleting a tumor suppressor gene. We discuss the implications of these findings for the etiology and therapy of T-ALLs associated with ATM deficiency and TCRα/δ translocations targeting the 14q32 cytogenetic region.
Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated radioiodide uptake (RAIU) serves as the basis for targeted ablation of thyroid cancer remnants. However, many patients with thyroid cancer have reduced NIS expression/function and hence do not benefit from radioiodine therapy. microRNA (miR) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRs in NIS-mediated RAIU has not been investigated. In silico analysis was used to identify miRs that may bind to the 3'UTR of human NIS (hNIS). The top candidate miR-339-5p directly bound to the 3'UTR of hNIS. miR-339-5p overexpression decreased NIS-mediated RAIU in HEK293 cells expressing exogenous hNIS, decreased the levels of NIS mRNA, and RAIU in transretinoic acid/hydrocortisone (tRA/H)-treated MCF-7 human breast cancer cells as well as thyrotropin-stimulated PCCl3 rat thyroid cells. Nanostring nCounter rat miR expression assay was conducted to identify miRs deregulated by TGFβ, Akti-1/2, or 17-AAG known to modulate RAIU in PCCl3 cells. Among 38 miRs identified, 18 were conserved in humans. One of the 18 miRs, miR-195, was predicted to bind to the 3'UTR of hNIS and its overexpression decreased RAIU in tRA/H-treated MCF-7 cells. miR-339-5p was modestly increased in most papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), yet miR-195 was significantly decreased in PTCs. Interestingly, the expression profiles of 18 miRs could be used to distinguish most PTCs from nonmalignant thyroid tissues. This is the first report, to our knowledge, demonstrating that hNIS-mediated RAIU can be modulated by miRs, and that the same miRs may also play roles in the development or maintenance of thyroid malignancy. Accordingly, miRs may serve as emerging targets to halt the progression of thyroid cancer and to enhance the efficacy of radioiodine therapy.
Wargon V, Riggio M, Giulianelli S, et al.Progestin and antiprogestin responsiveness in breast cancer is driven by the PRA/PRB ratio via AIB1 or SMRT recruitment to the CCND1 and MYC promoters.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(11):2680-92 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is emerging interest in understanding the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferative effect of progestins and antiprogestins depending on the relative expression of the A (PRA) and B (PRB) isoforms of PR. In mifepristone (MFP)-resistant murine carcinomas antiprogestin responsiveness was restored by re-expressing PRA using demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Consistently, in two human breast cancer xenograft models, one manipulated to overexpress PRA or PRB (IBH-6 cells), and the other expressing only PRA (T47D-YA) or PRB (T47D-YB), MFP selectively inhibited the growth of PRA-overexpressing tumors and stimulated IBH-6-PRB xenograft growth. Furthermore, in cells with high or equimolar PRA/PRB ratios, which are stimulated to proliferate in vitro by progestins, and are inhibited by MFP, MPA increased the interaction between PR and the coactivator AIB1, and MFP favored the interaction between PR and the corepressor SMRT. In a PRB-dominant context in which MFP stimulates and MPA inhibits cell proliferation, the opposite interactions were observed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in T47D cells in the presence of MPA or MFP confirmed the interactions between PR and the coregulators at the CCND1 and MYC promoters. SMRT downregulation by siRNA abolished the inhibitory effect of MFP on MYC expression and cell proliferation. Our results indicate that antiprogestins are therapeutic tools that selectively inhibit PRA-overexpressing tumors by increasing the SMRT/AIB1 balance at the CCND1 and MYC promoters.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent stem cells from early embryos, and their self-renewal capacity depends on the sustained expression of hESC-specific molecules and the suppressed expression of differentiation-associated genes. To discover novel molecules expressed on hESCs, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies against undifferentiated hESCs and evaluated their ability to mark cancer cells, as well as hESCs. MAb7 recognized undifferentiated hESCs and showed a diffuse band with molecular mass of >239 kDa in the lysates of hESCs. Although some amniotic epithelial cells expressed MAb7 antigen, its expression was barely detected in normal human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, or endothelial cells. The expression of MAb7 antigen was observed only in pancreatic and gastric cancer cells, and its levels were elevated in metastatic and poorly differentiated cancer cell lines. Analyses of MAb7 antigen suggested that the clustered NeuAcα2-3Galβ O-linked oligosaccharides on DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) were critical for MAb7 binding in cancer cells. Although features of MAb7 epitope were similar with those of TRA-1-60, distribution of MAb7 antigen in cancer cells was different from that of TRA-1-60 antigen. Exposure of a histone deacetylase inhibitor to differentiated gastric cancer MKN74 cells evoked the expression of MAb7 antigen, whereas DMBT1 expression remained unchanged. Cell sorting followed by DNA microarray analyses identified the down-regulated genes responsible for the biosynthesis of MAb7 antigen in MKN74 cells. In addition, treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer cells with MAb7 significantly abrogated the adhesion to endothelial cells. These results raised the possibility that MAb7 epitope is a novel marker for undifferentiated cells such as hESCs and cancer stem-like cells and plays a possible role in the undifferentiated cells.
Musilova P, Drbalova J, Kubickova S, et al.Illegitimate recombination between T cell receptor genes in humans and pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).
Chromosome Res. 2014; 22(4):483-93 [PubMed
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T cell receptor (TCR) genes (TRA/TRD, TRB and TRG) reside in three regions on human chromosomes (14q11.2, 7q34 and 7p14, respectively) and pig chromosomes (7q15.3-q21, 18q11.3-q12 and 9q21-22, respectively). During the maturation of T cells, TCR genes are rearranged by site-specific recombination. Occasionally, interlocus recombination of different TCR genes takes place, resulting in chromosome rearrangements. It has been suggested that the absolute number of these "innocent" trans-rearrangements correlates with the risk of lymphoma. The aims of this work were to assess the frequencies of rearrangements with breakpoints in TCR genes in domestic pig lymphocytes and to compare these with the frequencies of corresponding rearrangements in human lymphocytes by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome painting probes. We show that frequencies of trans-rearrangements involving TRA/TRD locus in pigs are significantly higher than the frequency of translocations with breakpoints in TRB and TRG genes in pigs and the frequencies of corresponding trans-rearrangements involving TRA/TRD locus in humans. Complex structure of the pig TRA/TRD locus with high number of potential V(D)J rearrangements compared to the human locus may account for the observed differences. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trans-rearrangements involving pig TRA/TRD locus occur at lower frequencies in γδ T cells than in αβ T lymphocytes. The decrease of the frequencies in γδ T cells is probably caused by the absence of TRA recombination during maturation of this T cell lineage. High numbers of innocent trans-rearrangements in pigs may indicate a higher risk of T-cell lymphoma than in humans.
Blackmore JK, Karmakar S, Gu G, et al.The SMRT coregulator enhances growth of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer cells by promotion of cell cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(9):3251-61 [PubMed
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The SMRT coregulator functions as a dual coactivator and corepressor for estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in a gene-specific manner, and in several studies its elevated expression correlates with poor outcome for breast cancer patients. A specific role of SMRT in breast cancer progression has not been elucidated, but SMRT knock-down limits estradiol-dependent growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In this study, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) approaches were used to determine the effects of SMRT depletion on growth of ERα-positive MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells, as well as the ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line. Depletion of SMRT inhibited growth of ERα-positive cells grown in monolayer but had no effect on growth of the ERα-negative cells. Reduced SMRT levels also negatively impacted the anchorage-independent growth of MCF-7 cells as assessed by soft agar colony formation assays. The observed growth inhibitions were due to a loss of estradiol-induced progression through the G1/S transition of the cell cycle and increased apoptosis in SMRT-depleted compared with control cells. Gene expression analyses indicated that SMRT inhibits apoptosis by a coordinated regulation of genes involved in apoptosis. Functioning as a dual coactivator for anti-apoptotic genes and corepressor for pro-apoptotic genes, SMRT can limit apoptosis. Together these data indicate that SMRT promotes breast cancer progression through multiple pathways leading to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis.
At the present time, the standard of care for patients who have received nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is radiographic surveillance. With a number of novel targeted agents showing activity in the setting of metastatic RCC, there has been great interest in exploring the potential of the same agents in the adjuvant setting. Herein, we discuss the evolution of adjuvant trials in RCC, spanning from the immunotherapy era to the targeted therapy era. Pitfalls of current studies are addressed to provide a context for interpreting forthcoming results. Finally, we outline avenues to incorporate promising investigational agents, such as PD-1 (programmed death-1) inhibitors and MNNG transforming gene inhibitors, in future adjuvant trials.
Primary established genetic abnormalities in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia include high hyperdiploidy (51-65 chromosomes), the translocations t(12;21)(p13;q22)/ETV6-RUNX1 fusion and t(9;22)(q34;q11)/BCR-ABL1 fusion, MLL rearrangements and intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21. These rearrangements are of prognostic and therapeutic relevance and are usually mutually exclusive. We identified 28 patients at diagnosis with both a primary genetic rearrangement and an immunoglobulin heavy chain locus translocation using chromosomal analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Among these patients, the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus translocation partner gene was identified in six (CRLF2, CEBPA, CEBPB, TRA/D@, IGF2BP1 and IGK@). Clonal architecture was investigated in 17 patients using multiple color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, which showed that the translocation was acquired as a secondary abnormality in ten patients, in four patients the etiology was undetermined and in three patients it was observed in a separate clone from the primary chromosomal rearrangement. These findings demonstrate the co-existence of immunoglobulin heavy chain locus translocations with other primary chromosomal rearrangements either in the same or separate clones, which may have prognostic significance in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clinical trials: UKALLXII: Study ID n. ISRCTN77346223 and ALL2003: Study ID n. ISRCTN07355119.
Logan AC, Vashi N, Faham M, et al.Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene high-throughput sequencing quantifies minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and predicts post-transplantation relapse and survival.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014; 20(9):1307-13 [PubMed
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Minimal residual disease (MRD) quantification is an important predictor of outcome after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bone marrow ALL burden ≥ 10(-4) after induction predicts subsequent relapse. Likewise, MRD ≥ 10(-4) in bone marrow before initiation of conditioning for allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) predicts transplantation failure. Current methods for MRD quantification in ALL are not sufficiently sensitive for use with peripheral blood specimens and have not been broadly implemented in the management of adults with ALL. Consensus-primed immunoglobulin (Ig), T cell receptor (TCR) amplification and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) permit use of a standardized algorithm for all patients and can detect leukemia at 10(-6) or lower. We applied the LymphoSIGHT HTS platform (Sequenta Inc., South San Francisco, CA) to quantification of MRD in 237 samples from 29 adult B cell ALL patients before and after allo-HCT. Using primers for the IGH-VDJ, IGH-DJ, IGK, TCRB, TCRD, and TCRG loci, MRD could be quantified in 93% of patients. Leukemia-associated clonotypes at these loci were identified in 52%, 28%, 10%, 35%, 28%, and 41% of patients, respectively. MRD ≥ 10(-4) before HCT conditioning predicted post-HCT relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 7.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 30; P = .003). In post-HCT blood samples, MRD ≥10(-6) had 100% positive predictive value for relapse with median lead time of 89 days (HR, 14; 95% CI, 4.7 to 44, P < .0001). The use of HTS-based MRD quantification in adults with ALL offers a standardized approach with sufficient sensitivity to quantify leukemia MRD in peripheral blood. Use of this approach may identify a window for clinical intervention before overt relapse.
Poopak B, Saki N, Purfatholah AA, et al.Pattern of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor-δ/γ gene rearrangements in Iranian children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Hematology. 2014; 19(5):259-66 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells have unique rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH), immunoglobulin light chain (IgK), and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes, which can be used as markers for clonality assay and evaluation of minimal residual disease. In this study, we have evaluated the pattern of IgH, IgK chains, and TCRG/D gene rearrangements in precursor-B ALL.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our prospective study, hyper-variable regions (CDRI and III) of IgH, TCRD (Vδ2-Dδ3 and Dδ2-Dδ3), TCRG (Vγ, VγI, and VγII), and IgK (Vκ-Kde) were studied in 126 cases with diagnosis of B-precursor ALL.
RESULTS: One hundred and fourteen (90.5%) out of 126 patients had clonal rearrangements of IgH using consensus primers for CDRI and/or CDRIII regions. Monoclonal, biclonal, and oligoclonal patterns were observed in 63 (57.8%), 38 (34.9%), and 6 (5.5%) patients with IgH (CDRIII) rearrangements, respectively. Clonal rearrangements of TCRG (Vγ) and VγI/II were present in 79.3 and 64.9% of patients, respectively, and only 5% of cases showed biclonal pattern. The VγII rearrangement was the most common (46.8%) type in TCRG. Vδ2-Dδ3 and Dδ2-Dδ3 partial gene rearrangements were observed in 47 (45.2%; n = 104) and 11 (16.6%; n = 66) patients, respectively. Biclonal/oligoclonal patterns were present in 13 (27.7%) and 2 (4.3%) cases with Vδ2-Dδ3 rearrangement, respectively. Only one patient had biclonal Dδ2-Dδ3 rearrangement. Clonal pattern of IgK-Kde was detected in 59 cases (67%; n = 88).
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that clonal rearrangements of IgH and TCRD (Vδ2-Dδ3 and Dδ2-Dδ3) genes had similar patterns to other studies. Frequency of TCRG (VγI and VγII) and IgK rearrangements was found to be slightly higher than previous reports. Among the IgK rearrangements, VKI (25%) was the most common.
Basal-like breast cancers (BLBC) are poorly differentiated and display aggressive clinical behavior. These tumors become resistant to cytotoxic agents, and tumor relapse has been attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). One of the pathways involved in CSC regulation is the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. LRP6, a Wnt ligand receptor, is one of the critical elements of this pathway and could potentially be an excellent therapeutic target. Niclosamide has been shown to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by causing degradation of LRP6. TRA-8, a monoclonal antibody specific to TRAIL death receptor 5, is cytotoxic to BLBC cell lines and their CSC-enriched populations. The goal of this study was to examine whether niclosamide is cytotoxic to BLBCs, specifically the CSC population, and if in combination with TRA-8 could produce increased cytotoxicity. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a known marker of CSCs. By testing BLBC cells for ALDH expression by flow cytometry, we were able to isolate a nonadherent population of cells that have high ALDH expression. Niclosamide showed cytotoxicity against these nonadherent ALDH-expressing cells in addition to adherent cells from four BLBC cell lines: 2LMP, SUM159, HCC1187, and HCC1143. Niclosamide treatment produced reduced levels of LRP6 and β-catenin, which is a downstream Wnt/β-catenin signaling protein. The combination of TRA-8 and niclosamide produced additive cytotoxicity and a reduction in Wnt/β-catenin activity. Niclosamide in combination with TRA-8 suppressed growth of 2LMP orthotopic tumor xenografts. These results suggest that niclosamide or congeners of this agent may be useful for the treatment of BLBC.
Collins DC, Cocchiglia S, Tibbitts P, et al.Growth factor receptor/steroid receptor cross talk in trastuzumab-treated breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(4):525-30 [PubMed
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Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) including trastuzumab has revolutionized the management of HER2-positive breast cancer. Recent evaluation of clinical trial data suggests that a subset of HER2/ER double-positive cancers may not receive significant benefit from the TKI therapy. Here we investigate the cross talk between HER2 and ER in breast cancer and monitor the effect of trastuzumab on the tyrosine kinase effector transcription factor Myc. In HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab, steroid receptor-negative status (ER and PR negative) of pre-treatment biopsies predicted pathological complete response (pCR) (n=31 patients, P=0.0486), whereas elevated Myc protein inversely associated with pCR (P=0.0446). Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry identified the corepressor SMRT as a novel Myc-interacting protein. Trastuzumab treatment enhanced Myc-SMRT interactions in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells (LCC1) and inhibited expression of the Myc target gene survivin. In HER2-low, ER-positive steroid-dominant cells (MCF7), trastuzumab therapy repressed Myc-SMRT interactions and upregulated survivin expression. Trastuzumab treatment induced ER-CBP interactions, enhanced ER transcriptional activity and upregulated expression of the ER target gene pS2. The absence of pS2 expression in pre-treatment biopsies predicted pCR to neoadjuvant trastuzumab in breast cancer patients (n=25, P=0.0089) and pS2 expression associated with residual cancer burden (P=0.0196). Furthermore, metastatic tissues from patients who had failed trastuzumab therapy were pS2 positive. In HER2-overexpressing cells, trastuzumab treatment can repress Myc transcriptional activity and clinical response is favorable. However, with co-expression of the steroid pathway, this inhibition is lost and response to treatment is often poor.
The MUC1 tumor associated antigen is highly expressed on a range of tumors. Its broad distribution on primary tumors and metastases renders it an attractive target for immunotherapy. After synthesis MUC1 is cleaved, yielding a large soluble extracellular alpha subunit containing the tandem repeats array (TRA) domain specifically bound, via non-covalent interaction, to a smaller beta subunit containing the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Thus far, inconclusive efficacy has been reported for anti-MUC1 antibodies directed against the soluble alpha subunit. Targeting the cell bound beta subunit, may bypass limitations posed by circulating TRA domains. MUC1's signal peptide (SP) domain promiscuously binds multiple MHC class II and Class I alleles, which upon vaccination, generated robust T-cell immunity against MUC1-positive tumors. This is a first demonstration of non-MHC associated, MUC1 specific, cell surfaces presence for MUC1 SP domain. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies generated against MUC1 SP domain specifically bind a large variety of MUC1-positive human solid and haematological tumor cell lines; MUC1-positive bone marrow derived plasma cells obtained from multiple myeloma (MM)-patients, but not MUC1 negative tumors cells, and normal naive primary blood and epithelial cells. Membranal MUC1 SP appears mainly as an independent entity but also co-localized with the full MUC1 molecule. MUC1-SP specific binding in BM-derived plasma cells can assist in selecting patients to be treated with anti-MUC1 SP therapeutic vaccine, ImMucin. A therapeutic potential of the anti-MUC1 SP antibodies was suggested by their ability to support of complement-mediated lysis of MUC1-positive tumor cells but not MUC1 negative tumor cells and normal naive primary epithelial cells. These findings suggest a novel cell surface presence of MUC1 SP domain, a potential therapeutic benefit for anti-MUC1 SP antibodies in MUC1-positive tumors and a selection tool for MM patients to be treated with the anti-MUC1 SP vaccine, ImMucin.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequently diagnosed malignant human glioma, and current median patient survival is less than two years despite maximal surgery followed by temozolomide chemoradiation therapies. Novel microRNA-related therapies are now being developed for cancers such as GBM. Differential microRNA expression profiling revealed that miR-100 expression is down-regulated in GBM compared to normal controls. We report that miR-100 expression reduces GBM tumorigenicity. In vitro, four GBM lines (U87, U251, 22T, and 33T) demonstrated reduced proliferation 24 hours after transient miR100 overexpression via transfection. miR-100 triggered cell death an average 70% more than scrambled miR controls 24 hours after transient transfection (p < 0.01). miR-100 targeted inhibition of the "silencing mediator of retinoid or thyroid hormone receptor-2" (SMRT/NCOR2) gene was confirmed via reporter assays. Ki67 proliferation index was decreased 40% in tumor xenografts generated from stable miR-100 transfected GBM lines versus controls (p < 0.01). Furthermore, treatment of tumor xenografts with a single pre-mir-100 injection (60 pmol) significantly extended survival of mice bearing intracranial GBM xenografts 25% more than scrambled controls (p < 0.01; n=8). These studies establish miR-100's effect on tumor GBM growth, and suggest clinical potential for microRNA-related GBM therapy.