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Bangladesh

Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 152.4m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 122,700
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 104.4
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:11.2%
People dying from cancer /yr: 91,300
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Bangladesh Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Bangladesh

Bangladesh Cancer Organisations and Resources (4 links)


Latest Research Publications Related to Bangladesh

Hashmi AA, Edhi MM, Faridi N, et al.
Mutiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) in a patient with Gorlin syndrome: a case report with late presentation and absence of skin manifestations.
BMC Res Notes. 2016; 9:357 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOT) and falx cerebral calcifications, which occur due to mutation in PTCH gene.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 36 year old Asian patient presented with jaw swelling and pain. Radiographic examination revealed six cysts in maxilla and mandible which were excised and histologically were compatable with keratocystic odontogenic tumors. CT scan also revealed falx cerebral calcification which led to the diagnosis of Gorlin syndrome confirmed on genetic testing. There was no evidence of basal cell carcinoma and other manifestations of Gorlin syndrome were absent.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiple KCOT are hallmark of Gorlin syndrome and should always leads to its suspicion even in the absence of other manifestations and late presentation. Moreover, keratocystic odontogenic tumors have a particularly higher risk of recurrence and patients with Gorlin syndrome are prone to develop additional keratocystic odontogenic tumors from basal cells of oral epithelium. Therefore we suggest a stepwise approach to manage such patients which include a preoperative biopsy to establish a definitive diagnosis and complete removal of all keratocystic odontogenic tumors to prevent recurrence followed by close clinical follow up and early removal of any newly developed or recurrent cyst. Additionally thorough clinical examination is necessary to rule out the possibility of Gorlin syndrome in any patient with keratocystic odontogenic tumors as there are only subtle differences in histology of those cysts with a syndromic association and clinical features of Gorlin syndrome are markedly variable. Hence late occurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumors and absence of skin manifestations like basal cell carcinoma should not preclude a diagnosis of Gorlin syndrome.

Sarker AK, Im HJ, Paeng JC, et al.
Plasmablastic lymphoma exclusively involving bones mimicking osteosarcoma in an immunocompetent patient: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(28):e4241 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has been known that plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a neoplasm of immunocompromised patients occurring in soft tissue of oral cavity or in the vicinity whereas bone is an unlikely site to harbor PBL. However, its occurrence is increasingly being reported in immunocompetent individuals in either osseous or extra-oral sites. To our best knowledge, F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of PBL involving bones in an immunocompetent patient have not been reported, yet .
CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of PBL involving multiple bones in an immunocompetent patient. Features of different imaging modalities including F-18 Fluoro-deoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were correlated well as findings of osteosarcoma in mandible with metastatic lesions. However, the histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of bone tissues from 2 separate biopsy sites revealed features of PBL.
CONCLUSION: awareness to F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of PBL involving bones in an immunocompetent patient may prevent misdiagnosis.

Hasan R, Khan OS, Aftabuddin M, et al.
A Case of Massive Pleural Effusion: Pleurodesis by Bleomycin.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(2):374-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant pleural effusion is a common complication of primary and metastatic pleural malignancies. Pleurodesis for the management of malignant pleural effusion is intended to achieve symphysis between parietal and visceral pleura, and to prevent relapse of pleural effusion. Many chemical agents are tried to induce inflammation and damage of the pleural mesothelial layer to achieve this symphysis. Hemorrhagic pleural effusion, especially in the right hemithorax commonly occurs as presentation of primary and metastatic pleural malignancies. This case reports massive right-sided hemorrhagic pleural effusion as the sole manifestation of primary lung cancer in a 45 year old man. Patient attended our department of thoracic surgery complaining of cough, shortness of breath and right sided chest pain. A chest X-ray and chest computer tomography (CT) radiograph shows right sided massive pleural effusion. Right sided tube thoracotomy done. Pleural fluid study was done. Fluid for cytopathology was positive for malignant cell. Computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration cytology from right lung lesion was also done. Diagnosis was as small cell carcinoma. Pleural effusion resolved after 9(th) post operative day of chest tube insertion. Bleomycin pleurodesis was done. Day after pleurodesis intra thoracic tube was removed and patient was discharged from hospital on 10(th) Post operative day with an advice to attend the oncology department for further treatment. The protocol of tube thoracostomy and chemical pleurodesis was almost always successful in giving symptomatic relief of respiratory distress for a considerable period of time. However, chemical pleurodesis is not possible in all cases of malignant pleural effusion because it has got potential complication including death.

Rahman MM, Ranjan R, Khan OS, et al.
Left Atrial Myxoma in a Late Case of Lung Carcinoma.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(2):370-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Concomitant occurrence of lung carcinoma and an atrial myxoma is rare. We are reporting such a case, a 55 year old male, farmer, smoker for 30 years was under evaluation for his recent episode of stroke with hemiparesis during which an echocardiography showed presence of a left atrial myxoma and chest x-ray showed a lesion in the midzone of right lung. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from enlarged right supraclavicular lymphnode revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Patient was referred to a tertiary cancer care hospital thereafter.

Nahar K, Salahuddin GM, Islam MR, et al.
Huge Perineal Tumour: A Rare Presentation of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour of Rectum.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(2):363-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is a relatively rare neoplasm of gastrointestinal tract of which Rectal GIST is uncommon. It produces symptoms of per rectal bleeding or change in bowel habit. Recurrences following curative resection are predominantly intraabdominal, hepatic metastasis occurring at a median 20-25 months following the primary surgery. A 42 years old male presented a huge mass in hypogastrium, the size of which was reduced ofter neoadjuvant therapy for period of 1.5 years. He underwent abdominoperineal resection. He developed recurrences in perineum three times and in thigh at short intervals after primary resection. He also developed liver metastasis. He died two and half years after primary diagnosis. Rectal GIST should be included in differential diagnosis of intraabdominal mass and preoperative diagnosis based on histopathological as well as the immunohistochemical feature of the CD(117) and CD(34). Although complete surgical resection with negative tumour margin is the principal curative procedure for primary and non metastatic tumours, further studies are still needed for the determination of the most effective treatment strategy for patients of rectal GIST.

Mohammad H, Rahman MM, Hossain MA, et al.
A 47 Years Lady with Intrathoracic Lipoma.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(2):357-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
A case of a 47 years old female who presented to Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Medicine Unit-5, complaining of severe dyspnea and occasional leg swelling. Chest X-ray, USG of chest and chest CT scan revealed a right sided giant intrathoracic mass extending across the posterior mediastinum into the left chest cavity. CT guided FNAC of right lung revealed lipoma.

Bhuiyan MU
Preoperative Assessment of Serum Albumin Level as Risk Factor for Morbidity Following Routine Oncological Surgery.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(2):277-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
This cross-sectional observational study was to establish the preoperative assessment of serum albumin level as indicator for morbidity following cancer surgery and to reduce the incidence of related postoperative complications. Therefore this study was undertaken to assess the morbidity associated with low serum level albumin and identify it as a risk factor following cancer surgery in Bangladeshi population. This study included 312 patients with malignancy who were waiting for surgery or within 60 days of postoperative period were enrolled for the study from indoor of surgical oncology department, National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital (NICR&H), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Then the patients were submitted for further study to evaluate the preoperative fitness in terms of nutritional assessment - both clinical and biological especially serum albumin level. All the clinical (pre & post-operative including complication, if any), investigation findings were recorded accordingly. Statistical correlation was discovered between BMI and morbidity but no statistical correlation was found between WL >10% and major surgical complications of either infectious or noninfectious origin (p=NS). Conversely, a substantial statistical correlation was found between Hb% or albumin <30gm/l and major surgical complications (either infectious or noninfectious) (p<0.001). The serum albumin level below 30gm/l is a significant risk factor for oncological postoperative major complications (MC).

Epsi EZ, Khalil M, Sultana SZ, et al.
Histomorphological Study on Number of Acini of the Prostate Gland of Bangladeshi Cadaver.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(2):232-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prostate is made up of 30 to 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands that are embedded in a framework of fibromuscular tissue and arranged in three concentric groups (mucosal, submucosal and main prostatic gland). The prostate consists of peripheral, central and transitional zone accounting for approximately 70%, 20% and 5% of the glandular substances. Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects the transitional zone and carcinoma of the prostate affects the peripheral zone. The glandular tissue consists of numerous acini with frequent internal papillae. Follicular epithelium is variable but predominantly columnar and either single-layered or pseudostratified. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to find out the difference in number of acini of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories: Group A (up to 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed following standard autopsy techniques. In the present study, total 60 slides were made for histological study from both central and peripheral zone of the prostate which were examined under low power objectives. The number of the acini of the prostate gland were counted and recorded. The mean number of the acini of the prostate gland was 16.45, 43.54 and 42.45 in Group A, B and C respectively in central zone and 30.08, 51.35 and 44.16 in Group A, B and C respectively in peripheral zone of the prostate. Variance analysis shows that mean differences were highly significant between Group A & B and Group C & A and non significant between Group B & C in central zone of the prostate. Mean differences were non significant among all three groups in peripheral zone of the prostate. The number of the acini of prostate gland was increased up to certain age limit but decreased in extreme age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the number of the acini of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people at different age group.

Abu Saleh M, Solayman M, Hoque MM, et al.
Inhibition of DNA Topoisomerase Type IIα (TOP2A) by Mitoxantrone and Its Halogenated Derivatives: A Combined Density Functional and Molecular Docking Study.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6817502 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study, mitoxantrone and its halogenated derivatives have been designed by density functional theory (DFT) to explore their structural and thermodynamical properties. The performance of these drugs was also evaluated to inhibit DNA topoisomerase type IIα (TOP2A) by molecular docking calculation. Noncovalent interactions play significant role in improving the performance of halogenated drugs. The combined quantum and molecular mechanics calculations revealed that CF3 containing drug shows better preference in inhibiting the TOP2A compared to other modified drugs.

Parvin S, Islam MS, Al-Mamun MM, et al.
Association of BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51, and HER2 gene polymorphisms with the breast cancer risk in the Bangladeshi population.
Breast Cancer. 2017; 24(2):229-237 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is considered as the most frequent female malignancy. Altered gene expressions due to genetic polymorphisms in the BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51, and HER2 contribute toward the development of breast cancer, and yet, no such type of study has been conducted in the Bangladeshi population. This study was designed to evaluate the role of BRCA1rs80357713, BRCA1rs80357906, BRCA2rs11571653, RAD51rs1801320, and HER2rs1136201 polymorphisms as risk factors in the development of breast cancer in the Bangladeshi population.
METHODS: A total 310 patients with invasive breast cancers were recruited as cases from different public and private hospitals of Bangladesh, and 250 Bangladeshi healthy women matching age with the patients were recruited as controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to analyze the genetic polymorphisms.
RESULTS: Patients carrying BRCA1/2 mutations, GC and GC plus CC genotypes of RAD51rs1801320, and AG plus GG genotype of HER2rs1136201 polymorphisms were found to be associated with breast cancer. In subgroup analysis, AG plus GG genotype of HER2rs1136201 was found to be associated with the breast cancer risk in the patients younger than 45 years of age compared with the older patients having more than 45 years of age, and RAD51rs1801320 was related to the tumor size and tumor aggressiveness (higher graded tumor).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that BRCA1/BRCA2, RAD51rs1801320 and HER2rs1136201 polymorphisms were associated with breast cancer in the studied population.

Hashmi AA, Hussain ZF, Bhagwani AR, et al.
Clinicopathologic features of ovarian neoplasms with emphasis on borderline ovarian tumors: an institutional perspective.
BMC Res Notes. 2016; 9:205 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and it represents third most common malignancy in Karachi (after breast and oral cancer). Due to lack of well established cancer registry in our country, changing trends of ovarian tumors has not been determined. Therefore we aimed to establish the current trends and classification of ovarian tumors in our setup according to latest WHO guidelines.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 162 cases of ovarian tumors that underwent surgical resection from January 2009 till December 2014. Specimens were received in histopathology department, Liaquat National hospital and cases were examined by senior histopathologists and classified according to latest WHO guidelines. Various histopathologic parameters including capsular invasion, omental and lymph node meatstasis along with uterine and fallopian tube involvement were determined apart from tumor type and grade.
RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 35.8 years (± 15.5). surface epithelial tumors were most common, 109 cases (67.2%) followed by germ cell tumors, 44 cases (27.1%) and sex cord stromal tumors, 8 cases (4.9%). Serous tumors were most common surface epithelial tumors with 90% benign morphology. On the other hand, mucinous tumors showed a higher percentage of borderline and malignant features (16.7 and 14.6% respectively). Higher incidence of capsular invasion and omental metastasis was noted in endometroid and serous carcinoma compared to mucinous tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: We noted a higher frequency of young age ovarian cancers in our set up. Serous and endometroid carcinomas were found to be associated with adverse prognostic factors like capsular invasion and omental metastasis. Moreover a significantly higher proportion of ovarian tumors constitute mucinous histology including borderline tumors. Whether this represents a changing trend towards biology of these tumors in this part of the world needs to be uncovered by further studies.

Hashmi AA, Naz S, Edhi MM, et al.
Accuracy of intraoperative frozen section for the evaluation of ovarian neoplasms: an institutional experience.
World J Surg Oncol. 2016; 14:91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of tumors including surface epithelial, germ cell and sex cord stromal tumors with a subset having low malignant potential (borderline tumors). While the surgical management plan differs in different categories of tumors, preoperative diagnosis is seldom available. In these circumstances, the role of frozen section becomes invaluable. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the frozen section of ovarian tumors in our setup.
METHODS: It was a retrospective study involving 141 cases of ovarian tumors undergoing surgical resection with frozen section evaluation from January 2009 to December 2014. After gross examination, one to five blocks were prepared on the frozen section depending upon the size of the specimen. After frozen section reporting, specimens were processed routinely for final paraffin section evaluation. Results of frozen and paraffin sections were categorized in benign, borderline, and malignant, and accuracy of frozen section was determined.
RESULTS: Out of 141 cases, 107 were diagnosed as benign on final (paraffin) examination, while 6 were borderline and 28 were malignant. Out of 107 benign cases, 45 were non-neoplastic cystic lesions of the ovary including endometriotic, follicular, and corpus luteal cysts. The most common benign neoplastic tumor was mature cystic teratoma (20 cases) followed by mucinous cystadenoma (19 cases), serous cystadenoma (14 cases), sex cord stromal tumors (8 cases), and Brenner tumor (1 case). Among borderline cases, four cases were serous and two of mucinous neoplasms. The most common malignant neoplasm was serous carcinoma (11 cases) followed by mucinous carcinoma (6 cases). The overall accuracy of frozen section diagnosis is above 99 %. The sensitivity and specificity for benign tumors were found to be 100 and 97 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for borderline tumors was 83 and 99 %, respectively, while for malignant tumors, it was 96 and 100 %, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: We found a high sensitivity and specificity of frozen section for the diagnosis of ovarian tumors and to determine its malignant potential. Therefore, it should always be used when the preoperative diagnosis is not definite to govern extent of surgical resection. However, under-diagnosis can occur in tumors of borderline category which can be minimized by increased sampling on the frozen section.

Love RR, Love SM
Peri-operative biology in primary breast cancer: a credible therapeutic target.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 156(3):411-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over the last 25 years, there has been a growing body of basic science, modeling, and clinical data suggesting that the peri-operative period in the treatment of primary breast cancer is dynamic and can be manipulated to improve long-term outcomes. Clinical data have demonstrated early peaks of hazards for recurrence and emphasized the relationship of these to peri-operative events. More recently, clinical trial data with surgical oophorectomy at different times in the menstrual cycle, peri-operative progesterone, and anti-inflammatory drugs suggest that interventional studies are particularly well justified, given the increasing recognition of the costs both financially and clinically of current systemic regimens.

Kim KH, Kabir E, Jahan SA
The use of cell phone and insight into its potential human health impacts.
Environ Monit Assess. 2016; 188(4):221 [PubMed] Related Publications
The rapid evolution of mobile phone technology has raised public concern about its possible association with adverse health effects. Given the huge number of mobile phone users at present days, even simple adverse health effects could have major implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the health effects stemming from the use of cellular phones by emphasizing adverse biological effects, epidemiological issues, and indirect health effects. A line of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no concrete association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. The evidence regarding the occurrence of cancer due to exposure to the radio frequency energy of mobile phones is nonetheless conflicting. Consequently, long-term research in this field is necessary to account for the vital issue of this scientific research to the public in a meaningful way.

Hasan MN, Rahman MF, Habib SA, et al.
Pericardial Tumor Presenting As Recurrent Pericardial Effusion--A Case Report.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(1):182-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pericardial tumors are unusual and may be difficult to characterise with imaging. They manifest as large, non-contractile, solid masses within the pericardium. Presenting symptoms include heart failure, arrhythmias, sudden death, cyanosis and chest pain. But it can also present as recurrent pericardial effusion misdiagnosed as tuberculosis and other infectious causes. Accordingly a patient with pericardial mass (tumor) presented with recurrent pericardial effusion as a rare case.

Rahman MR, Sheikh SH, Lima IJ, et al.
Correlation of the Serum Level of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Prolactin with Different Stages of Colorectal Carcinoma According to Dukes' Staging.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(1):61-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is well established tumor marker for colorectal cancers worldwide. Recent studies show that serum prolactin level is also raised in colorectal cancers. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the correlation of serum CEA and Prolactin with Dukes' staging of colorectal carcinomas. Between January 2013 and June 2013, Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay from 103 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed as colorectal carcinomas. Evaluation of the stages of the colorectal cancers was done on the basis of preoperative investigations and postoperative histopathology and correlated with Preoperative Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin. Results were presented as median value, range and percentage. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with median age of 42.26 years (range 17-78 years). Most of the patients in this series presented with carcinoma rectum (42%). Most of the patients (52%) were found in Dukes' stage C and 27% and 15% cases were found as Dukes' stage B and Dukes' stage D respectively. Stage of the disease is directly proportionate to percentage of the patient with high serum prolactin except early stage (Dukes' A-50%, Dukes' B-28.6%, Dukes' C-33.3% & Dukes' D-46.7%). Similarly serum CEA level is directly proportionate to tumor stage (Dukes' A-0%, Dukes' B-32%, Dukes' C-40.7% & Dukes' D-74.7%). A preoperative high serum CEA value suggests advanced disease either locally or with distant metastasis. In contrast preoperative high serum prolactin (hyperprolactinaemia) did not suggest advanced disease as it can be elevated even in early stage of disease. Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin both are valuable tumor markers but serum CEA could not be replaced by serum Prolactin. Serum Prolactin may be a helpful marker in earlier stages of the colorectal cancer.

Majumder KR, Karmakar R, Karim SS, Al-Mamun A
Malignancy in Solitary Thyroid Nodule.
Mymensingh Med J. 2016; 25(1):39-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
This prospective study was done to find out the relative frequency of the malignancy in cold solitary thyroid nodules with other solitary thyroid nodules (hot and warm). This study was carried out in the Department of General Surgery and Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2011 to February 2012. One hundred (100) patients with clinically and ultrasonographically diagnosed as solitary thyroid nodules were included. Out of them, 52% of patients were in the third and fourth decades of life and 26% were in the second decade of life. In sex distribution, females were more affected than males and female: male ratio was 2.1:1. All patients presented with neck swelling, which moved with deglutition and 18% presented with palpitation. Solitary nodule was present in about 60% in the right lobe and 32% in the left lobe. In 72% patients, radioiodine uptake was low; in 25% patient's radioiodine uptake was normal. The thyroid scan revealed 72% cold nodule, in 25% patients radioiodine uptake was normal. On Ultrasonographic study, 60% were solid, 28% cystic and others mixed. Each and every patient of this series was treated surgically. Mostly (73%) lobectomy was done. Total thyroidectomy was done in 16% cases. On histopathology, 56% were colloid nodule, 28% were adenoma and 16% were carcinoma. Among the 16% malignant patients, majority of the patients had their age between 21-48 years. Histopathological types were mostly papillary (50%). Complications of surgery were mostly hoarseness of voice (5%), hematoma (4%), infection (2%) and hypoparathyroidism (3%). In this study, more malignant cases (20.83%) were found in cold solitary nodules.

Benevolenskaya EV, Islam AB, Ahsan H, et al.
DNA methylation and hormone receptor status in breast cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2016; 8:17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We examined whether differences in tumor DNA methylation were associated with more aggressive hormone receptor-negative breast cancer in an ethnically diverse group of patients in the Breast Cancer Care in Chicago (BCCC) study and using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).
RESULTS: DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples on 75 patients (21 White, 31 African-American, and 23 Hispanic) (training dataset) enrolled in the BCCC. Hormone receptor status was defined as negative if tumors were negative for both estrogen and progesterone (ER/PR) receptors (N = 22/75). DNA methylation was analyzed at 1505 CpG sites within 807 gene promoters using the Illumina GoldenGate assay. Differential DNA methylation as a predictor of hormone receptor status was tested while controlling for false discovery rate and assigned to the gene closest to the respective CpG site. Next, those genes that predicted ER/PR status were validated using TCGA data with respect to DNA methylation (validation dataset), and correlations between CpG methylation and gene expression were examined. In the training dataset, 5.7 % of promoter mean methylation values (46/807) were associated with receptor status at P < 0.05; for 88 % of these (38/46), hypermethylation was associated with receptor-positive disease. Hypermethylation for FZD9, MME, BCAP31, HDAC9, PAX6, SCGB3A1, PDGFRA, IGFBP3, and PTGS2 genes most strongly predicted receptor-positive disease. Twenty-one of 24 predictor genes from the training dataset were confirmed in the validation dataset. The level of DNA methylation at 19 out 22 genes, for which gene expression data were available, was associated with gene activity.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of promoter methylation strongly correlate with hormone receptor positive status of breast tumors. For most of the genes identified in our training dataset as ER/PR receptor status predictors, DNA methylation correlated with stable gene expression level. The predictors performed well when evaluated on independent set of samples, with different racioethnic distribution, thus providing evidence that this set of DNA methylation biomarkers will likely generalize to prospective patient samples.

Hossain MS, Begum M, Mian MM, et al.
Epidemiology of childhood and adolescent cancer in Bangladesh, 2001-2014.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer burden among children and adolescents is largely unknown in Bangladesh. This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview on childhood and adolescent cancers and to contribute to the future strategies to deal with these diseases in Bangladesh.
METHODS: Data on malignant neoplasms in patients aged less than 20 years diagnosed between 2001 and 2014 (N = 3143) in Bangladesh was collected by the National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital and ASHIC Foundation. The age pattern and distribution of cancer types were analysed and the incidence rates were calculated.
RESULTS: The age-standardised incidence rate was 7.8 per million person-years for children (0-14 years) in the last time period (2011-2014). Retinoblastoma (25%) and leukaemia (18%) were the most common childhood cancers. For adolescents (15-19 years), the age-specific incidence rate was 2.1 per million person-years in the same time period. Most common adolescent cancers were malignant bone tumours (38%), germ cell and gonadal tumours (17%), and epithelial tumours (16%). There were more boys affected (M: F ratio 2.0 in children and 1.4 in adolescents) than girls.
CONCLUSION: Cancer incidences were lower than expected most likely due to a low level of awareness about cancer among clinicians and the population, inadequate access to health care, lack of diagnostic equipment and incomplete recording of cases. Improvements on different levels should be made to get a better epidemiologic insight and to detect cancer earlier resulting in a better outcome for affected children and adolescents.

Vrinten C, Wardle J, Marlow LA
Cancer fear and fatalism among ethnic minority women in the United Kingdom.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(5):597-604 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer fear and fatalism are believed to be higher in ethnic minorities and may contribute to lower engagement with cancer prevention and early detection. We explored the levels of cancer fear and fatalism in six ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and examined the contribution of acculturation and general fatalism.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 720 White British, Caribbean, African, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women (120 of each) was conducted. Three items assessed cancer fear and two cancer fatalism. Acculturation was assessed using (self-reported) migration status, ability to speak English, and understanding of health leaflets; general fatalism with a standard measure.
RESULTS: Relative to White British women, African and Indian women were more fearful of cancer, Bangladeshi women less fearful, and Pakistani and Caribbean women were similar to White British women. Cancer fatalism was higher in all the ethnic minority groups compared with White British women. Less acculturated women were less likely to worry (ORs 0.21-0.45, all P<0.05) or feel particularly afraid (ORs 0.11-0.31, all P<0.05) but more likely to feel uncomfortable about cancer (ORs 1.97-3.03, all P<0.05). Lower acculturation (ORs 4.30-17.27, P<0.05) and general fatalism (OR 2.29, P<0.05) were associated with the belief that cancer is predetermined.
CONCLUSIONS: In general, cancer fear and fatalism are more prevalent among ethnic minority than White British women and even more so in less acculturated ethnic minorities. This may affect their participation in cancer prevention and early detection.

Shan J, Alam SK, Garra B, et al.
Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Ultrasound Using Computerized BI-RADS Features and Machine Learning Methods.
Ultrasound Med Biol. 2016; 42(4):980-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
This work identifies effective computable features from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for breast ultrasound. Computerized features corresponding to ultrasound BI-RADs categories were designed and tested using a database of 283 pathology-proven benign and malignant lesions. Features were selected based on classification performance using a "bottom-up" approach for different machine learning methods, including decision tree, artificial neural network, random forest and support vector machine. Using 10-fold cross-validation on the database of 283 cases, the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.84 from a support vector machine with 77.7% overall accuracy; the highest overall accuracy, 78.5%, was from a random forest with the AUC 0.83. Lesion margin and orientation were optimum features common to all of the different machine learning methods. These features can be used in CAD systems to help distinguish benign from worrisome lesions.

Noman AS, Uddin M, Rahman MZ, et al.
Overexpression of sonic hedgehog in the triple negative breast cancer: clinicopathological characteristics of high burden breast cancer patients from Bangladesh.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18830 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been documented in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BC) progression. Despite the remarkable progress in therapeutic interventions, BC related mortality in Bangladesh increased in the last decade. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) still presents a critical therapeutic challenge. Thus effective targeted therapy is urgently needed. In this study, we report the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of BC patients from Bangladesh. Routine immunohistochemical analysis and high throughput RNA-Seq data from the TCGA library were used to analyze the expression pattern and association of high and low level of Shh expression in a collection of BC patients with a long-term follow-up. High levels of Shh were observed in a subset of BC tumors with poor prognostic pathological features. Higher level of Shh expression correlated with a significantly poorer overall survival of patients compared with patients whose tumors expressed a low level of Shh. These data support the contention that Shh could be a novel biomarker for breast cancer that is involved in mediating the aggressive phenotype of BC. We propose that BC patients exhibiting a higher level of Shh expression, representing a subset of BC patients, would be amenable to Shh targeted therapy.

Alam MS, Lee DU
Synthesis, biological evaluation, drug-likeness, and in silico screening of novel benzylidene-hydrazone analogues as small molecule anticancer agents.
Arch Pharm Res. 2016; 39(2):191-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
A series of fifteen benzylidene-hydrazone analogues (3a-o), including eight new compounds, were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities in four human cancer cell lines and for their antioxidant activities using DPPH. Of the tested compounds 3e, which possesses two methoxy substituents in its benzylidene phenyl ring, was found to be potently cytotoxic to all cancer cell lines tested with IC50 values of 0.12 (lung), 0.024 (ovarian), 0.097 (melanoma), and 0.05 μM (colon), and these IC50 values were comparable to those of the doxorubicin standard (IC50 = 0.021, 0.074, 0.001, and 0.872 μM, respectively). DPPH assay showed compounds 3f, 3i, and 3g had IC50 values of 0.60, 0.99, and 1.30 μM, respectively, which were comparable to that of ascorbic acid (IC50 = 0.87 μM). Computational parameters such as, drug-likeness, ADME properties, toxicity effects, and drug scores were evaluated, and none of the fifteen compounds violated Lipinski's rule of five or Veber's rule, and thus they demonstrated good drug-likeness properties. In addition, all fifteen compounds had a higher drug score than the doxorubicin and BIBR1532. In silico screening was also conducted by docking of the active compounds on the active site of telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit, an important therapeutic target of anticancer agents, to determine the probable binding properties. The total binding energies of docked compounds are correlated well with cytotoxic potencies (pIC50) against lung, ovarian, melanoma, and colon cancer cell lines indicating that the benzylidene-hydrazones could use for the development of new anticancer agents as a telomerase inhibitor.

Hasan I, Sugawara S, Fujii Y, et al.
MytiLec, a Mussel R-Type Lectin, Interacts with Surface Glycan Gb3 on Burkitt's Lymphoma Cells to Trigger Apoptosis through Multiple Pathways.
Mar Drugs. 2015; 13(12):7377-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MytiLec; a novel lectin isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis); shows strong binding affinity to globotriose (Gb3: Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc). MytiLec revealed β-trefoil folding as also found in the ricin B-subunit type (R-type) lectin family, although the amino acid sequences were quite different. Classification of R-type lectin family members therefore needs to be based on conformation as well as on primary structure. MytiLec specifically killed Burkitt's lymphoma Ramos cells, which express Gb3. Fluorescein-labeling assay revealed that MytiLec was incorporated inside the cells. MytiLec treatment of Ramos cells resulted in activation of both classical MAPK/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-ERK) and stress-activated (p38 kinase and JNK) Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. In the cells, MytiLec treatment triggered expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (a ligand of death receptor-dependent apoptosis) and activation of mitochondria-controlling caspase-9 (initiator caspase) and caspase-3 (activator caspase). Experiments using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 showed that MytiLec-induced phosphorylation of the MEK-ERK pathway up-regulated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, leading to cell cycle arrest and TNF-α production. Activation of caspase-3 by MytiLec appeared to be regulated by multiple different pathways. Our findings, taken together, indicate that the novel R-type lectin MytiLec initiates programmed cell death of Burkitt's lymphoma cells through multiple pathways (MAPK cascade, death receptor signaling; caspase activation) based on interaction of the lectin with Gb3-containing glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains on the cell surface.

Shabnaz S, Ahmed MU, Islam MS, et al.
Breast cancer risk in relation to TP53 codon 72 and CDH1 gene polymorphisms in the Bangladeshi women.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):7229-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pharmacogenomic studies play a significant role in understanding the risk of breast cancer where genetic abnormalities are implicated as the etiology of cancer. Various polymorphisms of tumor suppressor gene TP53 and E-cadherin (CDH1) have been found to be associated with increased breast cancer risk worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the contribution of TP53 and CDH1 gene anomalies in breast cancer risk in the Bangladeshi breast cancer patients. For risk determination, 310 patients with breast cancer and 250 controls from Bangladeshi women were recruited who are matched up with age and use of contraceptives with patients. Genetic polymorphisms were detected by using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant association was found between TP53Arg72Pro (rs1042522) and CDH1 -160 C/A (rs16260) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. In case of P53rs1042522 polymorphism, Arg/Pro (P = 0.0053, odds ratio (OR) = 1.69) and Pro/Pro (P = 0.018, OR = 1.83) genotypes were associated with increased risk of breast cancer in comparison to the Arg/Arg genotype. Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro genotype and Pro allele also increased the risk of breast cancer (P = 0.002, OR = 1.73; P = 0.004, OR = 1.43, respectively). In case of CDH1rs16260 polymorphism, C/A heterozygote and combined C/A + A/A genotypes were found to be strongly associated (P = 0.005, OR = 1.67; P = 0.0037, OR = 1.68) with increased risk of breast cancer. The variant A allele also increased the breast cancer risk (P = 0.0058, OR = 1.52). The present study demonstrates that P53Arg72Pro and CDH1rs16260 polymorphisms are associated with elevated breast cancer risk in the Bangladeshi population.

Hoque SA, Tanaka A, Islam S, et al.
Suppression of HIV-1 Infectivity by Human Glioma Cells.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016; 32(5):480-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
HIV-1 infection to the central nervous system (CNS) is very common in AIDS patients. The predominant cell types infected in the brain are monocytes and macrophages, which are surrounded by several HIV-1-resistant cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and microvascular cells. The effect of these HIV-1-resistant cells on HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the stability of HIV-1 cultured with several human glioblastoma cell lines, for example, NP-2, U87MG, T98G, and A172, to determine whether these HIV-1-resistant brain cells could enhance or suppress HIV-1 infection and thus modulate HIV-1 infection in the CNS. The HIV-1 titer was determined using the MAGIC-5A indicator cell line as well as naturally occurring CD4(+) T cells. We found that the stability of HIV-1 incubated with NP-2 or U87MG cells at 37°C was significantly shorter (half-life, 2.5-4 h) compared to that of HIV-1 incubated with T98G or A172 cells or in culture medium without cells (half-life, 8-18 h). The spent culture media (SCM) of NP-2 and U87MG cells had the ability to suppress both R5- and X4-HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV-1 attachment to target cells. This inhibitory effect was eliminated by the treatment of the SCM with chondroitinase ABC but not heparinase, suggesting that the inhibitory factor(s) secreted by NP-2 and U87MG cells was chiefly mediated by chondroitin sulfate (CS) or CS-like moiety. Thus, this study reveals that some but not all glioma cells secrete inhibitory molecules to HIV-1 infection that may contribute in lowering HIV-1 infection in the CNS in vivo.

Chowdhury TI, Love RR, Chowdhury MT, et al.
Feasibility Study of Case-Finding for Breast Cancer by Community Health Workers in Rural Bangladesh.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(17):7853-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mortality from breast cancer is high in low- and middle-income countries, in part because most patients have advanced stage disease when first diagnosed. Case-finding may be one approach to changing this situation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a pilot study to explore the feasibility of population-based case finding for breast cancer by community health workers (CHWs) using different data collection methods and approaches to management of women found to have breast abnormalities. After training 8 CHWs in breast problem recognition, manual paper data collection and operation of a cell-phone software platform for reporting demographic, history and physical finding information, these CHWs visited 3150 women >age 18 and over they could find--from 2356 households in 8 villages in rural Bangladesh. By 4 random assignments of villages, data were collected manually (Group 1), or with the cell-phone program alone (Group 2) or with management algorithms (Groups 3 and 4), and women adjudged to have a serious breast problem were shown a motivational video (Group 3), or navigated/accompanied to a breast problem center for evaluation (Group 4).
RESULTS: Only three visited women refused evaluation. The manual data acquisition group (1) had missing data in 80% of cases, and took an average of 5 minutes longer to acquire, versus no missing data in the cell phone-reporting groups (2,3 and 4). One woman was identified with stage III breast cancer, and was appropriately treated.
CONCLUSIONS: Among very poor rural Bangladeshi women, there was very limited reluctance to undergo breast evaluation. The estimated rarity of clinical breast cancer is supported by these population-based findings. The feasibility and efficient use of mobile technology in this setting is supported. Successor studies may most appropriately be trials focusing on improving the suggested benefits of motivation and navigation, on increasing the numbers of cases found, and on stage of disease at diagnosis as the primary endpoint.

Ahmed K, Asaduzzaman S, Bashar MI, et al.
Association Assessment among Risk Factors and Breast Cancer in a Low Income Country: Bangladesh.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(17):7507-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the low incoming country Bangladesh, breast cancer is second most common neoplasm and is increasing at an alarming rate among females. Lack of awareness and illiteracy are contributory factors for late presentation and therefore mortality.
PURPOSE: To examine associations of different factors with breast cancer mortality and to raise awareness among the women of society in Bangladesh.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted on 160 participants from April 2011 till July 2014. Through a valid questionnaire covering personal and family history, data were collected by face to face interview. For analyzing correlations among factors with breast cancer data, binary logistic regression, Pearson's χ2- value, odd ratios and p-value tests were conducted with SPSS version 20.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 43.0 (SD= ± 11.12). In ascending order the leading significant factors were hormone therapy (p<0.0000, OR=4.897), abortion (p<0.0001, OR=3.452), early start menarche (p<0.0002, OR=3.500), family history (p<0.0022, OR=3.235), and late menopause (p<0.0093, OR=3.674) with both χ2 test and logistic regression analyses. Non-significant factors were cancer experience, fatty food habits, marital status and taking alcohol.
CONCLUSIONS: Regarding the investigation of this study, significant and insignificant factor's correlation visualization with breast cancer will be helpful to increase awareness among Bangladeshi women as well as all over the world.

Islam SA, Rahman MS, Habib S, Salam MA
Mesoblastic Nephroma in a 22 Years Old Woman.
Mymensingh Med J. 2015; 24(4):856-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesoblastic nephroma is an uncommon renal tumor of infancy and rarely occurs in adults. We report a case of mesoblastic nephroma in adult. A 22-year-old woman, who presented with left flank pain, was found to have a left renal mass by abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography revealed a heterogeneous tumor. Left radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumor was a creamy white solid mass. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of spindle cell proliferation. Atypia and mitoses were not identified. Among the tumor cells, there were tubular arranged epithelial elements. The patient was free of recurrence 18 months postoperatively. Mesoblastic nephroma is classified as a benign tumor but recurrence and malignant transformation of this tumor have been reported, so regular postoperative follow up is required.

Rahman M, Siddique MA, Ali MI, et al.
Study of Commonest Variety of Sinonasal Malignancy and Its Sex Wise Distribution.
Mymensingh Med J. 2015; 24(4):832-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was done to find the commonest variety of sinonasal malignancy and its association with sex.This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery Department, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital and in the Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery Department, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University between January 2009 and December 2009. A total of 146 cases of sinonasal malignancy were consecutively included in the study. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. The mean age was 47.8 years (range: 22-75 years). Over three-quarters (77%) of the patients were male with male to female ratio being 3:1. Nearly one-third (30.8%) of the patients was farmer and over one-third (36.3%) was illiterate. The right sinonasal region was involved in 48.6% cases, left sinonasal region in 39% and both sinonasal region in 12.4% cases. Histopathological diagnosis of sinonasal malignancy revealed that squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 82.9% of sinonasal malignancies, 9.6% adenocarcinoma and the rest were olfactory neuroblastoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. About 96.6% of the tumours involved nasal cavity, 97.9% maxillary sinuses, 17.8% frontal sinuses, 48.6% ethmoidal sinuses and 13% sphenoid sinuses. Over 80% of patients were smoker. Exposure to wood dust was found in 26% of cases. Lather tanning in 4.8% of cases and welding in 4.1% of cases. T staging shows that nearly half (48.6%) of the patients lesion was T2, 29.5% T3, 19.9% T4 and 2.1% T1. None of the patients exhibited lymph node involvement or distant metastasis. Males tend to develop squamous cell carcinoma significantly more than the females with risk of acquiring squamous cell carcinoma being nearly 3(1.1-7.1) times higher in male than that in female (p=0.022). The study concludes that the most common histopathological variety of sinonasal malignancy is squamous cell carcinoma and males are prone to develop this malignancy more frequently than the females.

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