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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 152.4m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 122,700
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 104.4
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:11.2%
People dying from cancer /yr: 91,300
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Bangladesh Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Bangladesh

Bangladesh Cancer Organisations and Resources (4 links)

Latest Research Publications Related to Bangladesh

Farina E, Macchia G, Siepe G, et al.
Palliative Short-course Radiotherapy in Advanced Pelvic Cancer: A Phase II Study (SHARON Project).
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4237-4242 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To define safety and efficacy of a palliative, short-course accelerated radiation therapy for symptomatic locally advanced primary pelvic cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phase II trial was planned based on the minimax Simon's two-stage design. A total of 18 Gy in 4.5 Gy/fraction administered twice a day was delivered (SHARON). Pain and quality of life were recorded according to the Visual Analogue self-assessment and the cancer linear analog scales (CLAS), respectively.
RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled in the study. The most frequent baseline symptoms were pain (48%), bleeding (40%), bleeding/pain (8%), and intestinal sub-occlusion (4%). The overall palliative response rate was 96.0%, with a median palliative duration of 6 months. An improvement of quality-of-life indices (well-being, fatigue, and ability to perform daily activities) was noted in 64.0%, 36.0%, and 48.0% of patients, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The SHARON regimen was well tolerated and effective in the palliative treatment of patients with locally advanced pelvic cancer. Based on these results, a multicentric prospective phase III trial is ongoing to compare this regimen with traditional 2-week radiotherapy treatment.

Muralidhar V, Raghav P, Das P, Goel A
A case from India of pleural malignant mesothelioma probably due to domestic and environmental asbestos exposure: a posthumous report.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
India is the largest consumer of asbestos in the world. There is no report from India of mesothelioma related to asbestos. The case is a 42-year-old man who died of pleural mesothelioma. He was exposed to asbestos domestically and from the environment since birth. Two of his close family members worked in a factory that used asbestos. The living quarter of the family was within the premises of the factory. Asbestos waste was strewn on the grounds surrounding the quarters. After decades of legal battles by workers and families exposed to asbestos, Indian courts have ordered remedial measures and compensation to people, who are exposed to asbestos at work and the environment. Mesothelioma, currently in epidemic proportions in the west where asbestos production was banned in the 1990s, could rise to alarming levels in the next decades in India if the legal remedial measures are not implemented soon.

Imtiaz H, Afroz S, Hossain MA, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in CDH1 and Exo1 genes elevate the prostate cancer risk in Bangladeshi population.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(3):1010428319830837 [PubMed] Related Publications
The polymorphisms of invasion suppressor gene CDH1 and DNA mismatch repair gene Exo1 have been reported to play critical role in the development, tumorigenesis, and progression of several kinds of cancers including prostate cancer. This study was designed to analyze the contribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the CDH1 (-160C/A) and Exo1 (K589E) to prostate cancer susceptibility in Bangladeshi population. The study included 100 prostate cancer cases and age-matched 100 healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to determine the genetic polymorphisms. A significant association was found between CDH1 -160C/A (rs16260) and Exo1 (rs1047840, K589E) polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. In case of CDH1 -160C/A polymorphism, the frequencies of the three genotypes C/C,C/A, and A/A were 45%, 48%, and 7% in cases and 63%, 32%, and 5% in controls, respectively. The heterozygote C/A genotype and combined C/A + A/A genotypes showed 2.10-fold (odds ratio = 2.1000, 95% confidence interval = 1.2956-4.0905, p = 0.013) and 2.08-fold (odds ratio = 2.0811, 95% confidence interval = 1.1820-3.6641, p = 0.011) increased risk of prostate cancer, respectively, when compared with homozygous C/C genotypes. The variant A allele also was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio = 1.6901, 95% confidence interval = 1.0740-2.6597, p = 0.0233). In case of Exo1 (K589E) polymorphism, G/A heterozygote, A/A homozygote, and combined G/A + A/A genotypes were found to be associated with 2.30-, 4.85-, and 3.04-fold higher risk of prostate cancer, respectively (odds ratio = 2.3021, 95% confidence interval = 2.956-4.0905, p = 0.0031; odds ratio = 4.8462, 95% confidence interval = 1.0198-23.0284, p = 0.0291; OR = 3.0362, 95% confidence interval = 1.7054-5.4053, p = 0.0001, respectively). The "A" allele showed significant association with increased susceptibility (2.29-fold) to prostate cancer (odds ratio = 2.2955, 95% confidence interval = 1.4529-3.6270, p = 0.0004). Our results suggest that CDH1 -160C/A and Exo1 K589E polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to prostate cancer in Bangladeshi population.

Akhter K, Enamur Rashid M
Study of Thymidylate Synthase (TS) and Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPD) Expressions on 5-Fluorouracil in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(2):503-508 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: The study aims to analyze Thymidylate Synthase (TS) and Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPD) Expressions on 5-Fluorouracil in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: 50 oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were taken from non-treated cancer patients at Hiroshima University Dental Hospital. The patients were investigated for TS, that included 36 males and 14 females. Additionally, 31 patients were evaluated for DPD that included 22 males and 9 females. Results: The samples had also undergone clinical and pathological evaluation, immunohistochemical staining, evaluation of immune-staining, enzymatic expression, and statistical analyses. Mean age of the population was 62.1 years. Conclusion: Over-expression of TS contributes significantly to the resistance of 5-FU treatment; while inhibition of intra-tumoral DPD increases the sensitivity level. TS levels are not only predictive of 5-FU response, but also prognostic in clinical value of non-treated cancer patients.

Kapoor A
Giant cell tumour of the scapula treated by partial scapulectomy.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Giant cell tumour is a benign, but locally aggressive tumour. It most commonly affects the epiphysial-metaphyseal region of long bones, but rarely in flat bones. We present you a case of 26-year-old man with a large giant cell tumour of the inferior angle of the scapula. The patient was treated with partial scapulectomy with complete resection of tumour. There was excellent retention of shoulder function postoperatively.

Yesmin S, Sanyal M, Hasan MJ
Breast Cancer with Paraneoplastic Syndrome in a 72 Year Old Male Patient.
Mymensingh Med J. 2019; 28(1):254-258 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer in male is rare which accounts about 1% of all malignant breast neoplasm cases. Since paraneoplastic syndrome is unusual with male breast cancer, very few reported cases are found. A72- year-old gentleman presented with proximal myopathy in all four limbs was referred to Dr. Sirajul Islam Medical College and Hospital in April 2017. He had generalized wasting with reduced tone and reflexes. Planter responses were normal with intact sensory. There were typical Heliotrope rash bilaterally. In background, he had history of radical mastectomy due to stage IIA ductal carcinoma of left breast 7 years back. Three years later, he was found to have multiple metastases in lung and liver, however, deliberately discontinued chemotherapy after first dose. Currently he is on Tamoxifen. Two months back, he was diagnosed to have brain metastasis. Also his serum sodium level was low with low urine osmolality. Considering his background, we diagnosed him dermatomyositis with peripheal neuropathy & SIADH as paraneoplastic presentation of breast malignancy. Despite of normal CPK and NCV, we treated him with steroid as dermatomyositis can present with normal CPK. His myopathy improved after 2 weeks of steroid treatment. Fluid restriction increased his serum sodium level. The aim of reporting this case is to aware physicians about the aggressive nature of male breast cancer, its orthodox paraneoplastic presentation and to differentiate neuropathy from myopathy so that early treatment can improve the outcome.

Sunny SA, Singh A, Adhikary AB
Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma: Surgical Correction and its Complication Management.
Mymensingh Med J. 2019; 28(1):245-249 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ectopic parathyroid are most frequently found in the anterior mediastinum, in association with the thymus or the thyroid gland. Ectopic parathyroid glands are a major cause of persistent and recurrent Hyperparathyroidism. We report a case of 65-year-old female was referred from Surgical Endocrine department to the department of Cardiac Surgery on 20 September, 2017 in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University with parathyroid crisis due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma with her serum calcium and PTH markedly increased in short time. Computed tomography of the chest and lower neck showed an ovoid soft tissue density area measuring about 25×20×15mm in the anterior mediastinum. Technetium-99m-sestamibi (MIBI) scintigraphy scan showed positive and detected localized parathyroid adenoma/hyperplasia in superior mediastinum. Ectopic parathyroid adenoma resection was performed via median sternotomy approach. But after 4 hours patient developed the color change of the left arm due to acute left upper limb ischemia of unknown cause for which the patient was rushed to operation theatre suspecting it to be embolic occlusion and managed by both surgical and medical therapy.

Rahman A, Tauhid F, Begum S, et al.
Transmigrated and Impacted Upper 2nd Premolar Associated with Dentigerous Cyst.
Mymensingh Med J. 2019; 28(1):237-240 [PubMed] Related Publications
A male patient about 45 years old came to my private clinic "The Dental Aid", Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh last year (February 2016) with the complaint of pain at right palatal premolar region. On clinical examination we found the absence of upper left 2nd premolar from the series of dentition but on the right side premolars are present. The oral mucosa was intact and normal in color. There was no caries, dental pocket or any other pathology in the teeth of both jaws. On palpation we found soft area on the right palatal side at the premolar area. We took intraoral peri-apical radiograph and found impacted left 2nd premolar whose crown was encircled by radiolucent area at the palatal side. Here, we present a rare case of transmigrated and impacted left 2nd maxillary premolar associated with dentigerous cyst. The cyst was successfully treated under general anaesthesia by enucleation along with extraction of the involved maxillary transposed and impacted left second premolar.

Nahar F, Hossain MA, Paul SK, et al.
Molecular Diagnosis of Human Papilloma Virus by PCR.
Mymensingh Med J. 2019; 28(1):175-181 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is a major world health problem and the fourth most leading cause of death in women around the world. High risk HPV DNA has been shown to be present in 99.7% of cervical cancers worldwide. So detection of HPV DNA by PCR may help in early detection and management of cervical cancer. This cross sectional observational study was done to detect L1 antigen gene of HPV from cervical swab by nested PCR. Following universal safety precautions a total of 141 endocervical swabs were collected from Colposcopy clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of MMCH from January 2015 to December 2015. Laboratory work was done in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College (MMC), Mymensingh, Bangladesh HPV DNA was tested among 141 VIA positive women aged between 20-70 years by nested PCR method. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform extraction method. Two pairs of consensus primers MY09-MY11 and GP5-GP6 were used in a nested PCR assay. Histopathological examination was done on 66 samples in the Department of Pathology, MMC, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. A total of 36.9% (52/141) cases were positive for HPV DNA by nested PCR. On Histopathological diagnosis PCR was positive in 42.9% chronic cervicitis, 21.2% CIN cases and 90.9% cervical carcinoma cases. Based on the findings of the study, it may be concluded that the HPV DNA testing has opened the door for an alternative surveillance mechanism to routine cytological screening. Detection of HPV may play an important role in diagnosis and clinical prognosis of precancerous lesions. So PCR may be done for all VIA positive cases for screening of cervical cancer.

Khan TR, Afroze N, Islam MR, et al.
Diagnostic Accuracy of Refractory Shadowing from Uterine Leiomyomas: Sonographic-Pathologic Correlation.
Mymensingh Med J. 2019; 28(1):120-125 [PubMed] Related Publications
This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Radiology & Imaging, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2010 to June 2011 with a view to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of refractory shadowing on transabdominal pelvic sonography for leiomyomas and in differentiating them from other pelvic masses. Histopathological examination of the surgically resected masses was taken as the standard diagnostic tool. A total number of 50 patients of pelvic masses were studied. It was observed that a pattern of sharp, discrete, shadow was typical of leiomyoma, which reduces diagnostic ambiguity. The mean age of the patients was 38 years. Mean size of the masses was 4.25±3.25cm. Taking histopathological examination as the Gold standard, accuracy of refractory shadowing on transabdominal sonography in diagnosis of leiomyoma was 65.1%. Specificity and sensitivity were 90.3% and 54.2% respectively. Positive predictive value was 92.9% and negative predictive value was 45.9%. Statistical analysis revealed strong association of refractory shadowing with diagnosis of leiomyomas (p<0.01).

Begum SA, Mahmud T, Rahman T, et al.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Bangladeshi Women towards Breast Cancer: A Cross Sectional Study.
Mymensingh Med J. 2019; 28(1):96-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Bangladesh incidence rate of breast cancer was about 22.5 per 100000 females. Breast cancer has been reported as the highest prevalence rate (19.3 per 100,000) among Bangladeshi women between 15 and 44 years of age. For this prevailing situation a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Bangladesh towards breast cancer at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2013 to June 2014. All female participants attending at outpatient department of BSMMU having age more than 20 years and education at least JSC, purposively selected until the sample size achieved 500. Only applying simple cost free method like self breast examination (SBE) and clinical breast examination (CBE) one can asses her breast. Thereby awareness develops regarding her breast so any mass newly appear can be assessed by the lady herself. Early diagnosis of the breast cancer will reduce the burden of treatment cost, mortality & morbidity. Research and development strategy of the project is to enhance the awareness of the community people about breast cancer prevention. Mean age of the study population was 36.16 years. Regarding education nearly 30% (n=150) of them studied up to Junior School, 16% (n=80) respondents completed masters and above remaining in between. Regarding occupation, almost 60% (n=300) were house wife, 32% (n=160) were service holder and only 8% (n=40) of them were students. Knowledge about common female cancer 60% (n=300) were aware about the cervical cancer, 24% (n=120) mentioned breast cancer, 4% (n=20) mentioned ovarian cancer, and 12% (n=60) don't know anything regarding common women cancer. Knowledge about early symptoms of breast cancer, majority of the respondents 66% (n=330) were aware that mass in the breast is the main symptom, 2% (n=10) mentioned pain in breast, 32% (n=160) mentioned that they don't know anything regarding the early symptoms. About the cause of breast cancer 60% (n=300) mentioned that, they don't know anything regarding the cause of breast cancer, 36% (n=180) were aware that non lactation is a cause of breast cancer. About 4% (n=20) of the study population mentioned others, like due to some ones bad did cancer occur as punishment. Knowledge about risk factor of breast cancer, 65% (n=325) have no idea about the risk of breast cancer, 32% (n=160) mentioned few risk factors which have relation with breast cancer and 3% (n=15) did not mention anything. Regarding diagnosis of cancer breast 72% (n=360) mentioned they don't know anything, 16% (n=80) by doing ultra sonogram of breast, 6% (n=30) mentioned about Mammography and 6% (n=30) MRI & others. Regarding screening for prevention of breast cancer 60% (n=300) mentioned that they don't know anything regarding screening. Thirty percent (n=150) were aware that there is screening method but they are not aware specifically regarding this method and they also not aware that breast cancer is a preventable disease. 10% (n=50) were fully aware about screening method like CBE & SBE. About the cause of not seeking medical advice for prevention of Breast cancer, majority of the respondents 40% (n=200) mentioned expenditure problems, 32% (n=160) they don't have any knowledge about this type of medical advice, 8% (n=40) mentioned communication problems and 20% (n=100) others. Regarding Practice of CBE & SBE 68% (n=340) never practice CBE & SBE, 30% (n=150) occasionally practiced CBE & SBE. Only 2% (n=10) mentioned that they were regularly practicing CBE & SBE.

Biswas N, Sangma MA, Dhar D
Association of Ultrasound in Evaluation of Impalpable Supraclavicular Lymph Nodes in Patients with Suspected Lung Cancer.
Mymensingh Med J. 2019; 28(1):76-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in the world as well in Bangladesh. Diagnosis is usually confirmed by invasive procedures such as bronchoscopy, mediastinoscopy, or image guided biopsy. In this prospective study suspected lung cancer patients with N2 or N3 disease on CT scan had gone through ultrasound guided FNAC from impalpable, enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes. If positive, this technique helps to both stage the patient and provide a confirmed diagnosis. Ninety one (91) patients were enrolled prospectively over a 1 year period in National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh from 1 July 2016 to 30 June 2017. Fifty one (51) of 91 patients who have more than 5mm in size supraclavicular lymph nodes were studied. The overall malignant yield was 39.56% of patients scanned and 70.58% of patients sampled. As a result of FNAC, 37 patients (40.66%) avoided more invasive procedures. For diagnosis and staging of lung cancer, Ultrasound guided FNAC is a new modality and comparatively non invasive procedure.

Abedin S, Paul SK, Haque N, et al.
Distribution of HPV-16 and HPV-18 from the Patients Attending At Mymensingh Medical College Hospital by Newly Developed Oncoprotein Detection Assay.
Mymensingh Med J. 2019; 28(1):31-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is one of cause of death in women in many developing countries. Persistent infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), primarily high risk types 16 and 18, is recognized as a causal and essential factor for the development of cervical cancer. The objective of this cross sectional observational study is to detect the distribution of HPV-16 and HPV-18 among Onco E6 positive cases. Following universal safety precautions a total of 180 endocervical swabs were collected from Colposcopy clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from January 2016 to December 2016. Laboratory work was done in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College. E6 strip test is an immunochromatographic test based on the detection of HPV-E6 oncoprotein in cervical swab samples. Onco E6 cervical test was done on 180cases. Among them 60% were VIA positive and 120% were VIA negative. From this VIA positive cases 12(16.25%) were On E6 cervical test positive and from VIA negative cases 3(2.5%) were positive by this On E6 cervical test. From this 12 Onco E6 cervical test positive cases 10(%) were HPV-16 and 2(%) were HPV-18 and from VIA negative cases 3 were only HPV-16 by this test. Histopathological test done on 35 suspected cases and out of 08 cervical carcinoma cases 07 were positive by this Onco E6 cervical test which was also HPV-16 type. It may be concluded that HPV-16 is most prevalent type to cause cervical cancer and by this newly developed protein detection assay will be helpful to reduce over treatment and save many lives.

Kong TW, Ryu HS, Kim SC, et al.
Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology International Workshop 2018.
J Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 30(2):e39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology International Workshop 2018 on gynecologic oncology was held in the Ajou University Hospital, Suwon, Korea on the 24th to 25th August 2018. The workshop was an opportunity for Asian doctors to discuss the latest findings of gynecologic cancer, including cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancers, as well as the future of fertility-sparing treatments, minimally invasive/radical/debulking surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Clinical guidelines and position statement of Asian countries were presented by experts. Asian clinical trials for gynecologic cancers were reviewed and experts emphasized the point that original Asian study is beneficial for Asian patients. In Junior session, young gynecologic oncologists presented their latest research on gynecologic cancers.

Honda T, Rahman MA
Profiling of LINE-1-Related Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prime public health concern that accounts for most of the primary liver malignancies in humans. The most common etiological factor of HCC is hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite recent advances in treatment strategies, there has been little success in improving the survival of HCC patients. To develop a novel therapeutic approach, evaluation of a working hypothesis based on different viewpoints might be important. Long interspersed element 1 (L1) retrotransposons have been suggested to play a role in HCC. However, the molecular machineries that can modulate L1 biology in HBV-related HCC have not been well-evaluated. Here, we summarize the profiles of expression and/or activation status of L1-related genes in HBV-related HCC, and HBV- and HCC-related genes that may impact L1-mediated tumorigenesis. L1 restriction factors appear to be suppressed by HBV infection. Since some of the L1 restriction factors also limit HBV, these factors may be exhausted in HBV-infected cells, which causes de-suppression of L1. Several HBV- and HCC-related genes that interact with L1 can affect oncogenic processes. Thus, L1 may be a novel prime therapeutic target for HBV-related HCC. Studies in this area will provide insights into HCC and other types of cancers.

Saha Turna N, Wu F
Risk assessment of aflatoxin-related liver cancer in Bangladesh.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2019; 36(2):320-326 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins (fungal toxins) produced by Aspergillus species in variety of food commodities. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food can cause adverse health effects, including liver cancer. Aflatoxin exposure is usually higher in hot and humid countries. Previous biomarker-based studies have indicated significant exposure to aflatoxins among the Bangladeshi population. Recently, high aflatoxin levels were reported in dates, which are consumed in large quantities during the month of Ramadan in Bangladesh and other Muslim countries. Bangladesh has recently enacted aflatoxin regulation in foods. In this study, we determined the risk of aflatoxin-related liver cancer among the Bangladeshi population based on the average dietary intakes of different aflatoxin contaminated foods, accounting for the synergistic impacts of aflatoxin with chronic hepatitis B viral infection in inducing cancer. We also determined whether the new aflatoxin regulations in Bangladesh could significantly reduce the risk of liver cancer. The mean number of cancer cases per year caused by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Bangladesh was estimated at about 1311, or 43.9% of the total annual liver cancer cases in Bangladesh. The new aflatoxin regulations do not appear likely to significantly reduce the risk of liver cancer in the country.

Rahman SA, Otim ME, Almarzouqi A, Rahman S
Setting Priorities in Childhood Cancer in Low Income Countries Using Nominal Group Technique: Experience from an International Childhood Cancer Forum Exercise in Bangladesh
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(1):97-103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background and Objectives: Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The incidence of paediatric cancer in particular, in Bangladesh is alarming and most of these patients die without correct diagnosis and adequate medical treatment (MOHFW, 2008). There is a clear disparity in access to care between rural and urban areas (WHO, 2015; Rahman, 2001). There are no established formal childhood cancer registry systems to help inform planning decisions across the country. Most importantly, there are no explicit priorities or methods for identifying such priorities in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). We used a Nominal Group Technique (NGT) method during the International Childhood Cancer Forum (ICCF) for setting priorities. The following two key objectives were addressed: Trialling the NGT in Bangladesh as a priority setting tool; and identify childhood cancer priorities in Bangladesh. Methods: The Nominal Group Techniques (NGT) method was used to elicit information from the participants of ICCF to identify priorities for research and interventions for childhood cancer care in Bangladesh. Participants were divided into four groups. Each group discussed one question each. Two questions focused on cancer research, and the other two focused on interventions. Results: In regards to outcomes, NGT successfully identified the scale of childhood cancer care and identified priorities/action areas to address in Bangladesh. Six priorities were identified and a successful collaboration for implementation has been established with several international organisations. Conclusion: Nominal group technique was found to be an effective tool to identify research and intervention priorities to address childhood cancer in a developing country. For resource limited countries in similar situations, they could benefit from adopting this approach in healthcare settings.

Rahman MR, Islam T, Gov E, et al.
Identification of Prognostic Biomarker Signatures and Candidate Drugs in Colorectal Cancer: Insights from Systems Biology Analysis.
Medicina (Kaunas). 2019; 55(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world, but early diagnosis ameliorates the survival of CRC. This report aimed to identify molecular biomarker signatures in CRC. We analyzed two microarray datasets (GSE35279 and GSE21815) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) to identify mutual differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We integrated DEGs with protein⁻protein interaction and transcriptional/post-transcriptional regulatory networks to identify reporter signaling and regulatory molecules; utilized functional overrepresentation and pathway enrichment analyses to elucidate their roles in biological processes and molecular pathways; performed survival analyses to evaluate their prognostic performance; and applied drug repositioning analyses through Connectivity Map (CMap) and geneXpharma tools to hypothesize possible drug candidates targeting reporter molecules. A total of 727 upregulated and 99 downregulated DEGs were detected. The PI3K/Akt signaling, Wnt signaling, extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction, and cell cycle were identified as significantly enriched pathways. Ten hub proteins (ADNP, CCND1, CD44, CDK4, CEBPB, CENPA, CENPH, CENPN, MYC, and RFC2), 10 transcription factors (ETS1, ESR1, GATA1, GATA2, GATA3, AR, YBX1, FOXP3, E2F4, and PRDM14) and two microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-193b-3p and miR-615-3p) were detected as reporter molecules. The survival analyses through Kaplan⁻Meier curves indicated remarkable performance of reporter molecules in the estimation of survival probability in CRC patients. In addition, several drug candidates including anti-neoplastic and immunomodulating agents were repositioned. This study presents biomarker signatures at protein and RNA levels with prognostic capability in CRC. We think that the molecular signatures and candidate drugs presented in this study might be useful in future studies indenting the development of accurate diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker screens and efficient therapeutic strategies in CRC.

Choudhury MIM, Shabnam N, Ahsan T, et al.
Cutaneous Malignancy due to Arsenicosis in Bangladesh: 12-Year Study in Tertiary Level Hospital.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:4678362 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bangladesh is grappling with the largest mass poisoning of a population in the world due to contamination of drinking water with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic. It is estimated that 75 million people of 59 (out of 64) districts are at risk of drinking contaminated water with arsenic above 50

Kawai N, Yuasa N
Laboratory prognostic score for predicting 30-day mortality in terminally ill cancer patients.
Nagoya J Med Sci. 2018; 80(4):571-582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Conventional prognostic scores for terminally ill cancer patients may have less objectivity because they include subjective or categorical variables that do not consider intensity or severity. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors for 30-day mortality from routine blood examination of terminally ill cancer patients. A total of 1308 study patients in a hospice setting were divided into investigation (n=761) and validation (n=547) groups. Twenty laboratory blood parameters were analyzed. Multivariate analysis revealed that ten variables (C-reactive protein ≥5.4 mg/dL, serum albumin <2.8 g/dL, blood urea nitrogen ≥21 mg/dL, white blood cell count ≥8.600 × 10

Hoque N, Hasan CM, Rana MS, et al.
Fusaproliferin, a Fungal Mycotoxin, Shows Cytotoxicity against Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines.
Molecules. 2018; 23(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As a part of our ongoing research on endophytic fungi, we have isolated a sesterterpene mycotoxin, fusaproliferin (FUS), from a

Chowdhury D, Rahman A, Rashid MH, et al.
Primary Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of Sphenoid Sinus Involving Cavernus Sinus and Clivus with Isolated 3rd Nerve Palsy.
Mymensingh Med J. 2018; 27(4):888-893 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphomas are group of malignant neoplasm having origins from lymphoreticular cells. B cell Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (BNHL) of sphenoid sinus as primary site for lymphomas are very rare and whenever involves comes usually with ocular manifestations. The proximity of the lesion to optic nerve and cavernous sinus present a high risk of developing unilateral ophthalmoplegia or even blindness. The vast majority of cases of localized sphenoid sinus lymphomas are usually curable to surgery, chemotherapy alone or combination of both, sometimes radiotherapy. Here we report a case of 58 years old male attended at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) on 9th February 2017 at 9:00 AM having headache and gradually developing ptosis in left eye over 15 days. MRI of brain revealed homogeneously enhancing lesion occupying sphenoid sinus, clivus extending towards left cavernous sinus. Gross total resection of tumor was achieved by endoscopic endonasal approach. Histopathology revealed non-Hodgkin lymphoma and immunohistochemically it was positive for CD 20, CD 45, CD 79 and BCL 2, strongly compatible with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Treatment with R-CHOP regimen following surgery resulted in initiation of improvement of the condition of the patient. Primary B cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (PBNHL) of the sphenoid sinus is a rare entity which can be perplexing and misleading for a surgeon until the histopathological proof is in hand. Early diagnosis with strong suspicion of sphenoid lymphoma in mind during workouts and timely management, close monitoring and follow ups have high potential for cure and longer disease-free survival of the BNHL patients.

Habib MA, Taher MA, Sumi SN, et al.
Extra Skeletal Ewing's Sarcoma Involving Perineum of a Young Male Patient.
Mymensingh Med J. 2018; 27(4):879-882 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's Sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults after osteosarcoma but exceptionally it can arise from extra skeletal sites also. Extra skeletal Ewing's sarcoma is of neuroectodermal origin and usually involves extremities, retroperitoneum and paravertebral regions. No case of extra skeletal Ewing's sarcoma involving perineum is yet reported. A 16 years old male patient admitted to colorectal surgery department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh in July 2015 having swellings in perineum as well as both inguinal regions. The swelling was near to anal verge. FNAC from perineal swelling and inguinal lymph node demonstrate small blue round cell tumor. After operation the tumor size was 5cm×4cm, cell type was malignant round cell arranged in sheet and perivascular forming rosette. Extra skeletal Ewing's sarcoma can be a differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumor arising in perineum.

Reza-Ul-Haq KM, Hanif MA, Tabassum R, et al.
Comparative Study between Conventional Method and Endonasal Endoscopic Resection of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.
Mymensingh Med J. 2018; 27(4):785-792 [PubMed] Related Publications
Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA) is an uncommon, benign and extremely vascular tumour which accounts for 0.05-0.5% of all head and neck tumours. Now a day, endoscopic excision is a preferred surgery for early cases. This study was done with the aim to compare the outcomes and complications between endoscopic and conventional surgery of JNA. This cross sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Otolaryngology & Head-Neck Surgery at Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka from 8 March 2014 to 7 March, 2015. A total number of 20 cases were purposively selected and patient with intracranial extension were excluded from the study. Data was analyzed with SPSS software. Among the 20 patients, maximum 18(90%) were in 2nd decade, age was ranging from 11-33 years, mean 16.17 years. Maximum patients 13(65%) came with nasal obstruction and epistaxis and majority 13(65%) of them were in stage II. Endoscopic excision was done in 12(60%) cases and conventional surgery was done in 7(35%) cases. Mean hospital stay of endoscopic and conventional group was 4.62 vs. 10.23 days. Mean blood loss and mean operative time were 528.12ml vs. 1050ml and 2 hours 17 minutes vs. 3 hours 28 minutes respectively. Per-operative and postoperative complication were more (53.85%) in conventional surgery group. Endoscopic excision of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is more preferable due to less operative time, less hospital stay, less per-operative blood loss and less complications. But in advanced cases conventional surgery and combined surgery is preferred.

Kamrul-Hasan AB, Aalpona FZ, Chanda PK, et al.
Vitamin D Status in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital of Bangladesh.
Mymensingh Med J. 2018; 27(4):730-736 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and found to have multiple impacts on the disease process. Vitamin D status of women with or without PCOS in Bangladesh is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh from January 2018 to April 2018 to address this lacuna. Sixty (60) newly diagnosed PCOS patients and 50 healthy controls aging ≥18 years were investigated for serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level, fasting plasma glucose and fasting lipid profile in addition to their clinical and anthropometric profiles. None of the PCOS and the controls had sufficient 25(OH)D. Twenty five percent (25%) of PCOS patients were insufficient, 68.33% were deficient and 6.67% of were severely deficient of vitamin D; whereas in the control group the frequency was 12%, 50% and 38% respectively. PCOS patients had higher 25(OH)D than controls (17.53±4.6 vs. 13.79±6.1ng/mL, p<0.001). Although PCOS group had higher frequency of metabolic syndrome than control group (40% vs. 20%), 25(OH)D levels were similar in subjects with or without metabolic syndrome in both PCOS (16.82±4.74 vs. 17.99±4.49ng/mL, mean±SD, p=0.098) and control groups (14.06±5.94 vs. 13.73±6.20ng/mL, mean±SD, p=0.339). 25(OH)D level correlated with none of the clinical, anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal parameters in PCOS patients. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Bangladeshi PCOS patients and healthy women of reproductive age.

Hoque DME, Earnest A, Ruseckaite R, et al.
A randomised controlled trial comparing completeness of responses of three methods of collecting patient-reported outcome measures in men diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Qual Life Res. 2019; 28(3):687-694 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to compare completeness, timeliness and cost of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) collection using telephone, email and post in men with prostate cancer.
METHODS: A parallel, three-arm randomised controlled equivalence trial. 1168 patients were randomised to telephone (n = 295), postal (n = 388) and email (n = 385) arms. Participants were asked to provide self-reported responses for 26 items of Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Cost and resource data were collected from a provider perspective.
RESULTS: Equivalence tests showed no difference in completeness in the three arms within a 10% equivalence margin. Men diagnosed in public hospitals were less likely to complete the survey compared to those in private hospitals, OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04-0.89) (p = 0.035). The email survey required significantly less time to complete than telephone and postal methods [median time of 2 min (IQR 1,8) vs. 7 min (IQR 6,9) vs. 10 min (IQR 9,12), respectively (p < 0.001)]. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for email compared to telephone was AUD$1.90, cost-effective if users valued an additional 1% improvement in survey completion greater than AUD$1.90.
CONCLUSION: Email method took less time and cost and should be used as the primary PROMs collection, with telephone if men without email or do not respond to email.

Islam MS, Wang C, Zheng J, et al.
The potential role of tubeimosides in cancer prevention and treatment.
Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 162:109-121 [PubMed] Related Publications
Natural compounds are important sources of anticancer drugs. Rhizoma Bolbostemmatis (Chinese name "Tu Bei Mu") is the dry tuber of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae). It has long been widely used for treating various ailments including cancer in traditional Chinese medicine. Its major pharmacologically active components are the triterpenoid saponins tubeimosides (TBMs) including tubeimoside (TBM) I, II and III. Extensive researches have provided evidences of the anticancer activities of TBMs in different stages of carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo model. TBMs could inhibit cell growth and proliferation, induce cell differentiation, apoptosis, autophagy and, inhibit inflammation, and suppress angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis via various signaling pathways. They are effective in combination therapies, particularly at targeting drug-resistant cancer cells. This mini-review aims to summarize and analyze the current knowledge on the pre-clinical studies of anti-tumor effects, the underlying molecular mechanisms and discuss the prospects of the application of TBMs in cancer prevention and treatment. The potential of TBMs as pertinent candidates could be appropriately developed and designed into an efficacious anticancer drug.

Paz MFCJ, Gomes Júnior AL, de Alencar MVOB, et al.
Effect of Diets, Familial History, and Alternative Therapies on Genomic Instability of Breast Cancer Patients.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2019; 188(1):282-296 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study evaluates a correlation between family history, micronutrients intake, and alternative therapies with genetic instability, before and during breast cancer treatment. For this study, a total of 150 women were selected. Among those, 50 women were breast cancer patients on chemotherapy, while 50 breast cancer patients were on radiotherapy, and 50 were healthy females. All the participants signed the informed consent form and answered the public health questionnaire. Samples of buccal epithelial and peripheral blood cells were collected and analyzed through micronucleus and comet assays. The cells were evaluated for apoptosis and DNA damage. Results showed the association of patients' family history with an increase in toxicogenetic damage before and during cancer therapy. On the other hand, patients with late-onset cancer also presented genetic instability before and during therapy, along with those who did not take sufficient vegetables and alternative therapies. A positive correlation was observed between the genetic instability and alternative therapies, while inverse correlation was recorded with the vegetable consumption. Results clearly explain that the nutritional aspects and alternative therapies influence the genetic instability before and during cancer therapies especially in radiotherapy treated patients. Our data could be used for the monitoring therapies and management of breast cancer patients.

Chakraborty S, Hosen MI, Ahmed M, Shekhar HU
Onco-Multi-OMICS Approach: A New Frontier in Cancer Research.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:9836256 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The acquisition of cancer hallmarks requires molecular alterations at multiple levels including genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. In the past decade, numerous attempts have been made to untangle the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis involving single OMICS approaches such as scanning the genome for cancer-specific mutations and identifying altered epigenetic-landscapes within cancer cells or by exploring the differential expression of mRNA and protein through transcriptomics and proteomics techniques, respectively. While these single-level OMICS approaches have contributed towards the identification of cancer-specific mutations, epigenetic alterations, and molecular subtyping of tumors based on gene/protein-expression, they lack the resolving-power to establish the casual relationship between molecular signatures and the phenotypic manifestation of cancer hallmarks. In contrast, the multi-OMICS approaches involving the interrogation of the cancer cells/tissues in multiple dimensions have the potential to uncover the intricate molecular mechanism underlying different phenotypic manifestations of cancer hallmarks such as metastasis and angiogenesis. Moreover, multi-OMICS approaches can be used to dissect the cellular response to chemo- or immunotherapy as well as discover molecular candidates with diagnostic/prognostic value. In this review, we focused on the applications of different multi-OMICS approaches in the field of cancer research and discussed how these approaches are shaping the field of personalized oncomedicine. We have highlighted pioneering studies from "The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)" consortium encompassing integrated OMICS analysis of over 11,000 tumors from 33 most prevalent forms of cancer. Accumulation of huge cancer-specific multi-OMICS data in repositories like TCGA provides a unique opportunity for the systems biology approach to tackle the complexity of cancer cells through the unification of experimental data and computational/mathematical models. In future, systems biology based approach is likely to predict the phenotypic changes of cancer cells upon chemo-/immunotherapy treatment. This review is sought to encourage investigators to bring these different approaches together for interrogating cancer at molecular, cellular, and systems levels.

Eid EEM, Azam F, Hassan M, et al.
Zerumbone binding to estrogen receptors: an in-silico investigation.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2018; 38(4):342-351 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among females worldwide. Estrogen receptor (ER) mediate important pathophysiological signaling pathways induced by estrogens, and is regarded as a promising target for the treatment of breast cancer. Zerumbone (2,6,9,9-tetramethylcycloundeca-2,6,10-trien-1-one; ZER), a chemical constituent present in the Zingiber zerumbet is known to exhibit anti-breast cancer activity by modulating several proteins to induce apoptosis. Medicinal chemists usually exploit lead compounds of natural origin to develop molecules with improved pharmacological properties. Current study is intended to utilize molecular modeling techniques to investigate the interaction of ZER with estrogen receptors. AutoDock was used to predict the binding modes of ZER and target receptors. Stability of the ZER-ER complex was verified by molecular dynamics simulation using Desmond software. Docked ZER was further optimized by density functional theory (DFT) using Gaussian09 program. Analysis of docked conformations in terms of binding energy disclosed estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) as more promising than estrogen receptor-α (ERα). Evaluation of MD trajectories of ZER bound to both ERα and ERβ showed appreciable stability with minimum Cα-atom root mean square deviation shifts. DFT based global reactivity descriptors such as electron affinity, hardness, chemical potential, electronegativity and electrophilicity index, calculated from the energies of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals underscored the electronic features governing viability of the ZER for interaction with the target receptors. In conclusion, these findings can be exploited to design and develop novel anticancer agents based on the lead compound, ZER.

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