Panitumumab (Vectibix)
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Latest Research Publications

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Latest Research Publications

Graham CN, Hechmati G, Hjelmgren J, et al.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 compared with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 for first-line treatment of patients with wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(16):2791-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin) compared with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 in first-line treatment of patients with wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
DESIGN: A semi-Markov model was constructed from a French health collective perspective, with health states related to first-line treatment (progression-free), disease progression with and without subsequent active treatment, resection of metastases, disease-free after successful resection and death.
METHODS: Parametric survival analyses of patient-level progression-free and overall survival data from the only head-to-head clinical trial of panitumumab and bevacizumab (PEAK) were performed to estimate transitions to disease progression and death. Additional data from PEAK informed the amount of each drug consumed, duration of therapy, subsequent therapy use, and toxicities related to mCRC treatment. Literature and French public data sources were used to estimate unit costs associated with treatment and duration of subsequent active therapies. Utility weights were calculated from patient-level data from panitumumab trials in the first-, second- and third-line settings. A life-time perspective was applied. Scenario, one-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Based on a head-to-head clinical trial that demonstrates better efficacy outcomes for patients with wild-type RAS mCRC who receive panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 versus bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6, the incremental cost per life-year gained was estimated to be €26,918, and the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was estimated to be €36,577. Sensitivity analyses indicate the model is robust to alternative parameters and assumptions.
CONCLUSIONS: The incremental cost per QALY gained indicates that panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 represents good value for money in comparison to bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 and, with a willingness-to-pay ranging from €40,000 to €60,000, can be considered cost-effective in first-line treatment of patients with wild-type RAS mCRC.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Fluorouracil Leucovorin Panitumumab (Vectibix) Bevacizumab (Avastin)

Kordes S, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Hulshof MC, et al.
Preoperative chemoradiation therapy in combination with panitumumab for patients with resectable esophageal cancer: the PACT study.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014; 90(1):190-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) has become the standard treatment strategy for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. This multicenter phase 2 study investigated the efficacy of the addition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor panitumumab to a preoperative CRT regimen with carboplatin, paclitaxel, and radiation therapy in patients with resectable esophageal cancer.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with resectable cT1N1M0 or cT2-3N0 to -2M0 tumors received preoperative CRT consisting of panitumumab (6 mg/kg) on days 1, 15, and 29, weekly administrations of carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC] = 2), and paclitaxel (50 mg/m(2)) for 5 weeks and concurrent radiation therapy (41.4 Gy in 23 fractions, 5 days per week), followed by surgery. Primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. We aimed at a pCR rate of more than 40%. Furthermore, we explored the predictive value of biomarkers (EGFR, HER 2, and P53) for pCR.
RESULTS: From January 2010 until December 2011, 90 patients were enrolled. Patients were diagnosed predominantly with adenocarcinoma (AC) (80%), T3 disease (89%), and were node positive (81%). Three patients were not resected due to progressive disease. The primary aim was unmet, with a pCR rate of 22%. Patients with AC and squamous cell carcinoma reached a pCR of 14% and 47%, respectively. R0 resection was achieved in 95% of the patients. Main grade 3 toxicities were rash (12%), fatigue (11%), and nonfebrile neutropenia (11%). None of the biomarkers was predictive for response.
CONCLUSIONS: The addition of panitumumab to CRT with carboplatin and paclitaxel was safe and well tolerated but could not improve pCR rate to the preset criterion of 40%.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Carboplatin Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Paclitaxel Panitumumab (Vectibix)

Bergman H, Walton T, Del Bel R, et al.
Managing skin toxicities related to panitumumab.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014; 71(4):754-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dermatologic toxicities from targeted agents such as panitumumab can interfere with cancer treatment.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the rash assessment and management in a consecutive patient cohort who received panitumumab for colorectal cancer treatment.
METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review.
RESULTS: Skin toxicity, consisting of papulopustular rash, was experienced by 32 of 34 patients. The majority (85%) developed the rash by the end of the second infusion cycle. Patients presented with a mild (41%), moderate (38%), and severe (21%) rash, and progressed to an extensive rash without appropriate treatment. A grading system was used for 65% of patients to document severity.
LIMITATIONS: Small sample size limited power in analysis. Rash severity had to be inferred based on rash description and management in 11 of the patients.
CONCLUSION: Dermatologic toxicities related to panitumumab are common; however, the way they are reported and managed varies among physicians. To prevent progression, toxicities must be assessed and treated early and aggressively, according to severity grading. Dermatologists could aid oncologists in choosing the best management strategies.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Panitumumab (Vectibix)

Tang NP, Li H, Qiu YL, et al.
Risk/benefit profile of panitumumab-based therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: evidence from five randomized controlled trials.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):10409-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to evaluate the risk and benefit profiles of panitumumab-based therapy (PBT) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Relevant randomized controlled trials were identified by searching PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Data on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), all grade and severe (grade ≥3) adverse events were extracted and pooled to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and risk ratios (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Number needed to treat (NNT) for PFS and number needed to harm (NNH) for significantly changed toxicities were calculated. A total of 4,155 patients were included in the analysis. PBT significantly improved PFS (HRrandom = 0.66, 95 % CI = 0.45-0.95) but not OS (HRfixed = 0.93, 95 % CI = 0.83-1.04) when used in the subsequent-line setting. The effect on PFS was more evident in patients with wild-type KRAS (HRrandom = 0.64, 95 % CI = 0.47-0.87) and the NNT for PFS is 11 to 23at 1 year. PBT did not benefit patients when used in the first-line setting. In addition, PBT significantly increased the risk of skin toxicity, infections, diarrhea, dehydration, mucositis, hypokalemia, fatigue, hypomagnesemia, pulmonary embolism and paronychia. The NNHs for skin toxicity, diarrhea, infection, hypokalemia and mucositis are less than 23. In conclusion, when used in the subsequent-line setting, PBT can improve the disease progression, especially in mCRC patients with wild-type KRAS. Regarding the adverse events associated with the PBT, close monitoring and necessary preparations are recommended during the therapy.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Panitumumab (Vectibix)

Hezel AF, Noel MS, Allen JN, et al.
Phase II study of gemcitabine, oxaliplatin in combination with panitumumab in KRAS wild-type unresectable or metastatic biliary tract and gallbladder cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(3):430-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current data suggest that platinum-based combination therapy is the standard first-line treatment for biliary tract cancer. EGFR inhibition has proven beneficial across a number of gastrointestinal malignancies; and has shown specific advantages among KRAS wild-type genetic subtypes of colon cancer. We report the combination of panitumumab with gemcitabine (GEM) and oxaliplatin (OX) as first-line therapy for KRAS wild-type biliary tract cancer.
METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed, previously untreated, unresectable or metastatic KRAS wild-type biliary tract or gallbladder adenocarcinoma with ECOG performance status 0-2 were treated with panitumumab 6 mg kg(-1), GEM 1000 mg m(-2) (10 mg m(-2) min(-1)) and OX 85 mg m(-2) on days 1 and 15 of each 28-day cycle. The primary objective was to determine the objective response rate by RECIST criteria v.1.1. Secondary objectives were to evaluate toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival.
RESULTS: Thirty-one patients received at least one cycle of treatment across three institutions, 28 had measurable disease. Response rate was 45% and disease control rate was 90%. Median PFS was 10.6 months (95% CI 5-24 months) and median overall survival 20.3 months (95% CI 9-25 months). The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were anaemia 26%, leukopenia 23%, fatigue 23%, neuropathy 16% and rash 10%.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of gemcitabine, oxaliplatin and panitumumab in KRAS wild type metastatic biliary tract cancer showed encouraging efficacy, additional efforts of genetic stratification and targeted therapy is warranted in biliary tract cancer.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Gallbladder Cancer KRAS gene Panitumumab (Vectibix) Oxaliplatin Gemcitabine

Cheng L, Ren W, Xie L, et al.
Anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer: limitations, controversies, and contradictories.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 74(1):1-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anti-epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) treatment for chemotherapy refractory or metastatic colorectal cancer has obtained great achievement. However, not every colorectal patient responds to such molecular-targeted agent well. Biomarkers associated with anti-EGFR resistance are not limited to KRAS mutation up to now. It was recently reported that cross-talking molecular effectors interacted with EGFR-related pathway were also negative predictor for anti-EGFR treatment. However, the limited data, controversial results, and contradictories between in vitro and clinical studies restrict the clinical application of these new biomarkers. Although the current theory of tumor microenvironment supported the application of multi-target treatment, the results from the clinical studies were less than expected. Moreover, WHO or RECIST guideline for response assessment in anti-EGFR MoAb treatment was also queried by recent AIO KRK-0306 trial. This review focuses on these controversies, contradictories, and limitations, in order to uncover the unmet needs in current status of anti-EGFR MoAb treatment in colorectal cancer.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Panitumumab (Vectibix) EGFR Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Nakajima T, Sato K, Hanaoka H, et al.
The effects of conjugate and light dose on photo-immunotherapy induced cytotoxicity.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:389 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a highly cell-selective cancer therapy, which employs monoclonal antibodies conjugated to a potent photosensitizer (mAb-IR700). Once the conjugate has bound to the target cell, exposure to near infrared (NIR) light induces necrosis only in targeted cells with minimal damage to adjacent normal cells in vivo. Herein, we report on the effect of altering mAb-IR700 and light power and dose on effectiveness of PIT.
METHODS: For evaluating cytotoxicity, we employed ATP-dependent bioluminescence imaging using a luciferase-transfected MDA-MB-468luc cell line, which expresses EGFR and luciferase. In in vitro experiments, panitumumab-IR700 (Pan-IR700) concentration was varied in combination with varying NIR light doses administered by an LED at one of three power settings, 100 mA and 400 mA continuous wave and 1733 mA intermittent wave. For in vivo experiments, the MDA-MB-468luc orthotopic breast cancer was treated with varying doses of Pan-IR700 and light.
RESULTS: The in vitro cell study demonstrated that PIT induced cytotoxicity depended on light dose, when the conjugate concentration was kept constant. Increasing the dose of Pan-IR700 allowed lowering of the light dose to achieve equal effects thus indicating that for a given level of efficacy, the conjugate concentration multiplied by the light dose was a constant. A similar relationship between conjugate and light dose was observed in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of PIT is defined by the product of the number of bound antibody conjugates and the dose of NIR light and can be achieve equally with continuous and pulse wave LED light using different power densities.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Breast Cancer Panitumumab (Vectibix)

Tahara M, Onozawa Y, Fujii H, et al.
Feasibility of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil and panitumumab in Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014; 44(7):661-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, cisplatin/5-fluorouracil 80/800 (cisplatin 80 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil 800 mg/m2) is widely used to treat recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, whereas cisplatin/5-fluorouracil 100/1000 (1000 mg/m2/24 h by continuous intravenous infusion on Days 1-4 plus cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on Day 1 in 3-week cycles) is the standard treatment in Europe and North America.
METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the feasibility of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil 100/1000 in Japanese patients enrolled in the global Phase 3 study of panitumumab 9 mg/kg combined with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil 100/1000 (Arm 1) versus cisplatin/5-fluorouracil 100/1000 alone (Arm 2).
RESULTS: Twenty Japanese patients were enrolled and received treatment (Arm 1, n=13; Arm 2, n=7). Grade 3/4 adverse events included neutropenia, hypomagnesemia, stomatitis, hyponatremia, paronychia, febrile neutropenia, decreased appetite and hypokalemia. There were no fatal adverse events. Median overall survival was not estimable in Arm 1 and 15.4 months in Arm 2. Median progression-free survival was 6.9 months in Arm 1 and 5.7 months in Arm 2. The median number of infusions (cycles) of cisplatin was 5 in Arm 1 and 4 in Arm 2; the median number of infusions (cycles) of 5-fluorouracil was 6 in both arms. The mean administered dose for cisplatin was 93.6 mg/m2 in Arm 1 and 97.2 mg/m2 in Arm 2, and 3732.6 and 3880 mg/m2 in Arm 1 and Arm 2, respectively, for 5-fluorouracil.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that cisplatin/5-fluorouracil 100/1000 was feasible for recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in Japanese patients.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Cisplatin Fluorouracil Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology Panitumumab (Vectibix)

Takahashi N, Yamada Y, Taniguchi H, et al.
Combined assessment of epidermal [corrected] growth factor receptor dual color in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry with downstream gene mutations in prediction of response to the anti-EGFR therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Arch Med Res. 2014; 45(5):366-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Biomarkers associated with anti-EGFR antibodies therapy have been investigated in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted this study to evaluate the clinical utility of a combined assessment of EGFR status and genomic mutations of the EGFR downstream signal pathway in predicting the efficacy of anti-EGFR antibody treatment.
METHODS: We collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and evaluated the EGFR status by immunohistochemistry (IHC), dual color in situ hybridization (DISH) and genomic analyses of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and NRAS by direct sequencing.
RESULTS: A total of 129 patients were evaluated in our study. Among KRAS wild-type patients, EGFR DISH positivity was associated with a higher response rate than DISH negativity (56.3 vs. 21.1%, p = 0.011). A subgroup with EGFR DISH positivity plus IHC3+ and wild-type of EGFR downstream gene mutations achieved higher response rate and disease control rate. EGFR DISH positivity, KRAS codon 146 mutation and NRAS codon 61 mutation were prognostic factors in both progression-free survival and overall survival by multivariate analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Combined assessment of DISH plus IHC and EGFR downstream gene mutations was useful to predict the response to anti-EGFR antibodies treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer patients in our study.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer BRAF gene KRAS gene Panitumumab (Vectibix) Irinotecan NRAS Cetuximab (Erbitux)

McRee AJ, Davies JM, Sanoff HG, et al.
A phase I trial of everolimus in combination with 5-FU/LV, mFOLFOX6 and mFOLFOX6 plus panitumumab in patients with refractory solid tumors.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 74(1):117-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This phase I study investigated the safety, dose-limiting toxicity, and efficacy in three cohorts all treated with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus that was delivered (1) in combination with 5-fluorouracil with leucovorin (5-FU/LV), (2) with mFOLFOX6 (5-FU/LV + oxaliplatin), and (3) with mFOLFOX6 + panitumumab in patients with refractory solid tumors.
METHODS: Patients were accrued using a 3-patient cohort design consisting of two sub-trials in which the maximum tolerated combination (MTC) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of everolimus and 5-FU/LV was established in Sub-trial A and of everolimus in combination with mFOLFOX6 and mFOLFOX6 plus panitumumab in Sub-trial B.
RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were evaluable for toxicity, 21 on Sub-trial A and 15 on Sub-trial B. In Sub-trial A, DLT was observed in 1/6 patients enrolled on dose level 1A and 2/3 patients in level 6A. In Sub-trial B, 2/3 patients experienced DLT on level 1B and subsequent patients were enrolled on level 1B-1 without DLT. Three of six patients in cohort 2B-1 experienced grade 3 mucositis, and further study of the combination of everolimus, mFOLFOX6 and panitumumab was aborted. Among the 24 patients enrolled with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer, the median time on treatment was 2.7 months with 45 % of patients remaining on treatment with stable disease for at least 3 months.
CONCLUSIONS: While a regimen of everolimus in addition to 5-FU/LV and mFOLFOX6 appears safe and tolerable, the further addition of panitumumab resulted in an unacceptable level of toxicity that cannot be recommended for further study. Further investigation is warranted to better elucidate the role which mTOR inhibitors play in patients with refractory solid tumors, with a specific focus on mCRC as a potential for the combination of this targeted and cytotoxic therapy in future studies.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Fluorouracil Leucovorin Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Panitumumab (Vectibix) Oxaliplatin Everolimus (Afinitor)

Stremitzer S, Sebio A, Stintzing S, Lenz HJ
Panitumumab safety for treating colorectal cancer.
Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014; 13(6):843-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Panitumumab is a human IgG2 mAb against the EGFR, inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, survival and angiogenesis. It has demonstrated clinical efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) in combination with chemotherapy in first- and second-line settings and as monotherapy in third-line setting. Recently, mutations in the RAS genes have been shown to be predictive of lack of efficacy, panitumumab should be restricted to patients with RAS wild-type (wt) tumors.
AREAS COVERED: This review focuses on main efficacy results of panitumumab in metastatic CRC in first-, second- and third-line settings in combination with chemotherapy or as monotherapy. Additionally, we have covered safety aspects of this agent in these indications, especially in K-RAS and all RAS wt patients. These safety aspects refer to the most common toxicities (i.e., acne-like skin rash, diarrhea and hypomagnesaemia).
EXPERT OPINION: Panitumumab adds to the armamentarium of effective agents in the treatment of metastatic CRC. Due to its human origin, panitumumab is a well-tolerated agent with low rates of infusional reactions. Skin toxicity is frequent and should be pre-emptively treated. Other common toxicities related to panitumumab treatment, such as diarrhea and hypomagnesaemia, should be closely monitored to ensure early treatment or substitution.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Panitumumab (Vectibix)

Price TJ, Peeters M, Kim TW, et al.
Panitumumab versus cetuximab in patients with chemotherapy-refractory wild-type KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer (ASPECCT): a randomised, multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority phase 3 study.
Lancet Oncol. 2014; 15(6):569-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies panitumumab and cetuximab are effective in patients with chemotherapy-refractory wild-type KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer. We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of panitumumab versus cetuximab in these patients.
METHODS: For this randomised, open-label, phase 3 head-to-head study, we enrolled patients (from centres in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia) aged 18 years or older with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or less, and wild-type KRAS exon 2 status. Using a computer-generated randomisation sequence, we assigned patients (1:1; stratified by geographical region and ECOG performance status, with a permuted block method) to receive panitumumab (6 mg/kg once every 2 weeks) or cetuximab (initial dose 400 mg/m(2); 250 mg/m(2) once a week thereafter). The primary endpoint was overall survival assessed for non-inferiority (retention of ≥ 50% of the cetuximab treatment effect; historical hazard ratio [HR] for cetuximab plus best supportive care vs best supportive care alone of 0.55). The primary analysis included patients who received one or more dose of panitumumab or cetuximab, analysed per allocated treatment. Recruitment for this trial is closed. The trial is registered with, number NCT01001377.
FINDINGS: Between Feb 2, 2010, and July 19, 2012, we enrolled and randomly allocated 1010 patients, 999 of whom began study treatment: 499 received panitumumab and 500 received cetuximab. For the primary analysis of overall survival, panitumumab was non-inferior to cetuximab (Z score -3.19; p=0.0007). Median overall survival was 10.4 months (95% CI 9.4-11.6) with panitumumab and 10.0 months (9.3-11.0) with cetuximab (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.84-1.11). Panitumumab retained 105.7% (81.9-129.5) of the effect of cetuximab on overall survival seen in this study. The incidence of adverse events of any grade and grade 3-4 was similar across treatment groups. Grade 3-4 skin toxicity occurred in 62 (13%) patients given panitumumab and 48 (10%) patients given cetuximab. The occurrence of grade 3-4 infusion reactions was lower with panitumumab than with cetuximab (one [<0.5%] patient vs nine [2%] patients), and the occurrence of grade 3-4 hypomagnesaemia was higher in the panitumumab group (35 [7%] vs 13 [3%]). We recorded one treatment-related fatal adverse event: a lung infection in a patient given cetuximab.
INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that panitumumab is non-inferior to cetuximab and that these agents provide similar overall survival benefit in this population of patients. Both agents had toxicity profiles that were to be expected. In view of the consistency in efficacy and toxicity seen, small but meaningful differences in the rate of grade 3-4 infusion reactions and differences in dose scheduling can guide physician choice of anti-EGFR treatment.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer KRAS gene Panitumumab (Vectibix) Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Schwartzberg LS, Rivera F, Karthaus M, et al.
PEAK: a randomized, multicenter phase II study of panitumumab plus modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) or bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 in patients with previously untreated, unresectable, wild-type KRAS exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(21):2240-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate panitumumab plus modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) or bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 in patients with previously untreated wild-type (WT) KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A prespecified secondary objective was to assess treatment effects in an extended RAS analysis that included exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS and NRAS.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with WT KRAS exon 2 tumors were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 or bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and safety.
RESULTS: Of 285 randomly assigned patients, 278 received treatment. In the WT KRAS exon 2 intent-to-treat group, PFS was similar between arms (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.17; P = .353). Median OS was 34.2 and 24.3 months in the panitumumab and bevacizumab arms, respectively (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.89; P = .009). In the WT RAS subgroup (WT exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS and NRAS), PFS favored the panitumumab arm (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.96; P = .029). Median OS was 41.3 and 28.9 months (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.02; P = .058) in the panitumumab and bevacizumab arms, respectively. Treatment discontinuation rates because of adverse events were similar between arms.
CONCLUSION: PFS was similar and OS was improved with panitumumab relative to bevacizumab when combined with mFOLFOX6 in patients with WT KRAS exon 2 tumors. Patients with WT RAS tumors seemed to experience more clinical benefit with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Fluorouracil Leucovorin KRAS gene Panitumumab (Vectibix) Bevacizumab (Avastin)

Mohan S, Heitzer E, Ulz P, et al.
Changes in colorectal carcinoma genomes under anti-EGFR therapy identified by whole-genome plasma DNA sequencing.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(3):e1004271 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
Monoclonal antibodies targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), such as cetuximab and panitumumab, have evolved to important therapeutic options in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, almost all patients with clinical response to anti-EGFR therapies show disease progression within a few months and little is known about mechanism and timing of resistance evolution. Here we analyzed plasma DNA from ten patients treated with anti-EGFR therapy by whole genome sequencing (plasma-Seq) and ultra-sensitive deep sequencing of genes associated with resistance to anti-EGFR treatment such as KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and EGFR. Surprisingly, we observed that the development of resistance to anti-EGFR therapies was associated with acquired gains of KRAS in four patients (40%), which occurred either as novel focal amplifications (n = 3) or as high level polysomy of 12p (n = 1). In addition, we observed focal amplifications of other genes recently shown to be involved in acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapies, such as MET (n = 2) and ERBB2 (n = 1). Overrepresentation of the EGFR gene was associated with a good initial anti-EGFR efficacy. Overall, we identified predictive biomarkers associated with anti-EGFR efficacy in seven patients (70%), which correlated well with treatment response. In contrast, ultra-sensitive deep sequencing of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and EGFR did not reveal the occurrence of novel, acquired mutations. Thus, plasma-Seq enables the identification of novel mutant clones and may therefore facilitate early adjustments of therapies that may delay or prevent disease progression.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer MET gene Panitumumab (Vectibix) EGFR Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Sonoda H, Shimizu T, Mekata E, et al.
A complete response to mFOLFOX6 and panitumumab chemotherapy in advanced stage rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report.
World J Surg Oncol. 2014; 12:63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pathological complete remission of advanced stage rectal adenocarcinoma by chemotherapy alone is rare. A case of advanced stage, low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma in which a complete response to treatment was obtained with mFOLFOX6 and panitumumab (Pmab) is reported.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old man was referred to Shiga University of Medical Science hospital Shiga, Japan, complaining of bloody stool. Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed, and advanced stage rectal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Computed tomography (CT) revealed regional lymph node metastases in the mesorectum. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with mFOLFOX6 and Pmab was planned.Endoscopy following four courses of chemotherapy revealed that the rectal cancer had been markedly reduced, and the results of biopsies of the rectal tumor were negative for cancer. On CT, the mesorectal lymph node metastases had disappeared. Total intersphincteric resection (ISR) with a handsewn coloanal anastomosis was performed. Histological examination showed a complete response to mFOLFOX6 and Pmab in advanced stage rectal cancer.
CONCLUSION: The result seen in this case suggests that short-term NAC with mFOLFOX6 and Pmab was effective for low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Fluorouracil Leucovorin Panitumumab (Vectibix)

Sebio A, Stintzing S, Stremitzer S, et al.
Panitumumab : leading to better overall survival in metastatic colorectal cancer?
Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2014; 14(4):535-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Survival of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients has improved greatly over the past few years, essentially due to the appearance of new biological therapies. Among these new therapies, monoclonal antibodies targeting the EGFR are the leading contributors to the so-called personalized medicine. Biomarkers within the EGFR pathway, such as K-Ras mutation, have proved to help better select the patients benefiting from these treatments.
AREAS COVERED: Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the EGFR and is currently approved in combination with chemotherapy or in monotherapy for the treatment of mCRC patients. Following a description of the pharmacological and tolerability data, this review focuses on the clinical activity of panitumumab through the description of clinical trials and biomarker research.
EXPERT OPINION: Recent biomarker research with expanded Ras testing has led to an improvement in overall survival for all Ras wild-type patients treated with panitumumab. Furthermore, the thorough evaluation of markers within the EGFR pathway could potentially prevent detrimental effects for patients treated with panitumumab and avoid unnecessary toxicity and costs.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Panitumumab (Vectibix)

Stein A, Bokemeyer C
How to select the optimal treatment for first line metastatic colorectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(4):899-907 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
Choice of first line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is based on tumour and patient related factors and molecular information for determination of individual treatment aim and thus treatment intensity. Recent advances (e.g., extended RAS testing) enable tailored patient assignment to the most beneficial treatment approach. Besides fluoropyrimidines, irinotecan and oxaliplatin, a broad variety of molecular targeting agents are currently available, e.g., anti-angiogenic agents (bevacizumab) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies (cetuximab, panitumumab) for first line treatment of mCRC. Although some combinations should be avoided (e.g., oral or bolus fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin and EGFR antibodies), treatment options range from single agent to highly effective four-drug regimen. Preliminary data comparing EGFR antibodies and bevacizumab, both with chemotherapy, seem to favour EGFR antibodies in RAS wildtype disease. However, choosing the most appropriate treatment approach for mCRC patients remains a complex issue, with numerous open questions.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Signal Transduction

Chamberlain C, Collin SM, Stephens P, et al.
Does the cancer drugs fund lead to faster uptake of cost-effective drugs? A time-trend analysis comparing England and Wales.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(9):1693-702 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) provides £200 million annually in England for 'anti-cancer' drugs.
METHODS: We used a controlled pre-/post-intervention design to compare IMS Health dispensing data for 15 cancer drugs (2007-2012) in England vs Wales, stratified by pre-CDF NICE drug approval status (rejected, mixed recommendations, recommended, not appraised).
RESULTS: The CDF was associated with increased prescribing in England for three of five drugs rejected or with mixed NICE recommendations. The prescribing volume ratios (PVR) ranged from 1.29 (95% CI 1.00, 1.67) for sorafenib to 3.28 (2.59, 4.14) for bevacizumab (NICE rejected) and 0.93 (0.81, 1.06) and 1.35 (1.21, 1.49) for sunitinib and imatinib respectively (mixed recommendations). Post CDF prescribing in England increased for both drugs awaiting NICE appraisal pre-CDF (lapatinib PVR=7.44 (5.81, 9.54), panitumumab PVR=5.40 (1.20, 24.42)) and subsequently rejected. The CDF was not associated with increased prescribing in England of NICE-recommended drugs. The three most recently launched, subsequently recommended drugs were adopted faster in Wales (from pazopanib PVR=0.51 (0.28, 0.96) to abiraterone PVR=0.78 (0.61-0.99)).
INTERPRETATION: These data indicate that the CDF is used to access drugs deemed not cost-effective by NICE. The CDF did not expedite access to new cost-effective cancer agents prior to NICE approval.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Lockhart AC, Reed CE, Decker PA, et al.
Phase II study of neoadjuvant therapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, panitumumab, and radiation therapy followed by surgery in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus (ACOSOG Z4051).
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(5):1039-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves outcomes in patients with locally advanced but resectable adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. ACOSOG Z4051 evaluated CRT with docetaxel, cisplatin, and panitumumab (DCP) in this patient group with a primary end point of a pathologic complete response (pCR) ≥35%.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 15 January 2009 to 22 July 2011, 70 patients with locally advanced but resectable distal esophageal adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Patients received docetaxel (40 mg/m(2)), cisplatin (40 mg/m(2)), and panitumumab (6 mg/kg) on weeks 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 with RT (5040 cGy, 180 cGy/day × 28 days) beginning week 5. Resection was planned after completing CRT. PCR was defined as no viable residual tumor cells. Secondary objectives included near-pCR (≤10% viable cancer cells), toxicity, and overall and disease-free survival. Adverse events were graded using the CTCAE Version 3.0.
RESULTS: Five of 70 patients were ineligible. Of 65 eligible patients (59 M; median age 61), 11 did not undergo surgery, leaving 54 assessable. PCR rate was 33.3% and near-pCR was 20.4%. Secenty-three percent of patients completed DCP (n = 70) and 92% completed RT. 48.5% had toxicity ≥grade 4. Lymphopenia (43%) was most common. Operative mortality was 3.7%. Adult respiratory distress syndrome was encountered in two patients (3.7%). At median follow-up of 26.3 months, median overall survival was 19.4 months and 3-year overall survival was 38.6% (95% confidence interval 24.5% to 60.8%).
CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant CRT with DCP is active (pCR + near-pCR = 53.7%) but toxicity is significant. Further evaluation of this regimen in an unselected population is not recommended.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Cisplatin Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Panitumumab (Vectibix) Docetaxel

Misale S, Arena S, Lamba S, et al.
Blockade of EGFR and MEK intercepts heterogeneous mechanisms of acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapies in colorectal cancer.
Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6(224):224ra26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancers (CRCs) that are sensitive to the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies cetuximab or panitumumab almost always develop resistance within several months of initiating therapy. We report the emergence of polyclonal KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in CRC cells with acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. Regardless of the genetic alterations, resistant cells consistently displayed mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, which persisted after EGFR blockade. Inhibition of MEK1/2 alone failed to impair the growth of resistant cells in vitro and in vivo. An RNA interference screen demonstrated that suppression of EGFR, together with silencing of MEK1/2, was required to hamper the proliferation of resistant cells. Indeed, concomitant pharmacological blockade of MEK and EGFR induced prolonged ERK inhibition and severely impaired the growth of resistant tumor cells. Heterogeneous and concomitant mutations in KRAS and NRAS were also detected in plasma samples from patients who developed resistance to anti-EGFR antibodies. A mouse xenotransplant from a CRC patient who responded and subsequently relapsed upon EGFR therapy showed exquisite sensitivity to combinatorial treatment with MEK and EGFR inhibitors. Collectively, these results identify genetically distinct mechanisms that mediate secondary resistance to anti-EGFR therapies, all of which reactivate ERK signaling. These observations provide a rational strategy to overcome the multifaceted clonal heterogeneity that emerges when tumors are treated with targeted agents. We propose that MEK inhibitors, in combination with cetuximab or panitumumab, should be tested in CRC patients who become refractory to anti-EGFR therapies.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Signal Transduction

Bekaii-Saab T, Wu C
Seeing the forest through the trees: a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of combination chemotherapies used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2014; 91(1):9-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Combinations of fluoropyrimidines with oxaliplatin or irinotecan plus a biologic agent are standard treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Recent approvals of first-line cetuximab, second-line ziv-aflibercept, and regorafenib as salvage therapy have increased the complexity of the treatment armamentarium. To define optimal regimens, we systematically reviewed combination chemotherapy trials (N=83). Descriptive analyses focusing on fluoropyrimidine formulation, oxaliplatin vs irinotecan combinations, and compatibility with biologics indicated the following: infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) yielded better efficacy and safety than bolus 5-FU. Capecitabine had similar outcomes and better safety than 5-FU with oxaliplatin but not irinotecan. First-line oxaliplatin and irinotecan appeared equivalent. Antiangiogenics, such as bevacizumab and ziv-aflibercept, and epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab further improved efficacy. The treatment landscape for mCRC has become complex, and we are approaching individualized therapy based on predictive factors, including KRAS mutational status. Appropriate administration of chemotherapy/biologic combinations is critical.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Herreros-Villanueva M, Chen CC, Yuan SS, et al.
KRAS mutations: analytical considerations.
Clin Chim Acta. 2014; 431:211-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death globally. Significant improvements in survival have been made in patients with metastasis by new therapies. For example, Cetuximab and Panitumumab are monoclonal antibodies that inhibit the epidermal growth receptor (EGFR). KRAS mutations in codon 12 and 13 are the recognized biomarkers that are analyzed in clinics before the administration of anti-EGFR therapy. Genetic analyses have revealed that mutations in KRAS predict a lack of response to Panitumumab and Cetuximab in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). Notably, it is estimated that 35-45% of CRC patients harbor KRAS mutations. Therefore, KRAS mutation testing should be performed in all individuals with the advanced CRC in order to identify the patients who will not respond to the monoclonal EGFR antibody inhibitors. New techniques for KRAS testing have arisen rapidly, and each technique has advantages and disadvantages. Herein, we review the latest published literature specific to KRAS mutation testing techniques. Since reliability and feasibility are important issues in clinical analyses. Therefore, this review also summarizes the effectiveness and limitations of numerous KRAS mutation testing techniques.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer KRAS gene

Boku N, Sugihara K, Kitagawa Y, et al.
Panitumumab in Japanese patients with unresectable colorectal cancer: a post-marketing surveillance study of 3085 patients.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014; 44(3):214-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Panitumumab was approved in Japan in April 2010 for the treatment of Kirsten rat sarcoma-2 virus oncogene wild-type unresectable and recurrent colorectal cancer. We conducted a post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of panitumumab.
METHODS: After panitumumab was commercially available in Japan, all patients to be treated with panitumumab were enrolled. Data on baseline characteristics, treatment outcome, and incidence and severity of adverse drug reactions were collected.
RESULTS: In total, 3091 patients were registered. In the safety analysis set (n = 3085), panitumumab was administered as monotherapy (40.7%) or combination therapy (59.4%). The median treatment duration was 113 days (range: 1-559 days), and 451 (14.6%) patients received panitumumab for ≥10 months. The overall incidence rate of adverse drug reactions was 84.1%, and the most common adverse drug reaction was skin disorders (78.4%). The incidence rates (all grades) of interstitial lung disease, infusion reaction, electrolyte abnormalities and cardiac disorders were 1.3% (mortality rate: 0.6%), 1.5, 19.3 and 0.2%, respectively. The median survival time of patients treated with panitumumab monotherapy as the third-line, or later, therapy was 10.3 months.
CONCLUSION: This post-marketing survey in clinical practice confirmed the safety and effectiveness of panitumumab. The benefit/risk balance for panitumumab in Japanese patients with unresectable colorectal cancer remains favorable.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Panitumumab (Vectibix) Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Matsuhashi N, Takahashi T, Nonaka K, et al.
A case report on efficacy of Abound™ for anti-EGFR antibody-associated skin disorder in metastatic colon cancer.
World J Surg Oncol. 2014; 12:35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/07/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Panitumumab is a full human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody, an agent for metastatic colorectal cancer therapy. One of the most general adverse events of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy is skin disorder. At the present time, although prophylaxis of skin disorder is important for continuation of cancer therapy, there are no effective precautionary treatments.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old male with sigmoid colon cancer and synchronous lung metastasis was treated with panitumumab, an alone anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody as the third-line therapy.During the nine courses of the therapy, the response was stable disease (SD), but skin disorder gradually appeared obviously (CTCAE version 4.0: Grade 2). After 1 month of administration of Abound™, symptoms of the skin disorder improved (CTCAE version 4.0: Grade 1), thus the antibody therapy could be continued.
CONCLUSION: We report that Abound™ was apparently effective in the treatment for anti-EGFR antibody-associated skin disorder. In the future, Abound™ could be expected as an agent for skin disorder as one of the side effects of colorectal cancer therapy.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Panitumumab (Vectibix) EGFR

Abrams TA, Meyer G, Schrag D, et al.
Chemotherapy usage patterns in a US-wide cohort of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(2):djt371 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of biologic therapies for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), few studies have examined patterns of care or predictors of specific treatment approaches.
METHODS: We assessed 4877 mCRC patients who received chemotherapy between January 2004 and March 2011 at academic, private, and community-based oncology practices subscribing to a US-wide chemotherapy order entry (system capturing disease, patient, provider, and treatment data. Multivariable analyses of these prospectively recorded characteristics were used to identify independent predictors of specific therapeutic choices. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Throughout the study period, fluoropyrimidine/oxaliplatin combination was the most commonly used first-line chemotherapy regimen, representing 71% of first-line therapy by 2007. First-line bevacizumab use averaged 51%, peaking at 55% in 2006. Of those who received first-line bevacizumab, 34% continued to receive bevacizumab in the second-line. Only 26% of patients in our cohort ever received an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (cetuximab = 22%; panitumumab = 6%) at some point in their treatment course. Patients treated at academic centers, with longer duration of first-line therapy, and at sites in the western United States were statistically more likely to receive an anti-EGFR antibody. Anti-EGFR antibody use fell by 18% after the US Food and Drug Administration limited its use to patients with KRAS wild-type tumors in June 2009.
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of this US-wide mCRC cohort demonstrates that bevacizumab has been more consistently integrated into treatment regimens than anti-EGFR antibody therapies, particularly in first-line therapy. However, treatment choices vary substantially according to specific patient, practice, and provider characteristics.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Fluorouracil USA KRAS gene Panitumumab (Vectibix) Oxaliplatin Bevacizumab (Avastin) Irinotecan EGFR Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Sato K, Watanabe R, Hanaoka H, et al.
Photoimmunotherapy: comparative effectiveness of two monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.
Mol Oncol. 2014; 8(3):620-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a new cancer treatment that combines the specificity of antibodies for targeting tumors with the toxicity induced by photosensitizers after exposure to near infrared (NIR) light. Herein we compare two commonly available anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab and panitumumab, for their effectiveness as PIT agents in EGFR positive tumor models. A photosensitizer, IR-700, conjugated to either cetuximab (cet-IR700) or panitumumab (pan-IR700), was evaluated using EGFR-expressing A431 and MDAMB468-luc cells in 2D- and 3D-culture. PIT was conducted with irradiation of NIR light after exposure of the sample or animal to each conjugate. In vivo PIT was performed with fractionated exposure of NIR light after injection of each agent into A431 xenografts or a MDAMB468-luc orthotopic tumor bearing model. Cet-IR700 and pan-IR700 bound with equal affinity to the cells in 2D-culture and penetrated equally into the 3D-spheroid, resulting in identical PIT cytotoxic effects in vitro. In contrast, in vivo anti-tumor effects of PIT with cet-IR700 were inferior to that of pan-IR700. Assessment of the biodistribution showed lower accumulation into the tumors and more rapid hepatic catabolism of cet-IR700 compared to pan-IR700. Although cet-IR700 and pan-IR700 showed identical in vitro characteristics, pan-IR700 showed better therapeutic tumor responses than cet-IR700 in in vivo mice models due to the prolonged retention of the conjugate in the circulation, suggesting that retention in the circulation is advantageous for tumor responses to PIT. These results suggest that the choice of monoclonal antibody in photosensitizer conjugates may influence the effectiveness of PIT.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Panitumumab (Vectibix) Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Cappuzzo F, Sacconi A, Landi L, et al.
MicroRNA signature in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies.
Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2014; 13(1):37-45.e4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether microRNAs are predictive of sensitivity to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
METHODS: A total of 183 mCRC cases from 2 independent cohorts (cohort 1: 74 cases; validation cohort: 109 cases) treated with cetuximab or panitumumab were included in the study. MiRNA arrays were analyzed using Agilent's miRNA platform.
RESULTS: The study identified the cluster Let-7c/miR-99a/miR-125b as a signature associated with an outcome different from that of anti-EGFR therapies. In the first cohort, patients with high-intensity signatures had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (6.1 vs. 2.3 mo; P = .02) and longer overall survival (OS) ( 29.8 vs. 7.0 mo, P = .08) than patients with low-intensity signatures. In the validation cohort, patients with high signature had significantly longer PFS and OS than individuals with low-intensity signatures (PFS 7.8 vs. 4.3 mo, P = .02; OS 12.8 vs. 7.5 mo, P = .02). In the KRAS wild-type population (n = 120), high-intensity signature patients had a significantly longer PFS (7.8 vs. 4.6 mo, P = .016) and longer OS (16.1 vs. 10.9 mo, P = .09) than low-signature individuals, with no difference in KRAS mutated patients.
CONCLUSION: The MiR-99a/Let-7c/miR-125b signature may improve the selection of patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC as good candidates for anti-EGFR therapy.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer MicroRNAs Panitumumab (Vectibix) EGFR Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Kishiki T, Ohnishi H, Masaki T, et al.
Overexpression of MET is a new predictive marker for anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer with wild-type KRAS.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 73(4):749-57 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Since the KRAS mutation is not responsible for all metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) therapy, new predictive and prognostic factors are actively being sought.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of anti-EGFR MoAb-based therapies in 91 patients with mCRC according to KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutational status as well as PTEN and MET expression.
RESULTS: In the patient group with wild-type KRAS, the presence of BRAF mutation or PIK3CA mutations was associated with lower disease control rate (DCR), shorter progression-free survival (PFS), and shorter overall survival. Patients with MET overexpression also showed lower DCR and shorter PFS when compared with patients with normal MET expression. In a separate analysis, 44 patients harboring wild-type KRAS tumors were sorted into subgroups of 25 patients without abnormality in three molecules (BRAF, PIK3CA and MET) and 19 patients with abnormality in at least one of these three molecules. The former group showed significantly higher DCR and longer PFS following anti-EGFR therapy than the latter group.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data point to the usefulness of MET overexpression, in addition to BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, as a new predictive marker for responsiveness to anti-EGFR MoAbs in mCRC patients with wild-type KRAS. This study also suggests that application of multiple biomarkers is more effective than the use of a single marker in selecting patients who might benefit from anti-EGFR therapy.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer MET gene KRAS gene Panitumumab (Vectibix) Irinotecan EGFR Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Bonetti A, Giuliani J, Muggia F
Targeted agents and oxaliplatin-containing regimens for the treatment of colon cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(1):423-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines are synergic combinations very active for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer and for the adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer. Oxaliplatin-based regimens can be further strengthened by the addition of a third component, either a traditional drug such as irinotecan or targeted agents such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, bevacizumab and aflibercept, or the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cetuximab and panitumumab. The availabilty of all these active agents prompted several clinical trials on different lines of treatment of advanced colorectal cancer patients and in the adjuvant setting. Clinical studies involving the administration of anti-EGFR drugs also helped identify mutations in KRAS as a negative marker for the activity of these agents. However, positive selection criteria for targeted agents have not been identified. The results of oxaliplatin-containing regimens are critically presented and discussed in this review.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Panitumumab (Vectibix) Oxaliplatin Bevacizumab (Avastin) Cetuximab (Erbitux)

Cui D, Cao D, Yang Y, et al.
Effect of BRAF V600E mutation on tumor response of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies for first-line metastatic colorectal cancer treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized studies.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(3):1291-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (anti-EGFR MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment are still not effective in all patients. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between BRAF V600E mutation and the tumor response of anti-EGFR MoAbs for first-line treatment in mCRC patients. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, using the key words that included colorectal cancer, cetuximab, panitumumab, and BRAF mutation and retrieved 445 articles. Among them four were included in the systematic review. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for response rate were calculated. BRAF mutation carriers had worse ORR than non-carriers in mCRC patients with KRAS wild-type in first-line treatment whether adding anti-EGFR MoAb to chemotherapy or not (RR = 0.43, [95% CI 0.16-0.75]; RR = 0.38, [95% CI 0.20-0.73]). But in the unselected patients whose KRAS mutation were unknown, BRAF mutation carriers had similar ORR whether adding cetuximab to chemotherapy or not (RR = 0.45, [95% CI 0.18-1.09]; RR = 0.57, [95% CI 0.15-2.23]). In BRAF mutation carriers adding anti-EGFR MoAb to chemotherapy was similar to chemotherapy alone whether in patients with wild-type KRAS or unselected patients (RR = 1.61, [95% CI 0.57-4.47]; RR = 0.71, [95% CI 0.18-2.77]). But in the BRAF mutation non-carriers, adding anti-EGFR MoAb produced a clear benefit in response rate than chemotherapy alone and this advantage was restricted to KRAS wild-type patients (RR = 1.48, [95% CI 1.28-1.71]). BRAF mutation decreases tumor response in first-line treatment whether cetuximab was given or not in patients with KRAS wild-type, and anti-EGFR MoAb produces a clear benefit in response rate in patients with BRAF and KRAS wild-type.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer BRAF gene Panitumumab (Vectibix) EGFR Cetuximab (Erbitux)

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