Gene Summary

Gene:BOLL; boule-like RNA-binding protein
Aliases: BOULE
Summary:This gene belongs to the DAZ gene family required for germ cell development. It encodes an RNA-binding protein which is more similar to Drosophila Boule than to human proteins encoded by genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) or DAZL (deleted in azoospermia-like). Loss of this gene function results in the absence of sperm in semen (azoospermia). Histological studies demonstrated that the primary defect is at the meiotic G2/M transition. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein boule-like
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BOLL (cancer-related)

Boll K, Reiche K, Kasack K, et al.
MiR-130a, miR-203 and miR-205 jointly repress key oncogenic pathways and are downregulated in prostate carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(3):277-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
With ∼30 000 deaths annually in the United States, prostate cancer (PCa) is a major oncologic disease. Here we show that the microRNAs miR-130a, miR-203 and miR-205 jointly interfere with the two major oncogenic pathways in prostate carcinoma and are downregulated in cancer tissue. Using transcriptomics we show that the microRNAs repress several gene products known to be overexpressed in this cancer. Argonaute 2 (AGO2) co-immunoprecipitation, reporter assays and western blot analysis demonstrate that the microRNAs directly target several components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathways, among those several AR coregulators and HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), and repress signaling activity. Both pathways are central for the development of the primary tumor and in particular the progression to its incurable castration-resistant form. Reconstitution of the microRNAs in LNCaP PCa cells induce morphological changes, which resemble the effect of androgen deprivation, and jointly impair tumor cell growth by induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We therefore propose that these microRNAs jointly act as tumor suppressors in prostate carcinoma and might interfere with progression to castration resistance.

Wuttig D, Zastrow S, Füssel S, et al.
CD31, EDNRB and TSPAN7 are promising prognostic markers in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma revealed by genome-wide expression analyses of primary tumors and metastases.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 131(5):E693-704 [PubMed] Related Publications
Currently used clinicopathological parameters are insufficient for a reliable prediction of metastatic risk and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). To identify prognostic genes, the expression profiles of primary ccRCC obtained from patients with different DFS--eight synchronously, nine metachronously and seven not metastasized tumors--were determined by genome-wide expression analyses. Synchronously and metachronously metastasized primary ccRCC differed in the expression of 167 genes. Thirty-six of these genes were also differentially expressed in synchronously vs. metachronously developed pulmonary metastases analyzed in a previous study. Because of their DFS-associated deregulation that is concordant in metastases and primary ccRCC, these genes are potentially functionally involved in metastatic tumor growth and are also prognostically useful. A prognostic impact was confirmed for the genes CD31, EDNRB and TSPAN7 at the mRNA level (n=86), and for TSPAN7 at the protein level (n=106). Patients with a higher gene expression of EDNRB or TSPAN7, or with TSPAN7-positive vessels in both cores investigated on tissue microarrays had a significantly longer DFS and tumor-specific survival (TSS). Patients with a higher CD31 gene expression showed a significantly longer TSS. EDNRB was an independent prognostic marker for the DFS. CD31, EDNRB and TSPAN7 had an independent impact on the TSS. In summary, comparative analysis of primary tumors and metastases is appropriate to identify independent prognostic markers in ccRCC. Gene expression of CD31 and EDNRB, and endothelial TSPAN7 protein level are potentially useful to improve outcome prediction because of their independent prognostic impact.

Millot GA, Berger A, Lejour V, et al.
Assessment of human Nter and Cter BRCA1 mutations using growth and localization assays in yeast.
Hum Mutat. 2011; 32(12):1470-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
A large number of missense mutations have been identified within the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1. Most of them, called "variants of unknown significance" (VUS), cannot be classified as pathogenic or neutral by genetic methods, which complicates their cancer risk assessment. Functional assays have been developed to circumvent this uncertainty. They aim to determine how VUS impact the BRCA1 protein structure or function, thereby giving an indication of their potential to cause cancer. So far, three relevant assays have been designed in yeast and used on large sets of variants. However, they are limited to variants mapped in restricted domains of BRCA1. One of them, the small colony phenotype (SCP) assay, monitors the BRCA1-dependent growth of yeast colonies that increases with pathogenic but not neutral mutations positioned in the Cter region. Here, we extend this assay to the Nter part of BRCA1. We also designed a new assay, called the "yeast localization phenotype (YLP) assay," based on the accumulation of BRCA1 in a single inclusion body in the yeast nucleus. This phenotype is altered by variants positioned both in the Nter and Cter regions. Together, these assays provide new perspectives for the functional assessment of BRCA1 mutations in yeast.

Schumacher M, Hautzinger A, Rossmann A, et al.
Potential role of P-gp for flavone-induced diminished apoptosis and increased adenoma size in the small intestine of APC(min/+) mice.
Cancer Invest. 2011; 29(6):396-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
APC(min/+) mice, carrying a nonsense mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, appear as a perfect model to study development or therapy of intestinal neoplasia. We tested whether the flavonoid flavone is able to affect adenoma development in APC(min/+) mice. Tumor sizes were significantly increased by flavone selectively in small intestine. This was associated with reduced cell numbers displaying cleaved caspase-3 and enhanced expression of phosphoglycoprotein (P-gp). However, according to great variability in P-gp expression in all parts of mice intestines, an association between expression of P-gp and inhibition of apoptosis was demonstrated in human Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells.

Kim YH, Lee HC, Kim SY, et al.
Epigenomic analysis of aberrantly methylated genes in colorectal cancer identifies genes commonly affected by epigenetic alterations.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2011; 18(8):2338-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Determination of the profile of genes that are commonly methylated aberrantly in colorectal cancer (CRC) will have substantial value for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, there is limited knowledge of the DNA methylation pattern in CRC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the methylation profile of 27,578 CpG sites spanning more than 14,000 genes in CRC and in the adjacent normal mucosa with bead-chip array-based technology.
RESULTS: We identified 621 CpG sites located in promoter regions and CpG islands that were greatly hypermethylated in CRC compared to normal mucosa. The genes on chromosome 18 showed promoter hypermethylation most frequently. According to gene ontology analysis, the most common biologically relevant class of genes affected by methylation was the class associated with the cadherin signaling pathway. Compared to the genome-wide expression array, mRNA expression was more likely to be downregulated in the genes demonstrating promoter hypermethylation, even though this was not statistically significant. We validated ten CpG sites that were hypermethylated (ADHFE1, BOLL, SLC6A15, ADAMTS5, TFPI2, EYA4, NPY, TWIST1, LAMA1, GAS7) and 2 CpG sites showing hypomethylation (MAEL, SFT2D3) in CRC compared to the normal mucosa in the array studies using pyrosequencing. The methylation status measured by pyrosequencing was consistent with the methylation array data.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation profiling based on bead-chip arrays is an effective method for screening aberrantly methylated genes in CRC. In addition, we identified novel methylated genes that are candidate diagnostic or prognostic markers for CRC.

Tessema M, Yu YY, Stidley CA, et al.
Concomitant promoter methylation of multiple genes in lung adenocarcinomas from current, former and never smokers.
Carcinogenesis. 2009; 30(7):1132-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is one of the major mechanisms in carcinogenesis and some critical growth regulatory genes have shown commonality in methylation across solid tumors. Twenty-six genes, 14 identified through methylation in colon and breast cancers, were evaluated using primary lung adenocarcinomas (n = 175) from current, former and never smokers. Tumor specificity of methylation was validated through comparison of 14 lung cancer cell lines to normal human bronchial epithelial cells derived from bronchoscopy of 20 cancer-free smokers. Twenty-five genes were methylated in 11-81% of primary tumors. Prevalence for methylation of TNFRSF10C, BHLHB5 and BOLL was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas from never smokers than smokers. The relation between methylation of individual genes was examined using pairwise comparisons. A significant association was seen between 138 (42%) of the possible 325 pairwise comparisons. Most notably, methylation of MMP2, BHLHB4 or p16 was significantly associated with methylation of 16-19 other genes, thus predicting for a widespread methylation phenotype. Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and proportional hazard models identified a significant association between methylation of SULF2 (a pro-growth, -angiogenesis and -migration gene) and better patient survival (hazard ratio = 0.23). These results demonstrate a high degree of commonality for targeted silencing of genes between lung and other solid tumors and suggest that promoter hypermethylation in cancer is a highly co-ordinated event.

Maestre L, Tooze R, Cañamero M, et al.
Expression pattern of XBP1(S) in human B-cell lymphomas.
Haematologica. 2009; 94(3):419-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1) is essential for plasma cell (PC) differentiation and immunoglobulin secretion. XBP1 is widely expressed, but its activity is precisely controlled by mRNA splicing in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It is the active form of XBP1, XBP1(S), which is required for PC differentiation. The relationship between XBP1(S) expression and PC differentiation in human tissue and its expression in hematologic malignancies has eluded assessment. With a novel antibody, we now define XBP1(S) expression in a large series of normal and neoplastic lymphoid tissues. We establish that XBP1(S) provides a specific marker of advanced plasma differentiation and in lymphoid malignancies is restricted to PC-derived neoplasms and plasmablastic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. XBP1(S) expression delineates heterogeneity amongst plasmablastic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, identifying a distinct tumor sub-group. Furthermore, our results establish a direct and practical means of assessing ER stress in human tumors.

Ezeh UI, Turek PJ, Reijo RA, Clark AT
Human embryonic stem cell genes OCT4, NANOG, STELLAR, and GDF3 are expressed in both seminoma and breast carcinoma.
Cancer. 2005; 104(10):2255-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The seminoma class of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) are characterized by a morphological resemblance to primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes, and chromosome duplications at 12p. Recently, it was determined that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) express genes in common with PGCs, and that three of these genes, GDF3, STELLAR, and NANOG, are located on 12p. The current study was designed to identify whether expression of these 12p genes were elevated in seminoma relative to normal testis, and to determine whether elevated expression was unique to seminoma.
METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to assess gene expression in seminoma samples relative to normal testis and endpoint PCR was used to identify the presence or absence of these genes in breast carcinoma.
RESULTS: GDF3 expression was increased in eight of nine seminomas compared with normal testis, whereas NANOG, OCT4, or both were expressed at the highest levels in seminoma compared with all other markers analyzed. In addition, the NANOG protein was expressed in the majority of seminoma cells. The adult meiotic germ cell markers BOULE and TEKT1 were undetectable in seminoma, whereas the embryonic and adult germ cell markers DAZL and VASA were significantly reduced. Analysis of these markers in breast carcinoma and the MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line revealed that a core hESC-transcriptional profile could be identified consisting of OCT4, NANOG, STELLAR, and GDF3 and that NANOG protein could be detected in breast carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that seminoma and breast carcinoma express a common stem cell profile and that the expression of DAZL and VASA in seminoma mark the germ cell origin of seminoma that is absent in breast carcinoma. Our findings suggest that stem cell genes may either play a direct role in different types of carcinoma progression or serve as valuable markers of tumorigenesis.

Maiorano E, Favia GF, Bufo P
Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in squamous papillomas of the oral mucosa.
Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1993; 69(3):195-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim of the present study was to investigate the immunocytochemical expression of Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFr) in normal oral mucosa and in 12 oral papillomas in which the presence of Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) had been ascertained through in situ hybridization. The study reveals that in normal oral mucosa EGFr is usually expressed in basal cell layers whereas in oral papillomas EGFr is detectable throughout the whole thickness of the lesions. Furthermore, when HPV type 6 is present (10 cases) in the lesion, the pattern of expression of EGFr is almost exclusively membranous whereas in two HPV type 16-induced papillomas the reaction product with monoclonal anti-EGFr Antibodies appears confined to the intracytoplasmic paranuclear area. The present investigation, therefore, seems to show a peculiar correlation between HPV infection and EGFr immunoreactivity in papillomas of the oral mucosa. The pattern of immunoreactivity appears to be related to the specific type of HPV detectable in the lesion and it may possibly depend on the interactions between host and viral genomes. Those interactions might be different for HPV 6 and HPV 16 and may consequently lead to divergent expression of EGFr.

Franceschetti P, Rossi R, Aguiari GL, et al.
Detection of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in human thyroids.
Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1993; 69(1):21-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to demonstrate that Androgen binding activity in thyroid is caused by the canonic Androgen Receptor (AR), member of steroid receptor family, we studied the presence of AR mRNA in human thyroid tissues and primary cultured cells. Here we report a polymerase chain reaction protocol (RT-PCR) that we have designated to investigate the presence of AR mRNA in human cells. AR cDNA was synthesized and amplified with primers specific for C-terminal sequence of the protein. We demonstrated that AR gene expression i) is present in thyroid samples studied and ii) in a primary culture of follicular adenoma where it seems to be modulated by steroid hormones.

Gandini D, Moretti S, Latorraca A, et al.
Expression of p53 gene in B-CLL peripheral lymphocytes.
Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1992; 68(10):597-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
The p53 tumor suppressor gene expression has been studied in 23 B-CLL cases at different clinical stages. The analysis failed to show a direct correlation with each stage, but the significantly lower frequency of a BglII RFLP in the pathologic population suggests a role of this gene in B-CLL. Northern Blot analysis showed the expression of p53 mRNA in all the B-CLL cases. A protocol for the RT-PCR methods was set up to study a very small amount of materials which should be better used for sequence analysis.

Gandini D, Lanza F, Latorraca A, del Senno L
Immunogenotypic characteristics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients from northern Italy.
Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1992; 68(1):39-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ig gene analysis, carried out in 25 patients failed to show rearrangement patterns typical of each stage, but, nevertheless, confirmed the monoclonal origin of leukemic cells in these patients. In addition, in 14 of them the pattern of Ig gene rearrangements measured on two different occasions was analyzed. Only in patients who had received chemotherapy, the intensity of the Ig germline band was greater than that of the rearranged bands, indicating the reduction of lymphocytosis after the therapy. Thus, though Ig gene rearrangement could not distinguish the CLL stage, our data confirm the usefulness, at all clinical stages, of Ig gene analysis as a tool in the evaluation of the efficiency of the therapy.

Busch H, Busch RK, Freeman JW, Perlaky L
Nucleolar protein P120 and its targeting for cancer chemotherapy.
Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1991; 67(8):739-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of the G1-P120 antigen with the aid of the monoclonal antibody to its "human-specific epitope" has resulted in rapid development of information on its molecular biology. With the monoclonal antibody, it rapidly became possible to identify and subsequently sequence its cDNA and with cDNA clones to isolate and sequence its genomic DNA. It was demonstrated that the protein had 4 major domains: a basic domain, an acidic domain, a hydrophobic and methionine-rich domain and a domain rich in cysteine and proline residues. In addition to a nuclear recognition signal, the epitope region is juxtaposed to phosphorylation sites. The epitope region contains the sequence Gln-Ala-Ala-Ala-Gly-Ile-Asn-Trp which is unique to the human P120 molecule; this may be a site for drug attack either by analogs to the region or by novel constructs based on antisense oligonucleotides. When tumor cells were transfected with antisense constructs of the P120 gene, growth rates were markedly reduced. 3T3 cells transformed by transfection with the P120 gene reverted to a nontransformed state by subsequent transfection and activation of a P120 antisense construct. Opportunities for control of malignant cells with antisense oligonucleotides are currently under study.

del Senno L, Conconi F, Barbieri R, et al.
Human leukemic K562 cells: differential effects of 5-azacytidine on DNA methylation of epsilon-, gamma-globin and 7SL RNA genes.
Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1984; 60(8):1613-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
5 Azacytidine ribonucleoside (5 Aza CR), greatly enhances erythroid differentiation of the K562(h) cell line, with a sharp increase of embryonic and fetal globin gene expression. This phenomenon is correlated with the undermethylation of gamma-globin but not of epsilon-globin, as the epsilon-globin gene is already extensively undermethylated before 5AzaCR induction. By contrast no variations in both DNA methylation and expression are observed in 7SL RNA genes.

Shaw GD, Boll W, Taira H, et al.
Structure and expression of cloned murine IFN-alpha genes.
Nucleic Acids Res. 1983; 11(3):555-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mouse has an interferon-alpha (MuIFN-alpha) gene family containing at least four, and likely more than ten members. A segment of mouse chromosomal DNA and cDNAs encoding murine alpha IFNs have been cloned, and the sequence of two MuIFN-alpha DNAs determined. No intron was found in the chromosomal gene. The two coding sequences produced biologically active IFN when expressed in monkey cells under the control of an SV40 promoter, and in E.coli under the control of the ampicillinase promoter. MuIFN-alpha 1 had no detectable activity on human cells, while MuIFN-alpha 2 was 20% as active on human as on mouse cells.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. BOLL, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

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