Gene Summary

Gene:CASP4; caspase 4
Aliases: TX, Mih1, ICH-2, Mih1/TX, ICEREL-II, ICE(rel)II
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes composed of a prodomain and a large and small protease subunit. Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of the large and small subunits. This caspase is able to cleave and activate its own precursor protein, as well as caspase 1 precursor. When overexpressed, this gene induces cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CASP4 (cancer-related)

Xie L, Chen Y, Chen J, et al.
Anti-tumor effects and mechanism of GA-13315, a novel gibberellin derivative, in human lung adenocarcinoma: an in vitro and in vivo study.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: To investigate the anti-tumor effects and the mechanism of the compound 13-chlorine-3, 15-dioxy-gibberellic acid methyl ester (GA-13315) in lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Methods: The antiproliferative effect of GA-13313 on the A549 cell line was determined by MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. A xenograft model of A549 was established to evaluate the anti-tumor effect and histopathological examination was performed to assess the toxicity of GA-13315. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining in tissues and flow cytometry in cells; activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis; protein levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), caspase-4, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) were determined by western blotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured by the JC-1 fluorescence probe.
Results: Our results showed that GA-13315 exhibited potent, dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative activity, and the IC50 values were 37.43 ± 2.73, 28.08 ± 7.76 and 19.29 ± 7.61 μM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The xenograft experiment revealed that tumor weight and volume were significantly decreased after GA-13315 3 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg (
Conclusions: This study suggests that GA-13315 can be considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent with anticancer activity in treatment of lung cancer in future.

Su EY, Chu YL, Chueh FS, et al.
Bufalin Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells through Mitochondrial ROS and TRAIL Pathways.
Am J Chin Med. 2019; 47(1):237-257 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bufalin on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC-TW 076 cells in vitro. Bufalin is a cardiotonic steroid and a key active ingredient of the Chinese medicine ChanSu. The extracts of Chansu are used for various cancer treatments in China. In the present study, bufalin induced cell morphological changes, decreased total cell viability and induced G

Wu MH, Lee CY, Huang TJ, et al.
MLN4924, a Protein Neddylation Inhibitor, Suppresses the Growth of Human Chondrosarcoma through Inhibiting Cell Proliferation and Inducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Apoptosis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 20(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma, a heterogeneous malignant bone tumor, commonly produces cartilage matrix, which generally has no response to conventional therapies. Studies have reported that MLN4924, a NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, achieves antitumor effects against numerous malignancies. In this study, the suppressive effects of MLN4924 on human chondrosarcoma cell lines were investigated using in vitro and in vivo assays, which involved measuring cell viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycles, molecule-associated cell cycles, apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Our results demonstrated that MLN4924 significantly suppressed cell viability, exhibited cytotoxicity, and stimulated apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 in chondrosarcoma cell lines. Furthermore, MLN4924 significantly inhibited cell proliferation by diminishing the phosphorylation of histone H3 to cause G2/M cell cycle arrest. In addition, MLN4924 activated ER stress⁻related apoptosis by upregulating the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), enhancing the expression of GRP78 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP, an inducer of endoplasmic ER stress⁻related apoptosis) and activating the cleavage of caspase-4. Moreover, MLN4924 considerably inhibited the growth of chondrosarcoma tumors in a xenograft mouse model. Finally, MLN4924-mediated antichondrosarcoma properties can be accompanied by the stimulation of ER stress⁻related apoptosis, implying that targeting neddylation by MLN4924 is a novel therapeutic strategy for treating chondrosarcoma.

Kao RH, Lai GM, Chow JM, et al.
Opposite Regulation of CHOP and GRP78 and Synergistic Apoptosis Induction by Selenium Yeast and Fish Oil via AMPK Activation in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Selenium has been intensively studied for the use of cancer prevention and treatment. However, the clinical effects are still plausible. To enhance its efficacy, a combinational study of selenium yeast (SY) and fish oil (FO) was performed in A549, CL1-0, H1299, HCC827 lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) cells to investigate the enhancement in apoptosis induction and underlying mechanism. By sulforhodamine B staining, Western blot and flow cytometric assays, we found a synergism between SY and FO in growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of LADC cells. In contrast, the fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) were unsusceptible to this combination effect. FO synergized SY-induced apoptosis of A549 cells, accompanied with synergistic activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduction of Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and β-catenin. Particularly, combining with FO not only enhanced the SY-elevated proapoptotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), but also reduced the cytoprotective glucose regulated protein of molecular weight 78 kDa (GRP78). Consequently, the CHOP downstream targets such as phospho-JNK and death receptor 5 were also elevated, along with the cleavage of caspase-8, -3, and the ER stress-related caspase-4. Accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by compound C diminished the synergistic apoptosis induction, and elevated CHOP/GRP78 ratio by SY combined with FO. The AMPK-dependent synergism suggests the combination of SY and FO for chemoprevention and integrative treatment of LADC.

Zheng Y, Wu Y, Chen X, et al.
Chinese Propolis Exerts Anti-Proliferation Effects in Human Melanoma Cells by Targeting NLRP1 Inflammatory Pathway, Inducing Apoptosis, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Autophagy.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is a malignant tumor that begins in the melanocyte and has the highest mortality rate among all cutaneous tumors. Chinese propolis (CP) has been shown to have a potent antitumor effect against various cancers. In this study, we uncovered the combined effects of antiproliferation and anti-inflammation of CP on suppressing the progression of human melanoma cell line A375. We evaluated the alterations of protein expression after CP treatment by Western blot. After CP treatment, A375 cells underwent intrinsic apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we found that CP suppressed inflammation in A375 cells. NLRP1 (NLR family pyrin domain containing 1), confirmed as a proinflammatory protein in melanoma progression, was downregulated significantly by CP, as were the NLRP1-related caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARD) proteins, including caspase-1 and caspase-4. Additionally, decreasing mRNA levels of

Videira RA, Andrade PB, Monteiro LS, et al.
Toxicity and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of α,β-dehydroamino acids against human cancer cell lines.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2018; 47:26-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
A library of N-protected dehydroamino acids, namely dehydroalanine, dehydroaminobutyric acid and dehydrophenylalanine derivatives, was screened in three human cancer cell lines [(lung (A549), gastric (AGS) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y)] in order to characterize their toxicological profile and identify new molecules with potential anticancer activity. Results showed N-protected dehydrophenylalanine and dehydroaminobutyric acid derivatives have no or low toxicity for all tested cell lines. The N-protected dehydroalanines exhibit significant toxic effects and the AGS and SH-SY5Y cells were significantly more vulnerable than A549 cells. Four α,β-dehydroalanine derivatives, with IC

Ge G, Yan Y, Cai H
Ginsenoside Rh2 Inhibited Proliferation by Inducing ROS Mediated ER Stress Dependent Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2017; 40(12):2117-2124 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2), a component extracted from roots of ginseng, exhibited anti-cancer pharmacological activities by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in lung cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of G-Rh2 suppressing lung cancer development remained elusive. This study tried to investigate the possible mechanism involved in anti-proliferative effect of G-Rh2 in lung cancer cells. As results, G-Rh2 inhibited the proliferation of H1299 cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell apoptosis. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and caspase-4 were involved in G-Rh2-induced apoptosis of H1299 cells. It was also found that G-Rh2 could up-regulate expressions of ATF4, CHOP and caspase-4 in H1299 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NAC (N-acetylcysteine, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger) treatment dramatically decreased ROS generation in H1299 cells; both of NAC and 4-PBA (4-phenylbutyrate, a specific endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor) administration impaired apoptosis and expression levels of ATF4, CHOP and caspase-4 in G-Rh2 incubated H1299 cells. In vivo assays extended the significance of these results, showing that G-Rh2 inhibited lung cancer growth and the inhibition effects of G-Rh2 in tumor growth were significantly reduced by inhibition of ER stress. In conclusion, G-Rh2 inhibited proliferation of H1299 cells by inducing ROS mediated ER stress dependent cell apoptosis.

Ghosh K, De S, Mukherjee S, et al.
Withaferin A induced impaired autophagy and unfolded protein response in human breast cancer cell-lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2017; 44:330-338 [PubMed] Related Publications
The autophagy-lysosome pathway and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems are the two major routes for eukaryotic intracellular protein clearance. Cancerous cells often display elevated protein synthesis and byproduct disposal, thus, inhibition of the protein degradation pathways became an emerging approach for cancer therapy. The present study revealed that withaferin-A (WA), the biologically active withanolide derived from Withania somnifera, initially induced formation of autophagosomes in human breast cancer cell-lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. WA treatment elevated the levels of autophagic substrate p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and both LC3-II and LC3-I (microtubule-associated protein 2 light chain 3) and simultaneously reduced the upstream autophagy markers like beclin-1 and ATG5-ATG12 complex, which indicate accumulation of autophagosomes in the cells. WA induced disruption of microtubular network through inhibition of tubulin polymerization and its hyper-acetylation, thus prevent the formation of autolysosome (by merging of autophagosomes with lysosomes) and its recycling process, leading to incomplete autophagy. Further, WA caused ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum) stress, which is evident from the activation of ER-related caspase-4 and increased levels of ER stress marker proteins. Thus, these findings altogether indicate that WA mediated inhibition of proteasomal degradation system and perturbation of autophagy, i.e. suppression of both the intracellular degradation systems caused accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, which in turn led to unfolded protein response and ER stress mediated proteotoxicity in human breast cancer cell-lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.

Choi JH, Jeong YJ, Yu AR, et al.
Fluoxetine induces apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress via mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and histone hyperacetylation in SK-N-BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells.
Apoptosis. 2017; 22(9):1079-1097 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fluoxetine (FLX) is an antidepressant drug that belongs to the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. FLX is known to induce apoptosis in multiple types of cancer cells. In this study, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of FLX were investigated in SK-N-BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells. FLX induced apoptotic cell death, activation of caspase-4, -9, and -3, and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated proteins, including C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Inhibition of ER stress by treatment with the ER stress inhibitors, salubrinal and 4-phenylbutyric acid or CHOP siRNA transfection reduced FLX-induced cell death. FLX induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) family, p38, JNK, and ERK, and an upstream kinase apoptosis signal kinase 1 (ASK1). Inhibition of MAPKs and ASK1 reduced FLX-induced cell death and CHOP expression. We then showed that FLX reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ER stress inhibitors as well as MAPK inhibitors ameliorated FLX-induced loss of MMP. Interestingly, FLX induced hyperacetylation of histone H3 and H4, upregulation of p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT), and downregulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Treatment with a HAT inhibitor anacardic acid or p300 HAT siRNA transfection blocked FLX-induced apoptosis in SK-N-BE(2)-M17 cells. However, FLX did not induce histone acetylation and anacardic acid had no protective effect on FLX-induced cell death and CHOP expression in MYCN non-amplified SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and MYCN knockdowned SK-N-BE(2)-M17 cells. These findings suggest that FLX induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma through ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction via the ASK1 and MAPK pathways and through histone hyperacetylation in a MYCN-dependent manner.

Florio R, De Lellis L, di Giacomo V, et al.
Effects of PPARα inhibition in head and neck paraganglioma cells.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):e0178995 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare tumors that may cause important morbidity, because of their tendency to infiltrate the skull base. At present, surgery is the only therapeutic option, but radical removal may be difficult or impossible. Thus, effective targets and molecules for HNPGL treatment need to be identified. However, the lack of cellular models for this rare tumor hampers this task. PPARα receptor activation was reported in several tumors and this receptor appears to be a promising therapeutic target in different malignancies. Considering that the role of PPARα in HNPGLs was never studied before, we analyzed the potential of modulating PPARα in a unique model of HNPGL cells. We observed an intense immunoreactivity for PPARα in HNPGL tumors, suggesting that this receptor has an important role in HNPGL. A pronounced nuclear expression of PPARα was also confirmed in HNPGL-derived cells. The specific PPARα agonist WY14643 had no effect on HNPGL cell viability, whereas the specific PPARα antagonist GW6471 reduced HNPGL cell viability and growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. GW6471 treatment was associated with a marked decrease of CDK4, cyclin D3 and cyclin B1 protein expression, along with an increased expression of p21 in HNPGL cells. Moreover, GW6471 drastically impaired clonogenic activity of HNPGL cells, with a less marked effect on cell migration. Notably, the effects of GW6471 on HNPGL cells were associated with the inhibition of the PI3K/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reduces HNPGL cell viability, interfering with cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. The mechanisms affecting HNPGL cell viability involve repression of the PI3K/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. Therefore, PPARα could represent a novel therapeutic target for HNPGL.

Zheng LC, Yang MD, Kuo CL, et al.
Norcantharidin-induced Apoptosis of AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cells Through Reactive Oxygen Species Production, and Caspase- and Mitochondria-dependent Signaling Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):6031-6042 [PubMed] Related Publications
Norcantharidin (NCTD) was purified from mylabris, the dried body of the Chinese blister beetle. NCTD has been shown to exhibit anticancer activities in many human cancer cell lines, but there are no reports to show whether it induces apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated NCTD-induced cell death and associated protein expression in human gastric cancer AGS cells in vitro. Cell morphological changes, viability and cell-cycle distribution were examined and analyzed by phase-contrast microscopy and flow cytometric assays. Flow cytometry was also used to measure the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca

Jang Y, Kim J, Ko JW, Kwon YH
Homocysteine induces PUMA-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.
Amino Acids. 2016; 48(11):2559-2569 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have reported that homocysteine induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in neuronal cells, proposing the underlying mechanism by which it could induce neurotoxicity. Induction of pro-apoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and activation of caspase-4 by calpain have been suggested to be an important route in inducing apoptosis in response to ER stress. In this study, we investigated the molecular pathway of homocysteine-induced apoptosis in caspase-4 deficient SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Homocysteine significantly increased mRNA levels of CHOP and p53, resulting in the upregulation of their downstream target gene, p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). In cells treated with homocysteine, Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) protein levels, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and caspase-9 activation were significantly increased. Consistently, a caspase-9 inhibitor significantly alleviated homocysteine-induced cytotoxicity. Significantly lower BAX mRNA levels and caspase-9 activation were observed in cells transfected with siRNA for PUMA. Taken together, our findings suggest that PUMA would be involved in the possible crosstalk between the ER and the mitochondria in the homocysteine-induced apoptosis of caspase-4 deficient SH-SY5Y cells.

Tsai YF, Huang CW, Chiang JH, et al.
Gadolinium chloride elicits apoptosis in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells through extrinsic signaling, intrinsic pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(6):3421-3426 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gadolinium (Gd) compounds are important as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, and are potential anticancer agents. However, no report has shown the effect of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) on osteosarcoma in vitro. The present study investigated the apoptotic mechanism of GdCl3 on human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Our results indicated that GdCl3 significantly reduced cell viability of U-2 OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. GdCl3 led to apoptotic cell shrinkage and DNA fragmentation in U-2 OS cells as revealed by morphologic changes and TUNEL staining. Colorimetric assay analyses also showed that activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-4 occurred in GdCl3-treated U-2 OS cells. Pretreatment of cells with pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) and specific inhibitors of caspase-3/-8/-9 significantly reduced cell death caused by GdCl3. The increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ level, ROS production and the decrease of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) were observed by flow cytometric analysis in U-2 OS cells after GdCl3 exposure. Western blot analyses demonstrated that the levels of Fas, FasL, cytochrome c, Apaf-1, GADD153 and GRP78 were upregulated in GdCl3-treated U-2 OS cells. In conclusion, death receptor, mitochondria-dependent and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways contribute to GdCl3-induced apoptosis in U-2 OS cells. GdCl3 might have potential to be used in treatment of osteosarcoma patients.

Montagnani Marelli M, Marzagalli M, Moretti RM, et al.
Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:30502 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375. δ-TT exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on both cell lines, involving the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; importantly, this compound did not affect the viability of normal human melanocytes. In melanoma cells, δ-TT exerted its antitumor effect through activation of the PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP, IRE1α and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the ER stress, counteracted the cytotoxic activity of δ-TT. In vivo experiments performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts evidenced that δ-TT reduces tumor volume and tumor mass; importantly, tumor progression was significantly delayed by δ-TT treatment. In conclusion, δ-TT exerts a proapoptotic activity on melanoma cells, through activation of the ER stress-related pathways. δ-TT might represent an effective option for novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategies for melanoma.

Moon JY, Cho SK
Nobiletin Induces Protective Autophagy Accompanied by ER-Stress Mediated Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SNU-16 Cells.
Molecules. 2016; 21(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nobiletin, a major component of citrus fruits, is a polymethoxyflavone derivative that exhibits anticancer activity against several forms of cancer, including SNU-16 human gastric cancer cells. To explore the nobiletin-induced cell death mechanism, we examined the changes in protein expression caused by nobiletin in human gastric cancer SNU-16 cells by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE), followed by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) analysis. Seventeen of 20 selected protein spots were successfully identified, including nine upregulated and eight downregulated proteins. In nobiletin-treated SNU-16 cells the glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) mRNA level was induced most significantly among six proteins related to cell survival and death. Western blot analysis was used to confirm the expression of GRP78 protein. We detected increases in the levels of the ER-stress related proteins inositol requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1-α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP), as well as GRP78, in response to nobiletin in SNU-16 cells. Furthermore, the ER stress-mediated apoptotic protein caspase-4 was proteolytically activated by nobiletin. Pretreatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, strongly augmented apoptosis in SNU-16 cells, as evidenced by decreased cell viability, an increased number of sub-G1 phase cells and increased levels of cleaved PARP. Our results suggest that nobiletin-induced apoptosis in SNU-16 cells is mediated by pathways involving intracellular ER stress-mediated protective autophagy. Thus, the combination of nobiletin and an autophagy inhibitor could be a promising treatment for gastric cancer patients.

Zhu YQ, Wang BY, Wu F, et al.
Influence of Tanshinone IIA on the Apoptosis of Human Esophageal Ec-109 Cells.
Nat Prod Commun. 2016; 11(1):17-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The induced-apoptosis effect and mechanism of human esophageal cancer Ec-109 cells via tanshinone IIA was investigated. The Ec-109 cells were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of tanshinone IIA (2 µg/mL, 4 µg/mL, or 8 µg/mL) for 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferative inhibition rate of tanshinone IIA on esophageal Ec-109 cells. After 24 hours of culturing in vitro, a control group was assigned. The apoptosis rate was detected by the AO/EB and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide assay, and the protein levels of Caspase-4 and CHOP were determined by the Western blot technique. MTT data showed that tanshinone IIA could significantly inhibit the proliferation of Ec-109 cells with a dose- and time-dependent mode. Compared with the control group, tanshinone IIA could apparently induce apoptosis of Ec-109 cells, and the level of Caspase-4 and CHOP (p < 0.01) obviously increased. Tanshinone IIA can significantly induce the apoptosis of Ec-109 cells, which may take effect by the stress pathway of the endoplasmic reticulum.

Yang F, Tang XY, Liu H, Jiang ZW
Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway sensitizes breast cancer cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2113-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces ER stress which is observed in many human diseases, including breast cancer. Cellular adaptation to ER stress is mediated by the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims at restoring ER homeostasis. Higher levels of GRP78 expression indicates constitutive activation of the UPR in breast cancer leading to breast cancer cells that are relatively resistant to ER stress-induced apoptosis. Tunicamycin (TM), an ER stress inducer, constitutively activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), and (MEK)/ERK pathway which plays a role in upregulation of GRP78 by ER stress in that inhibition of MEK by U0126 reduces the levels of GRP78 and blocks its upregulation by TM. Inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway by U0126 sensitizes breast cancer cells to TM-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of GRP78 by siRNA knockdown enhances TM- and U0126-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. This sensitization of breast cancer cells to TM-induced apoptosis by inhibition of MEK/ERK and GRP78 is caspase-dependent, at least in part, by activation of caspase-4. These results seem to indicate that GRP78 has potential as a chemotherapeutical target and have important implications for new treatment strategies in breast cancer by combination with agents that induce ER stress with inhibitors of the MEK/ERK pathway.

Li S, Wang SM, Yang YB, Liu QO
[Effect of Viqi Chutan Recipe on Caspase-4 and DNA-PK of Cell Apoptosis Approach in Transplanted Lung Cancer A549 Cells in Nude Mice].
Zhong Yao Cai. 2015; 38(6):1247-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the inhibitory effect of Yiqi Chutan Recipe on the transplanted tumor through endoplasmic reticulum UPR-mediated approach.
METHODS: 40 lung cancer A549 cells models transplanted in nude mice were established. On the 7th day of inoculation, mice were randomly divided into model group( saline group) , Cisplatin group (0.002 g/kg), Yiqi Chutan Recipe low dose group (3.0 g/kg), Yiqi Chutan Recipe high dose group(6. 0 g/kg)and Yiqi Chutan Recipe (3.0 g/kg)with Cisplatin group (0.002 g/kg). Each aforementioned group had eight mice. Mice were treated by Yiqi Chutan Recipe to gavage one time a day, for 21 days, and by Cisplatin Injection to intraperitoneal injection one time a day, for 7 days. On the 22th day, all mice were executed to death. Then each tumor's weight and volume were measured, and the expression of Caspase-4 and DNA-PK protein were detected through immunohistochemical method and Western blot method.
RESULTS: Compared with model group, the tumors' volume and weight of Yiqi Chutan Recipe high dose group and Yiqi Chutan Recipe with Cisplatin group were decreased, but the expressions of Caspase-4 and DNA-PK protein in tumors were increased (P < 0.01). Yiqi Chutan Recipe with Cisplatin Group had the better effect (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Yiqi Chutan Recipe has a certain inhibitory effect on A549 lung cancer in mice and its possible mechanism is relevant to the increase of expression of Caspase-4 and DNA-PK protein.

Qu X, Fan L, Zhong T, et al.
The nematocysts venom of Chrysaora helvola Brandt leads to apoptosis-like cell death accompanied by uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.
Toxicon. 2016; 110:74-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present work investigated the effects of the nematocysts venom (NV) from the Chrysaora helvola Brandt (C. helvola) jellyfish on the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, CNE-2. The medium lethal concentration (LC50), quantified by MTT assays, was 1.7 ± 0.53 μg/mL (n = 5). An atypical apoptosis-like cell death was confirmed by LDH release assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining-based flow cytometry. Interestingly, activation of caspase-4 other than caspase-3, -8, -9 and -1 was observed. Moreover, the NV stimuli caused a time-dependent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) as was an intracellular ROS burst. These results indicated that there was uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (UOP). An examination of the intracellular pH value by a pH-sensitive fluorescent probe, BCECF, suggested that the UOP was due to the time-dependent increase in the intracellular pH. This is the first report that jellyfish venom can induce UOP.

El-Khattouti A, Selimovic D, Hannig M, et al.
Imiquimod-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells is mediated by ER stress-dependent Noxa induction and enhanced by NF-κB inhibition.
J Cell Mol Med. 2016; 20(2):266-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is characterized by dysregulated intracellular signalling pathways including an impairment of the cell death machinery, ultimately resulting in melanoma resistance, survival and progression. This explains the tumour's extraordinary resistance to the standard treatment. Imiquimod is a topical immune response modifier (imidazoquinoline) with both antiviral and antitumour activities. The mechanism by which imiquimod triggers the apoptosis of melanoma cells has now been carefully elucidated. Imiquimod-induced apoptosis is associated with the activation of apoptosis signalling regulating kinase1/c-Jun-N-terminal kinase/p38 pathways and the induction of endoplasmic stress characterized by the activation of the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase signalling pathway, increase in intracellular Ca(2+) release, degradation of calpain and subsequent cleavage of caspase-4. Moreover, imiquimod triggers the activation of NF-κB and the expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) such as, X-linked IAP (XIAP) together with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Also, imiquimod triggers mitochondrial dysregulation characterized by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the increase in cytochrome c release, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Inhibitors of specific pathways, permit the elucidation of possible mechanisms of imiquimod-induced apoptosis. They demonstrate that inhibition of NF-kB by the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase (IKK) inhibitor Bay 11-782 or knockdown of XIAP induces melanoma apoptosis in cells exposed to imiquimod. These findings support the use of either IKK inhibitors or IAP antagonists as adjuvant therapies to improve the effectiveness topical imiquimod in the treatment of melanoma.

Klieser E, Illig R, Státtner S, et al.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors is Linked to Clinicopathological Parameters and Possible Epigenetic Regulations.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(11):6127-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a highly-conserved cellular defense mechanism in response to perturbations of ER function. The role of ER stress in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) still remains unclear.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the protein expression pattern of the four key players of ER stress, (chaperone binding imunoglobluin protein (BiP), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and caspase 4) as well as histone deacetylases (HDACs) by a tissue microarray (TMA) of 49 human pNET resected between 1997 and 2013 following, extensive clinicopathological characterization.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical profiling revealed a significant up-regulation of BiP, ATF4, CHOP and caspase 4 in pNET cases compared to normal controls. Correlated to clinicopathological parameters especially BiP expression could be linked to higher grading and proliferation as well as to lower survival probability. Finally, expression of ER stress markers correlated with HDAC expression in situ and pharmalogical inhibition by panobinostat significantly reduced cell viability in vitro.
CONCLUSION: Up-regulation of ER stress in pNET indicates the presence and engagement of ER stress signaling in this tumor entity demonstrating another possible anticancer therapy option in pNET.

Yang ST, Huang AC, Tang NY, et al.
Bisdemethoxycurcumin-induced S phase arrest through the inhibition of cyclin A and E and induction of apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human lung cancer NCI H460 cells.
Environ Toxicol. 2016; 31(12):1899-1908 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcuminoids are the major natural phenolic compounds found in the rhizome of many Curcuma species. Curcuminoids consist of a mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC). Although numerous studies have shown that curcumin induced cell apoptosis in many human cancer cells, however, mechanisms of BDMC-inhibited cell growth and -induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells still remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the effect of BDMC on the cell death via the cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in NCI H460 human lung cancer cells. Flow cytometry assay was used to measure viable cells, cell cycle distribution, the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca

Wang LL, Hu RC, Dai AG, Tan SX
Bevacizumab induces A549 cell apoptosis through the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress in vitro.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(5):5291-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: To observe the effect of bevacizumab on human A549 cells and explore its mechanism.
METHODS: After different concentrations (0 μM, 1 μM, 5 μM, 25 μM) of bevacizumab treating in A549 cells, CCK8 assay detect the impact of bevacizumab on A549 cell proliferation and flow cytometry determine the effect of bevacizumab on human A549 cells apoptosis. Real-time PCR and Western blotting detect the changing expression of the target gene (CHOP, caspase-4, IRE1, XBP-1) on mRNA and Protein level.
RESULTS: Treatment with bevacizumab for 24-hr have induced cell death in a does-dependent manner dramatically (P<0.05). In terms of the mRNA level, expression of XBP-1 has increased obviously in each group (1 μM, 5 μM, 25 μM) (P<0.01); the expression of CHOP (25 μM) and caspase-4 (5 μM) have increased slightly (P<0.05). In terms of the protein level, the expression of CHOP has increased obviously in each group (1 μM, 5 μM, 25 μM) when compared with the control group (0 μM) (P<0.05). As for caspase-4 (5 μM, 25 μM), the expression have increased slightly when compared with the control group (0 μM) (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab can induce A549 cell apoptosis through the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Flood B, Oficjalska K, Laukens D, et al.
Altered expression of caspases-4 and -5 during inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer: Diagnostic and therapeutic potential.
Clin Exp Immunol. 2015; 181(1):39-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Caspases are a group of proteolytic enzymes involved in the co-ordination of cellular processes, including cellular homeostasis, inflammation and apoptosis. Altered activity of caspases, particularly caspase-1, has been implicated in the development of intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the involvement of two related inflammatory caspase members, caspases-4 and -5, during intestinal homeostasis and disease has not yet been established. This study demonstrates that caspases-4 and -5 are involved in IBD-associated intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, we found a clear correlation between stromal caspase-4 and -5 expression levels, inflammation and disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients. Deregulated intestinal inflammation in IBD patients is associated with an increased risk of developing CRC. We found robust expression of caspases-4 and -5 within intestinal epithelial cells, exclusively within neoplastic tissue, of colorectal tumours. An examination of adjacent normal, inflamed and tumour tissue from patients with colitis-associated CRC confirmed that stromal expression of caspases-4 and -5 is increased in inflamed and dysplastic tissue, while epithelial expression is restricted to neoplastic tissue. In addition to identifying caspases-4 and -5 as potential targets for limiting intestinal inflammation, this study has identified epithelial-expressed caspases-4 and -5 as biomarkers with diagnostic and therapeutic potential in CRC.

Zhang R, Wang R, Chen Q, Chang H
Inhibition of autophagy using 3-methyladenine increases cisplatin-induced apoptosis by increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress in U251 human glioma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(2):1727-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic drugs; however, the side effects and drug resistance limit its usage. Previous findings have demonstrated that cisplatin kills tumor cells through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which provides a novel method to minimize cisplatin toxicity and circumvent cisplatin resistance. ER stress induces cell autophagy, cell apoptosis and the complicated regulatory network between them. The role of autophagy in cisplatin chemotherapy remains to be elucidated. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is normally used as an inhibitor of autophagy. The present study reveals a significant role of the inhibition of autophagy by treatment with 3-MA and cisplatin in combination in U251 human glioma cells. It was demonstrated that cisplatin induced the ER stress associated with apoptosis and autophagy in U251 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA increased the expression levels of protein disulfide isomerase, ubiquitinated proteins, glucose regulated protein 78 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, and induced the activation of caspase-4 and caspase-3. Treatment with 3-MA combined with cisplatin increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis by increasing ER stress. Therefore, the inhibition of autophagy has the potential to improve cisplatin chemotherapy.

Ko YC, Lien JC, Liu HC, et al.
Demethoxycurcumin induces the apoptosis of human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(5):2429-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the US as well as other regions of the world. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) are the major components of Curcuma longa L. It has been reported that curcumin inhibits the growth of various types of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of cell growth and induced apoptosis by DMC in human lung cancer cells remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DMC on cell death via the induction of apoptosis in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells. Flow cytometric assay was used to examine the total percentage of viable cells, the population of cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca²⁺ production, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and caspase activity. Western blotting was used to examine the changes in the expression of cell cycle- and apoptosis-associated proteins. Confocal microscopy was used to examine the translocation of apoptosis-associated proteins. The results indicated that DMC significantly induced cell morphological changes and decreased the percentage of viable NCI-H460 cells and DMC induced apoptosis based on the cell distribution in the sub-G1 phase. Moreover, DMC promoted ROS and Ca²⁺ production and decreased the level of ΔΨm and promoted the activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9. The Western blotting results showed that DMC promoted the expression of AIF, Endo G and PARP. The levels of Fas ligand (Fas L) and Fas were also upregulated. Furthermore, DMC promoted expression of ER stress-associated proteins such as GRP78, GADD153, IRE1β, ATF-6α, ATF-6β and caspase-4. Based on the findings, we suggest that DMC may be used as a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of lung cancer in the future.

Ge W, Yin Q, Xian H
Wogonin Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Human Malignant Neuroblastoma Cells Via IRE1α-Dependent Pathway.
J Mol Neurosci. 2015; 56(3):652-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wogonin, a flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to exhibit a variety of biological effects including anti-cancer effects. It has a pro-apoptotic role in many cancer types. However, the molecular mechanisms of wogonin in treating neuroblastoma remain elusive. In the present study, two malignant neuroblastoma cell lines (SK-N-BE2 and IMR-32 cells) were treated with different doses of wogonin (0-150 μM). Wogonin showed significant cytotoxic effects in SK-N-BE2 and IMR-32 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of SK-N-BE2 and IMR-32 cells with 75 μΜ wogonin for 48 h significantly promoted apoptosis, the release of cytochrome c, altered the expression of certain members of Bcl-2 family (Bcl-2, Bax and Bid), and increased the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP-1, which demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of wogonin in SK-N-BE2 and IMR-32 cells is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, wogonin induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins (GRP78/Bip and GRP94/gp96) and activation of caspase-12 and caspase-4 in SK-N-BE2 and IMR-32 cells. In addition, wogonin increase the expression of IRE1α and TRAF2, and phosphorylation of ASK1 and JNK in SK-N-BE2 and IMR-32 cells. Knockdown of IRE1α by siRNA not only markedly inhibited wogonin-induced up-regulation of IRE1α and TRAF2, and phosphorylation of ASK1 and JNK but also reduced wogonin-induced cytotoxic effects and mitochondrial dysfunction in SK-N-BE2 and IMR-32 cells. These results indicated that wogonin could induce apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress in SK-N-BE2 and IMR-32 cells by modulating IRE1α-dependent pathway.

Yang HJ, Wang M, Wang L, et al.
NF-κB regulates caspase-4 expression and sensitizes neuroblastoma cells to Fas-induced apoptosis.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0117953 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Found in neurons and neuroblastoma cells, Fas-induced apoptosis and accompanied activation of NF-κB signaling were thought to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, the detailed functions of NF-κB activation in Fas killing and the effect of NF-κB activation on its downstream events remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that agonistic Fas antibody induces cell death in a dose-dependent way and NF-κB signaling is activated as well, in neuroblastoma cells SH-EP1. Unexpectedly, NF-κB activation was shown to be pro-apoptotic, as suggested by the reduction of Fas-induced cell death with either a dominant negative form of IκBα (DN-IκBα) or an IκB kinase-specific inhibitor. To our interest, when analyzing downstream events of NF-κB signaling, we found that DN-IκBα only suppressed the expression of caspase-4, but not other caspases. Vice versa, enhancement of NF-κB activity by p65 (RelA) overexpression increased the expression of caspase-4 at both mRNA and protein levels. More directly, results from dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated the regulation of caspase-4 promoter activity by NF-κB. When caspase-4 activity was blocked by its dominant negative (DN) form, Fas-induced cell death was substantially reduced. Consistently, the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 induced by Fas was also reduced. In contrast, the cleavage of caspase-8 remained unaffected in caspase-4 DN cells, although caspase-8 inhibitor could rescue Fas-induced cell death. Collectively, these data suggest that caspase-4 activity is required for Fas-induced cell apoptosis and caspase-4 may act upstream of PARP and caspase-3 and downstream of caspase-8. Overall, we demonstrate that NF-κB can mediate Fas-induced apoptosis through caspase-4 protease, indicating that caspase-4 is a new mediator of NF-κB pro-apoptotic pathway in neuroblastoma cells.

Kuo KL, Ho IL, Shi CS, et al.
MLN4924, a novel protein neddylation inhibitor, suppresses proliferation and migration of human urothelial carcinoma: In vitro and in vivo studies.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 363(2):127-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE), has been reported to elicit an anti-tumor effect on various malignancies. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of MLN4924 in human urothelial carcinoma (UC) in vitro and in vivo by using three human UC cell lines of various grading (T24, NTUB1 and RT4). The impact of MLN4924 on UC cells was determined by measuring viability (MTT), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), cell cycle progression (flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining) and apoptosis (flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC labeling). The cell cycle regulatory molecules, apoptosis-related molecules, and cell stress-related proteins were examined by Western blotting. The influence of tumor cell migration and invasion was analyzed by Transwell and wound healing assays. We also evaluated the effects of MLN4924 on tumor growth by a SCID xenograft mouse model. The data show that MLN4924 induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity, anti-proliferation, anti-migration, anti-invasion and apoptosis in human UC cells, accompanied by activations of Bad, phospho-histone H2A.X, caspase-3, 7 and PARP, decreased level of phospho-Bcl2, and caused cell cycle retardation at the G2M phase. Moreover, MLN4924 activated endoplasmic reticulum stress-related molecules (caspase-4, phospho-eIF2α, ATF-4 and CHOP) and other stress responses (JNK and c-Jun activations). Finally, we confirmed MLN4924 inhibited tumor growth in a UC xenograft mouse model with minimal general toxicity. We concluded that MLN4924 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, as well as activation of cell stress responses in human UC. These findings imply MLN4924 provides a novel strategy for the treatment of UC.

Kaku Y, Tsuchiya A, Kanno T, et al.
The newly synthesized anticancer drug HUHS1015 is useful for treatment of human gastric cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 75(3):527-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Naftopidil is clinically for treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia, and emerging evidence has pointed to its anticancer effect. To obtain the anticancer drug with the potential greater than that of naftopidil, we have newly synthesized the naftopidil analogue HUHS1015. The present study investigated the mechanism underlying HUHS1015-induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells and assessed the possibility for clinical use as an innovative anticancer drug. HUHS1015 reduced cell viability for MKN28 human well-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma cell line and MKN45 human poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma cell line in a concentration (0.3-100 μM)-dependent manner more effectively than cisplatin, a chemo-drug widely used. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V, HUHS1015 significantly increased the population of PI-positive and annexin V-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis and that of PI-positive and annexin V-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, both in the two cell types. HUHS1015 significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-4, and caspase-8 in MKN45 cells, while no obvious caspase activation was found in MKN28 cells. HUHS1015 upregulated expression of the tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) mRNA and protein in MKN45 cells, allowing activation of caspase-8 through TNF receptor and the effector caspase-3. HUHS1015 clearly inhibited tumor growth in mice inoculated with MKN45 cells, with the survival rate higher than that for the anticancer drugs cisplatin, paclitaxel, and irinotecan. The results of the present study show that HUHS1015 induces caspase-independent and caspase-dependent apoptosis of MKN28 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells, respectively, and effectively suppresses MKN45 cell proliferation.

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