CD27

Gene Summary

Gene:CD27; CD27 molecule
Aliases: T14, S152, Tp55, TNFRSF7, S152. LPFS2
Location:12p13.31
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor is required for generation and long-term maintenance of T cell immunity. It binds to ligand CD70, and plays a key role in regulating B-cell activation and immunoglobulin synthesis. This receptor transduces signals that lead to the activation of NF-kappaB and MAPK8/JNK. Adaptor proteins TRAF2 and TRAF5 have been shown to mediate the signaling process of this receptor. CD27-binding protein (SIVA), a proapoptotic protein, can bind to this receptor and is thought to play an important role in the apoptosis induced by this receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CD27 antigen
Source:NCBIAccessed: 10 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Adolescents
  • Melanoma
  • CD Antigens
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Flow Cytometry
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Antigens, CD70
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
  • Chromosome 12
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • T-Cell Antigen Receptors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Immunologic Memory
  • RTPCR
  • FISH
  • Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Antigens, CD38
  • Signal Transduction
  • Apoptosis
  • Antigens, CD27
  • Phenotype
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Skin Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Remission Induction
  • Immunoglobulin Variable Region
  • B-Lymphocyte Subsets
  • Uniparental Disomy
  • Antigens, Surface
Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD27 (cancer-related)

Li L, Han C, Chen FX, et al.
Expression of CD27, CD28 and IL-17A in peripheral blood from patients with colorectal carcinoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(4):642-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To compare the different expressions of CD27, CD28, IL-17A, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the peripheral blood sampled from patients with colorectal carcinoma and healthy volunteers.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Vδ2 T cells were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with the colorectal carcinoma (CRC, n = 30) and healthy controls (HC, n = 21). The proportion of CD27, CD28, IL-17A, IFN-γ and TNF-α of Vδ2 T cells was detected by the flow cytometry.
RESULTS: We found that the proportion of IL-17A of Vδ2 T cells in PBMCs was higher in the CRC vs. the HC group (p < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was observed between the expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α of Vδ2 T cells. In the CRC patients, the proportions of IL-17A of CD27- Vδ2 T cells and CD28+ Vδ2 T cells were higher than those of CD27+ Vδ2 T cells and CD28- Vδ2 T cells, whereas the expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α of CD27-Vδ2 T cells was lower than that of CD27+ Vδ2 T cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Vδ2 T cells from PBMCs had higher expression of IL-17A in CRC patients than that in the HC group. The expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α of Vδ2 T cells from PBMCs was positively correlated. The cytokine profiles of peripheral Vδ2 T cells were likely determined by a CD27 and CD28 involving mechanism.

Kwon OS, Oh E, Park JR, et al.
GalNAc-T14 promotes metastasis through Wnt dependent HOXB9 expression in lung adenocarcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(39):41916-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While metastasis, the main cause of lung cancer-related death, has been extensively studied, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. A previous clinicogenomic study revealed that expression of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T14), is highly inversely correlated with recurrence-free survival in those with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) has not been determined. Here, we showed that GalNAc-T14 expression was positively associated with the invasive phenotype. Microarray and biochemical analyses revealed that HOXB9, the expression of which was increased in a GalNAc-T14-dependent manner, played an important role in metastasis. GalNAc-T14 increased the sensitivity of the WNT response and increased the stability of the β-catenin protein, leading to induced expression of HOXB9 and acquisition of an invasive phenotype. Pharmacological inhibition of β-catenin in GalNAc-T14-expressing cancer cells suppressed HOXB9 expression and invasion. A meta-analysis of clinical genomics data revealed that expression of GalNAc-T14 or HOXB9 was strongly correlated with reduced recurrence-free survival and increased hazard risk, suggesting that targeting β-catenin within the GalNAc-T14/WNT/HOXB9 axis may be a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit metastasis in NSCLC.

Schutsky K, Song DG, Lynn R, et al.
Rigorous optimization and validation of potent RNA CAR T cell therapy for the treatment of common epithelial cancers expressing folate receptor.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(30):28911-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Using lentiviral technology, we recently demonstrated that incorporation of CD27 costimulation into CARs greatly improves antitumor activity and T cell persistence. Still, virus-mediated gene transfer is expensive, laborious and enables long-term persistence, creating therapies which cannot be easily discontinued if toxic. To address these concerns, we utilized a non-integrating RNA platform to engineer human T cells to express FRα-specific, CD27 CARs and tested their capacity to eliminate human FRα(+) cancer. Novel CARs comprised of human components were constructed, C4-27z and C4opt-27z, a codon-optimized variant created for efficient expression. Following RNA electroporation, C4-27z and C4opt-27z CAR expression is initially ubiquitous but progressively declines across T cell populations. In addition, C4-27z and C4opt-27z RNA CAR T cells secrete high levels of Th-1 cytokines and display strong cytolytic function against human FRα(+) cancers in a time- and antigen-dependent manner. Further, C4-27z and C4opt-27z CAR T cells exhibit significant proliferation in vivo, facilitate the complete regression of fully disseminated human ovarian cancer xenografts in mice and reduce the progression of solid ovarian cancer. These results advocate for rapid progression of C4opt-27z RNA CAR to the clinic and establish a new paradigm for preclinical optimization and validation of RNA CAR candidates destined for clinical translation.

Mensen A, Oh Y, Becker SC, et al.
Apoptosis Susceptibility Prolongs the Lack of Memory B Cells in Acute Leukemic Patients After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015; 21(11):1895-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long-term survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation requires intact immunosurveillance, which is hampered by lymphoid organ damage associated with conditioning therapy, graft-versus-host disease, and immunosuppression. Our study aimed to identify the mechanisms contributing to sustained low memory B cell numbers after transplantation. Peripheral B and T cell subset recovery and functional marker expression were investigated in 35 acute leukemic patients up to 1 year after transplantation. Apoptosis of B cells after CD40/TLR-9, CD40/BCR, and CD40/BCR/TLR-9-dependent stimulation and drug efflux capacity were analyzed. One half of the patients suffered from infections after day 180. All patients had strongly diminished CD27(+) memory B cells despite already normalized total B cell numbers and fully recovered CD27(-)IgD(-) memory B cells, putatively of extra-follicular origin. Circulating memory follicular helper T cells were reduced in the majority of patients as well. Naïve B cells exhibited a decreased expression of CXCR5, which mediates follicular B cell entry. Additionally, a lower HLA-DR expression was found on naïve B cells, impairing antigen presentation. Upon CD40/TLR-9-dependent activation, B cells underwent significantly increased apoptosis paralleled by an aberrant up-regulation of Fas-L on activated T cells and Fas on resting B cells. Significantly increased B cell apoptosis was also observed after CD40/BCR and CD40/BCR/TLR-9-dependent activation. Drug efflux capacity of naïve B cells was diminished in cyclosporin A-treated patients, additionally contributing to an apoptosis-prone phenotype. We conclude that B cell survival and migration and T cell communication defects are contributing candidates for an impaired germinal center formation of memory B cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Follow-up studies should evaluate effectiveness of revaccinations on the cellular level and should address the long-term sequelae of B cell defects after transplantation.

Flores-Montero J, de Tute R, Paiva B, et al.
Immunophenotype of normal vs. myeloma plasma cells: Toward antibody panel specifications for MRD detection in multiple myeloma.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2016; 90(1):61-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, several studies on large series of multiple myeloma (MM) patients have demonstrated the clinical utility of flow cytometry monitoring of minimal residual disease (flow-MRD) in bone marrow (BM), for improved assessment of response to therapy and prognostication. However, disturbing levels of variability exist regarding the specific protocols and antibody panels used in individual laboratories. Overall, consensus exists about the utility of combined assessment of CD38 and CD138 for the identification of BM plasma cells (PC); in contrast, more heterogeneous lists of markers are used to further distinguish between normal/reactive PCs and myeloma PCs in the MRD settings. Among the later markers, CD19, CD45, CD27, and CD81, together with CD56, CD117, CD200, and CD307, have emerged as particularly informative; however, no single marker provides enough specificity for clear discrimination between clonal PCs and normal PCs. Accordingly, multivariate analyses of single PCs from large series of normal/reactive vs. myeloma BM samples have shown that combined assessment of CD138 and CD38, together with CD45, CD19, CD56, CD27, CD81, and CD117 would be ideally suited for MRD monitoring in virtually every MM patient. However, the specific antibody clones, fluorochrome conjugates and sources of the individual markers determines its optimal (vs. suboptimal or poor) performance in an eight-color staining. Assessment of clonality, via additional cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (CyIg) κ vs. CyIgλ evaluation, may contribute to further establish the normal/reactive vs. clonal nature of small suspicious PC populations at high sensitivity levels, provided that enough cells are evaluated.

Masamoto I, Yoshimitsu M, Kuroki A, et al.
Clinical significance of CD70 expression on T cells in human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 carriers and adult T cell leukemia/ lymphoma patients.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2016; 57(3):685-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Miscellaneous host immune surveillance systems control T-cell growth/leukemogenesis during HTLV-1 infection. We characterized CD70 and CD27 expression on lymphocytes of HTLV-1 carriers and patients with ATL (study approved by the local Medical Ethical Committee). High CD70 expression was observed on CD4 + CD25+ T cells from patients with acute-type ATL, while patients with smoldering- or chronic-type ATL and HTLV-1 carriers exhibited lower expression. Furthermore, significantly higher CD27 expression was observed on HTLV-1-specific CTLs. We found an association between CD70 expression on CD4 + T cells and HTLV-1 infection; increased CD70 expression was observed after exposure to Tax. Moreover, addition of anti-CD70 antibodies enhanced the CD107a surface mobilization of HTLV-1 Tax-specific CTLs following Tax-peptide stimulation in the PBMCs of carriers. These data demonstrate the important role of the CD70/CD27 axis in immune responses in HTLV-1 carriers and ATL patients.

Treon SP
How I treat Waldenström macroglobulinemia.
Blood. 2015; 126(6):721-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a B-cell neoplasm manifested by the accumulation of clonal immunoglobulin (Ig)M-secreting lymphoplasmacytic cells. MYD88 and CXCR4 warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis syndrome-like somatic mutations are present in >90% and 30% to 35% of WM patients, respectively, and impact disease presentation, treatment outcome, and overall survival. Familial predisposition is common in WM. Asymptomatic patients should be observed. Patients with disease-related hemoglobin <10 g/L, platelets <100 × 10(9)/L, bulky adenopathy and/or organomegaly, symptomatic hyperviscosity, peripheral neuropathy, amyloidosis, cryoglobulinemia, cold-agglutinin disease, or transformed disease should be considered for therapy. Plasmapheresis should be used for patients with symptomatic hyperviscosity and before rituximab for those with high serum IgM levels to preempt a symptomatic IgM flare. Treatment choice should take into account specific goals of therapy, necessity for rapid disease control, risk of treatment-related neuropathy, immunosuppression and secondary malignancies, and planning for future autologous stem cell transplantation. Frontline treatments include rituximab alone or rituximab combined with alkylators (bendamustine and cyclophosphamide), proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib), nucleoside analogs (fludarabine and cladribine), and ibrutinib. In the salvage setting, an alternative frontline regimen, ibrutinib, everolimus, or stem cell transplantation can be considered. Investigational therapies under development for WM include agents that target MYD88, CXCR4, BCL2, and CD27/CD70 signaling, novel proteasome inhibitors, and chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell therapy.

Li F, Xu Y, Deng P, et al.
Heterogeneous chromosome 12p deletion is an independent adverse prognostic factor and resistant to bortezomib-based therapy in multiple myeloma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(11):9434-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The deletion of 12p (del(12p)) has been described as a novel negative prognostic marker in multiple myeloma (MM) and has gained increasing attention in recent years. However, its impact on MM is still controversial. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the clinical impact of 12p13 deletion using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on 275 newly diagnosed MM cases treated in a prospective, non-randomized clinical trial (BDH 2008/02). The results showed that deletion of 12p13 was detected in 10.5% of newly diagnosed cases and associated with multiple indicators for high tumor burden including ISS III, BM plasmacytosis larger than 50%, and renal lesion. Moreover, the cases with 12p13 deletion typically had higher incidence of del(17p), IGH translocation and t(4;14). Patients with del(12p) conferred significantly adverse prognosis for PFS and OS, even in patients subjected to bortezomib-based therapy. When adjusted to the established prognostic variables including del(13q), del(17p), t(4;14), amp(1q21), ISS stage and LDH, del(12p13) remained the powerful independent adverse factor for PFS (P = 0.007) and OS (P = 0.032). In addition, del(12p13) combined with high β2-MG, high LDH and bone lesion can further identify subpopulations with high-risk features. Our results strongly supported that del(12p13) can be used as a valuable prognostic marker in MM.

Hansmann L, Blum L, Ju CH, et al.
Mass cytometry analysis shows that a novel memory phenotype B cell is expanded in multiple myeloma.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(6):650-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It would be very beneficial if the status of cancers could be determined from a blood specimen. However, peripheral blood leukocytes are very heterogeneous between individuals, and thus high-resolution technologies are likely required. We used cytometry by time-of-flight and next-generation sequencing to ask whether a plasma cell cancer (multiple myeloma) and related precancerous states had any consistent effect on the peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotypes of patients. Analysis of peripheral blood samples from 13 cancer patients, 9 precancer patients, and 9 healthy individuals revealed significant differences in the frequencies of the T-cell, B-cell, and natural killer-cell compartments. Most strikingly, we identified a novel B-cell population that normally accounts for 4.0% ± 0.7% (mean ± SD) of total B cells and is up to 13-fold expanded in multiple myeloma patients with active disease. This population expressed markers previously associated with both memory (CD27(+)) and naïve (CD24(lo)CD38(+)) phenotypes. Single-cell immunoglobulin gene sequencing showed polyclonality, indicating that these cells are not precursors to the myeloma, and somatic mutations, a characteristic of memory cells. SYK, ERK, and p38 phosphorylation responses, and the fact that most of these cells expressed isotypes other than IgM or IgD, confirmed the memory character of this population, defining it as a novel type of memory B cells.

Ruf M, Mittmann C, Nowicka AM, et al.
pVHL/HIF-regulated CD70 expression is associated with infiltration of CD27+ lymphocytes and increased serum levels of soluble CD27 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(4):889-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: CD70, a member of the TNF ligand superfamily, has been shown frequently overexpressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The mechanisms of CD70's upregulation and its role in ccRCC are unknown.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CD70 expression was immunohistochemically analyzed in 667 RCCs and RCC metastases. Von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) mutations, expression patterns of VHL protein (pVHL), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) α, and several HIF targets were studied in tissues and cell lines and correlated with CD70 overexpression. Gene promoter analysis was performed to confirm CD70 as HIF target gene. Consecutive tissue sections were immunostained to reveal the relation between CD70-expressing RCCs and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes positive for the CD70 receptor (CD27). CD70-mediated release of soluble CD27 in RCC was assessed by coculture experiments and sera analysis of patients with RCC.
RESULTS: Elevated CD70 expression was seen in 80% of primary tumors and metastases of ccRCC and correlated with dysregulation of the pVHL/HIF pathway. In vitro analyses demonstrated that CD70 upregulation is driven by HIF. Furthermore, CD27(+) lymphocytes preferentially infiltrate CD70-expressing ccRCCs. CD70-dependent release of soluble CD27 in cocultures may explain the high CD27 levels observed in sera of patients with CD70-expressing ccRCC. The combination of lymphocyte infiltration and CD70 expression in RCC was associated with worse patient outcome.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that in ccRCC, CD70 expression is regulated by HIF as a consequence of pVHL inactivation. Increased serum levels of CD27 suggest the existence of CD70-expressing ccRCC, thus representing a potential serum marker for patients suffering from this disease.

Sudo M, Mori S, Madan V, et al.
Short-hairpin RNA library: identification of therapeutic partners for gefitinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(2):814-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor often cause resistance to therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to identify partner drugs and pathways that can induce cell death in combination with gefitinib in NSCLC cells. We undertook a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify synthetic lethality with gefitinib in tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistant cells. The screening data were utilized in different approaches. Firstly, we identified PRKCSH as a candidate gene, silencing of which induces apoptosis of NSCLC cells treated with gefitinib. Next, in an in silico gene signature pathway analysis of shRNA library data, a strong correlation of genes involved in the CD27 signaling cascade was observed. We showed that the combination of dasatinib (NF-κB pathway inhibitor) with gefitinib synergistically inhibited the growth of NSCLC cells. Lastly, utilizing the Connectivity Map, thioridazine was identified as a top pharmaceutical perturbagen. In our experiments, it synergized with gefitinib to reduce p-Akt levels and to induce apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Taken together, a pooled short-hairpin library screen identified several potential pathways and drugs that can be therapeutic targets for gefitinib resistant NSCLC.

Zhou L, Zhang Y, Chen S, et al.
A regimen combining the Wee1 inhibitor AZD1775 with HDAC inhibitors targets human acute myeloid leukemia cells harboring various genetic mutations.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(4):807-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AZD1775 targets the cell cycle checkpoint kinase Wee1 and potentiates genotoxic agent cytotoxicity through p53-dependent or -independent mechanisms. Here, we report that AZD1775 interacted synergistically with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs, for example, Vorinostat), which interrupt the DNA damage response, to kill p53-wild type (wt) or -deficient as well as FLT3-ITD leukemia cells in association with pronounced Wee1 inhibition and diminished cdc2/Cdk1 Y15 phosphorylation. Similarly, Wee1 shRNA knockdown significantly sensitized cells to HDACIs. Although AZD1775 induced Chk1 activation, reflected by markedly increased Chk1 S296/S317/S345 phosphorylation leading to inhibitory T14 phosphorylation of cdc2/Cdk1, these compensatory responses were sharply abrogated by HDACIs. This was accompanied by premature mitotic entry, multiple mitotic abnormalities and accumulation of early S-phase cells displaying increased newly replicated DNA, culminating in robust DNA damage and apoptosis. The regimen was active against patient-derived acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells harboring either wt or mutant p53 and various next-generation sequencing-defined mutations. Primitive CD34(+)/CD123(+)/CD38(-) populations enriched for leukemia-initiating progenitors, but not normal CD34(+) hematopoietic cells, were highly susceptible to this regimen. Finally, combining AZD1775 with Vorinostat in AML murine xenografts significantly reduced tumor burden and prolonged animal survival. A strategy combining Wee1 with HDACI inhibition warrants further investigation in AML with poor prognostic genetic aberrations.

Gomez-Eerland R, Nuijen B, Heemskerk B, et al.
Manufacture of gene-modified human T-cells with a memory stem/central memory phenotype.
Hum Gene Ther Methods. 2014; 25(5):277-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Advances in genetic engineering have made it possible to generate human T-cell products that carry desired functionalities, such as the ability to recognize cancer cells. The currently used strategies for the generation of gene-modified T-cell products lead to highly differentiated cells within the infusion product, and on the basis of data obtained in preclinical models, this is likely to impact the efficacy of these products. We set out to develop a good manufacturing practice (GMP) protocol that yields T-cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T-cells with more favorable properties for clinical application. Here, we show the robust clinical-scale production of human peripheral blood T-cells with an early memory phenotype that express a MART-1-specific TCR. By combining selection and stimulation using anti-CD3/CD28 beads for retroviral transduction, followed by expansion in the presence of IL-7 and IL-15, production of a well-defined clinical-scale TCR gene-modified T-cell product could be achieved. A major fraction of the T-cells generated in this fashion were shown to coexpress CD62L and CD45RA, and express CD27 and CD28, indicating a central memory or memory stemlike phenotype. Furthermore, these cells produced IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-2 and displayed cytolytic activity against target cells expressing the relevant antigen. The T-cell products manufactured by this robust and validated GMP production process are now undergoing testing in a phase I/IIa clinical trial in HLA-A*02:01 MART-1-positive advanced stage melanoma patients. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial protocol in which the combination of IL-7 and IL-15 has been applied for the generation of gene-modified T-cell products.

Paíno T, Sarasquete ME, Paiva B, et al.
Phenotypic, genomic and functional characterization reveals no differences between CD138++ and CD138low subpopulations in multiple myeloma cell lines.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92378 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), it remains an incurable disease potentially due to the presence of resistant myeloma cancer stem cells (MM-CSC). Although the presence of clonogenic cells in MM was described three decades ago, the phenotype of MM-CSC is still controversial, especially with respect to the expression of syndecan-1 (CD138). Here, we demonstrate the presence of two subpopulations--CD138++ (95-99%) and CD138low (1-5%)--in eight MM cell lines. To find out possible stem-cell-like features, we have phenotypically, genomic and functionally characterized the two subpopulations. Our results show that the minor CD138low subpopulation is morphologically identical to the CD138++ fraction and does not represent a more immature B-cell compartment (with lack of CD19, CD20 and CD27 expression). Moreover, both subpopulations have similar gene expression and genomic profiles. Importantly, both CD138++ and CD138low subpopulations have similar sensitivity to bortezomib, melphalan and doxorubicin. Finally, serial engraftment in CB17-SCID mice shows that CD138++ as well as CD138low cells have self-renewal potential and they are phenotypically interconvertible. Overall, our results differ from previously published data in MM cell lines which attribute a B-cell phenotype to MM-CSC. Future characterization of clonal plasma cell subpopulations in MM patients' samples will guarantee the discovery of more reliable markers able to discriminate true clonogenic myeloma cells.

Yang ZZ, Grote DM, Xiu B, et al.
TGF-β upregulates CD70 expression and induces exhaustion of effector memory T cells in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(9):1872-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has an important role in mediating T-cell suppression in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, the underlying mechanism responsible for TGF-β-mediated inhibition of effector memory T (Tm) cells is largely unknown. As reported here, we show that exhaustion is a major mechanism by which TGF-β inhibits Tm cells, and TGF-β mediated exhaustion is associated with upregulation of CD70. We found that TGF-β upregulates CD70 expression on effector Tm cells while it preferentially induces Foxp3 expression in naive T cells. CD70 induction by TGF-β is Smad3-dependent and involves IL-2/Stat5 signaling. CD70+ T cells account for TGF-β-induced exhaustion of effector Tm cells. Both TGF-β-induced and preexisting intratumoral CD70+ effector Tm cells from B-cell NHL have an exhausted phenotype and express higher levels of PD-1 and TIM-3 compared with CD70- T cells. Signaling transduction, proliferation and cytokine production are profoundly decreased in these cells, and they are highly susceptible to apoptosis. Clinically, intratumoral CD70-expressing T cells are prevalent in follicular B-cell lymphoma (FL) biopsy specimens, and increased numbers of intratumoral CD70+ T cells correlate with an inferior patient outcome. These findings confirm TGF-β-mediated effector Tm cell exhaustion as an important mechanism of immune suppression in B-cell NHL.

Ishikawa T, Kokura S, Enoki T, et al.
Phase I clinical trial of fibronectin CH296-stimulated T cell therapy in patients with advanced cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e83786 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that less-differentiated T cells are ideal for adoptive T cell transfer therapy (ACT) and that fibronectin CH296 (FN-CH296) together with anti-CD3 resulted in cultured cells that contain higher amounts of less-differentiated T cells. In this phase I clinical trial, we build on these prior results by assessing the safety and efficacy of FN-CH296 stimulated T cell therapy in patients with advanced cancer.
METHODS: Patients underwent fibronectin CH296-stimulated T cell therapy up to six times every two weeks and the safety and antitumor activity of the ACT were assessed. In order to determine immune function, whole blood cytokine levels and the number of peripheral regulatory T cells were analyzed prior to ACT and during the follow up.
RESULTS: Transferred cells contained numerous less-differentiated T cells greatly represented by CD27+CD45RA+ or CD28+CD45RA+ cell, which accounted for approximately 65% and 70% of the total, respectively. No ACT related severe or unexpected toxicities were observed. The response rate among patients was 22.2% and the disease control rate was 66.7%.
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this phase I trial, indicate that FN-CH296 stimulated T cell therapy was very well tolerated with a level of efficacy that is quite promising. We also surmise that expanding T cell using CH296 is a method that can be applied to other T- cell-based therapies.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN UMIN000001835.

Tanaka Y, Yamazaki R, Terasako-Saito K, et al.
Universal cytotoxic activity of a HTLV-1 Tax-specific T cell clone from an HLA-A*24:02⁺ patient with adult T-cell leukemia against a variety of HTLV-I-infected T-cells.
Immunol Lett. 2014 Mar-Apr; 158(1-2):120-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive mature T cell malignancy that is causally associated with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The HTLV-1 regulatory protein Tax aggressively accelerates the proliferation of host cells and is also an important target antigen for CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). We previously reported that several predominant HLA-A*24:02-restricted HTLV-1 Tax301-309-specific CTL clones commonly expressed a particular amino acid sequence motif (P-D-R) in complementarity-determining region 3 of T-cell receptor (TCR)-β chain among unrelated ATL patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Furthermore, a PDR-motif(+) CTL clone persistently existed in a long-term survivor as a central CTL clone with strong CTL activities after HSCT. Although a larger analysis of the relationship between PDR-motif(+) CTLs and the clinical course is required, the expression of PDR-motif(+) TCR on CD8(+) T cells may play a critical role in the management of anti-HTLV-1 activities for HLA-A24:02(+) ATL patients. Therefore, in this study, we prepared an HTLV-1 Tax301-309 peptide-specific CTL clone (HT-9) expressing PDR-motif(+) TCR isolated from a long-term survivor after HSCT, and evaluated its CTL activity against a variety of HTLV-1-infected T-cells from HLA-A*24:02(+) ATL patients. Before the assay of CTL function, we confirmed that HT-9 expressed less-differentiated effector-memory phenotypes (CD45RA(-)CCR7(-)CD27(+)CD28(+/-)CD57(+/-)) and T-cell exhaustion marker PD-1(+). In assays of CTL function, HT-9 recognized HTLV-1 Tax in an HLA-restricted fashion and demonstrated strong CTL activities against a variety of HTLV-1-infected T-cells from HLA-A*24:02(+) ATL patients regardless of whether the sources were autologous or allogeneic, but not normal cells. These data indicate that PDR-motif(+) TCR could be an important TCR candidate for TCR-gene immunotherapy for HLA-A24:02(+) ATL patients, provided that the CTL activities against HTLV-1 are reproduced in in vivo experiments using mouse models.

Iancu EM, Gannon PO, Laurent J, et al.
Persistence of EBV antigen-specific CD8 T cell clonotypes during homeostatic immune reconstitution in cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e78686 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Persistent viruses are kept in check by specific lymphocytes. The clonal T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), once established following primary infection, exhibits a robust stability over time. However, the determinants contributing to this long-term persistence are still poorly characterized. Taking advantage of an in vivo clinical setting where lymphocyte homeostasis was transiently perturbed, we studied EBV antigen-specific CD8 T cells before and after non-myeloablative lympho-depleting chemotherapy of melanoma patients. Despite more advanced T cell differentiation, patients T cells showed clonal composition comparable to healthy individuals, sharing a preference for TRBV20 and TRBV29 gene segment usage and several co-dominant public TCR clonotypes. Moreover, our data revealed the presence of relatively few dominant EBV antigen-specific T cell clonotypes, which mostly persisted following transient lympho-depletion (TLD) and lymphocyte recovery, likely related to absence of EBV reactivation and de novo T cell priming in these patients. Interestingly, persisting clonotypes frequently co-expressed memory/homing-associated genes (CD27, IL7R, EOMES, CD62L/SELL and CCR5) supporting the notion that they are particularly important for long-lasting CD8 T cell responses. Nevertheless, the clonal composition of EBV-specific CD8 T cells was preserved over time with the presence of the same dominant clonotypes after non-myeloablative chemotherapy. The observed clonotype persistence demonstrates high robustness of CD8 T cell homeostasis and reconstitution.

Randen U, Trøen G, Tierens A, et al.
Primary cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease: a B-cell lymphoma of the bone marrow distinct from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(3):497-504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease is a rare hemolytic disease mediated by monoclonal IGHV4-34-encoded cold agglutinins with a predominant specificity for the blood group antigen I. Bone marrow from 54 patients was studied to type the underlying lymphoproliferative disorder better. Bone marrow biopsies showed circumscribed intra-parenchymatous nodules with small monotonous monoclonal B cells in 40/54 patients (median infiltration: 10% of marrow cells) with a CD20(+), IgMs(+), IgDs(+), CD27(+), CD5(-/+), CD11c(-), CD23(-), CD38(-) immunophenotype. Neither plasmacytoid cytological features nor expression of plasma cell differentiation-associated transcription factors MUM1, XBP1 and BLIMP1 were noted in these B cells. However, a limited number of mature monoclonal IgM(+), IgD(-) plasma cells were present outside the lymphoid nodules and were diffusely scattered throughout the marrow. Of interest, the MYD88 L265P mutation, typical of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, was not detected (17/17 cases). Somatically mutated monoclonal IGHV4-34 gene rearrangement was demonstrated in eight patients with frozen samples (mean sequence homology 95.4%). However, mutations of BCL6 intron 1 were not demonstrated, except in one patient, suggesting that the lymphoma cells had not matured in the germinal center. In conclusion, cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease displays homogeneous histological and immunophenotypic features. The absence of plasmacytoid cells, the presence of plasma cells predominantly outside the nodular lymphoid infiltrates, IGHV4-34 restriction and absence of MYD88 L265P mutation strongly suggest that cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease is a distinct entity that is different from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.

Antczak A, Pastuszak-Lewandoska D, Górski P, et al.
Ctla-4 expression and polymorphisms in lung tissue of patients with diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:576486 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a potent immunoregulatory molecule that downregulates T-cell activation and thus influences the antitumor immune response. CTLA-4 polymorphisms are associated with various cancers, and CTLA-4 mRNA/protein increased expression is found in several tumor types. However, most of the studies are based on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and much less is known about the relationship between CTLA-4 expression, especially gene expression, and its polymorphic variants in cancer tissue. In our study we assessed the distribution of CTLA-4 two polymorphisms (+49A/G and -318C/T), using TaqMan probes (rs231775 and rs5742909, resp.), and CTLA-4 gene expression in real-time PCR assay in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue samples. The increased CTLA-4 expression was observed in the majority of NSCLC patients, and it was significantly correlated with TT genotype (-318C/T) and with tumor size (T2 versus T3 + T4). The presence of G allele and GG genotype in cancer tissue (+49A/G) was significantly associated with the increased NSCLC risk. Additionally, we compared genotype distributions in the corresponding tumor and blood samples and found statistically significant differences. The shift from one genotype in the blood to another in the tumor may confirm the complexity of gene functionality in cancer tissue.

Thiago LS, Perez-Andres M, Balanzategui A, et al.
Circulating clonotypic B cells in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(1):155-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The B-cell compartment in which multiple myeloma stem cells reside remains unclear. We investigated the potential presence of mature, surface-membrane immunoglobulin-positive B lymphocytes clonally related to the tumor bone marrow plasma cells among different subsets of peripheral blood B cells from ten patients (7 with multiple myeloma and 3 with monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance). The presence of clonotypic immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements was determined in multiple highly-purified fractions of peripheral blood B-lymphocytes including surface-membrane IgM(+) CD27(-) naïve B-lymphocytes, plus surface-membrane IgG(+), IgA(+) and IgM(+) memory CD27(+) B cells, and normal circulating plasma cells, in addition to (mono)clonal plasma cells, by a highly-specific and sensitive allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction directed to the CDR3 sequence of the rearranged IGH gene of tumor plasma cells from individual patients. Our results showed systematic absence of clonotypic rearrangements in all the different B-cell subsets analyzed, including M-component isotype-matched memory B-lymphocytes, at frequencies <0.03 cells/μL (range: 0.0003-0.08 cells/μL); the only exception were the myeloma plasma cells detected and purified from the peripheral blood of four of the seven myeloma patients. These results indicate that circulating B cells from patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance are usually devoid of clonotypic B cells while the presence of immunophenotypically aberrant myeloma plasma cells in peripheral blood of myeloma patients is a relatively frequent finding.

Lohneis P, Wienert S, Klauschen F, et al.
Marginal zone lymphomas with monocytoid morphology express T-bet and are associated with a low number of T cells in extranodal locations.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(1):143-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of tumor cells with monocytoid morphology in marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) has been described previously. Reactive monocytoid B cells bear a distinct immunophenotype and typically express T-bet, which clearly distinguishes them from nodal marginal zone B cells. The latter are positive for CD27 and negative for T-bet. We analyzed 74 MZLs for the expression of T-bet and correlated these results with the presence of monocytoid morphology. Expression of T-bet correlated with the presence of monocytoid morphology in MZLs. In analogy to reactive monocytoid B lymphocytes, we also found a significantly lower relative amount of intratumoral T lymphocytes in extranodal MZL with monocytoid morphology.

Ligocki AJ, Rounds WH, Cameron EM, et al.
Expansion of CD27high plasmablasts in transverse myelitis patients that utilize VH4 and JH6 genes and undergo extensive somatic hypermutation.
Genes Immun. 2013 Jul-Aug; 14(5):291-301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Patients with the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) typically present with the clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) transverse myelitis (TM) or optic neuritis (ON). B-cell disturbances have been well documented in patients with MS and CIS patients with ON, but not in CIS patients with TM, despite the fact that these patients have the worst clinical outcome of all CIS types. The goal of this study was to characterize the B-cell populations and immunoglobulin genetics in TM patients. We found a unique expansion of CD27(high) plasmablasts in both the cerebrospinal fluid and periphery of TM patients that is not present in ON patients. Additionally, plasmablasts from TM patients show evidence for positive selection with increased somatic hypermutation accumulation in VH4(+) B cells and receptor editing that is not observed in ON patients. These characteristics unique to TM patients may impact disease severity and progression.

Poulain S, Roumier C, Decambron A, et al.
MYD88 L265P mutation in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia.
Blood. 2013; 121(22):4504-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutation of the MYD88 gene has recently been identified in activated B-cell-like diffuse cell lymphoma and enhanced Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. A whole exome-sequencing study of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) suggested a high frequency of MYD88 L265P mutation in WM. The genetic background is not fully deciphered in WM, although the role of NF-κB and JAK-STAT has been demonstrated. We analyzed MYD88 mutation in exon 5 and characterized the clinical significance of this genetic alteration in 67 WM patients. Clinical features; immunophenotypic markers; and conventional cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and single nucleotide polymorphism array data were analyzed. MYD88 L265P mutation was acquired in 79% of patients. Overall, we have identified alteration of the MYD88 locus in 91% of WM patients, including 12% with gain on chromosome 3 at the 3p22 locus that included the MYD88 gene. Patients with absence of MYD88 mutation were WM characterized with a female predominance, a splenomegaly, gain of chromosome 3, and CD27 expression. Importantly, inhibition of MYD88 signaling induced cytotoxicity and inhibited cell growth of cell lines issued from patients with WM. In conclusion, these results confirm a high frequency of MYD88 L265P mutation in WM. The discovery of MYD88 L265P mutation may contribute to a better understanding of the physiopathogeny of WM.

Jiménez C, Sebastián E, Chillón MC, et al.
MYD88 L265P is a marker highly characteristic of, but not restricted to, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(8):1722-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We evaluated the MYD88 L265P mutation in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (sensitivity ∼10(-3)). No mutation was seen in normal donors, while it was present in 101/117 (86%) WM patients, 27/31 (87%) IgM monoclonal gammapathies of uncertain significance (MGUS), 3/14 (21%) splenic marginal zone lymphomas and 9/48 (19%) non-germinal center (GC) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). The mutation was absent in all 28 GC-DLBCLs, 13 DLBCLs not subclassified, 35 hairy cell leukemias, 39 chronic lymphocytic leukemias (16 with M-component), 25 IgA or IgG-MGUS, 24 multiple myeloma (3 with an IgM isotype), 6 amyloidosis, 9 lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas and 1 IgM-related neuropathy. Among WM and IgM-MGUS, MYD88 L265P mutation was associated with some differences in clinical and biological characteristics, although usually minor; wild-type MYD88 cases had smaller M-component (1.77 vs 2.72 g/dl, P=0.022), more lymphocytosis (24 vs 5%, P=0.006), higher lactate dehydrogenase level (371 vs 265 UI/L, P=0.002), atypical immunophenotype (CD23-CD27+ +FMC7+ +), less Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable gene (IGHV) somatic hypermutation (57 vs 97%, P=0.012) and less IGHV3-23 gene selection (9 vs 27%, P=0.014). These small differences did not lead to different time to first therapy, response to treatment or progression-free or overall survival.

Lamers CH, van Elzakker P, van Steenbergen SC, et al.
Long-term stability of T-cell activation and transduction components critical to the processing of clinical batches of gene-engineered T cells.
Cytotherapy. 2013; 15(5):620-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AIMS: The generation of gene-modified T cells for clinical adoptive T-cell therapy is challenged by the potential instability and concomitant high financial costs of critical T-cell activation and transduction components. As part of a clinical trial to treat patients with metastatic renal cell cancer with autologous T cells engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recognizing carboxy-anhydrase-IX (CAIX), we evaluated functional stability of the retroviral vector, T-cell activation agent Orthoclone OKT3 (Janssen-Cilag, Beerse, Belgium) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and the transduction promoting agent RetroNectin (Takara, Otsu, Japan).
METHODS: Carboxy-anhydrase-IX chimeric antigen receptor retrovirus-containing culture supernatants (RTVsups) were generated from two packaging cell lines, Phoenix-Ampho (BioReliance, Sterling, UK) and PG13, and stored at -80°C over 10 years and 14 years. For Orthoclone OKT3 and RetroNectin, aliquots for single use were prepared and stored at -80°C. Transduction efficiencies of both batches of RTVsups were analyzed using the same lots of cryopreserved donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Orthoclone OKT3 and RetroNectin over time.
RESULTS: We revisit here an earlier report on the long-term functional stability of the RTVsup, observed to be 9 years, and demonstrate that this stability is at least 14 years. Also, we now demonstrate that Orthoclone OKT3 and RetroNectin are functionally stable for periods of at least 6 years and 10 years.
CONCLUSIONS: High-cost critical components for adoptive T-cell therapy can be preserved for ≥10 years when prepared in aliquots for single use and stored at -80°C. These findings may significantly facilitate, and decrease the financial risks of, clinical application of gene-modified T cells in multicenter studies.

Wei C, Sirikanjanapong S, Lieberman S, et al.
Primary mucosal melanoma arising from the eustachian tube with CTLA-4, IL-17A, IL-17C, and IL-17E upregulation.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2013; 92(1):36-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary malignant melanoma arising from the eustachian tube is extremely rare. We report the case of a 63-year-old white man who presented with a 1-month history of left-sided hearing loss and aural fullness. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy detected a blue-purple mass that appeared to arise from the left lateral nasopharynx. Computed tomography demonstrated an enhancing mass arising from an orifice of the left eustachian tube. The tumor was debulked endoscopically and was confirmed to have originated in the left eustachian tube. Histologically, the tumor was made up of heavily pigmented pleomorphic spindle cells with frequent mitoses. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein, HMB-45, Melan-A, and PNL-2. The final diagnosis was a mucosal malignant melanoma. We also performed a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for several genes of interest, including CTLA-4, IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E, IL-17F, PLZF, Foxp3, RORγt, CD27, and CD70. These genes have been studied mainly in cutaneous melanomas, especially for the development of immunotherapy, but only very limited studies have been done on mucosal melanomas. Our investigation found upregulation of CTLA-4, IL-17A, IL-17C, and IL-17E. Based on our finding of CTLA-4 upregulation, it may be suggested that our patient might have had low antitumor immunity and that he might have benefited from CTLA-4 blockade. On the other hand, upregulation of IL-17A and IL-17E might reflect increased antitumor immunity, which could suggest that patients with a mucosal melanoma might benefit from immunomodulators associated with the effect of Th17. These genes also have great potential to help melanoma patients obtain tailored treatment, and they can be used as biomarkers for predicting prognosis.

Yang S, Ji Y, Gattinoni L, et al.
Modulating the differentiation status of ex vivo-cultured anti-tumor T cells using cytokine cocktails.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013; 62(4):727-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genetic modification of CD8+ T cells using anti-tumor T-cell receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors is a promising approach for the adoptive cell therapy of patients with cancer. We previously developed a simplified method for the clinical-scale generation of central memory-like (Tcm) CD8+ T cells following transduction with lentivirus encoding anti-tumor TCR and culture in the presence of IL-2. In this study, we compared different cytokines or combinations of IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-21 to expand genetically engineered CD8+ T cells. We demonstrated that specific cytokine combinations IL-12 plus IL-7 or IL-21 for 3 days followed by withdrawal of IL-12 yielded the phenotype of CD62L(high)CD28(high) CD127(high)CD27(high)CCR7(high), which is associated with less-differentiated T cells. Genes associated with stem cells (SOX2, NANOG, OCT4, and LIN28A), were also up-regulated by this cytokine cocktail. Moreover, the use of IL-12 plus IL-7 or IL-21 yielded CD8 T cells showing enhanced persistence in the NOD/SCID/γc-/- mouse model. This defined cytokine combination could also alter highly differentiated TIL from melanoma patients into cells with a less-differentiated phenotype. The methodology that we developed for generating a less-differentiated anti-tumor CD8+ T cells ex vivo may be ideal for the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.

Yoshino K, Kishibe K, Nagato T, et al.
Expression of CD70 in nasal natural killer/T cell lymphoma cell lines and patients; its role for cell proliferation through binding to soluble CD27.
Br J Haematol. 2013; 160(3):331-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma (NNKTL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The present study analysed gene expression patterns of the NNKTL cell lines SNK6, SNK1 and SNT8, which are positive for EBV and latent membrane protein (LMP)-1, using a complementary DNA array analysis. We found that CD70 was specifically expressed in SNK6 and SNT8. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analyses confirmed that CD70 was expressed in all 3 NNKTL cell lines, but not in the other EBV-positive NK-cell lines. In vitro studies showed that NNKTL cell lines proliferated, in a dose-dependent fashion, in response to exogenous soluble CD27, which is the ligand for CD70. In NNKTL patients, we confirmed that the CD70 was expressed on the lymphoma cells in NNKTL tissues and that soluble CD27 was present in sera at higher levels as compared to healthy individuals. Finally, complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay showed that anti-CD70 antibody mediated effective complement-dependent killing of NNKTL cells and the affected target CD70 expression on the cells. These results suggest that CD70 acts as a functional receptor binding to soluble CD27, resulting in lymphoma progression and that immunotherapy using anti-CD70 antibody may be a potential candidate for treatment for NNKTL.

Hombach AA, Holzinger A, Abken H
The weal and woe of costimulation in the adoptive therapy of cancer with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T cells.
Curr Mol Med. 2013; 13(7):1079-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adoptive cell therapy has shown impressive efficacy to combat cancer in early phase clinical trials, in particular when T cells engineered to specifically target tumor cells were applied. The patient's T cells are genetically equipped with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) which allows them to be redirected in a predefined manner towards virtually any target; by using an antibody-derived domain for binding, CAR T cells can be redirected in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) dependent and independent fashion. The CAR also provides the stimuli required to induce and maintain T cell activation. Recent clinical data sustain the notion that strong costimulation in conjunction with the primary activation signal is crucial for lasting therapeutic efficacy of CAR T cells. However, costimulation is a double-edged sword and the impact of the individual costimuli to optimize T cell activation is still under debate; some general rules are emerging. The review summarizes how costimulation modulates, improves and prolongs the redirected anti-tumor T cell response and how the same costimulatory signals may contribute to unintended side effects including "cytokine storm" and T cell repression. Upcoming strategies to break the activation/repression circle by using CAR's with modified costimulatory signals are also discussed.

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