Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CD27 (cancer-related)
Klein S, Mauch C, Wagener-Ryczek S, et al.Immune-phenotyping of pleomorphic dermal sarcomas suggests this entity as a potential candidate for immunotherapy.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):973-982 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic dermal sarcomas (PDS) are sarcomas of the skin with local recurrences in up to 28% of cases, and distant metastases in up to 20%. Although recent evidence provides a strong rational to explore immunotherapeutics in solid tumors, nothing is known about the immune environment of PDS.
METHODS: In the current study, a comprehensive immune-phenotyping of 14 PDS using RNA and protein expression analyses, as well as quantitative assessment of immune cells using an image-analysis tool was performed.
RESULTS: Three out of 14 PDS revealed high levels of CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs), also showing elevated levels of immune-related cytokines such as IL1A, IL2, as well as markers that were very recently linked to enhanced response of immunotherapy in malignant melanoma, including CD27, and CD40L. Using a multivariate analysis, we found a number of differentially expressed genes in the CD8-high group including: CD74, LYZ and HLA-B, while the remaining cases revealed enhanced levels of immune-suppressive cytokines including CXCL14. The "CD8-high" PDS showed strong MHC-I expression and revealed infiltration by PD-L1-, PD-1- and LAG-3-expressing immune cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) predominantly consisted of CD68 + , CD163 + , and CD204 + M2 macrophages showing an accentuation at the tumor invasion front.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, we provide first explorative evidence about the immune-environment of PDS tumors that may guide future decisions whether individuals presenting with advanced PDS could qualify for immunotherapeutic options.
Liu Y, Wang Y, Yu S, et al.The Role and Mechanism of CRT0066101 as an Effective Drug for Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 52(3):382-396 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIMS: Breast cancer is clinically classified into three main subtypes: estrogen receptor-positive (ER
METHODS: The expression level of PRKDs was analyzed in breast cancer samples and breast cancer cell lines. The effects of inhibiting PRKD activity with CRT0066101 on TNBC cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and tumor growth were studied by Cell Counting Kit8 assay, cell cycle assay, propidium iodide/annexin-V assay, and a xenograft mouse model, respectively. To uncover the molecular mechanism of CRT0066101 in TNBC, comparative phosphoproteomic analysis using iTRAQ was employed.
RESULTS: We found that PRKD2 and PRKD3 were preferentially expressed in breast cancers. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the overexpression of PRKD2 and PRKD3 in TNBC. CRT0066101, which inhibited the activity of PRKDs, dramatically inhibited proliferation, increased apoptosis and the G1-phase population of TNBC cells in vitro, and reduced breast tumor volume in vivo. Comparative phosphoproteomic analysis between breast cancer cells with and without CRT0066101 treatment revealed that the anti-breast cancer effects involved regulation of a complex network containing multiple enriched pathways and several hub-nodes contributing to multiple cancer-related processes, thus explaining the described effects of CRT0066101 on TNBC in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we validated several targets of PRKD inhibition by treatment with CRT0066101 and small interfering RNAs against PRKD2 and PRKD3 (siPRKD2 and siPRKD3), including p-MYC(T58/ S62), p-MAPK1/3(T202/Y204), p-AKT(S473), p-YAP(S127), and p-CDC2(T14).
CONCLUSION: PRKD inhibitor CRT0066101 exhibits anti-TNBC effects via modulating a phosphor-signaling network and inhibiting the phosphorylation of many cancer-driving factors, including MYC, MAPK1/3, AKT, YAP, and CDC2, providing insight into the important roles as well as the molecular mechanism of CRT0066101 as an effective drug for TNBC.
Kim KH, Cheong HJ, Lee MY, et al.Bortezomib Is More Effective to Side Population of RPMI8226 Myeloma Cells than Classical Anti-myeloma Agents.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):127-133 [PubMed
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AIM: Cytotoxic chemotherapy-based treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) is not curative, and the disease eventually recurs. This is partially because although currently available anti-MM strategies are effective in targeting the bulk of tumor cells, they do not target the tumor-initiating subpopulation of cancer stem cells. This study investigated the prevalence and biological functions of side population (SP) cells in MM cell lines including RPMI8226, ARH77, MM.1R and IM 9.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flow cytometry-based Hoechst 33342 staining was used to evaluate the existence of SP cells. In addition, the ability of SP cells to regenerate the original population was determined.
RESULTS: The frequency of SP cells was heterogeneous. Most cell lines (ARH77, IM9, and MM.1R) contained fewer than 1% SP cells; however, RPMI8226 contained approximately 10% SP cells. Sorted SP cells showed a higher proliferative ability and clonogenicity than the MP in the RPMI8226 myeloma cell line. The activity of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), which is associated with high rates of proliferation, was higher in SP cells. However, the expression of specific surface markers such as cluster of differentiation (CD)138, CD34, CD38, CD19, CD20, and CD27 did not differ between SP and MP cells. Bortezomib was the only agent that significantly affected proliferation of both SP and MP cells.
CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated that the SP fraction of myeloma cells possessed clonogenic tumor-initiating potential and revealed new mechanisms of action for bortezomib on SP cells.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common malignant tumor type in Southern China and South‑East Asia. Cluster of differentiation (CD)38 is highly expressed in the human immune system and participates in the activation of T, natural killer and plasma cells mediated by CD2 and CD3 through synergistic action. CD38 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, which was observed to mediate diverse activities, including signal transduction, cell adhesion and cyclic ADP‑ribose synthesis. However, the significance of CD38 in NPC biological behavior and cellular energy metabolism has not been examined. In order to elucidate the effect of CD38 on the biological behavior of NPC cells, stable CD38‑overexpressed NPC cell lines were established. It was demonstrated that CD38 promoted NPC cell proliferation with Cell Counting Kit‑8 and colony formation assays. It was also indicated that CD38 inhibited cell senescence, and promoted cell metastasis. Furthermore, it was determined that CD38 promoted the conversion of cells to the S phase and decreased the content of reactive oxygen species and Ca2+. Additionally, cell metabolism assays demonstrated that CD38 increased the concentration of ATP, lactic acid, cyclic adenosine monophosphate and human ADP/acrp30 concentration in NPC cells. To investigate the possible mechanism, bioinformatics analysis and mass spectrometry technology was used to determine the most notably changing molecule and signaling pathways, and it was determined and verified that CD38 regulated the metabolic‑associated signaling pathways associated with tumor protein 53, hypoxia inducible factor‑1α and sirtuin 1. The present results indicated that CD38 may serve a carcinogenic role in NPC by regulating metabolic‑associated signaling pathways.
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most frequent type of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The present study aimed to examine prognostic markers and construct a prognostic prediction system for ccRCC. The mRNA sequencing data of ccRCC was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and the GSE40435 dataset was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Using the Limma package, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the TCGA dataset and GSE40435 dataset were obtained, respectively, and the overlapped DEGs were selected. Subsequently, Cox regression analysis was applied for screening prognosis‑associated genes. Following visualization of the co‑expression network using Cytoscape software, the network modules were examined using the GraphWeb tool. Functional annotation for genes in the network was performed using the clusterProfiler package. Finally, a prognostic prediction system was constructed through Bayes discriminant analysis and confirmed with the GSE29609 validation dataset. The results revealed a total of 263 overlapped DEGs and 161 prognosis‑associated genes. Following construction of the co‑expression network, 16 functional terms and three pathways were obtained for genes in the network. In addition, red, yellow (involving chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), CD27 molecule (CD27) and runt‑related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3)], green (involving angiopoietin‑like 4 (ANGPTL4), stanniocalcin 2 (STC2), and sperm associated antigen 4 (SPAG4)], and cyan modules were extracted from the co‑expression network. Additionally, the prognostic prediction system involving 44 signature genes, including ANGPTL4, STC2, CXCL10, SPAG4, CD27, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP9) and RUNX3, was identified and confirmed. In conclusion, the 44‑gene prognostic prediction system involving ANGPTL4, STC2, CXCL10, SPAG4, CD27, MMP9 and RUNX3 may be utilized for predicting the prognosis of patients with ccRCC.
PURPOSE: This study aims to develop a multi-gene assay predictive of the clinical benefits of chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and substantiate their protein expression as potential therapeutic targets.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression of 160 genes identified from microarray was analyzed in qRT-PCR assays of independent 337 snap-frozen NSCLC tumors to develop a predictive signature. A clinical trial JBR.10 was included in the validation. Hazard ratio was used to select genes, and decision-trees were used to construct the predictive model. Protein expression was quantified with AQUA in 500 FFPE NSCLC samples.
RESULTS: A 7-gene signature was identified from training cohort (n = 83) with accurate patient stratification (P = 0.0043) and was validated in independent patient cohorts (n = 248, P < 0.0001) in Kaplan-Meier analyses. In the predicted benefit group, there was a significantly better disease-specific survival in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in both training (P = 0.035) and validation (P = 0.0049) sets. In the predicted non-benefit group, there was no survival benefit in patients receiving chemotherapy in either set. The protein expression of ZNF71 quantified with AQUA scores produced robust patient stratification in separate training (P = 0.021) and validation (P = 0.047) NSCLC cohorts. The protein expression of CD27 quantified with ELISA had a strong correlation with its mRNA expression in NSCLC tumors (Spearman coefficient = 0.494, P < 0.0088). Multiple signature genes had concordant DNA copy number variation, mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC progression.
CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a predictive multi-gene assay and prognostic protein biomarkers clinically applicable for improving NSCLC treatment, with important implications in lung cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
Bąbała N, Bovens A, de Vries E, et al.Subcellular Localization of Antigen in Keratinocytes Dictates Delivery of CD4
Cancer Immunol Res. 2018; 6(7):835-847 [PubMed
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In a mouse model of therapeutic DNA vaccination, we studied how the subcellular localization of vaccine protein impacts antigen delivery to professional antigen-presenting cells and efficiency of CTL priming. Cytosolic, membrane-bound, nuclear, and secretory versions of ZsGreen fluorescent protein, conjugated to MHC class I and II ovalbumin (OVA) epitopes, were expressed in keratinocytes by DNA vaccination into the skin. ZsGreen-OVA versions reached B cells in the skin-draining lymph node (dLN) that proved irrelevant for CTL priming. ZsGreen-OVA versions were also actively transported to the dLN by dendritic cells (DC). In the dLN, vaccine proteins localized to classical (c)DCs of the migratory XCR1
Scutti JABImportance of immune monitoring approaches and the use of immune checkpoints for the treatment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: From bench to clinic and vice versa (Review).
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(4):1041-1056 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
On the basis of immunological results, it is not in doubt that the immune system is able to recognize and eliminate transformed cells. A plethora of studies have investigated the immune system of patients with cancer and how it is prone to immunosuppression, due in part to the decrease in lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic activity. The series of experiments published following the demonstration by Dr Allison's group of the potential effect of anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) paved the way for a new perception in cancer immunotherapy: Immune checkpoints. Several T cell‑co-stimulatory molecules including cluster of differentiation (CD)28, inducible T cell co-stimulatory, 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related gene and CD27, and inhibitory molecules including T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing-3, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cells activation, T cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain, and B and T lymphocyte attenuator have been described in regulating T cell functions, and have been demonstrated to be essential targets in immunotherapy. In preclinical studies, glioblastoma multiforme, a high-grade glioma, the monotherapy targeting PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 resulted in increased survival times. An improved understanding of the pharmacodynamics and immune monitoring on glioma cancers, particularly in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), an orphan type of cancer, is expected to have a major contribution to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. On the basis of the recent preclinical and clinical studies of glioma, but not of DIPG, the present review makes a claim for the importance of investigating the tumor microenvironment, the immune response and the use of immune checkpoints (agonists or antagonists) in preclinical/clinical DIPG samples by immune monitoring approaches and high-dimensional analysis. Evaluating the potential predictive and correlative biomarkers in preclinical and clinical studies may assist in answering certain crucial questions that may be useful to improve the clinical response in patients with DIPG.
Szymula A, Palermo RD, Bayoumy A, et al.Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA-LP is essential for transforming naïve B cells, and facilitates recruitment of transcription factors to the viral genome.
PLoS Pathog. 2018; 14(2):e1006890 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is the first viral latency-associated protein produced after EBV infection of resting B cells. Its role in B cell transformation is poorly defined, but it has been reported to enhance gene activation by the EBV protein EBNA2 in vitro. We generated EBNA-LP knockout (LPKO) EBVs containing a STOP codon within each repeat unit of internal repeat 1 (IR1). EBNA-LP-mutant EBVs established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from adult B cells at reduced efficiency, but not from umbilical cord B cells, which died approximately two weeks after infection. Adult B cells only established EBNA-LP-null LCLs with a memory (CD27+) phenotype. Quantitative PCR analysis of virus gene expression after infection identified both an altered ratio of the EBNA genes, and a dramatic reduction in transcript levels of both EBNA2-regulated virus genes (LMP1 and LMP2) and the EBNA2-independent EBER genes in the first 2 weeks. By 30 days post infection, LPKO transcription was the same as wild-type EBV. In contrast, EBNA2-regulated cellular genes were induced efficiently by LPKO viruses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that EBNA2 and the host transcription factors EBF1 and RBPJ were delayed in their recruitment to all viral latency promoters tested, whereas these same factors were recruited efficiently to several host genes, which exhibited increased EBNA2 recruitment. We conclude that EBNA-LP does not simply co-operate with EBNA2 in activating gene transcription, but rather facilitates the recruitment of several transcription factors to the viral genome, to enable transcription of virus latency genes. Additionally, our findings suggest that EBNA-LP is essential for the survival of EBV-infected naïve B cells.
Hutten TJA, Norde WJ, Woestenenk R, et al.Increased Coexpression of PD-1, TIGIT, and KLRG-1 on Tumor-Reactive CD8
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2018; 24(4):666-677 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can be a curative treatment for patients with a hematologic malignancy due to alloreactive T cell responses recognizing minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA). Yet tumor immune escape mechanisms can cause failure of T cell immunity, leading to relapse. Tumor cells display low expression of costimulatory molecules and can up-regulate coinhibitory molecules that inhibit T cell functionality on ligation with their counter-receptors on the tumor-reactive T cells. The aim of this explorative study was to evaluate immune checkpoint expression profiles on T cell subsets and on cytomegalovirus (CMV)- and/or MiHA-reactive CD8
Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention. However, complete and durable responses are only seen in a fraction of patients who have cancer. A key factor that limits therapeutic success is the infiltration of tumors by cells of the myeloid lineage. The inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα) is a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that engages the "don't eat me" signal CD47 expressed on tumors and normal tissues. We therefore developed the monoclonal antibody KWAR23, which binds human SIRPα with high affinity and disrupts its binding to CD47. Administered by itself, KWAR23 is inert, but given in combination with tumor-opsonizing monoclonal antibodies, KWAR23 greatly augments myeloid cell-dependent killing of a collection of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic human tumor-derived cell lines. Following KWAR23 antibody treatment in a human
Sheta R, Bachvarova M, Plante M, et al.Altered expression of different GalNAc‑transferases is associated with disease progression and poor prognosis in women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(6):1887-1897 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Protein glycosylation perturbations are implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Aberrant glycosylation in cancer is frequently attributed to altered expression of polypeptide GalNAc transferases (GalNAc‑Ts) - enzymes initiating mucin-type O-glycosylation. A previous study from our group demonstrated that one member of this family (GALNT3) is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and GALNT3 expression correlated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) in EOC patients with advanced disease. As considerable degree of redundancy between members of the GalNAc‑Ts gene family has been frequently observed, we decided to investigate whether other members of this family are essential in EOC progression. In silico analysis based on publically available data was indicative for altered expression of five GalNAc‑Ts (GALNT2, T4, T6, T9 and T14) in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) samples compared to non-tumoral (control) ovarian tissue. We analyzed protein expression of these GalNAc‑Ts in EOC cells and tumors by western blotting, followed by immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of their expression in EOC tumor and control samples using tissue microarrays (TMAs). Western blot analyses were indicative for low expression of GALNT2 and strong expression of GALNT6, T9 and T14 in both EOC cells and tumors. These observations were confirmed by IHC. GALNT2 displayed significantly lower expression, while GALNT6, GALNT9 and GALNT14 showed significantly higher expression in HGSC tumors compared to control tissue. Importantly, GALNT6 and GALNT14 expression correlated with poor prognosis of serous EOC patients. Moreover, our results suggest for overlapping functions of some GalNAc‑Ts, more specifically GALNT3 and GALNT6, in directing EOC progression. Our results are indicative for a possible implication of different members of the GalNAc‑T gene family in modulating EOC progression, and the potential use of GALNT6 and GALNT14 as novel prognostic EOC biomarkers. These data warrant future studies on the role of members of the GalNAc‑Ts gene family in ovarian tumorigenesis.
Burugu S, Dancsok AR, Nielsen TOEmerging targets in cancer immunotherapy.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2018; 52(Pt 2):39-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The first generation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1) targeted natural immune homeostasis pathways, co-opted by cancers, to drive anti-tumor immune responses. These agents led to unprecedented results in patients with previously incurable metastatic disease and may become first-line therapies for some advanced cancers. However, these agents are efficacious in only a minority of patients. Newer strategies are becoming available that target additional immunomodulatory mechanisms to activate patients' own anti-tumor immune responses. Herein, we present a succinct summary of emerging immune targets with reported pre-clinical efficacy that have progressed to active investigation in clinical trials. These emerging targets include co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory markers of the innate and adaptive immune system. In this review, we discuss: 1) T lymphocyte markers: Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 [LAG-3], T-cell Immunoglobulin- and Mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 [TIM-3], V-domain containing Ig Suppressor of T cell Activation [VISTA], T cell ImmunoGlobulin and ITIM domain [TIGIT], B7-H3, Inducible T-cell Co-stimulator [ICOS/ICOS-L], CD27/CD70, and Glucocorticoid-Induced TNF Receptor [GITR]; 2) macrophage markers: CD47/Signal-Regulatory Protein alpha [SIRPα] and Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase [IDO]; and 3) natural killer cell markers: CD94/NKG2A and the Killer Immunoglobulin-like receptor [KIR] family. Finally, we briefly highlight combination strategies and potential biomarkers of response and resistance to these cancer immunotherapies.
Mata M, Gerken C, Nguyen P, et al.Inducible Activation of MyD88 and CD40 in CAR T Cells Results in Controllable and Potent Antitumor Activity in Preclinical Solid Tumor Models.
Cancer Discov. 2017; 7(11):1306-1319 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) has had limited success for solid tumors in early-phase clinical studies. We reasoned that introducing into CAR T cells an inducible costimulatory (iCO) molecule consisting of a chemical inducer of dimerization (CID)-binding domain and the MyD88 and CD40 signaling domains would improve and control CAR T-cell activation. In the presence of CID, T cells expressing HER2-CARζ and a MyD88/CD40-based iCO molecule (HER2ζ.iCO T cells) had superior T-cell proliferation, cytokine production, and ability to sequentially kill targets
Background: Cancer immunotherapy represents a promising treatment approach for malignant gliomas but is hampered by the limited number of ubiquitously expressed tumor antigens and the profoundly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We identified cluster of differentiation (CD)70 as a novel immunosuppressive ligand and glioma target.
Methods: Normal tissues derived from 52 different organs and primary and recurrent low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and glioblastomas (GBMs) were thoroughly evaluated for CD70 gene and protein expression. The association between CD70 and patients' overall survival and its impact on T-cell death was also evaluated. Human and mouse CD70-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) were tested respectively against human primary GBMs and murine glioma lines. The antitumor efficacies of these CARs were also examined in orthotopic xenograft and syngeneic models.
Results: CD70 was not detected in peripheral and brain normal tissues but was constitutively overexpressed by isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type primary LGGs and GBMs in the mesenchymal subgroup and recurrent tumors. CD70 was also associated with poor survival in these subgroups, which may link to its direct involvement in glioma chemokine productions and selective induction of CD8+ T-cell death. To explore the potential for therapeutic targeting of this newly identified immunosuppressive axis in GBM tumors, we demonstrate that both human and mouse CD70-specific CAR T cells recognize primary CD70+ GBM tumors in vitro and mediate the regression of established GBM in xenograft and syngeneic models without illicit effect.
Conclusion: These studies identify a previously uncharacterized and ubiquitously expressed immunosuppressive ligand CD70 in GBMs that also holds potential for serving as a novel CAR target for cancer immunotherapy in gliomas.
Ge H, Mu L, Jin L, et al.Tumor associated CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor migration and macrophage infiltration in GBM.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(7):1434-1444 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Tumor migration/metastasis and immunosuppression are major obstacles in effective cancer therapy. Incidentally, these 2 hurdles usually coexist inside tumors, therefore making therapy significantly more complicated, as both oncogenic mechanisms must be addressed for successful therapeutic intervention. Our recent report highlights that the tumor expression of a TNF family member, CD70, is correlated with poor survival for primary gliomas. In this study, we investigated how CD70 expression by GBM affects the characteristics of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We found that the ablation of CD70 in primary GBM decreased CD44 and SOX2 gene expression, and inhibited tumor migration, growth and the ability to attract monocyte-derived M2 macrophages in vitro. In the tumor microenvironment, CD70 was associated with immune cell infiltrates, such as T cells; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; and monocytes/macrophages based on the RNA-sequencing profile. The CD163+ macrophages were far more abundant than T cells were. This overwhelming level of macrophages was identified only in GBM and not in low-grade gliomas and normal brain specimens, implying their tumor association. CD70 was detected only on tumor cells, not on macrophages, and was highly correlated with CD163 gene expression in primary GBM. Additionally, the co-expression of the CD70 and CD163 genes was found to correlate with decreased survival for patients with primary GBM. Together, these data suggest that CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor aggressiveness and immunosuppression via tumor-associated macrophage recruitment/activation. Our current efforts to target this molecule using chimeric antigen receptor T cells hold great potential for treating patients with GBM.
Al Sayed MF, Ruckstuhl CA, Hilmenyuk T, et al.CD70 reverse signaling enhances NK cell function and immunosurveillance in CD27-expressing B-cell malignancies.
Blood. 2017; 130(3):297-309 [PubMed
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The interaction of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) CD27 with its ligand CD70 is an emerging target to treat cancer. CD27 signaling provides costimulatory signals to cytotoxic T cells but also increases the frequency of regulatory T cells. Similar to other TNFR ligands, CD70 has been shown to initiate intracellular signaling pathways (CD70 reverse signaling). CD27 is expressed on a majority of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but its role in the immune control of lymphoma and leukemia is unknown. We therefore generated a cytoplasmic deletion mutant of CD27 (CD27-trunc) to study the role of CD70 reverse signaling in the immunosurveillance of B-cell malignancies in vivo. Expression of CD27-trunc on malignant cells increased the number of tumor-infiltrating interferon γ-producing natural killer (NK) cells. In contrast, the antitumoral T-cell response remained largely unchanged. CD70 reverse signaling in NK cells was mediated via the AKT signaling pathway and increased NK cell survival and effector function. The improved immune control by activated NK cells prolonged survival of CD27-trunc-expressing lymphoma-bearing mice. Finally, CD70 reverse signaling enhanced survival and effector function of human NK cells in a B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenotransplants model. Therefore, CD70 reverse signaling in NK cells contributes to the immune control of CD27-expressing B-cell lymphoma and leukemia.
Pouliou E, Xochelli A, Kanellis G, et al.Numerous Ontogenetic Roads to Mantle Cell Lymphoma: Immunogenetic and Immunohistochemical Evidence.
Am J Pathol. 2017; 187(7):1454-1458 [PubMed
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To obtain insight into the ontogeny of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), we assessed 206 patients from a morphological, immunohistochemical, and immunogenetic perspective. Our series included nodal (n = 151), extranodal (n = 28), and primary splenic (n = 27) MCL cases. Skewing of the immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) gene repertoire was noted, with only four IGHV genes accounting for 46% of cases and approximately 70% of cases (107/154) bearing an imprint of somatic hypermutation (SHM) ranging from minimal to pronounced. Interestingly, a distinctive immunophenotypic and immunogenetic profile was identified for primary splenic MCL, which was enriched for DBA.44-positive cases (P < 0.001) and used the IGHV1-8 gene more frequently (P = 0.02) compared to nodal or extranodal cases, alluding to distinct immunopathogenetic and antigen selection processes. Expression of CD27 (considered a marker of activated B cells) was generally dissociated from SHM and was more prevalent in cases with no or minimal/borderline SHM. These findings support the idea that antigen drive is relevant for most MCL cases, although the specific antigens and the precise location of affinity maturation remain to be elucidated. Moreover, they raise the intriguing hypothesis of multiple cellular origins for MCL.
Zaliova M, Kotrova M, Bresolin S, et al.ETV6/RUNX1-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A novel B-cell precursor leukemia subtype associated with the CD27/CD44 immunophenotype.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(8):608-616 [PubMed
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We have shown previously that ETV6/RUNX1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is distinguishable from other ALL subtypes by CD27
Xu JY, Ye ZL, Jiang DQ, et al.Mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells by piggyBac transposon system suppress the growth of bile duct carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(4):1010428317695949 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell-based immunotherapy is revolutionizing the field of cancer treatment. However, its potential in treating bile duct carcinoma has not been fully explored. Herein, we developed the second-generation mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells with the 4-1BB co-stimulatory module by the piggyBac transposon system. Mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor was expressed by 66.0% of mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells post electrophoretic transfection and stimulation with K562-meso cells; the expressions of activation markers were tested by flow cytometry assay and showed greater activation of mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells than control T cells (CD107α: 71.9% vs 48.6%; CD27: 92.1% vs 61.8%; CD137: 55.5% vs 8.4%; CD28: 98.0% vs 82.1%; CD134: 37.5% vs 10.4%). Furthermore, mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells exerted cytotoxicity toward mesothelin-expressing EH-CA1b and EH-CA1a cells in an effector-to-target ratio-dependent manner, while leaving mesothelin-negative GSC-SD and EH-GB1 cells and normal liver L02 cells almost unharmed. Mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells secreted cytokines at higher levels when co-cultured with mesothelin-positive EH-CA1a and EH-CA1b cells than with mesothelin-negative GSC-SD and EH-GB1 cells. Enhanced cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion of mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells compared to control T cells were also observed when co-cultured with 293-meso cells (interferon γ: 85.1% ± 1.47% vs 8.3% ± 2.50%, p = 0.000; tumor necrosis factor α: 90.9% ± 4.67% vs 18.5% ± 3.62%, p = 0.0004; interleukin 2: 60.8% ± 2.00% vs 15.6% ± 2.06%, p = 0.002; interleukin 6: 6.4% ± 2.95% vs 1.7% ± 0.63%, p = 0.055). In addition, mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells showed greater inhibitory and proliferative capability than control T cells within EH-CA1a cell xenografts. This study shows the potential of mesothelin-targeting chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in treating bile duct carcinoma.
Background: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV)-induced lymphoma that typically arises in body cavities of HIV-infected patients. PEL cells are often co-infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). "PEL-like" lymphoma is a KSHV-unrelated lymphoma that arises in body cavities of HIV-negative patients. "PEL-like" lymphoma is sometimes EBV positive. The derivation of PEL/"PEL-like" cells is unclear.
Methods: Mesothelial cells were cultured from body cavity effusions of 23 patients. Cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, marker phenotypes, KSHV/EBV infection, and clonality were evaluated by standard methods. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. A mouse model of PEL (3 mice/group) was used to evaluate tumorigenicity.
Results: We found that the mesothelia derived from six effusions of HIV-infected patients with PEL or other KSHV-associated diseases contained rare KSHV + or EBV + mesothelial cells. After extended culture (16-17 weeks), some mesothelial cells underwent a trans-differentiation process, generating lymphoid-type CD45 + /B220 + , CD5 + , CD27 + , CD43 + , CD11c + , and CD3 - cells resembling "B1-cells," most commonly found in mouse body cavities. These "B1-like" cells were short lived. However, long-term KSHV + EBV - and EBV + KSHV - clonal cell lines emerged from mesothelial cultures from two patients that were clonally distinct from the monoclonal or polyclonal B-cell populations found in the patients' original effusions.
Conclusions: Mesothelial-to-lymphoid transformation is a newly identified in vitro process that generates "B1-like" cells and is associated with the emergence of long-lived KSHV or EBV-infected cell lines in KSHV-infected patients. These results identify mesothelial cultures as a source of PEL cells and lymphoid cells in humans.
Waight JD, Gombos RB, Wilson NSHarnessing co-stimulatory TNF receptors for cancer immunotherapy: Current approaches and future opportunities.
Hum Antibodies. 2017; 25(3-4):87-109 [PubMed
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Co-stimulatory tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) can sculpt the responsiveness of T cells recognizing tumor-associated antigens. For this reason, agonist antibodies targeting CD137, CD357, CD134 and CD27 have received considerable attention for their therapeutic utility in enhancing anti-tumor immune responses, particularly in combination with other immuno-modulatory antibodies targeting co-inhibitory pathways in T cells. The design of therapeutic antibodies that optimally engage and activate co-stimulatory TNFRs presents an important challenge of how to promote effective anti-tumor immunity while avoiding serious immune-related adverse events. Here we review our current understanding of the expression, signaling and structural features of CD137, CD357, CD134 and CD27, and how this may inform the design of pharmacologically active immuno-modulatory antibodies targeting these receptors. This includes the integration of our emerging knowledge of the role of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) in facilitating antibody-mediated receptor clustering and forward signaling, as well as promoting immune effector cell-mediated activities. Finally, we bring our current preclinical and clinical knowledge of co-stimulatory TNFR antibodies into the context of opportunities for next generation molecules with improved pharmacologic properties.
Mølgaard K, Compte M, Nuñez-Prado N, et al.Balanced secretion of anti-CEA × anti-CD3 diabody chains using the 2A self-cleaving peptide maximizes diabody assembly and tumor-specific cytotoxicity.
Gene Ther. 2017; 24(4):208-214 [PubMed
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Adoptive transfer of genetically engineered human cells secreting bispecific T-cell engagers has shown encouraging therapeutic effects in preclinical models of cancer. However, reducing the toxicity and improving the effectiveness of this emerging immunotherapeutic strategy will be critical to its successful application. We have demonstrated that for gene-based bispecific antibody strategies, two-chain diabodies have a better safety profile than single-chain tandem scFvs (single-chain variable fragments), because their reduced tendency to form aggregates reduces the risk of inducing antigen-independent T-cell activation. Here, we demonstrate that the incorporation of a 2A self-processing peptide derived from foot-and-mouth disease virus conveying co-translational cleavage into a two-chain anti-CD3 × anti-CEA diabody gene enables near-equimolar expression of diabody chains 1 and 2, and thus increases the final amount of assembled diabody. This was found to maximize diabody-mediated T-cell activation and cytotoxicity against carcinoembryonic antigen-positive tumor cells.
Many studies have shown that the mycoplasmal membrane protein p37 enhances cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Previously, we generated 6 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the mycoplasmal protein p37 and showed the presence of mycoplasma-infected circulating tumor cells in the blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients by using CA27, one of the six MAbs. When mycoplasmas were incubated with cancer cells in the presence of CA27, mycoplasma infection was completely inhibited, suggesting that CA27 is a neutralizing antibody inhibiting mycoplasma infection. To examine the neutralizing epitope of CA27, we generated a series of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused p37 deletion mutant proteins in which p37 was partly deleted. To express p37-coding sequences in E.coli, mycoplasmal TGA codons were substituted with TGG in the p37 deletion mutant genes. GST-fused p37 deletion mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitope targeted by CA27. Western blots showed that CA27 bound to the residues 216-246 on the middle part of the p37 protein while it did not bind to the residues 183-219 and 216-240. Fine mapping showed that CA27 was able to bind to the residues 226-246, but its binding activity was relatively weakened as compared to that to the residues 216-246, suggesting that the residues 226-246 is essential for optimal binding activity of CA27. Interestingly, the treatment of the purified GST-tagged epitopes with urea showed that CA27 binding to the epitope was sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant but urea-sensitive. The same 226-246 residues were also recognized by two other anti-p37 MAbs, suggesting that the epitope is immunodominant. The identification of the novel neutralizing epitope may provide new insight into the interaction between the p37 protein and host receptors.
Aberrant proliferation, symmetric self-renewal, increased survival, and defective differentiation of malignant blasts are key oncogenic drivers in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Stem cell gene signatures predict poor prognosis in AML patients; however, with few exceptions, these deregulated molecular pathways cannot be targeted therapeutically. In this study, we demonstrate that the TNF superfamily ligand-receptor pair CD70/CD27 is expressed on AML blasts and AML stem/progenitor cells. CD70/CD27 signaling in AML cells activates stem cell gene expression programs, including the Wnt pathway, and promotes symmetric cell divisions and proliferation. Soluble CD27, reflecting the extent of CD70/CD27 interactions in vivo, was significantly elevated in the sera of newly diagnosed AML patients and is a strong independent negative prognostic biomarker for overall survival. Blocking the CD70/CD27 interaction by mAb induced asymmetric cell divisions and differentiation in AML blasts and AML stem/progenitor cells, inhibited cell growth and colony formation, and significantly prolonged survival in murine AML xenografts. Importantly, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from healthy BM donors express neither CD70 nor CD27 and were unaffected by blocking mAb treatment. Therefore, targeting CD70/CD27 signaling represents a promising therapeutic strategy for AML.
Krzeminski P, Corchete LA, García JL, et al.Integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression in multiple myeloma reveals alterations related to relapse.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(49):80664-80679 [PubMed
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Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the introduction of novel agents, and a relapsing course is observed in most patients. Although the development of genomic technologies has greatly improved our understanding of MM pathogenesis, the mechanisms underlying relapse have been less thoroughly investigated. In this study, an integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression was conducted in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from MM patients. Overall, the acquisition of abnormalities at relapse was much more frequent than the loss of lesions present at diagnosis, and DNA losses were significantly more frequent in relapse than in diagnosis samples. Interestingly, copy number abnormalities involving more than 100 Mb of DNA at relapse significantly affect the gene expression of these samples, provoking a particular deregulation of the IL-8 pathway. On the other hand, no significant modifications of gene expression were observed in those samples with less than 100 Mb affected by chromosomal changes. Although several statistical approaches were used to identify genes whose abnormal expression at relapse was regulated by methylation, only two genes that were significantly deregulated in relapse samples (SORL1 and GLT1D1) showed a negative correlation between methylation and expression. Further analysis revealed that DNA methylation was involved in regulating SORL1 expression in MM. Finally, relevant changes in gene expression observed in relapse samples, such us downregulation of CD27 and P2RY8, were most likely not preceded by alterations in the corresponding DNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the genomic heterogeneity described at diagnosis remains at relapse.
Inhibition of immune checkpoint proteins (checkpoints) has become a promising anti-esophageal cancer strategy. We here tested expressions of immune checkpoints in human esophageal cancers. Our results showed the expressions of many immune checkpoints, including CD28, CD27, CD137L, programmed death 1 (PD-1), T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT), CD160, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), CD200, CD137 and CD158, were dysregulated in peripheral T cells of esophageal cancer patients. Further, the expressions of PD-1, TIM-3 and TIGIT were upregulated in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which might be associated with TILs exhaustion. Meanwhile, the expressions of PD-1 and TIM-3 on CD4+ T cells were closely associated with clinic pathological features of esophageal cancer patients. These results indicate that co-inhibitory receptors PD-1, TIM-3 and TIGIT may be potential therapeutic oncotargets for esophageal cancer.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary tumor syndrome caused by mutations of the NF1 gene and resulting dysregulation of the Ras-pathway. In addition to peripheral nerve tumors, affected tissues include the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system. The immune system has recently been suggested as a possible modulator NF1-related phenotypes. Therefore, we determined the immune phenotype in NF1 patients and investigated its relationship with the phenotypic severity of NF1-related tumor manifestations. We quantified global leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations of peripheral blood from 37 NF1 patients and 21 healthy controls by flow cytometry. To associate immune phenotype with tumor phenotype, all NF1 patients underwent whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and total internal tumor volume was calculated. The immunophenotypes were compared among four NF1 groups with different total internal tumor burdens and between NF1 patients and non-NF1 subjects. We found that NF1 patients show a generalized lymphopenia. Closer analysis revealed that the CD8(+)/CD27(-) and CD8(+)/CD57(+) effector T cell fractions strongly increase in NF1 patients with low tumor load and decrease to levels below control in patients with high tumor load. Moreover, increased production of IL2, IFN-γ and TNF-α was found in T cells of NF1 patients upon phorbol-12-myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation compared to healthy controls. The data indicate that decreasing CD8(+)/CD57(+) and CD27(-) T cell fractions correspond to increasing tumor load in NF1 patients, potentially making these populations useful marker for internal tumor burden.
Bergkvist KS, Nørgaard MA, Bøgsted M, et al.Characterization of memory B cells from thymus and its impact for DLBCL classification.
Exp Hematol. 2016; 44(10):982-990.e11 [PubMed
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The rare memory B cells in thymus (Thy) are considered the cells of origin for primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the normal memory B-cell compartment in Thy and to support its association with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Seven paired human tissue samples from Thy and sternum bone marrow (BM) were harvested during cardiac surgery. B-cell subsets were phenotyped by Euroflow standard and fluorescence-activated cell sorting for microarray analysis on the Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays platform. Differentially expressed genes between Thy and BM memory B cells were identified and correlated with the molecular subclasses of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Within Thy, 4% (median; range 2%-14%) of the CD45(+) hematopoietic cells were CD19(+) B cells, with a major fraction being CD27(+)/CD38(-) memory B cells (median 80%, range 76%-93%). The BM contained 14% (median; range 3%-27%), of which only a minor fraction (median 5%, range 2%-10%) were memory B cells. Global gene expression analysis of the memory B-cell subsets from the two compartments identified 133 genes upregulated in Thy, including AICDA, REL, STAT1, TNF family, SLAMF1, CD80, and CD86. In addition, exons 4 and 5 in the 3' end of AICDA were more highly expressed in Thy than in BM. The Thy memory B-cell gene profile was overexpressed in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma compared with other diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subclasses. The present study describes a Thy memory B-cell subset and its gene profile correlated with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas, suggesting origin from Thy memory B cells.