Gene Summary

Gene:CHIC2; cysteine rich hydrophobic domain 2
Aliases: BTL
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the CHIC family of proteins. The encoded protein contains a cysteine-rich hydrophobic (CHIC) motif, and is localized to vesicular structures and the plasma membrane. This gene is associated with some cases of acute myeloid leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cysteine-rich hydrophobic domain-containing protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CHIC2 (cancer-related)

Camargo Barros-Filho M, Barreto Menezes de Lima L, Bisarro Dos Reis M, et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the low mortality rates, well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC) frequently relapse.

Wang QX, Chen ED, Cai YF, et al.
A panel of four genes accurately differentiates benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35(1):169 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of patients with thyroid nodules. Reliable preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules remains a challenge because of inconclusive cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Although molecular analysis of thyroid tissue has shown promise as a diagnostic tool in recent years, it has not been successfully applied in routine clinical use, particularly in Chinese patients.
METHODS: Whole-transcriptome sequencing of 19 primary papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) samples and matched adjacent normal thyroid tissue (NT) samples were performed. Bioinformatics analysis was carried out to identify candidate diagnostic genes. Then, RT-qPCR was performed to evaluate these candidate genes, and four genes were finally selected. Based on these four genes, diagnostic algorithm was developed (training set: 100 thyroid cancer (TC) and 65 benign thyroid lesions (BTL)) and validated (independent set: 123 TC and 81 BTL) using the support vector machine (SVM) approach.
RESULTS: We discovered four genes, namely fibronectin 1 (FN1), gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta 2 subunit (GABRB2), neuronal guanine nucleotide exchange factor (NGEF) and high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2). A SVM model with these four genes performed with 97.0 % sensitivity, 93.8 % specificity, 96.0 % positive predictive value (PPV), and 95.3 % negative predictive value (NPV) in training set. For additional independent validation, it also showed good performance (92.7 % sensitivity, 90.1 % specificity, 93.4 % PPV, and 89.0 % NPV).
CONCLUSIONS: Our diagnostic panel can accurately distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules using a simple and affordable method, which may have daily clinical application in the near future.

Kugel S, Sebastián C, Fitamant J, et al.
SIRT6 Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer through Control of Lin28b.
Cell. 2016; 165(6):1401-1415 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromatin remodeling proteins are frequently dysregulated in human cancer, yet little is known about how they control tumorigenesis. Here, we uncover an epigenetic program mediated by the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) that is critical for suppression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most lethal malignancies. SIRT6 inactivation accelerates PDAC progression and metastasis via upregulation of Lin28b, a negative regulator of the let-7 microRNA. SIRT6 loss results in histone hyperacetylation at the Lin28b promoter, Myc recruitment, and pronounced induction of Lin28b and downstream let-7 target genes, HMGA2, IGF2BP1, and IGF2BP3. This epigenetic program defines a distinct subset with a poor prognosis, representing 30%-40% of human PDAC, characterized by reduced SIRT6 expression and an exquisite dependence on Lin28b for tumor growth. Thus, we identify SIRT6 as an important PDAC tumor suppressor and uncover the Lin28b pathway as a potential therapeutic target in a molecularly defined PDAC subset. PAPERCLIP.

Roufosse F, Heimann P, Lambert F, et al.
Severe Prolonged Cough as Presenting Manifestation of FIP1L1-PDGFRA+ Chronic Eosinophilic Leukaemia: A Widely Ignored Association.
Respiration. 2016; 91(5):374-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic eosinophilic leukaemia associated with the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene (F/P+ CEL) is a rare cause of marked persistent hypereosinophilia, arising almost exclusively in male patients. Clinical presentations are heterogeneous with a higher incidence of eosinophil-mediated cardiomyopathy than in other hypereosinophilic syndrome variants. Features of chronic myeloproliferative disease are often present, including splenomegaly and elevated serum vitamin B12 levels. The diagnosis is made by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showing the deletion of the CHIC2 locus and/or RT-PCR showing the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion transcript. Treatment with imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, results in rapid and complete resolution of hypereosinophilia and associated symptoms, except for those related to sub-endocardial fibrosis that may be irreversible. We report the case of a male patient in whom isolated intractable cough remained the only clinical manifestation of F/P+ CEL for 4 years. Furthermore, eosinophil autofluorescence, an as yet unreported artefact in this setting, precluded the detection of the CHIC2 deletion and further delayed diagnosis, underlining that both FISH and RT-PCR should be performed when this disease is suspected.

Etchegaray JP, Chavez L, Huang Y, et al.
The histone deacetylase SIRT6 controls embryonic stem cell fate via TET-mediated production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(5):545-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
How embryonic stem cells (ESCs) commit to specific cell lineages and yield all cell types of a fully formed organism remains a major question. ESC differentiation is accompanied by large-scale histone and DNA modifications, but the relations between these epigenetic categories are not understood. Here we demonstrate the interplay between the histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) and the ten-eleven translocation enzymes (TETs). SIRT6 targets acetylated histone H3 at Lys 9 and 56 (H3K9ac and H3K56ac), while TETs convert 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). ESCs derived from Sirt6 knockout (S6KO) mice are skewed towards neuroectoderm development. This phenotype involves derepression of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG, which causes an upregulation of TET-dependent production of 5hmC. Genome-wide analysis revealed neural genes marked with 5hmC in S6KO ESCs, thereby implicating TET enzymes in the neuroectoderm-skewed differentiation phenotype. We demonstrate that SIRT6 functions as a chromatin regulator safeguarding the balance between pluripotency and differentiation through Tet-mediated production of 5hmC.

Barros-Filho MC, Marchi FA, Pinto CA, et al.
High Diagnostic Accuracy Based on CLDN10, HMGA2, and LAMB3 Transcripts in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(6):E890-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Thyroid nodules are common in adult population and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequent malignant finding. The natural history of PTC remains poorly understood and current diagnostic methods limitations are responsible for a significant number of potentially avoidable surgeries.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify molecular markers to improve the diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
DESIGN: Gene expression profiling was performed using microarray in 61 PTC and 13 surrounding normal tissues (NT). A reliable gene list was established using cross-study validation (138 matched PTC/NT from external databases). Results were collectively interpreted by in silico analysis. A panel of 28 transcripts was evaluated by RT-qPCR, including benign thyroid lesions (BTL) and other follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinomas (OFDTC). A diagnostic algorithm was developed (training set: 23 NT, 8 BTL, and 86 PTC), validated (independent set: 10 NT, 140 BTL, 120 PTC, and 12 OFDTC) and associated with clinical features.
RESULTS: GABRB2 was ranked as the most frequently up-regulated gene in PTC (cross-study validation). Altered genes in PTC suggested a loss of T4 responsiveness and dysregulation of retinoic acid metabolism, highlighting the putative activation of EZH2 and histone deacetylases (predicted in silico). An algorithm combining CLDN10, HMGA2, and LAMB3 transcripts was able to discriminate tumors from BTL samples (94% sensitivity and 96% specificity in validation set). High algorithm scores were associated with regional lymph node metastases.
CONCLUSIONS: A promising tool with high performance for PTC diagnosis based on three transcripts was designed with the potential to predict lymph node metastasis risk.

de Maturana EL, Ye Y, Calle ML, et al.
Application of multi-SNP approaches Bayesian LASSO and AUC-RF to detect main effects of inflammatory-gene variants associated with bladder cancer risk.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83745 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The relationship between inflammation and cancer is well established in several tumor types, including bladder cancer. We performed an association study between 886 inflammatory-gene variants and bladder cancer risk in 1,047 cases and 988 controls from the Spanish Bladder Cancer (SBC)/EPICURO Study. A preliminary exploration with the widely used univariate logistic regression approach did not identify any significant SNP after correcting for multiple testing. We further applied two more comprehensive methods to capture the complexity of bladder cancer genetic susceptibility: Bayesian Threshold LASSO (BTL), a regularized regression method, and AUC-Random Forest, a machine-learning algorithm. Both approaches explore the joint effect of markers. BTL analysis identified a signature of 37 SNPs in 34 genes showing an association with bladder cancer. AUC-RF detected an optimal predictive subset of 56 SNPs. 13 SNPs were identified by both methods in the total population. Using resources from the Texas Bladder Cancer study we were able to replicate 30% of the SNPs assessed. The associations between inflammatory SNPs and bladder cancer were reexamined among non-smokers to eliminate the effect of tobacco, one of the strongest and most prevalent environmental risk factor for this tumor. A 9 SNP-signature was detected by BTL. Here we report, for the first time, a set of SNP in inflammatory genes jointly associated with bladder cancer risk. These results highlight the importance of the complex structure of genetic susceptibility associated with cancer risk.

Kresse SH, Meza-Zepeda LA, Machado I, et al.
Preclinical xenograft models of human sarcoma show nonrandom loss of aberrations.
Cancer. 2012; 118(2):558-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human tumors transplanted into immunodeficient mice (xenografts) are good preclinical models, and it is important to identify possible systematic changes during establishment and passaging in mice.
METHODS: High-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to investigate how well a series of sarcoma xenografts, including 9 patient/xenograft pairs and 8 early versus late xenograft passage pairs, represented the patient tumor from which they originated.
RESULTS: In all analyses, the xenografts were more similar to their tumor of origin than other xenografts of the same type. Most changes in aberration patterns were toward a more normal genome complement, and the increased aberrations observed were mostly toward more loss. In general, the changes were scattered over the genome, but some changes were significant in osteosarcomas. These were rather focused and consistent with amplifications frequent in patient samples, involving the genes platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA), cysteine-rich hydrophobic domain 2 (CHIC2), FIP-like 1 (FIP1L1), ligand of numb-protein X1 (LNX1), RAS-like family 11 member B (RASL11B), and sec1 family domain containing 2 (SCFD2), probably a sign of continued tumor progression. Some changes that disappeared may have been involved in host-stroma interactions or chemotherapy resistance, possibly because of the absence of selection in the mouse.
CONCLUSIONS: Direct xenografts reflected well the genomic patterns of their tumors of origin. The few significant aberrations that were lost during passaging in immune-defective mice may have been caused by the lack of selection in the new host, whereas aberrations that were gained appeared to be the result of general tumor progression rather than model-specific artifacts.

Wang HY, Thorson JA, Broome HE, et al.
t(4;22)(q12;q11.2) involving presumptive platelet-derived growth factor receptor A and break cluster region in a patient with mixed phenotype acute leukemia.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(12):2029-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The patient is a 45-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer who had been treated 1 year ago with radiation and chemotherapy. Flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow aspirate revealed 81% blasts positive for CD4, CD11c (partial), CD13, CD19 (partial), cytoplasmic CD22, CD34, CD36, CD45, cytoplasmic CD79a, CD117 (partial), HLA-DR, and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase, consistent with a mixed phenotype acute leukemia (B/myeloid lineage). Conventional karyotypic analysis revealed a t(4;22)(q12;q11.2) in 12 of 13 cells analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using a dual-color, dual-fusion break cluster region/ABL probe set showed no break cluster region/ABL translocation but an extra break cluster region signal in 85% (170/200) of cells, consistent with a translocation involving the break cluster region gene at 22q11.2. A FIP1L1/CHIC2/platelet-derived growth factor receptor α deletion/fusion probe showed signal separation in 96.5% (193/200) of interphase nuclei. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using sense break cluster region primers and an antisense platelet-derived growth factor receptor α primer resulted in a product of approximately 590 base pairs, consistent with the presence of a break cluster region/platelet-derived growth factor receptor α fusion gene. Because of the presumptive platelet-derived growth factor receptor α translocation and its sensitivity to tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, the patient was treated with imatinib mesylate, cytarabine, and idarubicin as induction and maintenance therapy; and she has remained free of disease for 5 months since the initial diagnosis.

Holtkamp N, Ziegenhagen N, Malzer E, et al.
Characterization of the amplicon on chromosomal segment 4q12 in glioblastoma multiforme.
Neuro Oncol. 2007; 9(3):291-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A subset of glioblastomas (GBMs) carry gene amplifications on chromosomal segment 4q12. To characterize this amplicon in detail, we analyzed a set of 100 samples consisting of 65 GBMs, 10 WHO grade III astrocytomas, 12 oligodendrogliomas, and 13 glioma cell cultures. We applied multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to determine the gene dosage of PDGFRA, KIT, and KDR and the flanking genes USP46, RASL11B, LNX1, CHIC2, SEC3L1, and IGFBP7. The amplicon was highly variable in size and copy number and extended over a region of up to 5 Mb. Amplifications on 4q12 were observed in 15% of GBMs and 23% of GBM cell cultures but not in 22 other gliomas. We analyzed transcription and translation of some genes within this amplicon. Gene amplification generally correlated with high transcript levels but did not necessarily result in increased protein levels. However, we detected frequent expression of proteins encoded by PDGFRA, KIT, and KDR in GBMs and GBM cell cultures independent of the amplification status. Future treatment of GBM patients may include drugs targeting multiple kinases that are encoded by genes on chromosomal segment 4q12.

Florian S, Esterbauer H, Binder T, et al.
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) associated with chronic eosinophilic leukemia (SM-CEL): detection of FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha, classification by WHO criteria, and response to therapy with imatinib.
Leuk Res. 2006; 30(9):1201-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Based on generally accepted criteria and the WHO-classification, a subset of patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) have (or develop) an associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD). We describe a case of SM with coexisting chronic eosinophilic leukemia (SM-CEL). The patient, a 51-year-old male, was first seen in 1992 with small-sized infiltrates of spindle-shaped mast cells in his marrow, and marked eosinophilia. Retrospectively, a CHIC2 deletion and the FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha fusion gene-product were demonstrable by FISH analysis and RT-PCR, respectively. SM-associated organopathy or mediator-related symptoms were not recorded. However, the patient developed cardiomyopathy. Therapy with interferon-alpha, hydroxyurea, and corticosteroids were without effects. By contrast, therapy with imatinib was followed by a fast and sustained response with complete and stable regression of eosinophilia, drop in eosinophil cationic protein, and decrease of serum tryptase to normal levels. This case provides further evidence for the potential of co-existence of SM with a primary eosinophilic disorder (CEL) defined by the FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha fusion gene. Because of the availability of a superior targeted drug (imatinib), it is of importance to screen for FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha in suspected CEL with or without co-existing SM.

Pardanani A, Ketterling RP, Brockman SR, et al.
CHIC2 deletion, a surrogate for FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion, occurs in systemic mastocytosis associated with eosinophilia and predicts response to imatinib mesylate therapy.
Blood. 2003; 102(9):3093-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Imatinib mesylate is effective in the treatment of hematologic malignancies that are characterized by either abl- or PDGFR beta- activating mutations. The drug is also active in a subset of patients with eosinophilic disorders and systemic mast cell disease (SMCD). Recently, a novel tyrosine kinase that is generated from fusion of the Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1) and PDGFR alpha (PDGFRA) genes has been identified as a therapeutic target for imatinib mesylate in hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect deletion of the CHIC2 locus at 4q12 as a surrogate for the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion. CHIC2 deletion was observed in bone marrow cells for 3 of 5 patients with SMCD associated with eosinophilia. Deletion of this locus and expression of the FIP1L1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) fusion was also documented in enriched eosinophils, neutrophils, or mononuclear cells by both FISH and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for one patient. While all 3 patients with the FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement achieved a sustained complete response with imatinib mesylate therapy, the other two, both carrying the c-kit Asp816 to Val (Asp816Val) mutation, did not. These observations suggest that the FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement occurs in an early hematopoietic progenitor and suggests that the molecular pathogenesis for a subset of SMCD patients is similar to that of HES. Screening for the FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement and Asp816Val mutation will advance rational therapy decisions in SMCD.

Iijima Y, Ito T, Oikawa T, et al.
A new ETV6/TEL partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), identified in an AML-M3 cell line with a t(1;12)(q25;p13) translocation.
Blood. 2000; 95(6):2126-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ETV6/TEL gene has been reported to fuse to PDGFRbetab MDS1/EVI1, BTL, ACS2, STL, JAK2, ABL, CDX2, TRKC, AML1, and MN1. Among them, PDGFRbeta, ABL, JAK2, and TRKC are tyrosine kinases (TK). We identified a novel ETV6 partner gene, ARG (ABL-related gene or ABL2), another TK gene in a cell line established from a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M3) with a t(15;17)(q22;q11.2) and a t(1;12)(q25;p13), which has the remarkable feature to differentiate to mature eosinophils in culture with all-trans retinoic acid and cytokines. The ETV6/ARG transcripts consisted of exon 1 to 5 of ETV6 and the 3' portion of ARG starting from exon 1B or exon 2, resulting in an open reading frame for a fusion protein consisting of the entire PNT oligomerization domain of ETV6 and all of the functional domains of ARG including the TK domain. This is the same protein structure as identified in the other ETV6 TK fusion proteins. The reciprocal ARG/ETV6 transcript was not expressed, and the normal ETV6 allele was not deleted or rearranged. Although the ABL is known to be involved in various human malignancies, ARG has not been involved in human malignancies despite its high homology to ABL. Thus, this is the first report showing involvement of ARG in human leukemia. The ETV6/ARG protein may be involved in the unique differentiation capacity of this cell line. (Blood. 2000;95:2126-2131)

Cools J, Bilhou-Nabera C, Wlodarska I, et al.
Fusion of a novel gene, BTL, to ETV6 in acute myeloid leukemias with a t(4;12)(q11-q12;p13).
Blood. 1999; 94(5):1820-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ETV6 gene (also known as TEL) is the main target of chromosomal translocations affecting chromosome band 12p13. The rearrangements fuse ETV6 to a wide variety of partner genes in both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. We report here 4 new cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with very immature myeloblasts (French-American-British [FAB]-M0) and with a t(4;12)(q11-q12;p13). In all cases, ETV6 was found recombined to a new gene, homologous to the mouse Brx gene. The gene was named BTL (Brx-like Translocated in Leukemia). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicate that the expression of the BTL-ETV6 transcript, but not of the reciprocal ETV6-BTL transcript, is a common finding in these leukemias. In contrast to the majority of other ETV6 fusions, both the complete helix-loop-helix (HLH) and ETS DNA binding domains of ETV6 are present in the predicted BTL-ETV6 fusion protein, and the chimeric gene is transcribed from the BTL promoter.

Onodera H, Ishiguro N, Horiuchi M, Shinagawa M
Characterization of differentially expressed genes in the bovine T lymphoma cell line.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1998; 62(3):209-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
A differential display (D.D.) analysis was made to detect differentially expressed genes in a bovine T lymphoma cell line, BTL-26, derived from the calf type of sporadic bovine lymphosarcoma. A D.D. analysis comparing BTL-26 with the bovine epithelial cell line CKT-1 and healthy bovine thymocytes yielded 24 cDNA clones. The DNA sequencing analysis followed by a homology search showed that 20 of the 24 cDNA clones had no significant homology to any sequences in DNA data base. The remaining four genes were homologous to known sequences. Northern blot hybridization among BTL-26, CKT-1 and healthy bovine thymocytes showed that a cDNA clone, BC8, was differentially expressed in BTL-26. The cloning of full-length cDNA for the BC8 clone and its DNA sequences showed that the BC8 clone is a bovine nuclear domain protein homologous to the human NDP52 gene. Northern blot analysis showed that the BC8 clone bovine NDP52 was predominantly expressed in tumor cell line BTL-26, compared with the transcripts from several bovine tissues.

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